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# Va Og 10th Edition

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## Va Og 10th EditionDocument Transcript

• GMAT OFFICIAL GUIDE th 10 Edition 1
• CRITICAL REASONING 1. Which of the following best completes the passage below? In a survey of job applicants, two-fifths admitted to being at least a little dishonest. However, the survey may underestimate the proportion of job applicants who are dishonest, because____. A. some dishonest people taking the survey might have claimed on the survey to be honest B. some generally honest people taking the survey might have claimed on the survey to be dishonest C. some people who claimed on the survey to be at least a little dishonest may be very dishonest D. some people who claimed on the survey to be dishonest may have been answering honestly E. some people who are not job applicants are probably at least a little dishonest 2. The average life expectancy for the United States population as a whole is 73.9 years, but children born in Hawaii will live an average of 77 years, and those born in Louisiana, 71.7 years. If a newlywed couple from Louisiana were to begin their family in Hawaii, therefore, their children would be expected to live longer than would be the case if the family remained in Louisiana. Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion drawn in the passage? A. Insurance company statisticians do not believe that moving to Hawaii will significantly lengthen the average Louisianan’s life. B. The governor of Louisiana has falsely alleged that statistics for his state are inaccurate. C. The longevity ascribed to Hawaii’s current population is attributable mostly to genetically determined factors. D. Thirty percent of all Louisianans can expect to live longer than 77 years. E. Most of the Hawaiian Islands have levels of air pollution well below the national average for the United States. 3. The average life expectancy for the United States population as a whole is 73.9 years, but children born in Hawaii will live an average of 77 years, and those born in Louisiana, 71.7 years. If a newlywed couple from Louisiana were to begin their family in Hawaii, therefore, their children would be expected to live longer than would be the case if the family remained in Louisiana. Which of the following statements, if true, would most significantly strengthen the conclusion drawn in the passage? A. As population density increases in Hawaii, life expectancy figures for that state are likely to be revised downward. B. Environmental factors tending to favor longevity are abundant in Hawaii and less numerous in Louisiana. C. Twenty-five percent of all Louisianans who move to Hawaii live longer than 77 years. D. Over the last decade, average life expectancy has risen at a higher rate for Louisianans than for Hawaiians. E. Studies show that the average life expectancy for Hawaiians who move permanently to Louisiana is roughly equal to that of Hawaiians who remain in Hawaii. 4. Insurance Company X is considering issuing a new policy to cover services required by elderly people who suffer from diseases that afflict the elderly. Premiums for the policy must be low enough to attract customers. Therefore, Company X is concerned that the income from the policies would not be sufficient to pay for the claims that would be made. Which of the following strategies would be most likely to minimize Company X’s losses on the policies? A. Attracting middle-aged customers unlikely to submit claims for benefits for many years. B. Insuring only those individuals who did not suffer any serious diseases as children C. Including a greater number of services in the policy than are included in other policies of lower cost D. Insuring only those individuals who were rejected by other companies for similar policies 2
• E. Insuring only those individuals who are wealthy enough to pay for the medical services 5. A program instituted in a particular state allows parents to prepay their children’s future college tuition at current rates. The program then pays the tuition annually for the child at any of the state’s public colleges in which the child enrolls. Parents should participate in the program as a means of decreasing the cost for their children’s college education. Which of the following, if true, is the most appropriate reason for parents NOT to participate in the program? A. the parents are unsure about which public college in the state the child will attend. B. The amount of money accumulated by putting the prepayment funds in an interest-bearing account today will be greater than the total cost of tuition for any of the public colleges when the child enrolls. C. The annual cost of tuition at the state’s public colleges is expected to increase at a faster rate than the annual increase in the cost of living. D. Some of the state’s public colleges are contemplating large increases in tuition next year. E. The prepayment plan would not cover the cost of room and board at any of the state’s public colleges. 6. Company Alpha buys free-travel coupons from people who are awarded the coupons by Bravo Airlines for flying frequently on Bravo airplanes. The coupons are sold to people who pay les for the coupons than they would pay by purchasing tickets from Bravo. This making of coupons results in lost revenue for Bravo. To discourage the buying and selling of free-travel coupons, it would be best for Bravo Airlines to restrict the A. number of coupons that a person can be awarded in a particular year B. use of the coupons to those who were awarded the coupons and members of their immediate families C. days that the coupons can be used to Monday through Friday D. amount of time that the coupons can be used after they are issued E. number of routes on which travelers can use the coupons 7. The ice on the front windshield of the car had formed when moisture condensed during the night. The ice melted quickly after the car was warmed up the next morning because the defrosting vent, which blows on the front windshield, was turned on full force. Which of the following, if true, most seriously jeopardizes the validity of the explanation for the speed with which the ice melted? A. The side windows had no ice condensation on them B. Even though no attempt was made to defrost the back window, the ice there melted at the same rate as did the ice on the front windshield. C. The speed at which ice on a window melts increases as the temperature of the air blown on the window increases D. The warm air from the defrosting vent for the front windshield cools rapidly as it dissipates throughout the rest of the car. E. The defrosting vent operates efficiently even when the heater, which blows warm air toward the feet or faces of the driver and passengers, is on. 8. To prevent some conflicts of interest, Congress could prohibit high-level government officials from accepting positions as lobbyists for three years after such officials leave government service. One such official concluded, however, that such a prohibition would be unfortunate because it would prevent high-level government officials from earning a livelihood for three years. The official’s conclusion logically depends on which of the following assumptions? A. Laws should not restrict the behavior of former government officials. B. Lobbyists are typically people who have previously been high-level government officials. C. Low-level government officials do not often become lobbyists when they leave government service. 3
• extremely narrow in scope. C. The installation of smoke detectors in new residences costs significantly less than the installation of sprinklers. D. In the city where the ordinance was proposed, the average time required by the fire department to respond to a fire was less than the national average. E. The largest proportion of property damage that results from residential fires is caused by fires that start when no household member is present. 19. Even though most universities retain the royalties from faculty members’ inventions, the faculty members retain the royalties from books and articles they write. Therefore, faculty members should retain the royalties from the educational computer software they develop. The conclusion above would be more reasonably drawn if which of the following were inserted into the argument as an additional premise? A. Royalties from inventions are higher than royalties from educational software programs. B. Faculty members are more likely to produce educational software programs than inventions. C. Inventions bring more prestige to universities that do books and articles. D. In the experience of most universities, educational software programs are more marketable that are books and articles. E. In terms of the criteria used to award royalties, educational software programs are more nearly comparable to books and articles than to inventions. 20. Increase in the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the human bloodstream lower bloodstream-cholesterol levels by increasing the body’s capacity to rid itself of excess cholesterol. Levels of HDL in the bloodstream of some individuals are significantly increased by a program of regular exercise and weight reduction. Which of the following can be correctly inferred from the statements above? A. Individuals who are underweight do not run any risk of developing high levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream. B. Individuals who do not exercise regularly have a high risk of developing high levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream late in life. C. Exercise and weight reduction are the most effective methods of lowering bloodstream cholesterol levels in humans. D. A program of regular exercise and weight reduction lowers cholesterol levels in the bloodstream of some individuals. E. Only regular exercise is necessary to decrease cholesterol levels in the bloodstream of individuals of average weight. 21. When limitations were in effect on nuclear-arms testing, people tended to save more of their money, but when nuclear-arms testing increased, people tended to spend more of their money. The perceived threat of nuclear catastrophe, therefore, decreases the willingness of people to postpone consumption for the sake of saving money. The argument above assumes that A. the perceived threat of nuclear catastrophe has increased over the years. B. most people supported the development of nuclear arms C. people’s perception of the threat of nuclear catastrophe depends on the amount of nuclear-arms testing being done D. the people who saved the most money when nuclear-arms testing was limited were the ones who supported 7
• such limitations E. there are more consumer goods available when nuclear-arms testing increases 22. Which of the following best completes the passage below? People buy prestige when they buy a premium product. They want to be associated with something special. Mass-marketing techniques and price-reduction strategies should not be used because____. A. affluent purchasers currently represent a shrinking portion of the population of all purchasers B. continued sales depend directly on the maintenance of an aura of exclusivity C. purchasers of premium products are concerned with the quality as well as with the price of the products D. expansion of the market niche to include a broader spectrum of consumers will increase profits E. manufacturing a premium brand is not necessarily more costly than manufacturing a standard brand of the same product 23. A cost-effective solution to the problem of airport congestion is to provide high-speed ground transportation between major cities lying 200 to 500 miles apart. The successful implementation of this plan would cost far less than expanding existing airports and would also reduce the number of airplanes clogging both airports and airways. Which of the following, if true, could be proponents of the plan above most appropriately cite as a piece of evidence for the soundness of their plan? A. An effective high-speed ground-transportation system would require major repairs to many highways and mass-transit improvements. B. One-half of all departing flights in the nation’s busiest airport head for a destination in a major city 225 miles away. C. The majority of travelers departing from rural airports are flying to destinations in cities over 600 miles away. D. Many new airports are being built in areas that are presently served by high-speed ground-transportation systems. E. A large proportion of air travelers are vacationers who are taking long-distance flights. 24. If there is an oil-supply disruption resulting in higher international oil prices, domestic oil prices in open-market countries such as the United States will rise as well, whether such countries import all or none of their oil. If the statement in the passage concerning oil-supply disruptions is true, which of the following policies in an open-market nation is most likely to reduce the long-term economic impact on that nation of sharp and unexpected increases in international oil prices? A. Maintaining the quantity of oil imported at constant yearly levels B. Increasing the number of oil tankers in its fleet C. Suspending diplomatic relations with major oil-producing nations D. Decreasing oil consumption through conservation E. Decreasing domestic production of oil 25. If there is an oil-supply disruption resulting in higher international oil prices, domestic oil prices in open-market countries such as the United States will rise as well, whether such countries import all or none of their oil. Which of the following conclusions is best supported by the statement in the passage? A. Domestic producers of oil in open-market countries are excluded from the international oil market when there is a disruption in the international oil supply. B. International oil-supply disruptions have little, if any, effect on the price of domestic oil as long as an open-market country has domestic supplies capable of meeting domestic demand. 8
• C. The oil market in an open-market country is actually part of the international oil market, even if most of that country’s domestic oil is usually sold to consumers within its borders. D. Open-market countries that export little or none of their oil can maintain stable domestic oil prices even when international oil prices rise sharply. E. If international oil prices rise, domestic distributors of oil in open-market countries will begin to import more oil than they export. 26. The average normal infant born in the United States weighs between twelve and fourteen pounds at the age of three months. Therefore, if a three-month-old child weighs only ten pounds, its weight gain has been below the United States average. Which of the following indicates a flaw in the reasoning above? A. Weight is only one measure of normal infant development. B. Some three-month-old children weigh as much as seventeen pounds. C. It is possible for a normal child to weigh ten pounds at birth. D. The phrase “below average” does not necessarily mean insufficient. E. Average weight gain is not the same as average weight. 27. Red blood cells in which the malarial-fever parasite resides are eliminated from a person’s body after 120 days. Because the parasite cannot travel to a new generation of red blood cells, any fever that develops in a person more than 120 days after that person has moved to a malaria-free region is not due to the malarial parasite. Which is the following, if true, most seriously weakens the conclusion above? A. The fever caused by the malarial parasite may resemble the fever caused by flu viruses. B. The anopheles mosquito, which is the principal insect carrier of the malarial parasite, has been eradicated in many parts of the world. C. Many malarial symptoms other than the fever, which can be suppressed with anti-malarial medication, can reappear within 120 days after the medication is discontinued. D. In some cases, the parasite that causes malarial fever travels to cells of the spleen, which are less frequently eliminated from a person’s body than are red blood cells. E. In any region infested with malaria-carrying mosquitoes, there are individuals who appear to be immune to malaria. 28. Fact 1: Television advertising is becoming less effective: the proportion of brand names promoted on television that viewers of the advertising can recall is slowly decreasing. Fact 2: Television viewers recall commercials aired first or last in a cluster of consecutive commercials far better than they recall commercials aired somewhere in the middle. Fact 2 would be most likely to contribute to an explanation of fact 1 if which of the following were also true? A. The average television viewer currently recalls fewer than half the brand names promoted in commercials he or she saw. B. The total time allotted to the average cluster of consecutive television commercials is decreasing. C. The average number of hours per day that people spend watching television is decreasing. D. The average number of clusters of consecutive commercials per hour of television is increasing. E. The average number of television commercials in a cluster of consecutive commercials is increasing. 29. The number of people diagnosed as having a certain intestinal disease has dropped significantly in a rural county this year, as compared to last year. Health officials attribute this decrease entirely to improved sanitary conditions at water-treatment plants, which made for cleaner water this year and thus reduced the incidence of the disease. 9
• Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the health officials’ explanation for the lower incidence of the disease? A. Many new water-treatment plants have been built in the last five years in the rural county. B. Bottled spring water has not been consumed in significantly different quantities by people diagnosed as having the intestinal disease, as compared to people who did not contract the disease. C. Because of a new diagnostic technique, many people who until this year would have been diagnosed as having the intestinal disease are now correctly diagnosed as suffering from intestinal ulcers. D. Because of medical advances this year, far fewer people who contract the intestinal disease will develop severe cases of the disease. E. The water in the rural county was brought up to the sanitary standards of the water in neighboring counties ten years ago. 30. The price the government pays for standard weapons purchased from military contractors is determined by a pricing method called “historical costing.” Historical costing allows contractors to protect their profits by adding a percentage increase, based on the current rate of inflation, to the previous year’s contractual price. Which of the following statements, if true, is the best basis for a criticism of historical costing as an economically sound pricing method for military contracts? A. The government might continue to pay for past inefficient use of funds. B. The rate of inflation has varied considerably over the past twenty years. C. The contractual price will be greatly affected by the cost of materials used for the products. D. Many taxpayers question the amount of money the government spends on military contracts. E. The pricing method based on historical costing might not encourage the development of innovative weapons. 31. Some who favor putting governmental enterprises into private hands suggest that conservation objectives would in general be better served if private environmental groups were put in charge of operating and financing the national park system, which is now run by the government. Which of the following, assuming that it is a realistic possibility, argues most strongly against the suggestion above? A. Those seeking to abolish all restrictions on exploiting the natural resources of the parks might join the private environmental groups as members and eventually take over their leadership. B. Private environmental groups might not always agree on the best ways to achieve conservation objectives. C. If they wished to extend the park system, the private environmental groups might have to seek contributions from major donors and general public. D. There might be competition among private environmental groups for control of certain park areas. E. Some endangered species, such as the California condor, might die out despite the best efforts of the private environmental groups, even if those groups are not hampered by insufficient resources. 32. A recent spate of launching and operating mishaps with television satellites led to a corresponding surge in claims against companies underwriting satellite insurance. As a result, insurance premiums shot up, making satellites more expensive to launch and operate. This, in turn, has added to the pressure to squeeze more performance out of currently operating satellites. Which of the following, if true, taken together with the information above, best supports the conclusion that the cost of television satellites will continue to increase? A. Since the risk to insurers of satellites is spread over relatively few units, insurance premiums are necessarily very high. B. When satellites reach orbit and then fail, the causes of failure are generally impossible to pinpoint with 10
• confidence. C. The greater the performance demands placed on satellites, the more frequently those satellites break down. D. Most satellites are produced in such small numbers that no economies of scale can be realized. E. Since many satellites are built by unwieldy international consortia, inefficiencies are inevitable. 33. Rural households have more purchasing power than do urban or suburban households at the same income level, since some of the income urban and suburban households use for food and shelter can be used by rural households for other needs. Which of the following inferences is best supported by the statement made above? A. The average rural household includes more people than does the average urban or suburban household. B. Rural households have lower food and housing costs than do either urban or suburban households. C. Suburban households generally have more purchasing power than do either rural or urban households. D. The median income of urban and suburban households is generally higher than that of rural households. E. All three types of households spend more of their income on food and housing than on all other purchases combined. 34. In 1985 state border colleges in Texas lost the enrollment of more than half, on average, of the Mexican nationals they had previously served each year. Teaching faculties have alleged that this extreme drop resulted from a rise in tuition for international and out-of-state students from \$ 40 to \$ 120 per credit hour. Which of the following, if feasible, offers the best prospects for alleviating the problem of the drop in enrollment of Mexican nationals as the teaching faculties assessed it? A. Providing grants-in-aid to Mexican nationals to study in Mexican universities. B. Allowing Mexican nationals to study in Texas border colleges and to pay in-state tuition rates, which are the same as the previous international rate C. Reemphasizing the goals and mission of the Texas state border colleges as serving both in-state students and Mexican nationals D. Increasing the financial resources of Texas colleges by raising the tuition for in-state students attending state institutions E. Offering career counseling for those Mexican nationals who graduate from state border colleges and intend to return to Mexico 35. Affirmative action is good business. So asserted the National Association of Manufacturers while urging retention of an executive order requiring some federal contractors to set numerical goals for hiring minorities and women. “Diversity in work force participation has produced new ideas in management, product development, and marketing,” the association claimed. The association’s argument as it is presented in the passage above would be most strengthened if which of the following were true? A. The percentage of minority and women workers in business has increased more slowly than many minority and women’s groups would prefer. B. Those businesses with the highest percentages of minority and women workers are those that have been the most innovative and profitable. C. Disposable income has been rising as fast among minorities and women as among the population as a whole. D. The biggest growth in sales in the manufacturing sector has come in industries that market the most innovative products. E. Recent improvements in management practices have allowed many manufacturers to experience enormous gains in worker productivity. 11
• B. Some North American sites of human habitation predate any sites found in South America. C. The climate is warmer at the 32,000-year-old South American site than at the oldest known North American site. D. The site in South America that was occupied 32,000 years ago was continuously occupied until 6,000 years ago. E. The last Ice Age, between 11,500 and 20,000 years ago, considerably lowered worldwide sea levels. 40. In Asia, where palm trees are non-native, the trees’ flowers have traditionally been pollinated by hand, which has kept palm fruit productivity unnaturally low. When weevils known to be efficient pollinators of palm flowers were introduced into Asia in 1980, palm fruit productivity increased-by up to fifty percent in some areas-but then decreased sharply in 1984. Which of the following statements, if true, would best explain the 1984 decrease in productivity? A. Prices for palm fruit fell between 1980 and 1984 following the rise in production and a concurrent fall in demand. B. Imported trees are often more productive than native trees because the imported ones have left behind their pests and diseases in their native lands. C. Rapid increases in productivity tend to deplete trees of nutrients needed for the development of the fruit-producing female flowers. D. The weevil population in Asia remained at approximately the same level between 1980 and 1984. E. Prior to 1980 another species of insect pollinated the Asian palm trees, but not as efficiently as the species of weevil that was introduced in 1980. 41. Since the mayor’s publicity campaign for Greenville’s bus service began six months ago, morning automobile traffic into the midtown area of the city has decreased seven percent. During the same period, there has been an equivalent rise in the number of persons riding buses into the midtown area. Obviously, the mayor’s publicity campaign has convinced many people to leave their cars at home and ride the bus to work. Which of the following, if true, casts the most serious doubt on the conclusion drawn above? A. Fares for all bus routes in Greenville have risen an average of five percent during the past six months. B. The mayor of Greenville rides the bus to City Hall in the city’s midtown area. C. Road reconstruction has greatly reduced the number of lanes available to commuters in major streets leading to the midtown area during the past six months. D. The number of buses entering the midtown area of Greenville during the morning hours is exactly the same now as it was one year ago. E. Surveys show that longtime bus riders are no more satisfied with the Greenville bus service than they were before the mayor’s publicity campaign began. 42. In the aftermath of a worldwide stock-market crash, Country T claimed that the severity of the stock-market crash it experienced resulted from the accelerated process of denationalization many of its industries underwent shortly before the crash. Which of the following, if it could be carried out, would be most useful in an evaluation of Country T’s assessment of the causes of the severity of its stock-market crash? A. calculating the average loss experienced by individual traders in Country T during the crash B. using economic theory to predict the most likely date of the next crash in Country T C. comparing the total number of shares sold during the worst days of the crash in Country T to the total number of shares sold in Country T just prior to the crash D. comparing the severity of the crash in Country T to the severity of the crash in countries otherwise economically similar to Country T that have not experienced recent denationalization 13
• E. comparing the long-term effects of the crash on the purchasing power of the currency of Country T to the immediate, more severe short-term effects of the crash on the purchasing power of the currency of Country T 43. With the emergence of biotechnology companies, it was feared that they would impose silence about proprietary results on their in–house researchers and their academic consultants. This constraint, in turn, would slow the development of biological science and engineering. Which of the following, if true, would tend to weaken most seriously the prediction of scientific secrecy described above? A. Biotechnological research funded by industry has reached some conclusions that are of major scientific importance. B. When the results of scientific research are kept secret, independent researchers are unable to build on those results. C. Since the research priorities of biotechnology companies are not the same as those of academic institutions, the financial support of research by such companies distorts the research agenda. D. To enhance the companies’ standing in the scientific community, the biotechnology companies encourage employees to publish their results, especially results that are important. E. Biotechnology companies devote some of their research resources to problems that are of fundamental scientific importance and that are not expected to produce immediate practical applications. 44. Some people have questioned the judge’s objectivity in cases of sex discrimination against women. But the record shows that in sixty percent of such cases, the judge has decided in favor of the women. This record demonstrates that the judge has not discriminated against women in cases of sex discrimination against women. The argument above is flawed in that it ignores the possibility that A. a large number of the judge’s cases arose out of allegations of sex discrimination against women B. many judges find it difficult to be objective in cases of sex discrimination against women C. the judge is biased against women defendants or plaintiffs in cases that do not involve sex discrimination D. the majority of the cases of sex discrimination against women that have reached the judge’s court have been appealed from a lower court E. the evidence shows that the women should have won in more than sixty percent of the judge’s cases involving sex discrimination against women 45. The tobacco industry is still profitable and projections are that it will remain so. In the United States this year, the total amount of tobacco sold by tobacco-farmers has increased, even though the number of adults who smoke has decreased. Each of the following, if true, could explain the simultaneous increase in tobacco sales and decrease in the number of adults who smoke EXCEPT: A. During this year, the number of women who have begun to smoke is greater than the number of men who have quit smoking B. The number of teen-age children who have begun to smoke this year is greater than the number of adults who have quit smoking during the same period C. During this year, the number of nonsmokers who have begun to use chewing tobacco or snuff is greater than the number of people who have quit smoking D. The people who have continued to smoke consume more tobacco per person than they did in the past E. More of the cigarettes made in the United States this year were exported to other countries than was the case last year. 46. Kale has more nutritional value than spinach. But since collard greens have more nutritional value than 14
• lettuce, if follows that kale has more nutritional value than lettuce. Any of the following, if introduced into the argument as an additional premise, makes the argument above logically correct EXCEPT: A. Collard greens have more nutritional value than kale B. Spinach has more nutritional value than lettuce C. Spinach has more nutritional value than collard greens D. Spinach and collard greens have the same nutritional value E. Kale and collard greens have the same nutritional value 47. On the basis of a decrease in the college-age population, many colleges now anticipate increasingly smaller freshman classes each year. Surprised by a 40 percent increase in qualified applicants over the previous year, however, administrators at Nice College now plan to hire more faculties for courses taken by all freshmen. Which of the following statements about Nice College’s current qualified applicants, if true, would strongly suggest that the administrators’ plan is flawed? A. A substantially higher percentage than usual plan to study for advanced degrees after graduation from college. B. According to their applications, their level of participation in extracurricular activities and varsity sports is unusually high. C. According to their applications, none of them lives in a foreign country. D. A substantially lower percentage than usual rate Nice College as their first choice among the colleges to which they are applying E. A substantially lower percentage than usual list mathematics as their intended major. 48. A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-system activity tend to score much lower on tests of mental health than do people with normal or high immune-system activity. The researcher concluded from this experiment that the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against physical disease. The researcher’s conclusion depends on which of the following assumptions? A. High immune-system activity protects against mental illness better than normal immune-system activity does. B. Mental illness is similar to physical disease in its effects on body systems. C. People with high immune-system activity cannot develop mental illness. D. Mental illness does not cause people’s immune-system activity to decrease. E. Psychological treatment of mental illness is not as effective as is medical treatment. 49. A milepost on the towpath read “21” on the side facing the hiker as she approached it and “23” on its back. She reasoned that the next milepost forward on the path would indicate that she was halfway between one end of the path and the other. However, the milepost one mile further on read “20” facing her and “24” behind. Which of the following, if true, would explain the discrepancy described above? (A) The numbers on the next milepost had been reversed. (B) The numbers on the mileposts indicate kilometers, not miles. (C) The facing numbers indicate miles to the end of the path, not miles from the beginning. (D) A milepost was missing between the two the hiker encountered. (E) The mileposts had originally been put in place for the use of mountain bikers, not for hikers. 50 Airline: Newly developed collision-avoidance systems, although not fully tested to discover potential malfunctions, must be installed immediately in passenger planes. Their mechanical warnings enable pilots to avoid crashes. Pilots: Pilots will not fly in planes with collision-avoidance systems that are not fully tested. Malfunctioning 15
