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Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
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Communication

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communication the basics

communication the basics

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  • 1. COMMUNICATION<br />
  • 2. Communis ------ Latin word<br /><ul><li>Meaning - common for all.
  • 3. To share
  • 4. A common activity</li></li></ul><li>
  • 5. Why communication?<br /><ul><li>Express oneself
  • 6. Explain
  • 7. Strengthen mutual sense of commitment
  • 8. Building relationship
  • 9. Satisfy human needs
  • 10. Bridge gap
  • 11. To inform (get & give)</li></li></ul><li>Why communication?<br />To change behaviour<br />To get action<br />To ensure understanding<br /><ul><li>To persuade
  • 12. Career enhancement
  • 13. CONDUCIVE ENVIRONMENT</li></li></ul><li>MISUNDERSTANDING!!!!!<br />
  • 14. Coke advt in the Middle East<br />
  • 15. Need/Purpose of communication<br /><ul><li>Inform
  • 16. Advice
  • 17. Order
  • 18. Motivate
  • 19. Negotiate
  • 20. Persuade
  • 21. Warn
  • 22. Educate
  • 23. Motivate
  • 24. Suggest
  • 25. Ask
  • 26. Answer
  • 27. Convey
  • 28. Train
  • 29. Command
  • 30. Counseling
  • 31. Raise morale
  • 32. Appreciate
  • 33. Simply</li></li></ul><li>Common ways of communication?<br />Speaking<br />Writing<br />Visual<br />Body language<br />
  • 34. To send clearmessage<br />To receive & correctly understand message<br /><ul><li>We use </li></ul>Verbal messages (speak)<br />Para verbal messages (tone, pitch, pace of voice)<br />Non verbal messages (primary)<br />
  • 35. Features <br />Unavoidable<br />Continuous process<br />Two way traffic<br />Role of perception (use 5 senses)<br />Universality<br />Social process<br />Multidimensional<br />Multipurpose<br />Transactivity<br />
  • 36. Role of communication<br />Foundation for healthy relationship (create & maintain)<br />Strengthen mutual sense of commitment<br />Bridge gap where there is misunderstanding<br />Binding an organisation together (formal and informal)<br />
  • 37. Constituents of communication process<br />Sender<br />Channel/ medium<br />Encode (message)<br />Feedback<br />Decode<br />Receiver<br />Noise<br />
  • 38. Types of communication<br />One way and two way<br />Verbal and Non - verbal<br />Formal and Informal<br />Interpersonal and Intrapersonal<br />Mass communication<br />Meta communication<br />
  • 39. One way and two way communication<br />Downward<br />
  • 40. Two way communication<br />
  • 41. Verbal & Non verbal communication<br />
  • 42. Verbal communication<br />Both oral and written<br />Always accompanied by non verbal communication<br />
  • 43. Verbal communication<br />Oral/ Dayadic<br />Written<br />(with people present)<br />Face to face<br />Telephonic<br />Interview<br />Group discussion<br />Negotiation <br />Meeting<br />(with people not present)<br />Letters<br />Notice <br />Memos<br />Circular<br />Report<br />Minutes<br />
  • 44. Non verbal communication<br /><ul><li>Communicating without words
  • 45. Symbols, Gestures and Facial expressions
  • 46. Independent of verbal communication
  • 47. Involuntary and unconscious
  • 48. Difficult to control
  • 49. “ANYTHING APPEALS TO THE SENSES”</li></li></ul><li>Types of Non verbal communication<br />Kinesics<br />Proxemics<br />Paralanguage<br />Physical contact<br />
  • 50. Research on Body Language<br />7% verbal<br />38% vocal<br />55% non verbal<br />
  • 51. kinesics<br /><ul><li>Study of body movements to judge the emotions expressed through different parts of the body.</li></ul>Facial expressions and eyes<br />Gestures <br />Postures<br />Physical appearance<br />
  • 52. Facial expression<br />Expression<br />Interpretation<br />
  • 53.
  • 54. Factors influencing body language <br />Biological : skin colour, body shapes, and our constant effort to adjust our body to environment,….<br />Habitual : by learning, occupational requirement, speaking style,…<br />Cultural : not sitting cross legged, custom of receiving guests, talking to superiors,…<br />
  • 55. Gestures<br /><ul><li>Physical movements of the body parts like hands, legs, head or torso.
  • 56. Closely related to personality
  • 57. Pointing fingers shows authority
  • 58. Pulling body backward for rejection or fear
  • 59. Shrugging shoulders shows indifference</li></li></ul><li>3 Types of Gesture by Anthropologists<br />Instinctive gesture (baby clinging to mother)<br />Coded gesture (military,firemen,music,..)<br />Acquired gesture (cultural& ethnic influence)<br />
  • 60. Postures<br /><ul><li>Biting nails
  • 61. Slouching
  • 62. Forward leaning
  • 63. Standing erect
  • 64. Angular distance ( o – 180 degrees)
  • 65. Unconscious movements forward, sideward, backward bend,….</li></li></ul><li> Postures <br /><ul><li>The way we hold ourselves (stand/ sit,..)
  • 66. Indicate our feelings & thoughts, attitudes & health
  • 67. Affect our thinking process
