Barriers to communication


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Barriers to communication

  1. 1. Barriers to communication<br />
  2. 2. Negative aspects of communication<br />Meanings sent are not always meanings received.<br />No two minds have identical filters/ storehouse of words, gestures/ facial expressions, any other symbol.<br />Meaning is in the mind<br />Not in the words/ symbols used<br />Receiver looks for the meanings he intended.<br />
  3. 3. (Contd)<br />Symbols are imperfect<br />(variation in speed/grace and style).<br />Communicators vary in their ability to convey thoughts. <br /> (difficult to find/select symbols).<br />No common symbols are similar in two cultures. <br />(ok symbol, handshake,…. ) <br />
  4. 4. Barriers to communication<br />Physical barriers<br />Cross-cultural barriers.<br />Semantic barriers (words/language)<br />Psychological barriers<br />Organizational barriers<br />
  5. 5. Physical barriers<br /><ul><li>Noise </li></ul>Physical noise (outside disturbance)<br />Psychological noise (inattentiveness)<br />Written noise (bad handwriting/typing)<br />Visual noise (late arrival of employees)<br /><ul><li>Distance
  6. 6. Improper time
  7. 7. Inadequate/overload of information</li></li></ul><li>Cross Cultural Barriers<br />Why communicate with cross culture?<br /> Globalisation<br />Ability to work more harmoniously<br />Get good people despite their differences<br />To be efficient both within and outside the company.<br />Create good relationship across cultures<br />
  8. 8. Eg – cross culture symbols<br />OK = <br />- terribly rude in Russia,Germany,Brazil<br />- means Money in Japan<br />- will get you in trouble from Nigeria to Australia<br />2 Eye contact =<br /><ul><li>to elders in Indonesia is disrespect</li></ul>3 Smile =<br />- Weakness in Africa (means to bargain)<br />
  9. 9. Factors of relationship (7)<br />Time: punctuality<br />Monochronic<br />Polychronic<br />Space <br />Odors<br />Frankness<br />Intimacy and relationships<br />Values<br />Expression of emotions<br />
  10. 10. Time (punctuality)<br />Monochronic - western<br /> planned use of time<br /> always meet deadlines<br /> on schedule<br />Polychronic - relaxed <br /> being late is assumed to be busy<br /> slow progress in business<br />
  11. 11. Space <br />North Americans - space is their right<br /> maintain - two feet distance<br />Arabians - close to each others<br />South Americans - close to each others<br />Others - (may) jostle<br />
  12. 12. odors<br />N Americans - neutralize body odors<br />Some Asians - feel the presence by smelling <br />(“Breath the breath” – an act of friendship)<br />
  13. 13. Frankness <br />Americans - explicit/blunt<br />(high context culture) - share all background information<br />Germans & Israleis- more blunt/sharp<br />Asians - implicit/not to offend <br />(low context culture) - extract limited background info<br />(may appear evasive/roundabout)<br />Chinese - abruptly end the call <br />
  14. 14. Intimacy and relationship<br />Social class exists in every culture<br />View of superior – subordinate relationship changes<br />Role of women is diff in high and low context culture<br />Values differ<br />
  15. 15. Expression and emotions<br />Laughter sorrow ,….<br />Use of terms --- dog/swine,…..<br />
  16. 16. Semantic barriers<br />Different languages<br />Different context for words and symbols<br />Poor vocabulary<br />
  17. 17. semantic<br />(Language - most important and powerful tool of communication)<br />Many words have multiple meanings <br />eg – charge, check, ring, minute, wind, present,…<br />
  18. 18. Semantic (contd)<br />Different pronunciation while speaking<br />eg – access : excess<br /> flour : flower<br /> cite : site<br /> week : weak <br />
  19. 19. Semantic (contd)<br />Different descriptions<br />Beautiful, ugly<br />Good, bad<br />
  20. 20. Just for thought!<br /><ul><li>Meaning is in people </li></ul> Not in words<br /><ul><li>Those who speak do not know</li></ul> Those who know do not speak<br /> - Japenese<br />
  21. 21. Psychological barriers<br />Status<br />Attitude <br />Perceptions <br />Poor listening<br />Egotism<br />Emotions (excited, nervous, confused,…)<br />Resistance to change<br />
  22. 22. Organizational barriers<br />Rules and regulations (rigid/flexible)<br />Hierarchial relationship<br />Wrong choice of channel<br />
  23. 23. 7 C’s of Communication<br />Francis J Berdin<br />
  24. 24. Candidness - unbiased, sincere<br />Clarity - words, intonation<br />Completeness – planned & structured<br />Conciseness - avoid repetition of words<br />Concreteness - definite ,use active voice<br />Correctness - spelling, language, facts<br />Courtesy - decorum, respect<br />
  25. 25. How to Overcome barriers<br />Improve communication skills (very important as you go higher)<br />By maintaining good working conditions (eg- soundproof room) - Physical barriers <br />Careful use of language, words of clear meaning, simple sentences – semantic barriers<br />Make conscious efforts , training,… - psychological barriers<br />Streamline and strengthen the flow of communication<br />
  26. 26. contd<br />Effective listening<br />Use proper medium and channels of communication<br />Use appropriate language<br />Create conducive environment<br />Encourage open communication<br /> (MBWA – manage by walking around)<br />
  27. 27. Listening <br />
  28. 28. Why do we listen?<br />To find more information <br />Learn about people<br />Improve relations<br />Obtain suggestions and ideas<br />
  29. 29.
  30. 30. Reasons for ineffective listening<br />Distraction of mind<br />Wandering attention<br />Planning a reply<br />Lack of management<br />Tendency to critsise<br />
  31. 31. contd<br />Self-centered<br />Avoid difficulties<br />Emotional blocks(deaf spots)<br />Impatience<br />Poor health<br />Excitement/anxiety<br />External noise<br />
  32. 32.
  33. 33. 4 steps of listening<br />Learning (if you can repeat what you hear)<br />Interpretation (as per listener’s vocabulary/knowledge/speaker’s body language)<br />
  34. 34. Steps of listening - contd<br />Evaluation (listener decides what to do with recd info, believe/not believe)<br />Response (words/body language)<br />
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