• (C) It is true that it is illegal for a government official to participate in a transaction in which there is an apparent conflict of interest. But if the facts are examined carefully, it will clearly be seen that there was no actual conflict of interest in the defendant’s case. (D) It is true that it is against the law to burglarize people’s homes. But someone else certainly would have burglarized that house if the defendant had not done so first. (E) It is true that company policy forbids supervisors to fire employees without two written warnings. But there have been many supervisors who have disobeyed this policy. 55. In recent years many cabinetmakers have been winning acclaim as artists. But since furniture must be useful, cabinetmakers must exercise their craft with an eye to the practical utility of their product. For this reason, cabinetmaking is not art. Which of the following is an assumption that supports drawing the conclusion above from the reason given for that conclusion? (A) Some furniture is made to be placed in museums, where it will not be used by anyone. (B) Some cabinetmakers are more concerned than others with the practical utility of the products they produce. (C) Cabinetmakers should be more concerned with the practical utility of their products than they currently are. (D) An object is not an art object if its maker pays attention to the object’s practical utility. (E) Artists are not concerned with the monetary value of their products. 56. Although custom prosthetic bone replacements produced through a new computer-aided design process will cost more than twice as much as ordinary replacements, custom replacements should still be cost-effective. Not only will surgery and recovery time be reduced, but custom replacements should last longer, thereby reducing the need for further hospital stays. Which of the following must be studied in order to evaluate the argument presented above? (A) The amount of time a patient spends in surgery versus the amount of time spent recovering from surgery (B) The amount by which the cost of producing custom replacements has declined with the introduction of the new technique for producing them (C)The degree to which the use of custom replacements is likely to reduce the need for repeat surgery when compared with the use of ordinary replacements (D) The degree to which custom replacements produced with the new technique are more carefully manufactured than are ordinary replacements (E) The amount by which custom replacements produced with the new technique will drop in cost as the production procedures become standardized and applicable on a larger scale 57. Extinction is a process that can depend on a variety of ecological, geographical, and physiological variables. These variables affect different species of organisms in different ways, and should, therefore, yield a random pattern of extinctions. However, the fossil record shows that extinction occurs in a surprisingly definite pattern, with many species vanishing at the same time. Which of the following, if true, forms the best basis for at least a partial explanation of the patterned extinctions revealed by the fossil record? (A) Major episodes of extinction can result from widespread environmental disturbances that affect numerous different species. (B) Certain extinction episodes selectively affect organisms with particular sets of characteristics unique to their species. (C) Some species become extinct because of accumulated gradual changes in their local environments. (D) In geologically recent times, for which there is no fossil record, human intervention has changed the pattern of extinctions. (E) Species that are widely dispersed are the least likely to become extinct. 58. Neither a rising standard of living nor balanced trade, by itself, establishes a country’s ability to compete in the international marketplace. Both are required simultaneously since standards of living can rise because of growing trade deficits and trade can be balanced by means of a decline in a country’s standard of living. If the facts stated in the passage above are true, a proper test of a country’s ability to be competitive is its ability to 17
• the local bowerbird population that has been studied most extensively (B) Young male bowerbirds are inept at bower-building and apparently spend years watching their elders before becoming accomplished in the local bower style. (C) The bowers of one species of bowerbird lack the towers and ornamentation characteristic of the bowers of most other species of bowerbird. (D) Bowerbirds are found only in New Guinea and Australia, where local populations of the birds apparently seldom have contact with one another. (E) It is well known that the song dialects of some songbirds are learned rather than transmitted genetically. 67. A greater number of newspapers are sold in Town S than in Town T. Therefore, the citizens of Town S are better informed about major world events than are the citizens of Town T. Each of the following, if true, weakens the conclusion above EXCEPT: (A) Town S has a larger population than Town T. (B) Most citizens of Town T work in Town S and buy their newspapers there. (C) The average citizen of Town S spends less time reading newspapers than does the average citizen of Town T. (D) A weekly newspaper restricted to the coverage of local events is published in Town S. (E) The average newsstand price of newspapers sold in Town S in lower than the average price of newspapers sold in Town T. 68. A drug that is highly effective in treating many types of infection can, at present, be obtained only from the bark of the ibora, a tree that is quite rare in the wild. It takes the bark of 5,000 tree to make one kilogram of the drug. It follows, therefore, that continued production of the drug must inevitably lead to the ibora’s extinction. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above? (A) The drug made from ibora bark is dispensed to doctors from a central authority. (B) The drug made from ibora bark is expensive to produce. (C) The leaves of the ibora are used in a number of medical products. (D) The ibora can be propagated from cuttings and grown under cultivation. (E) The ibora generally grows in largely inaccessible places. 69. High levels of fertilizer and pesticides, needed when farmers try to produce high yield of the same crop year after year, pollute water supplies. Experts therefore urge farmers to diversify their crops and to rotate their plantings yearly. To receive governmental price-support benefits for a crop, farmers must have produced that same crop for the past several years. The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions? (A) The rules for governmental support of farm prices work against efforts to reduce water pollution. (B) The only solution to the problem of water pollution from fertilizers and pesticides is to take farmland out of production. (C) Farmers can continue to make a profit by rotating diverse crops, thus reducing costs for chemicals, but not by planting the same crop each year. (D) New farming techniques will be developed to make it possible for farmers to reduce the application of fertilizers and pesticides. (E) Governmental price supports for farm products are set at levels that are not high enough to allow farmers to get out of debt. 70. Shelby Industries manufactures and sells the same gauges as Jones Industries. Employee wages account for forty percent of the cost of manufacturing gauges at both Shelby Industries and Jones Industries. Shelby Industries is seeking a competitive advantage over Jones Industries. Therefore, to promote this end, Shelby Industries should lower employee wages. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument above? (A) Because they make a small number of precision instruments, gauge manufacturers cannot receive volume 20
• discounts on raw materials. (B) Lowering wages would reduce the quality of employee work, and this reduced quality would lead to lowered sales. (C) Jones Industries has taken away twenty percent of Shelby Industries’ business over the last year. (D) Shelby Industries pays its employees, on average, ten percent more than does Jones Industries. (E) Many people who work for manufacturing plants live in areas in which the manufacturing plant they work for is the only industry. 71. Some communities in Florida are populated almost exclusively by retired people and contain few, if any, families with small children. Yet these communities are home to thriving businesses specializing in the rental of furniture for infants and small children. Which of the following, if true, best reconciles the seeming discrepancy described above? (A) The businesses specializing in the rental of children’s furniture buy their furniture from distributors outside of Florida. (B) The few children who do reside in these communities all know each other and often make overnight visits to one another’s houses. (C) Many residents of these communities who move frequently prefer renting their furniture to buying it outright. (D) Many residents of these communities must provide for the needs of visiting grandchildren several weeks a year. (E) Children’s furniture available for rental is of the same quality as that available for sale in the stores. 21
• The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the country was a failure in 1987. If the program had been successful, the wholesale price of most illegal drugs would not have dropped substantially in 1987. 80. The argument in the passage depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) The supply of illegal drugs dropped substantially in 1987. (B) The price paid for most illegal drugs by the average consumer did not drop substantially in 1987. (C) Domestic production of illegal drugs increased at a higher rate than did the entry of such drugs into the country. (D) The wholesale price of a few illegal drugs increased substantially in 1987. (E) A drop in demand for most illegal drugs in 1987 was not the sole cause of the drop in their wholesale price. 81. The argument in the passage would be most seriously weakened if it were true that (A) in 1987 smugglers of illegal drugs, as a group, had significantly more funds at their disposal than did the country’s customs agents (B) domestic production of illegal drugs increased substantially in 1987 (C) the author’s statements were made in order to embarrass the officials responsible for the drug-control program (D) in 1987 illegal drugs entered the country by a different set of routes than they did in 1986 (E) the country’s citizens spent substantially more money on illegal drugs in 1987 than they did in 1986. 82. Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus revealed a pattern of debris and collapsed buildings typical of towns devastated by earthquakes. Archaeologists have hypothesized that the destruction was due to a major earthquake known to have occurred near the island in A.D.365. Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the archaeologists’ hypothesis? (A) Bronze ceremonial drinking vessels that are often found in graves dating from years preceding and following A.D.365 were also found in several graves near Kourion. (B) No coins minted after A.D.365 were found in Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance. (C) Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occurred near the island in A.D.365. (D) Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D.300 and 400 were found in Kourion. (E) Stone inscriptions in a form of the Greek alphabet that was definitely used in Cyprus after A.D.365 were found in Kourion. 83. Sales of telephones have increased dramatically over the last year. In order to take advantage of this increase, Mammoth Industries plans to expand production of its own model of telephone, while continuing its already very extensive advertising of this product. Which of the following, if true, provides most support for the view that Mammoth Industries cannot increase its sales of telephones by adopting the plan outlined above? (A) Although it sells all of the telephones that it produces, Mammoth Industries’ share of all telephone sales has declined over the last year. (B) Mammoth Industries’ average inventory of telephones awaiting shipment to retailers has declined slightly over the last year. (C) Advertising has made the brand name of Mammoth Industries’ telephones widely known, but few consumers know that Mammoth Industries owns this brand. (D) Mammoth Industries’ telephone is one of three brands of telephone that have together accounted for the bulk of the last year’s increase in sales. (E) Despite a slight decline in the retail price, sales of Mammoth Industries’ telephones have fallen in the last year. 84. Many institutions of higher education suffer declining enrollments during periods of economic slowdown. At two-year community colleges, however, enrollment figures boom during these periods when many people have less money and there is more competition for jobs. Each of the following, if true, helps to explain the enrollment increases in two-year community colleges 24
• described above EXCEPT: (A) During periods of economic slowdown, two-year community colleges are more likely than four-year colleges to prepare their students for the jobs that are still available. (B) During periods of economic prosperity, graduates of two-year community colleges often continue their studies at four-year colleges. (C) Tuition at most two-year community colleges is a fraction of that at four-year colleges. (D) Two-year community colleges devote more resources than do other colleges to attracting those students especially affected by economic slowdowns. (E) Students at two-year community colleges, but not those at most four-year colleges, can control the cost of their studies by choosing the number of courses they take each term. Question 85-86 are based on the following. Hardin argued that grazing land held in common (that is, open to any user) would always be used less carefully than private grazing land. Each rancher would be tempted to overuse common land because the benefits would accrue to the individual, while the costs of reduced land quality that results from overuse would be spread among all users. But a study comparing 217 million acres of common grazing land with 433 million acres of private grazing land showed that the common land was in better condition. 85. The answer to which of the following questions would be most useful in evaluating the significance, in relation to Hardin’s claim, of the study described above? (A) Did any of the ranchers whose land was studied use both common and private land? (B) Did the ranchers whose land was studied tend to prefer using common land over using private land for grazing? (C) Was the private land that was studied of comparable quality to the common land before either was used for grazing? (D) Were the users of the common land that was studied at least as prosperous as the users of the private land? (E) Were there any owners of herds who used only common land, and no private land, for grazing? 86. Which of the following, if true and known by the ranchers, would best help explain the results of the study? (A) With private grazing land, both the costs and the benefits of overuse fall to the individual user. (B) The cost in reduced land quality that is attributable to any individual user is less easily measured with common land than it is with private land. (C) An individual who overuses common grazing land might be able to achieve higher returns than other users can, with the result that he or she would obtain a competitive advantage. (D) If one user of common land overuses it even slightly, the other users are likely to do so even more, with the consequence that the costs to each user outweigh the benefits. (E)There are more acres of grazing land held privately than there are held in common. 87. In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive result indicates that people have pironoma when, in fact, they do not; a false negative result indicates that people do not have pironoma when, in fact, they do. To detect pironoma most accurately, physicians should use the laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results. Which of the following, if true, gives the most support to the recommendation above? (A) The accepted treatment for pironoma does not have damaging side effects. (B) The laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results causes the same minor side effects as do the other laboratory tests used to detect pironoma. (C) In treating pironoma patients, it is essential to begin treatment as early as possible, since even a week of delay can result in loss of life. (D) The proportion of inconclusive test results is equal for all laboratory tests used to detect pironoma. (E) All laboratory tests to detect pironoma have the same proportion of false negative results. Questions 88-89 are based on the following. In many corporations, employees are being replaced by automated equipment in order to save money. However, many workers who lose their jobs to automation will need government assistance to survive, and the same corporations that are laying people off will eventually pay for that assistance through increased taxes and 25