  • 68. Most truthful expression comes from the torso - than arms and legs (angular distance reveals our feelings</li></li></ul><li>Four types of postures<br />Forward lean = attentiveness & interest <br />Turning away = refusing<br />Expansion = proud/ arrogant<br />Forward leaning body, bowed head, drooping shoulders, sunken chest = depressed / dejected <br />
  • 69. Appearance<br />Indication of inner state of emotions<br />Depends on local custom and culture of the community<br />Grooming & personal hygiene contribute greatly <br /> Makes the first impression<br />Clothing, jewellery, cosmetics, footwear, handbag, umbrella, briefcase, etc.,<br />
  • 70. Proxemics(“personal space language”)<br />Study of using the space around<br />Intimate 11/2 ft<br />Personal 11/2 - 4 ft<br />Social 4 - 12 ft<br />Public 12ft and above<br />
  • 71. Paralanguage<br />The non verbal aspects of spoken word <br />Relates to voice - tone, pitch, accent, speed, intonation, stress on a particular word, etc., <br />“How” a word is spoken than ‘What’<br />The way we use our voice is and sounds we make<br />(Silence – a very important aspect !!)<br />
  • 72. Practice!!!!!!!!!!!<br />EX 1:<br />I am a good student <br />I am a good student <br />I am a goodstudent <br />I am a good student <br />EX 2:<br />Count from 1 – 10 <br />Each time expressing different emotional state (happy, angry, anxious,…)<br />
  • 73. More!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!<br />EX 3:<br />Were you there last night? <br />Were you there last night? <br />Were you there last night? <br />Were you there last night?<br />EX 4:<br />Sounds like mmmm, ouch, oh!oh!,….<br />
  • 74. Physical context<br />The layout and design of a building <br />Its decoration like colour, furniture, etc.,<br />Strong impression on positive and negative feelings<br />
  • 75. Difference between verbal & non- verbal communication<br />Use of words<br />Use of language <br />always accompanied by non verbal<br />Voluntary / deliberate<br />Use of symbols<br />Other than the language - (pictures, maps, graphs,….)<br />Independent of verbal communication (red = danger, nodding head,..)<br />Involuntary & unconscious<br />Understanding non verbal helps to improve oral & written communication<br />
  • 76. Formal and informal communication<br />
  • 77. Horizontal communication<br />Communication between departments/ people in the same level in the hierarchy<br />Most frequently used channel<br />Shared among workers, clerks, supervisors, … can use coffee break sessions<br />
  • 78. Importance <br />To promote understanding and coordination<br />Not much imagination required <br />Small organisations manage well as these functions are done at a closer proximity with a few people <br />Eg – imagine a situation where purchase dpt keeps purchasing materials not reqired urgently, stores dpt keeps reporting shortage, …<br />
  • 79. Problems<br />Sometimes it is discouraged for the fear of workers getting too friendly with one another<br />Methods used :<br />Oral : face to face – very effective<br />Written : reports, letters, memorandum<br />Short means of communication - convenient<br />
  • 80. Formal communication<br /><ul><li>Upward, Downward and Lateral/ Horizontal
  • 81. Flows through line and authority
  • 82. Recorded /documented
  • 83. Flows in one direction only
  • 84. Genuine and authentic
  • 85. Red tapism/ Bureaucracy
  • 86. Dilutes accuracy</li></li></ul><li>Informal communication (grapevine)<br /><ul><li>Basically a horizontal communication
  • 87. But doesn’t follow any set patterns </li></ul>Spontaneous<br />Multidirectional<br />No records<br />Very fast<br />Provides vent to employees<br />
  • 88. Types of Grapevine - (Keith Davis – research on grapevine)<br />Single stand –passing of information to the long line of persons to the ultimate recipient (A - B, B –C, C-D,…) <br />Gossip –A tells everyone. It works like wheel where A is in the centre and passes on the information to others <br />
  • 89. contd<br />Probability : A randomly tells others and others pass on the information<br />Cluster : A tells selected persons – who may in turn tell others selectively<br />
  • 90. Importance <br />Safety valve - works as - pressure vent <br />Active grapevine shows that workers are interested in their associates <br />Brings in solidarity & cohesiveness<br />Properly used it can raise the morale of employees<br />Supplement to other channels <br />Quick / speedy transmission<br /> Provides feedback - to know the pulse of employees <br />
  • 91. Interpersonal and intrapersonal<br />Interpersonal<br />intrapersonal<br />Two or more persons<br />Group (committee, etc.,)<br />Public meetings<br />Internal dialogue within the mind<br />
  • 92. Meta Communication<br /><ul><li>Implies meaning conveyed by </li></ul> * tone of voice<br /> * choice of words<br /> * silence<br /> * omission <br />
  • 93. Meta Communication<br /><ul><li>A message communicated not through words, but along with words.
  • 94. Can be intentional or unintentional</li></ul> - “Try to reach the airport, well on time”<br /> - “Haven’t finished the project yet? Fantastic!!”<br />

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