Ethospathoslogos

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  • 1. Ethos, Pathos, Logos and Rhetoric
  • 2. Rhetoric  Rhetoric (n) - the art of speaking or writing effectively (Webster's Definition).  According to Aristotle, rhetoric is "the ability, in each particular case, to see the available means of persuasion." He described three main forms of rhetoric: Ethos, Logos, and Pathos.  In order to be a more effective writer and speaker, you must understand these three terms.
  • 3. The Three Ways We Persuade 1. 2. 3. Ethos (hand) Logos (head) Pathos (heart)
  • 4. ETHOS  Ethos is a person’s credibility with a given audience. It can mean sincerity, authority, experti se, faithfulness, or any adjective that describes someone you can trust to do the right thing. It will usually have famous people trying to sell you something. What is Michael Jordan’s expertise? What about Kobe Bryant?
  • 5. Ethos:    Ethos is related to the English word ethics and refers to the trustworthiness of the speaker/writer. Ethos is an effective persuasive strategy because when we believe that the speaker does not intend to do us harm, we are more willing to listen to what s/he has to say. When a judge comments on legal precedent audiences tend to listen because it is the job of a judge to know the nature of past legal cases.
  • 6. Example  Michael Phelps endorsing     Subway Elite athlete Most decorated Olympian Excellent physical conditi0n Ethos will often rely on celebrities to help them lend credibility to a product
  • 7. PATHOS •Pathos appeals rely on emotions and feelings to persuade the audience •They are often direct, simple, and very powerful
  • 8. Pathos:   Pathos is related to the words pathetic, sympathy and empathy. Whenever you accept a claim based on how it makes you feel without fully analyzing the rationale behind the claim, you are acting on pathos- emotions: love, fear, patriotism, guilt, hate, joy etc.
  • 9.  Appeals to pathos touch a nerve and compel people to not only listen, but to also take the next step and act in the world.  Also, if a commercial makes you feel like you want to do the “cool” thing, then that’s pathos. It appeals to your sense of excitement/joy.
  • 10. Where do you notice PATHOS appeals? “America's older citizens have rightly been called the "greatest generation." It is morally unacceptable that the people that built this country -- our senior citizens -- should suffer hunger in a land of plenty, which they helped to create.” -from America’s Second Harvest program
  • 11. “America's older citizens have rightly been called the "greatest generation." It is morally unacceptable that the people that built this country -- our senior citizens -- should suffer hunger in a land of plenty, which they helped to create.” -from America’s Second Harvest program
  • 12. SPCA Commercials HAVE YOU EVER SEEN THESE SAD DOG COMMERCIALS ON TV? HTTP://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=IDC WZY7VNRQ
  • 13. LOGOS  Logos appeals rely on the audience’s intelligence to persuade them.  Education causes audiences to be more skeptical of emotional arguments and more receptive to logos
  • 14. Logos:     The Greek word logos is the basis for the English word logic. Logos refers to any attempt to appeal to the intellect, the general meaning of "logical argument." Everyday arguments rely heavily on ethos and pathos, but academic arguments rely more on logos: there will be logical chains of reasoning supporting all claims. If you see appeals to your intelligence, a list of facts, statistics, etc, it’s probably logos.
  • 15. Where do you see a LOGOS appeal? NASA sees its mission to explore Mars as an endeavor to seek out the possibility of life on that planet. Knowing if water was on Mars is the first step in this research.
  • 16. NASA sees its mission to explore Mars as an endeavor to seek out the possibility of life on that planet. Knowing if water was on Mars is the first step in this research.
  • 17. Where do you notice PATHOS and LOGOS appeals? The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge provides a safe refuge for 180 species of migratory birds, serves as a birthing ground for one of the hemisphere's largest caribou herds and has been home to the Gwinch'in people for a thousand generations. Ninety-five percent (95%) of Alaska's North Slope is already available to Big Oil, but these companies want it all.
  • 18. The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge provides a safe refuge for 180 species of migratory birds, serves as a birthing ground for one of the hemisphere's largest caribou herds and has been home to the Gwinch'in people for a thousand generations. Ninety-five percent (95%) of Alaska's North Slope is already available to Big Oil, but these companies want it all.
  • 19. These appeals are prevalent in almost all arguments, advertisements, speeches and some essays and articles, depending on the type. Usually, they are not mutually exclusive—ads and speeches tend to use a combination of at least two of the rhetorical appeals.
  • 20. Ethos, Pathos, or Logos?
  • 21. Ethos, Pathos, or Logos?
  • 22. Ethos, Pat hos, or Logos?
  • 23. Ethos, Pathos , or Logos?
  • 24. Ethos, Pathos, or Logos?
  • 25. Ethos, Pathos, or Logos?
  • 26. Ethos, P athos, or Logos?
  • 27. Ethos, Pathos, or Logos?
  • 28. Ethos, Path os, Logos?
  • 29. Ethos, Pat hos, or Logos?
  • 30. RECAP VIDEO  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BpTb2RjbMn4
  • 31. The End!  Your homework is to bring a print advertisement to class (school appropriate…when in doubt don’t do it) and write about which appeal(s) the advertisement most heavily relies on, and if it did so convincingly. Cut the ad from a newspaper, magazine, etc, or print it from an internet ad. ---The advertisement is worth 25 points. ---Identifying the appeals correctly is 25 points. ---At least one paragraph per rhetorical technique explaining why it was used effectively is worth 50 points. The paragraph must use correct grammar.
  • 32. Additional Links             http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pTjHCCU2E4c – Google Chrome “Coffee” Commercial http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=idfd0g2oCrE– Nike “Counts” commercial http://adsoftheworld.com/media/tv/axe_susan_glenn Axe “Susan Glenn” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vOxwhIPPJSE&feature=player_embedded “Don’t Text and Drive” (Logos, Pathos) http://www.tobaccofreeca.com/ads/print/ - “Smoking Facts” http://thedesigninspiration.com/articles/top-45-creative-anti-smoking-advertisements/ Logos Smoking, Cont. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ciGVx1qhb4 – Weight Watchers “Believe” With Jennifer Hudson http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tRwzkY5GQpY– Christian Dior “Natalie Portman” commercial http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B3aqajRVi3U – “Don’t Vote” http://adsoftheworld.com/media/print/fundacion_padre_hurtado_drunk?size=original – Tone/ Mood? What appeal?  http://adsoftheworld.com/media/dm/science_world_balloon -- Tone/Mood ? What appeal?  http://adsoftheworld.com/media/print/unicef_switzerland_world_food_day?size=original -- Tone/Mood ? What appeal?