• unemployment insurance payments. 88. The author is arguing that (A) higher taxes and unemployment insurance payments will discourage corporations from automating (B) replacing people through automation to reduce production costs will result in increases of other costs to corporations. (C) many workers who lose their jobs to automation will have to be retrained for new jobs (D) corporations that are laying people off will eventually rehire many of them (E) corporations will not save money by automating because people will be needed to run the new machines 89.Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the author's argument? Many workers who have already lost their jobs to automation have been unable to find new jobs. Many corporations that have failed to automate have seen their profits decline. Taxes and unemployment insurance are paid also by corporations that are not automating. Most of the new jobs created by automation pay less than the jobs eliminated by automation did. The initial investment in machinery for automation is often greater than the short-term savings in labor costs. 90. The sustained massive use of pesticides in farming has two effects that are especially pernicious. First, it often kills off the pests' natural enemies in the area. Second, it often unintentionally gives rise to insecticide-resistant pests, since those insects that survive a particu- lar insecticide will be the ones most resistant to it, and they are the ones left to breed. From the passage above, it can be properly inferred that the effective- ness of the sustained massive use of pesticides can be extended by doing which of the following, assuming that each is a realistic possibility? Using only chemically stable insecticides Periodically switching the type of insecticide used Gradually increasing the quantities of pesticides used Leaving a few fields fallow every year Breeding higher-yielding varieties of crop plants 91. When a polygraph test is judged inconclusive, this is no reflection on the examinee. Rather, such a judgment means that the test has failed to show whether the examinee was truthful or untruthful. Nevertheless, employers will sometimes refuse to hire a job applicant because of an inconclusive polygraph test result. Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the information above? Most examinees with inconclusive polygraph test results are in fact untruthful. Polygraph tests should not be used by employers in the consideration of job applicants. An inconclusive polygraph test result is sometimes unfairly held against the examinee. A polygraph test indicating that an examinee is untruthful can sometimes be mistaken. Some employers have refused to consider the results of polygraph tests when evaluating job applicants. 92. According to the new office smoking regulations, only employees who have enclosed office may smoke at their desks. Virtually all employees with enclosed offices are at the professional level, and virtually all secretarial employees lack enclosed offices. Therefore, secretaries who smoke should be offered enclosed offices. Which of the following is an assumption that enables the conclusion above to be properly drawn? (A) Employees at the professional level who do not smoke should keep their enclosed offices. (B) Employees with enclosed offices should not smoke at their desks, even though the new regulations permit them to do so. (C) Employees at the secretarial level should be allowed to smoke at their desks, even if they do not have enclosed offices. 26
• net losses attributable to certain other measures of this kind. 106. Property taxes are typically set at a flat rate per \$ 1,000 of officially assessed value. Reassessments should be frequent in order to remove distortions that arise when property values change at differential rates. In practice, however, reassessments typically occur when they benefit the government – that is, when their effect is to increase total tax revenue. If the statements above are true, which of the following describes a situation in which a reassessment should occur but is unlikely to do so? (A) Property values have risen sharply and uniformly. (B) Property values have all risen – some very sharply, some less so. (C) Property values have for the most part risen sharply yet some have dropped slightly. (D) Property values have for the most part dropped significantly; yet some have risen slightly. (E) Property values have dropped significantly and uniformly. 107. The number of patents granted to inventors by the United States Patent Office dropped from 56,000 in 1971 to 45,000 in 1978. Spending on research and development, which peaked at 3 percent of the gross national product (GNP) in 1964, was only 2.2 percent of the GNP in 1978. During this period, when the United States percentage was steadily decreasing, West Germany and Japan increased the percentage of their GNP’s spent on research and development to 3.2 percent and 1.6 percent, respectively. Which of the following conclusions is best supported by the information above? (A) There is direct relationship between the size of a nation’s GNP and the number of inventions it produces. (B) Japan and West Germany spent more money on research and development is directly related to the number of inventions patented in that nation. (C) The amount of money a nation spends on research and development is directly relocated to the number of inventions patented in that nation. (D) Between 1964 and 1978 the United States consistently spent a larger percentage of its GNP on research and development than did Japan. (E) Both West Germany and Japan will soon surpass the United States in the number of patents granted to investors. 108. When three Everett-owned Lightning-built airplanes crashes in the same month, the Everett company ordered three new Lightning-built airplanes as replacements. This decision surprised many in the airline industry because, ordinarily when a product is involved in accidents, users become reluctant to buy that product. Which of the following, if true, provides the best indication that the Everett company’s decision was logically well supported? (A) Although during the previous year only one Lightning-built airplane crashed, competing manufacturers had a perfect safety record. (B) The Lightning-built airplanes crashed due to pilot error, but because of the excellent quality of the planes there were many survivors. (C) The Federal Aviation Association issued new guidelines for airlines in order to standardize safety requirements governing preflight inspections. (D) Consumer advocates pressured two major airlines into purchasing safer airplanes so that the public would be safer while flying. (E) Many Lightning Airplane Company employees had to be replaced because they found jobs with the competition. 109. Recently a court ruled that current law allows companies to reject a job applicant if working in the job would entail a 90 percent chance that the applicant would suffer a heart attack. The presiding judge justified the ruling, 31
• (A) Although biodegradable plastic goods are now available, members of the town council believe biodegradable paper goods to be safer for the environment. (B) The paper factory at which most of the towns-people are employed plans to increase production of biodegradable paper goods. (C) After other towns enacted similar bans on the sale of plastic goods, the environmental benefits were not discernible for several years. (D) Since most townspeople prefer plastic goods to paper goods in many instances, they are likely to purchase them in neighboring towns where plastic goods are available for sale. (E) Products other than those derived from wood pulp are often used in the manufacture of paper goods that are entirely biodegradable. 113. Since the deregulation of airlines, delays at the nation’s increasingly busy airports have increased by 25 percent. To combat this problem, more of the takeoff and landing slots at the busiest airports must be allocated to commercial airlines. Which of the following, if true, casts the most doubt on the effectiveness of the solution proposed above? (A) The major causes of delays at the nation’s busiest airports are bad weather and overtaxed air traffic control equipment. (B) Since airline deregulation began, the number of airplanes in operation has increased by 25 percent. (C) Over 60 percent of the takeoff and landing slots at the nation’s busiest airports are reserved for commercial airlines. (D) After a small Midwestern airport doubled its allocation of takeoff and landing slots, the number of delays that were reported decreased by 50 percents. (E) Since deregulation the average length of delay at the nation’s busiest airports has doubled. 114. The more frequently employees take time to exercise during working hours each week, the fewer sick days they take. Even employees who exercise only once a week during working hours take less sick time than those who do not exercise. Therefore, if companies started fitness programs, the absentee rate in those companies would decrease significantly. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above? (A) Employees who exercise during working hours occasionally fall asleep for short periods of time after they exercise. (B) Employees who are frequently absent are the least likely to cooperate with or to join a corporate fitness program. (C) Employees who exercise only once a week in their company’s fitness program usually also exercise after work. (D) Employees who exercise in their company’s fitness program use their working time no more productively than those who do not exercise. (E) Employees who exercise during working hours take slightly longer lunch breaks than employees who do not exercise. 115. Many people argue that tobacco advertising plays a crucial role in causing teen-agers to start or continue smoking. In Norway, however, where there has been a ban on tobacco advertising since 1975, smoking is at least as prevalent among teen-agers as it is in countries that do not ban such advertising. Which of the following statements draws the most reliable conclusion from the information above? (A) Tobacco advertising cannot be the only factor that affects the prevalence of smoking among teen-agers. (B) Advertising does not play a role in causing teen-agers to start or continue smoking. 33
• (C) Banning tobacco advertising does not reduce the consumption of tobacco. (D) More teen-agers smoke if they are not exposed to tobacco advertising than if they are. (E) Most teen-agers who smoked in 1975 did not stop when the ban on tobacco advertising was implemented. 116. Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight hours can prevent automobile collisions. However, since daylight visibility is worse in countries farther from the equator, any such laws would obvisouly be more effective in preventing collisions in those countries. In fact, the only countries that actually have such laws are farther from the equator than is the continental United States. Which of the following conclusions could be most properly drawn from the information given above? (A) Drivers in the continental United States who used their headlines during the day would be just as likely to become involved in a collision as would drivers who did not use their headlights. (B) In many countries that are farther from the equator than is the continental United States poor daylight visilibty is the single most important factor in automobile collisions. (C) The proportion of automobile collisions that occur in the daytime is greater in the continental United States than in the countries that have daytime headlight laws. (D) Fewer automobile collisions probably occur each year in countries that have daytime headlight laws than occur within the continental United States. (E) Daytime headlight laws would probably do less to prevent automobile collisions in the continental United States than they do in the countries that have the laws. 117. A company’s two divisions performed with remarkable consistency over the past three years: in each of those years, the pharmaceuticals division has accounted for roughly 20 percent of dollar sales and 40 percent of profits, and the chemicals division for the balance. Which of the following can properly be inferred regarding the past three years from the statement above? (A) Total dollar sales for each of the company’s divisions have remained roughly constant. (B) The pharmaceuticals division has faced stiffer competition in its markets than has the chemecials division. (C) The chemicals division has realized lower profits per dollar of sales than has the pharmaceuticals division. (D) The product mix offered by each of the company’s divisions has remained unchaged. (E) Highly profitable products accounted for a higher percentage of the chemicals division’s sales than of those of the pharmaceuticals divisions. 118. According to a review of 61 studies of patients suffering from severely debilitating depression, a large majority of the patients reported that missing a night’s sleep immediately lifted their depression. Yet sleep-deprivation is not used to treat depression even though the conventional treatments, which use drugs and electric shocks, often have serious side effects. Which of the following, if true, best explains the fact that sleep-deprivation is not used as a treatment for depression? (A) For a small percentage of depressed patients, missing a night’s sleep induces a temporary sense of euphoria. (B) Keeping depressed patients awake is more difficult than keeping awake people who are not depressed. (C) Prolonged loss of sleep can lead to temporary impairment of judgment comparable to that induced by consuming several ounces of alcohol. (D) The dramatic shifts in mood connected with sleep and wakefulness have not been traced to particular changes in brain chemistry. (E) Depression returns in full force as soon as the patient sleeps for even a few minutes. Questions 119 – 120 are based on the following. According to the Tristate Transportation Authority, making certain improvements to the main commuter rail line 34
• would increase ridership dramatically. The authority plans to finance these improvements over the course of five years by raising automobile tolls on the two high-way bridges along the route the rail line serves. Although the proposed improvements are indeed needed, the authority’s plan for securing the necessary funds should be rejected because it would unfairly force drivers to absorb the entire cost of something from which they receive no benefit. 119. Which of the following, if true, would cast the most doubt on the effectiveness of the authority’s plan to finance the proposed improvements by increasing bridge tolls? (A) Before the authority increases tolls on any of the area bridges, it is required by law to hold public hearings at which objections to the proposed increase can be raised. (B) Whenever bridge tolls are increased, the authority must pay a private contractor to adjust the automated toll-collecting machines. (C) Between the time a proposed toll increase is announced and the time the increase is actually put into effect, many commuters buy more tokens than usual to postpone the effects of the increase. (D) When tolls were last increased on the two bridges in question, almost 20 percent of the regular commuter traffic switched to a slightly longer alternative route that has since been improved. (E) The chairman of the authority is a member of the Tristate Automobile Club that has registered strong opposition to the proposed toll increase. 120. Which of the following, if true, would provide the authority with the strongest counter to the objection that its plan is unfair? (A) Even with the proposed toll increase, the average bridge toll in the tristate region would remain less than the tolls charged in neighboring states. (B) Any attempt to finance the improvements by raising rail fares would result in a decrease in ridership and so would be self-defeating. (C) Automobile commuters benefit from well-maintained bridges, and in the tristate region bridge maintenance is funded out of general income tax revenues to which both automobile and rail commuters contribute. (D) The roads along the route served by the rail line are highly congested and drivers benefit when commuters are diverted from congested roadways to mass transit. (E) The only alternative way of funding the proposed improvements now being considered is through a regional income tax surcharge, which would affect automobile commuters and rail commuters alike. 121. Manufacturers sometimes discount the price of a product to retailers for a promotion period when the product is advertised to consumers. Such promotion often result in a dramatic increase in amount of product sold by the manufacturers to retailers. Nevertheless, the manufacturers could often make more profit by not holding the promotions. Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the claim above about the manufacturers’ profit? (A) The amount of discount generally offered by manufacturers to retailers is carefully calculated to represent the minimum needed to draw consumers’ attention to the product. (B) For many consumer products the period of advertising discounted prices to consumers is about a week, not sufficiently long for consumers to become used to the sale price. (C) For products that are not newly introduced, the purpose of such promotions is to keep the products in the minds of consumers and to attract consumers who are currently using competing products. (D) During such a promotion retailers tend to accumulate in their warehouses inventory bought at discount; they then sell much of it later at their regular price. (E) If a manufacturer fails to offer such promotions but its competitor offers them, that competitor will tend to 35
• fall. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above? (A) The cost of processing raw cotton for cloth has increased during the last year. (B) The wholesale price of raw wool is typically higher than that of the same volume of raw cotton. (C) The operating costs of the average retail clothing store have remained constant during the last year. (D) Changes in retail prices always lag behind changes in wholesale prices. (E) The cost of harvesting raw cotton has increased in the last year. 126. Many companies now have employee assistance programs that enable employees, free of charge, to improve their physical fitness, reduce stress, and learn ways to stop smoking. These programs increase worker productivity, reduce absenteeism, and lessen insurance costs for employee health care. Therefore, these programs benefit the company as well as the employee. Which of the following, if true, most significantly strengthens the conclusion above? (A) Physical fitness programs are often the most popular services offered to employees. (B) Studies have shown that training in stress management is not effective for many people. (C) Regular exercise reduces people's risk of heart disease and provides them with increased energy. (D) Physical injuries sometimes result from entering a strenuous physical fitness program too quickly. (E) Employee assistance programs require companies to hire people to supervise the various programs offered. 127. Small-business groups are lobbying to defeat proposed federal legislation that would substantially raise the federal minimum wage. This opposition is surprising since the legislation they oppose would, for the first time, exempt all small businesses from paying any minimum wage. Which of the following, if true, would best explain the opposition of small-business groups to the proposed legislation? (A) Under the current federal minimum-wage law, most small businesses are required to pay no less than the minimum wage to their employees. (B) In order to attract workers, small companies must match the wages offered by their larger competitors, and these competitors would not be exempt under the proposed laws. (C) The exact number of companies that are currently required to pay no less than the minimum wage but that would be exempt under the proposed laws is unknown. (D) Some states have set their own minimum wages---in some cases, quite a bit above the level of the minimum wage mandated by current federal law---for certain key industries. (E) Service companies make up the majority of small businesses and they generally employ more employees per dollar of revenues than do retail or manufacturing businesses. 128. Reviewer: The book Art's Decline argues that European painters today lack skills that were common among European painters of preceding centuries. In this the book must be right, since its analysis of 100 paintings, 50 old and 50 contemporary, demonstrates convincingly that none of the contemporary paintings are executed as skillfully as the older paintings. Which of the following points to the most serious logical flaw in the reviewer's argument? (A) The paintings chosen by the book's author for analysis could be those that most support the book's thesis. (B) There could be criteria other than the technical skill of the artist by which to evaluate a painting. (C) The title of the book could cause readers to accept the book's thesis even before they read the analysis of the paintings that supports it. (D) The particular methods currently used by European painters could require less artistic skill than do methods used by painters in other parts of the world. (E) A reader who was not familiar with the language of art criticism might not be convinced by the book's analysis of the 100 paintings. 129. The pharmaceutical industry argues that because new drugs will not be developed unless heavy development costs can be recouped in later sales, the current 20 years of protection provided by patents should be extended in the case of newly developed drugs. However, in other industries new-product development continues despite high development costs, a fact that indicates that the extension is unnecessary. 37
• Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the pharmaceutical industry's argument against the challenge made above? (A) No industries other than the pharmaceutical industry have asked for an extension of the 20-year limit on patent protection. (B) Clinical trials of new drugs, which occur after the patent is granted and before the new drug can be marketed, often now take as long as 10 years to complete. (C) There are several industries in which the ratio of research and development costs to revenues is higher than it is in the pharmaceutical industry. (D) An existing patent for a drug does not legally prevent pharmaceutical companies from bringing to market alternative drugs, provided they are sufficiently dissimilar to the patented drug. (E) Much recent industrial innovation has occurred in products---for example, in the computer and electronics industries---for which patent protection is often very ineffective. Questions 130-131 are based on the following. Bank depositors in the United States are all financially protected against bank failure because the government insures all individuals' bank deposits. An economist argues that this insurance is partly responsible for the high rate of bank failures, since it removes from depositors any financial incentive to find out whether the bank that holds their money is secure against failure. If depositors were more selective, then banks would need to be secure in order to compete for depositors' money. 130. The economist's argument makes which of the following assumptions? (A) Bank failures are caused when big borrowers default on loan repayments. (B) A significant proportion of depositors maintain accounts at several different banks. (C) The more a depositor has to deposit, the more careful he or she tends to be in selecting a bank. (D) The difference in the interest rates paid to depositors by different banks is not a significant factor in bank failures. (E) Potential depositors are able to determine which banks are secure against failure. 131. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the economist's argument? (A) Before the government started to insure depositors against bank failure, there was a lower rate of bank failure than there is now. (B) When the government did not insure deposits, frequent bank failures occurred as a result of depositors' fears of losing money in bank failures. (C) Surveys show that a significant proportion of depositors are aware that their deposits are insured by the government. (D) There is an upper limit on the amount of an individual's deposit that the government will insure, but very few individuals' deposits exceed thislimit. (E) The security of a bank against failure depends on the percentage of its assets that are loaned out and also on how much risk its loans involve. 132. Passengers must exit airplanes swiftly after accidents, since gases released following accidents are toxic to humans and often explode soon after being released. In order to prevent passenger deaths from gas inhalation, safety officials recommend that passengers be provided with smoke hoods that prevent inhalation of the gases. Which of the following, if true, constitutes the strongest reason not to require implementation of the safety officials' recommendation? (A) Test evacuations showed that putting on the smoke hoods added considerably to the overall time it took passengers to leave the cabin. (B) Some airlines are unwilling to buy the smoke hoods because they consider them to be prohibitively 38
• expensive. (C) Although the smoke hoods protect passengers from the toxic gases, they can do nothing to prevent the gases from igniting. (D) Some experienced flyers fail to pay attention to the safety instructions given on every commercial flight before takeoff. (E) In many airplane accidents, passengers who were able to reach emergency exits were overcome by toxic gases before they could exit the ariplane. 133. In 1960, 10 percent of every dollar paid in automobile insurance premiums went to pay costs arising from injuries incurred in car accidents. In 1990, 50 percent of every dollar paid in automobile insurance premiums went toward such costs, despite the fact that cars were much safer in 1990 than in 1960. Which of the following, if true, best explains the discrepancy outlined above? (A) There were fewer accidents in 1990 than in 1960. (B) On average, people drove more slowly in 1990 than in 1960. (C) Cars grew increasingly more expensive to repair over the period in question. (D) The price of insurance increased more rapidly than the rate of inflation between 1960 and 1990. (E) Health-care costs rose sharply between 1960 and 1990. 134. Caterpillars of all species produce an identical hormone called "juvenile hormone" that maintains feeding behavior. Only when a caterpillar has grown to the right size for pupation to take place does a special enzyme halt the production of juvenile hormone. This enzyme can be synthesized and will, on being ingested by immature caterpillars, kill them by stopping them from feeding. Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the view that it would not be advisable to try to eradicate agricultural pests that go through a caterpillar stage by spraying croplands with the enzyme mentioned above? (A) Most species of caterpillar are subject to some natural predation. (B) Many agricultural pests do not go through a caterpillar stage. (C) Many agriculturally beneficial insects go through a caterpillar stage. (D) Since caterpillars of different species emerge at different times, several sprayings would be necessary. (E) Although the enzyme has been synthesized in the laboratory, no large-scale production facilities exist as yet. 135. Although aspirin has been proven to eliminate moderate fever associated with some illnesses, many doctors no longer routinely recommend its use for this purpose. A moderate fever stimulates the activity of the body's disease-fighting white blood cells and also inhibits the growth of many strains of disease-causing bacteria. If the statements above are true, which of the following conclusions is most strongly supported by them? (A) Aspirin, an effective painkiller, alleviates the pain and discomfort of many illnesses. (B) Aspirin can prolong a patient's illness by eliminating moderate fever helpful in fighting some diseases. (C) Aspirin inhibits the growth of white blood cells, which are necessary for fighting some illnesses. (D) The more white blood cells a patient's body produces, the less severe the patient's illness will be. (E) The focus of modern medicine is on inhibiting the growth of disease-causing bacteria within the body. 39
• the retailer’s operating costs considerably, the retailer’s profits increased markedly. Which of the following, if true, most helps to resolve the apparent paradox? (A) Over half of the retailer’s operating costs consist of payroll expenditures; yet only a small percentage of those expenditures go to pay management salaries. (B) The retailer’s customer base is made up primarily of people who earn, or who depend on the earnings of others who earn, the minimum wage. (C) The retailer’s operating costs, other than wages, increased substantially after the increase in the minimum wage rate went into effect. (D) When the increase in the minimum wage rate went into effect, the retailer also raised the age rate for employees who had been earning just above minimum wage. (E) The majority of the retailer’s employees work as cashiers, and most cashiers are paid the minimum wage. 149. The cotton farms of Country Q became so productive that the market could not absorb all that they produced. Consequently, cotton prices fell. The government tried to boost cotton prices by offering farmers who took 25 percent of their cotton acreage out of production direct support payments up to a specified maximum per farm. The government’s program, if successful, will not be a net burden on the budget. Which of the following, if true, is the best basis for an explanation of how this could be so? (A) Depressed cotton prices meant operating losses for cotton farms, and the government lost revenue from taxes on farm profits. (B) Cotton production in several counties other than Q declined slightly the year that the support-payment program went into effect in Q. (C) The first year that the support-payment program was in effect, cotton acreage in Q was 5% below its level in the base year for the program. (D) The specified maximum per farm meant that for very large cotton farms the support payments were less per acre for those acres that were withdrawn from production than they were for smaller farms. (E) Farmers who wished to qualify for support payments could not use the cotton acreage that was withdrawn from production to grow any other crop. 150. United States hospitals have traditionally relied primarily on revenues from paying patients to offset losses from unreimbursed care. Almost all paying patients now rely on governmental or private health insurance to pay hospital bills. Recently, insurers have been strictly limiting what they pay hospitals for the care of insured patients to amounts at or below actual costs. Which of the following conclusions is best supported by the information above? (A) Although the advance of technology has made expensive medical procedures available to the wealthy, such procedures are out of the reach of low-income patients. (B) If hospitals do not find ways to raising additional income for unreimbursed care, they must either deny some of that care of suffer losses if they give it. (C) Some patients have incomes too high for eligibility for governmental health insurance but are unable to afford private insurance for hospital care. (D) If the hospitals reduce their costs in providing care, insurance companies will maintain the current level of reimbursement, thereby providing more funds for unreimbursed care. (E) Even though philanthropic donations have traditionally provided some support for the hospitals, such donations are at present declining. 151. Generally scientists enter their field with the goal of doing important new research and accept as their colleagues those with similar motivation. Therefore, when any scientist wins renown as an expounder of science to general audiences, most other scientists conclude that this popularizer should no longer be regarded as a true colleague. The explanation offered above for the low esteem in which scientific popularizers are held by research scientists assumes that (A) serious scientific research is not a solitary activity, but relies on active cooperation among a group of colleagues (B) research scientists tend not to regard as colleagues those scientists whose renown they envy (C) a scientist can become a famous popularizer without having completed any important research (D) research scientists believe that those who are well known as popularizers of science are not motivated to do important new research (E) no important new research can be accessible to or accurately assessed by those who are not themselves scientists 152. Mouth cancer is a danger for people who rarely brush their teeth. In order to achieve early detection of mouth cancer in these individuals, a town’s public health officials sent a pamphlet to all town residents, describing how to perform weekly self-examinations of the mouth for lumps. 43
• Which of the following, if true, is the best criticism of the pamphlet as a method of achieving the public health officials’ goal? (A) Many dental diseases produce symptoms that cannot be detected in a weekly self-examination. (B) Once mouth cancer has been detected, the effectiveness of treatment can vary from person to person. (C) The pamphlet was sent to all town residents, including those individuals who brush their teeth regularly. (D) Mouth cancer is much more common in adults than in children. (E) People who rarely brush their teeth are unlikely to perform a weekly examination of their mouth. 153. Technological improvements and reduced equipment costs have made converting solar energy directly into electricity far more cost-efficient in the last decade. However, the threshold of economic viability for solar power (that is, the price per barrel to which oil would have to rise in order for new solar power plants to be more economical than new oil-fired power plants) is unchanged at thirty-five dollars. Which of the following, if true, does most to help explain why the increased cost-efficiency of solar power has not decreased its threshold of economic viability? (A) The cost of oil has fallen dramatically. (B) The reduction in the cost of solar-power equipment has occurred despite increased raw material costs for that equipment. (C) Technological changes have increased the efficiency of oil-fired power plants. (D) Most electricity is generated by coal-fired or nuclear, rather than oil-fired, power plants. (E) When the price of oil increases, reserves of oil not previously worth exploiting become economically viable. 154. Start-up companies financed by venture capitalist have a much lower failure rate than companies financed by other means. Source of financing, therefore, must be a more important causative factor in the success of a start-up company than are such factors as the personal characteristics of the entrepreneur, the quality of strategic planning, or the management structure of the company. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above? (A) Venture capitalists tend to be more responsive than other sources of financing to changes in a start-up company’s financial needs. (B) The strategic planning of a start-up company is a less important factor in the long-term success of the company than are the personal characteristics of the entrepreneur. (C) More than half of all new companies fall within five years. (D) The management structures of start-up companies are generally less formal than the management structures of ongoing businesses. (E) Venture capitalists base their decisions to fund start-up companies on such factors as the characteristics of the entrepreneur and quality of strategic planning of the company. 155. The proportion of women among students enrolled in higher education programs has increased over the past decades. This is partly shown by the fact that in 1959, only 11 percent of the women between twenty and twenty-one were enrolled in college, while in 1981, 30 percent of the women between twenty and twenty-one were enrolled in college. To evaluate the argument above, it would be most useful to compare 1959 and 1981 with regard to which of the following characteristics? (A) The percentage of women between twenty and twenty-one who were not enrolled in college (B) The percentage of women between twenty and twenty-five who graduated from college (C) The percentage of women who, after attending college, entered highly paid professions (D) The percentage of men between twenty and twenty-one who were enrolled in college (E) The percentage of men who graduated from high school Questions 156-157 are based on the following. Companies O and P each have the same number of employees who work the same number of hours per week. According to records maintained by each company, the employees of Company O had fewer job-related accidents last year than did the employees of Company P. Therefore, employees of Company O are less likely to have job-related accidents than are employees of Company P. 44
• 156. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the conclusion above? (A) Company P manufactures products that are more hazardous for workers to produce than does Company O. (B) Company P holds more safety inspections than does Company O. (C) Company P maintains a more modern infirmary than does Company O. (D) Company O paid more for new job-related medical claims than did Company P. (E) Company P provides more types of health-care benefits than does Company O. 157. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the conclusion above? (A) The employees of Company P lost more time at work due to job-related accidents than did the employees of Company O. (B) Company P considered more types of accidents to be job-related than did Company O. (C) The employees of Company P were sick more often than were the employees of Company O. (D) Several employees of Company O each had more than one job-related accident. (E) The majority of job-related accidents at Company O involved a single machine. 158. In comparison to the standard typewriter keyboard, the EFCO keyboard, which places the most-used keys nearest the typist’s strongest fingers, allows faster typing and results in less fatigue, Therefore, replacement of standard keyboards with the EFCO keyboard will result in an immediate reduction of typing costs. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the conclusion drawn above? (A) People who use both standard and EFCO keyboards report greater difficulty in the transition from the EFCO keyboard to the standard keyboard than in the transition from the standard keyboard to the EFCO keyboard. (B) EFCO keyboards are no more expensive to manufacture than are standard keyboards and require less frequent repair than do standard keyboards. (C) The number of businesses and government agencies that use EFCO keyboards is increasing each year. (D) The more training and experience an employee has had with the standard keyboard, the more costly it is to train that employee to use the EFCO keyboard. (E) Novice typists can learn to use the EFCO keyboard in about the same amount of time it takes them to learn to use the standard keyboard. Questions 159-160 are based on the following. Half of the subjects in an experiment—the experimental group—consumed large quantities of a popular artificial sweetener. Afterward, this group showed lower cognitive abilities than did the other half of the subjects—the control group—who did not consume the sweetener. The detrimental effects were attributed to an amino acid that is one of the sweetener’s principal constituents. 159. Which of the following, if true, would best support the conclusion that some ingredient of the sweetener was responsible for the experimental results? (A) Most consumers of the sweetener do not consume as much of it as the experimental group members did. (B) The amino acid referred to in the conclusion is a component of all proteins, some of which must be consumed for adequate nutrition. (C) The quantity of the sweetener consumed by individuals in the experimental group is considered safe by federal food regulators. (D) The two groups of subjects were evenly matched with regard to cognitive abilities prior to the experiment. (E) A second experiment in which subjects consumed large quantities of the sweetener lacked a control group of subjects who were not given the sweetener. 160. Which of the following, if true, would best help explain how the sweetener might produce the observed effect? (A) The government’s analysis of the artificial sweetener determined that it was sold in relatively pure form. (B) A high level of the amino acid in the blood inhibits the synthesis of a substance required for normal brain functioning. (C) Because the sweetener is used primarily as a food additive, adverse reactions to it are rarely noticed by consumers. (D) The amino acid that is a constituent of the sweetener is also sold separately as a dietary supplement. (E) Subjects in the experiment did not know whether they were consuming the sweetener or a second, harmless substance. 45
• 161. Adult female rats who have never before encountered rat pups will start to show maternal behaviors after being confined with a pup for about seven days. This period can be considerably shortened by disabling the female’s sense of smell or by removing the scent-producing glands of the pup. Which of the following hypotheses best explains the contrast described above? (A) The sense of smell in adult female rats is more acute than that in rat pups. (B) The amount of scent produced by rat pups increases when they are in the presence of a female rat that did not bear them. (C) Female rats that have given birth are more affected by olfactory cues than are female rats that have never given birth. (D) A female rat that has given birth shows maternal behavior toward rat pups that she did not bear more quickly than does a female rat that has never given birth. (E) The development of a female rat's maternal interest in a rat pup that she did not bear is inhibited by the odor of the pup. 162. The interview is an essential part of a successful hiring program because, with it, job applicants who have personalities that are unsuited to the requirements of the job will be eliminated from consideration. The argument above logically depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) A hiring program will be successful if it includes interviews. (B) The interview is a more important part of a successful hiring program than is the development of a job description. (C) Interviewers can accurately identify applicants whose personalities are unsuited to the requirements of the job. (D) The only purpose of an interview is to evaluate whether job applicants’ personalities are suited to the requirements of the job. (E) the fit of job applicants’ personalities to the requirements of the job was once the most important factor in making hiring decisions. 163. An overly centralized economy, not the changes in the climate, is responsible for the poor agricultural production in Country X since its new government came to power. Neighboring Country Y has experienced the same climatic conditions, but while agricultural production has been falling in Country X, it has been rising in Country Y. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument above? (A) Industrial production also is declining in Country X. (B) Whereas Country Y is landlocked, Country X has a major seaport. (C) Both Country X and Country Y have been experiencing drought conditions. (D) The crops that have always been grown in Country X are different from those that have always been grown in Country Y. (E) Country X’s new government instituted a centralized economy with the intention of ensuring an equitable distribution of goods. 164. Useful protein drugs, such as insulin, must still be administered by the cumbersome procedure of injection under the skin. If proteins are taken orally, they are digested and cannot reach their target cells. Certain nonprotein drugs, however, contain chemical bonds that are not broken down by the digestive system. They can, thus, be taken orally. The statements above most strongly support a claim that a research procedure that successfully accomplishes which of the following would be beneficial to users of protein drugs? (A) Coating insulin with compounds that are broken down by target cells, but whose chemical bonds are resistant to digestion (B) Converting into protein compounds, by procedures that work in the laboratory, the nonprotein drugs that resist digestion (C) Removing permanently from the digestive system any substances that digest proteins (D) Determining, in a systematic way, what enzymes and bacteria are present in the normal digestive system and whether they tend to be broken down within the body (E) Determining the amount of time each nonprotein drug takes to reach its target cells. 46
• 169. Corporate officers and directors commonly buy and sell, for their own portfolios, stock in their own corporations. Generally, when the ratio of such inside sales to inside purchases falls below 2 to 1 for a given stock, a rise in stock prices is imminent. In recent days, while the price of MEGA Corporation stock has been falling, the corporation’s officers and directors have bought up to nine times as much of it as they have sold. The facts above best support which of the following predictions? (A) The imbalance between inside purchases and inside sales of MEGA stock will grow even further. (B) Inside purchases of MEGA stock are about to cease abruptly. (C) The price of MEGA stock will soon begin to go up. (D) The price of MEGA stock will continue to drop, but less rapidly. (E) The majority of MEGA stock will soon be owned by MEGA’s own officers and directors. 170. The proposal to hire ten new police officers in Middletown is quite foolish. There is sufficient funding to pay the salaries of the new officers, but not the salaries of additional court and prison employees to process the increased caseload of arrests and convictions that new officers usually generate. Which of the following, if true, will most seriously weaken the conclusion drawn above? (A) Studies have shown that an increase in a city’s police force does not necessarily reduce crime. (B) When one major city increased its police force by 19 percent last year, there were 40 percent more arrests and 13 percent more convictions. (C) If funding for the new police officers’ salaries is approved, support for other city services will have to be reduced during the next fiscal year. (D) In most United States cities, not all arrests result in convictions, and not all convictions result in prison terms. (E) Middletown’s ratio of police officers to citizens has reached a level at which an increase in the number of officers will have a deterrent effect on crime. 171. A recent report determined that although only three percent of drivers on Maryland highways equipped their vehicles with radar detectors, thirty-three percent of all vehicles ticketed for exceeding the speed limit were equipped with them. Clearly, drivers who equip their vehicles with radar detectors are more likely to exceed the speed limit regularly than are drivers who do not. The conclusion drawn above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) Drivers who equip their vehicles with radar detectors are less likely to be ticketed for exceeding the speed limit than are drivers who do not. (B) Drivers who are ticketed for exceeding the speed limit are more likely to exceed the speed limit regularly than are drivers who are not ticketed. (C) The number of vehicles that were ticketed for exceeding the speed limit was greater than the number of vehicles that were equipped with radar detectors. (D) Many of the vehicles that were ticketed for exceeding the speed limit were ticketed more than once in the time period covered by the report. (E) Drivers on Maryland highways exceeded the speed limit more often than did drivers on other state highways not covered in the report. 172. There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of many surgical procedures—up to tenfold variation per hundred thousand between different areas in the numbers of hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies. To support a conclusion that much of the variation is due to unnecessary surgical procedures, it would be most important to establish which of the following? (A) A local board of review at each hospital examines the records of every operation to determine whether the surgical procedure was necessary. (B) The variation is unrelated to factors (other than the surgical procedures themselves) that influence the incidence of diseases for which surgery might be considered. (C) There are several categories of surgical procedure (other than hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies) that are often performed unnecessarily. (D) For certain surgical procedures, it is difficult to determine after the operation whether the procedures were necessary or whether alternative treatment would have succeeded. (E) With respect to how often they are performed unnecessarily, hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies are representative of surgical procedures in general. 48
• 173. Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to have relatively low metabolic rates, lose weight primarily through dieting, their metabolisms generally remain unchanged. They will thus burn significantly fewer calories at the new weight than do people whose weight is normally at that level. Such newly thin persons will, therefore, ultimately regain weight until their body size again matches their metabolic rate. The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) Relatively few very overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tend to continue to consume substantially fewer calories than do people whose normal weight is at that level. (B) The metabolisms of people who are usually not overweight are much more able to vary than the metabolisms of people who have been very overweight. (C) The amount of calories that a person usually burns in a day is determined more by the amount that is consumed that day than by the current weight of the individual. (D) Researchers have not yet determined whether the metabolic rates of formerly very overweight individuals can be accelerated by means of chemical agents. (E) Because of the constancy of their metabolic rates, people who are at their usual weight normally have as much difficulty gaining weight as they do losing it. 174. In 1987 sinusitis was the most common chronic medical condition in the United States, followed by arthritis and high blood pressure, in that order. The incidence rates for both arthritis and high blood pressure increase with age, but the incidence rate for sinusitis is the same for people of all ages. The average age of the United States population will increase between 1987 and 2000. Which of the following conclusions can be most properly drawn about chronic medical conditions in the United States from the information given above? (A) Sinusitis will be more common than either arthritis or high blood pressure in 2000. (B) Arthritis will be the most common chronic medical condition in 2000. (C) The average age of people suffering from sinusitis will increase between 1987 and 2000. (D) Fewer people will suffer from sinusitis in 2000 than suffered from it in 1987. (E) A majority of the population will suffer from at least one of the medical conditions mentioned above by the year 2000. 175. Parasitic wasps lay their eggs directly into the eggs of various host insects in exactly the right numbers for any suitable size of host egg. If they laid too many eggs in a host egg, the developing wasp larvae would compete with each other to the death for nutrients and space. If too few eggs were laid, portions of the host egg would decay, killing the wasp larvae. Which of the following conclusions can properly be drawn from the information above? (A) The size of the smallest host egg that a wasp could theoretically parasitize can be determined from the wasp’s egg-laying behavior. (B) Host insects lack any effective defenses against the form of predation practiced by parasitic wasps. (C) Parasitic wasps learn from experience how many eggs to lay into the eggs of different host species. (D) Failure to lay enough eggs would lead to the death of the developing wasp larvae more quickly than would laying too many eggs. (E) Parasitic wasps use visual clues to calculate the size of a host egg. 176. Northern Air has dozens of flights daily into and out of Belleville Airport, which is highly congested. Northern Air depends for its success on economy and quick turnaround and consequently is planning to replace its large planes with Skybuses, whose novel aerodynamic design is extremely fuel efficient. The Skybus’ fuel efficiency results in both lower fuel costs and reduced time spent refueling. Which of the following, if true, could present the most serious disadvantage for Northern Air in replacing their large planes with Skybuses? (A) The Skybus would enable Northern Air to schedule direct flights to destinations that currently require stops for refueling. (B) Aviation fuel is projected to decline in price over the next several years. 49
• 4,500-year-oold stone agricultural implements were unearthed at colha. These implements resemble Mayan stone implements of a much later period, also found at Colha. Moreover, the implements’ designs are strikingly different from the designs of stone implements produced by other cultures known to have inhabited the area in prehistoric times. Therefore, there were surely Mayan settlements in Colha 4,500 years ago. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument/ (A) Ceramic ware is not known to have been used by the Maya to make agricultural implements. (B) Carbon dating of corn pollen in Colha indicates that agriculture began there around 4,500 years ago. (C) Archaeological evidence indicates that some of the oldest stone implements found at Colha were used to cut away vegetation after controlled burning of trees to open areas of swampland for cultivation. (D) Successor cultures at a given site often adopt the style of agricultural implements used by earlier inhabitants of the same site. (E) Many religious and social institutions of the Mayan people who inhabited Colha 3,000 years ago relied on a highly developed system of agricultural symbols. 183. Editorial: Regulations recently imposed by the government of Risemia call for unprecedented reductions in the amounts of pollutants manufacturers are allowed to discharge into the environment. It will take costly new pollution control equipment requiring expensive maintenance to comply with these regulations. Resultant price increases for Risemian manufactured goods will lead to the loss of some export markets. Clearly, therefore, annual exports of Risemian manufactured goods will in the future occur at diminished levels. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument in the editorial? (A) The need to comply with the new regulations will stimulate the development within Risemia of new pollution control equipment for which a strong worldwide demand is likely to emerge. (B) The proposed regulations include a schedule of fines for noncompliance that escalate steeply in cases of repeated noncompliance. (C) Savings from utilizing the chemicals captured by the pollution control equipment will remain far below the cost of maintaining the equipment. (D) By international standards, the levels of pollutants currently emitted by some of Risemia’s manufacturing plants are not considered excessive. (E) The stockholders of most Risemia’s manufacturing corporations exert substantial pressure on the corporations to comply with environmental laws. 184. Codex Berinensis, a Florentine copy of an ancient Roman medical treatise, is undated but contains clues to when it was produced. Its first eighty pages are by a single copyist, but the remaining twenty pages are by three different copyists, which indicate some significant disruption. Since a letter in handwriting identified as that of the fourth copyist mentions a plague that killed many people in Florence in 1148, Codex Berinensis was probably produced in that year. Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis that codex Berinensis was produced in 1148? (A) Other than Codex Berinensis, there are no known samples of the handwriting of the first three copyists. (B) According to the account by the fourth copyists, the plague went on for ten months. (C) A scribe would be able to copy a page of text the size and style of Codex Berinensis in a day. 52
• (D) There was only one outbreak of plague in Florence in the 1100’s. (E) The number of pages of Codex Berinnesis produced by a single scribe becomes smaller with each successive change of copyist. 185. Near Chicago a newly built hydroponic spinach “factuory,” a completely controlled environment for growing spinach, produces on 1 acre of floor space what it takes 100 acres of fields to produce. Expenses, especially for electricity, are high ,hwoever, and the spinach produced costs about four times as much as washed California field spinach, the spinach commonly sold throughout the United States. Which of the following, if true, best supports a projection that the spinach-growing facility near Chicago will be profitable? (A) Once the operators of the facility are experienced, they will be able to cut operating expenses by about 25 percent. (B) There is virtually no scope for any further reduction in the cost per pound for California field spinach. (C) Unlike washed field spinach, the hydroponically grown spinach is untainted by any pesticides or herbicides and thus will sell at exceptionally herbicides an thus will sell at exceptionally high prices to such customers as health food restaurants. (D) Since spinach is a crop that ships relatively well, the market for the hydroponically grown spinach is no more limited to the Chicago area than the market for California field spinach is to California. (E) A second hydroponics facility is being built in Canada, taking advantage of inexpensive electricity and high vegetable prices. 186. Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk of an oil spill, but importing oil on tankers presently entails an even greater such risk per barrel of oil. Therefore, if we are to reduce the risk of an oil spill without curtailing our use of oil, we must invest more in offshore operations and import less oil on tankers. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above? (A) Tankers can easily be redesigned so that their use entails less risk of an oil spill. (B) Oil spills caused by tankers have generally been more serious than those caused by offshore operations. (C) The impact of offshore operations on the environment can be controlled by careful management. (D) Offshore operations usually damage the ocean floor, but tankers rarely cause such damage. (E) Importing oil on tankers is currently less expensive than drilling for it offshore. 187. Automobile Dealer’s Advertisement: The Highway Traffic Safety Institute reports that the PZ 1000 has the fewest injuries per accident of any car in its class. This shows that the PZ 1000 is one of the safest cars available today. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument in the advertisement? (A) The Highway Traffic Safety Institute report listed many cars in other classes that had more injuries per accident than did the PZ 1000. (B) In recently years many more PZ 1000’s have been sold than have any other kind of car in its class. (C) Cars in the class to which the PZ 1000 belongs are more likely to be involved in accidents than are other types of cars. (D) The difference between the number of injuries per accident for the PZ 1000 and that for other cars in its 53
• (D) The city’s fire department is located much closer to the residential areas than to the commercial district. (E) On average, almost 25 percent of the public telephones in the city are out of order. 194. A major impediment to wide acceptance of electric vehicles even on the part of people who use their cars almost exclusively for commuting is the inability to use electric vehicles for occasional extended trips. In an attempt to make purchasing electric vehicles more attractive to commuters, one electric vehicle producer is planning to offer customers three days free rental of a conventional car for every 1,000 miles that they drive their electric vehicle. Which of the following, if true, most threatens the plan’s prospects for success? (A) Many eclectic vehicles that are used for commercial purposes are not needed for extended trips. (B) Because a majority of commuters drive at least 100 miles a week, the cost to the producer of making good the offer would add considerably to the already high price of electric vehicles. (C) The relatively long time it takes to recharge the battery of an electric vehicle can easily be fitted into the regular patterns of car use characteristic of commuters. (D) Although eclectic vehicles are essentially emission-free in actual use, generating the electricity necessary for charging an electric vehicle’s battery can burden the environment. (E) Some family vehicles are used primarily not for commuting but for making short local trips, such as to do errands. 195. A proposed change to federal income tax laws would eliminate deductions from taxable income for donations a taxpayer has made to charitable and educational institutions. If this change were adopted, wealthy individuals would no longer be permitted such deductions. Therefore, many charitable and educational institutions would have to reduce services, and some would have to close their doors. The argument above assumes which of the following? (A) Without the incentives offered by federal income tax laws, at least some wealthy individuals would not donate as much money to charitable and educational institutions as they otherwise would have. (B) Money contributed by individuals who make their donations because of provisions in the federal tax laws provides the only source of funding for many charitable and educational institutions. (C) The primary reason for not adopting the proposed change in the federal income tax laws cited above is to protect wealthy individuals from having to pay higher taxes. (D) Wealthy individuals who donate money to charitable and educational institutions are the only individuals who donate money to such institutions. (E) Income tax laws should be changed to make donations to charitable and educational institutions the only permissible deductions from taxable income. 196. An unusually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was blanketed by a blue haze resulting from the eruption of the Laki Volcano in the Europeans republic of Iceland in the summer of 1984. Thus, it is evident that major eruptions cause the atmosphere to become cooler than it would be otherwise. Which of the following statements, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above? (A) The cooling effect triggered by volcanic eruptions in 1985 was counteracted by an unusual warming of Pacific waters. 56
• 7. The speed with which the ice on the windshield melted is attributed to the air blowing full force from the defrosting vent onto the front windshield. This explanation of B is undermined if, as B states, no attempt was made to defrost the back window and the ice on the back window melted as quickly as did the ice on the windshield. Therefore, B is the best answer. In the absence of other information, the lack of ice condensation on the side windows that is mentioned in A is irrelevant to the validity of the explanation. C might support the explanation, since the air from the defrosting vent was warm. Neither of D and E gives a reason to doubt that air from the vent caused the ice’s melting, and thus neither jeopardizes the explanation’s validity. 8. The official argues that prohibiting high-level government officials from accepting positions as lobbyists for three years would prevent the officials from earning a livelihood for that period. The reasoning tacitly excludes the possibility of such officials earning a living through work other than lobbying. Therefore, D, which expresses this tacit assumption, is the best answer. The official’s argument does not depend on the assumption in A, since the argument would not be invalidated if some restrictions on the behavior of government officials were desirable. The official’s argument does not depend on the assumption in B, since the argument would not be invalidated if lobbyists were not typically former high-level government officials. The official’s argument does not depend on the assumption in C, since the argument would not be invalidated if former low-level government officials did often become lobbyists. The official’s argument does not depend on the assumption in E, since the argument would not be invalidated if former high-level government officials could act as lobbyists indefinitely. 9. The group’s contention suggests that animals that are shy and active at night are feared and persecute for that reason. D establishes that raccoons and owls are shy and active at night, but that they are neither feared nor persecuted. Therefore, D is the best answer. Although an increasing prevalence of bats might explain the importance of addressing people’s fear of bats, A does not address the original causes of that fear. B and E, while relevant to the rationality of people’s fear of bats, do not affect the assessment of the accuracy of the group’s contention. That bats are feared outside the United States, as C states, does not conflict with the group’s explanation for fear of bats in the United States. 10. If the defense system designers did not plan for the contingency of large meteorite explosions, such explosions would, from the system’s perspective, be unexpected. The system’s response to such explosions is consequently unpredictable. E expresses this inference and is thus the best answer. A cannot be inferred since it is consistent with the stated information that no meteorite explosion will occur within a century. B cannot be inferred since there is no information to suggest that meteorite explosions in the atmosphere would destroy the system. C cannot be inferred since it is consistent with the stated information that an appropriately designed nuclear defense system might be able to distinguish nuclear from meteorite explosions. D cannot be inferred since there is no information to suggest that the location of blasts would determine the appropriateness of defense system’s response. 11. The supposition in c involves reducing by one the number of restrictions on the advertising of legal services. Any such reduction will, if the stated correlation exists, be accompanied by an increase in the number of lawyers 62
• 26. The evidence on which the conclusion is based concerns only average weight, but the conclusion concerns average weight gain. Because there is not necessarily a connection between an absolute measurement-such as weight-and a rate of increase-such as weight gain-this argument is flawed. The relevant reasoning error is described in E, which is the best answer. Neither of A and D identifies a reasoning error in the passage, since the passage makes no claim that weight is the only relevant measure of infant development in general, and no claim about sufficiency. B and C are consistent with the claims in the passage, and neither identifies a flaw in the argument. 27. The passage concludes that, because the malarial parasite cannot reside in red blood cells for more than 120 days, the malarial parasite cannot cause fever more than 120 days after infection. However, according to D, there is a site in the body where the parasite could reside for more than 120 days after infection. Therefore, D weakens the conclusion and is the best answer. The resemblance between malarial-fever symptoms and those of other diseases, the existence of other malarial symptoms, and the possibility of immunity to malaria are irrelevant to the issue of the conditions under which malarial fever can occur. B provides confirmation for the existence of malaria-free regions but does not otherwise bear on the conclusion. 28. Because E indicates that the number of commercials in a cluster is increasing, it entails that proportionally more commercials are aired in intermediate positions. Hence, E helps fact 2 explain fact 1 by showing that increasingly more commercials are aired in positions in which viewers find them difficult to recall. E is the best answer. A testifies to the ineffectiveness of television advertising but does not help fact 2 explain fact 1. B indicates that fact 2 contradicts rather than explains fact 1, since it suggests that the number of commercials per cluster is decreasing. C and D help to explain fact 1-by describing a change in viewing habits and a change in programming-but neither relates fact 2 to fact 1. 29. The health officials’ explanation assumes that the decrease in the number of people diagnosed with the disease accurately reflects a diminution in cases of the disease. By pointing out that this assumption is false, C undermines the officials’ explanation and thus is the best answer. Since A supports the view that sanitary conditions have been improving, it tends to support the officials’ explanation. B also tends to support the officials’ explanation, because it eliminates a factor that might have differentiated between those contracting and those not contracting the disease and thus rules out an alternative explanation. The reduction of the severity of the diagnosed cases does not bear on the officials’ explanation. So D is not correct. Since the standards in neighboring counties might themselves have been inadequate, E does not weaken the officials’ explanation. 30. If the original contractual price for the weapons purchased incorporated an inefficient use of funds, then, since historical costing merely adds to the original price, it preserves these inefficiencies. An economically sound pricing method should at least allow the possibility of reductions in price as such inefficiencies are removed. Hence, A is the best answer. Because historical costing responds to inflation, B and C are consistent with the economic soundness of historical costing-the rate of inflation and costs that are reflected in inflation. D offers no 66
• 40. If C is true, the rapid increase in productivity among Asian palm trees after 1980 probably depleted nutrients needed for the development of fruit-producing flowers. Thus, C explains why the palms’ productivity could subsequently decline, and is the best answer. A relates a drop in the price of palm fruit to a rise in production and a fall in demand, but it does not explain the subsequent drop in the trees’ productivity. B gives no reason for the decrease in productivity of the trees introduced to Asia. D does not explain the decrease in productivity, since the stability of the weevil population described would support stability of palm fruit productivity between 1980 and 1984 rather than a decrease. Because E describes the pollination of the trees prior to 1980, it cannot explain a change occurring in 1984. 41. The passage concludes that the mayor’s publicity campaign has persuaded people to ride the bus to word instead of driving, and it cites as evidence the decreased morning automobile traffic and increased bus ridership into the midtown area. But the road reconstruction described in C provides an alternative explanation for this evidence, so C is the best answer. A eliminates decreased fares as a possible explanation for the increased ridership, so it supports rather than casts doubt on the conclusion. The fact that the mayor rides the bus, cited in B, may contribute to the effectiveness of the publicity campaign, but it is irrelevant to assessing whether the campaign caused the increased ridership. D eliminates a possible explanation-that the increased ridership is a result of extra buses-and thus supports the conclusion rather than casts doubt on it. E eliminates a possible explanation-that the increased ridership is a result of improved service-and thus supports the conclusion rather than casts doubt on it. 42. The comparison suggested in D would be useful in evaluating Country T’s assessment of the cause of the severity of its stock market crash. If the severity of the crash is at least as great in the countries that are, except for recent nationalization, economically similar to Country T, Country T’s assessment is undermined. if the severity of the crash is not as great in these countries as in Country T, however, the assessment is supported. Thus, D is the best answer. A, C and E are not good answers because each concerns only determining the severity of the crash in Country T, not assessing a hypothesis about the causes of the crash. The date of Country T’s next crash is not relevant to any hypothesis about what caused its latest crash to be so severe; thus B is inappropriate. 43. D weakens the prediction of secrecy by establishing that biotechnology companies have a strong motive to encourage their researchers to publicize results. Therefore, it is the best answer. A and B support the argument that developments in biological science and engineering would be slowed if the prediction of secrecy were fulfilled, but do not provide any reason to expect that the prediction will not be fulfilled. The distortion of the research agenda asserted in C is not relevant to the question of scientific secrecy. E, which says that biotechnology companies devote some resources to fundamental problems without immediate practical benefits, is merely consistent with that argument and so does not weaken the prediction. 44. The flaw in the argument is that is assumes erroneously that a majority of decisions favorable to women in sex discrimination cases demonstrates absence of discriminatory behavior against women on the part of the judge 69
• demand, there is no reason to suspect that there has been any increase in supply caused by drugs entering the country. The other choices can be false without affecting the argument. The supply of illegal drugs need not have dropped (choice A), and the retail price could have dropped (choice B). The entry of illegal drugs could have risen at a higher rate than domestic production (choice C), and no illegal drug need have undergone a substantial price rise (choice D). 81. If domestic production of illegal drugs increased substantially, the overall supply could have increased (and the price fallen) without more illegal drugs entering the country, and without any failure of the program. Thus, choice B is the best answer. None of the other choices weakens the argument. The smugglers’ having more money (choice A) suggests that they would have resources to evade controls. The author’s intention (choice C) is irrelevant to whether the reasoning the statements express is cogent. A charge of routes (choice D) would have increased the chance of the program failing, and an increase in the amount of money spent (choice E) also provides evidence that the program did fail, given the low price levels. 82. The archaeologists hypothesized that Kourion was devastated by an earthquake known to have occurred in A. D. 365. Since choice B provides evidence that A.D. 365 was the date when life in Kourion was disrupted, B supports the hypothesis that it was the A. D. 365 earthquake that devastated Kourion. Thus, B is the best answer. By contrast, choices A, D, and E all give information about artifacts found in or used in Kourion, but they do not specifically point to A. D. 365 as the date of the devastation. Thus, A, D, and E are inappropriate. Since choice C supports something already established, namely, that an earthquake occurred in A. D. 365, C is inappropriate. 83. Choice E indicates that Mammoth’s telephones already fail to participate in the industry trend of higher sales despite heavy advertising. Producing more of the same model would thus be unlikely to generate increased sales for Mammoth, so E is the best answer. If Mammoth has sold all the telephones it produced, it might increase sales by producing more, even if it has lost market share, as choice A states. Choice D indicates that Mammoth’s sales are increasing, and similarly for B if the decrease in inventory results from retailers taking delivery of more telephones. So long as consumers recognize the brand name of Mammoth’s telephones, as choice C states, it probably does not matter whether they associate it with Mammoth. 84. Four of the choices give reasons why, in an economic showdown, many people would choose a two-year college. Choice A indicates that a two-year college education gives one a better chance of finding a job when economic conditions are poor. Choice C and E indicate why people with less money might prefer two-year colleges. Finally, choice D suggests that more is being done to attract people whose lives are affected by the slowdown to two-year than to four-year colleges. Choice B, the best answer, might explain the decreased enrollment at four-year colleges during the slowdown, but because it deals with graduates of two-year colleges it cannot explain why enrollment at these colleges might increase. 85. Hardin’s claim is that common grazing land deteriorates more quickly than private grazing land because of overuse. The study indicates that common grazing land is currently in better shape, but this would not 77
• their domestic markets (choice C) or to enter into new export markets (choice E). The other choices relate situations that would be possible but that are not strongly supported: other countries could have continued to permit imports from Z (choice B), and the industries may have unable to decrease labor costs (choice D). 96. The author argues that planes, since they are a free-wheel system, will be preferred to the high-speed train. Choice C weakens the argument by pointing out that planes are not a free-wheel system and are les convenient than the high-speed train would be. Thus C is the best answer. The special feature of the high-speed train described in A is not one that clearly affects consumer choice one way or the other way. Since it is planes that would compete effectively with the proposed trains, the fact that cars and buses might not do so is irrelevant. Non-availability of certain station (choice D) and the consumer preferences described in choice E tend to make the proposed train less, not more, attractive and so both choices strengthen the argument. 97. Whether corporations, other than Energy Incorporated, that own coal companies also own gas stations is not directly relevant to whether attempting a boycott of Gasco gas stations will coerce Coalco to accept the contract proposal. Thus choice E is the best answer. Each of the other four questions is relevant to evaluating the chances the union strategy has of succeeding. Choice A bears on whether the strategy would apply sufficient economic pressure on Energy Incorporated. Choice B is relevant to whether consumers can respond to the call for a boycott. Choice C is relevant to whether the union’s contract proposal is a reasonable one. Choice D is relevant because a successful precedent would favorably reflect on the union’s chances of success. 98. According to the passage, for certain foreign contracts United States firms can either cooperate and hope to earn a modest profit, or not cooperate, not win the contract, and earn no part of a larger profit. This is how choice B describes the situation, so choice B is the best answer. In order to earn a profit, United States firms must cooperate, so the alternatives described in several of the choices are not in practice open to them: the alternatives of a modest risk versus a full risk (choice A)., cooperation versus competition (choice C), and winning on their own versus collaborating (choice E). Since they do not have the same need to cooperate with foreign corporations to win American contracts, choice D does not fit either. 99. To say that transnational cooperation is experiencing a modest renaissance means that it used to be relatively common, became less so, and is now becoming more common again. Therefore choice C is the best answer, since it follows from that statement. None of the other choices presents information provided by the passage. The passage says nothing about the size of the projects (choice A), nor about the quality of work in cases of transnational cooperation (choice B). Since the passage strongly suggests transnational cooperation can be profitable for the firms concerned, it thereby tends to contradict both the claims that joint projects are not profitable (choice D) and that they only benefit those who commission the projects (choice E). 100. If the truck’s speed is assumed to be the same the car’s, then since the truck is larger, the optical illusion will make it appear that there is more time to cross the highway with the truck approaching than with the car approaching. Thus, choice B helps in establishing the conclusion and is the best answer. If the truck’s speed is lower than the cars (choice A), the conclusion does not depend on the illusion. If the truck’s 80
• C and E might be viewed as less unfair than the proposed funding from bridge tolls, but it gives no reason for regarding the bridge tolls as anything but unfair. 121. Choice D indicates that during promotions retailers buy much greater quantities of products at discounted prices than they in turn sell to consumers during those promotions. There is, then, much merchandise that retailers sell at their regular price on which the manufacturers, however, do not realize normal profits. Since this loss of normal profits might outweigh the benefits of attracting new consumers during the promotion period, the manufacturers might be better off not holding the promotions. Choice D is, therefore, the best answer. Attracting consumers’ attention (choice A), noninterference with sales at regular, non-promotional prices (choice B), and attracting and holding customers (choices C and E) are all features of promotions compatible with manufacturers making high profits, so none of these choice is correct. 122. For tax evasion to force a raise in income tax rates it must be true that tax evasion causes actual tax revenues to fall short of revenue needs. This is the situation that choice C describes; choice C is therefore the best answer. None of the other choices states a requirement for the vicious cycle to result. Increasing in pretax incomes (income A) would tend to work against perpetuation of the cycle. Success at catching tax evaders (choice B) should likewise have an inhibiting effect. Choice D describes how problems in breaking existing habits of tax evasion might be overcome. Choice E essentially denies that raising the tax rate in response to some tax evasion could cause additional tax-payers to evade taxes. 123. MegaCorp wishes to at least meet customer expectations. Since these expectations will always tend to move beyond whatever level of quality MegaCorp happens to have attained, MegaCorp will, as choice C indicates, be able to meet its goal only if continuing improvements in the quality of its products are possible. Choice C is thus the best answer. Choice A is incorrect since success in attracting customers depends only on actual product quality, not on a company’s goals regarding quality. Since quality improvements can themselves shape customer expectations, choice B is incorrect. Since nothing has been said to indicate a difficulty with maintaining a given level of product quality, choice D is incorrect. Since having a goal does not imply meeting it, choice E is incorrect. 124. For the proposed curriculum change to attract students to physics classes, producing and analyzing visual images must have direct relevance to today’s world. Choice E provides have direct relevance to today’s world. Choice E provides evidence that this is so, and thus is the best answer. Choices A and C mention things relevant to the new curriculum: that it would indeed teach physics and that equipment facilitating its implementation is available. Choice B underscores how desirable it would be for the new curriculum to succeed, and choice D establishes that there is past precedent that more students can be attracted to physics. Not one of choices A, B, C, or D, however, indicates why the new curriculum would be thought to be attractive to students, so none of them is correct. 125. The argument concludes that declining wholesale prices for raw cotton, will produce declining retail prices for cotton products. Choice A weakens the argument by pointing to higher processing costs for raw cotton, which could offset lower wholesale prices. A is therefore the best answer. Choice B is incorrect because the argument focuses on incorrect because it in effect denies that lower wholesale prices for cotton have been offset by rising operating costs. Choice D is incorrect because it is entirely consistent with the prediction made. Choice E is incorrect because the rising cost of harvesting raw cotton, though possibly 85
• 136. Home Decorator magazine’s profits would be likely to decline if, as a result of instituting the plan, revenues were to decrease substantially. Choice D indicates that the plan would produce substantially lower revenues because most advertisers will pay the magazine the same amount per issue, but there will be only half as many issues. Therefore, D is the best answer. Choice A notes that mailing costs per issue will rise by one-third, but since there will be fewer issues, total annual mailing costs will fall. Therefore, A is incorrect. Choices B and C are incorrect because neither describes concerns that subscribers have about the plan under consideration. Choice E is incorrect because stable production costs would not lead to lower profits. 137. The argument assumes that mismatched sleeping and waking cycles precede martial problems. Choice D weakens the argument by indicating that this assumption is false, and D is the best answer. The argument does not depend on there being only one cause of marital problems, so choice A is incorrect. That sleeping and waking cycles can change seasonally or might not affect interactions with colleagues does not address the issue of how mismatched cycles between spouses affect their marriage, so B and C are incorrect. Choice E suggests that there is a way to test the conclusion-by brining a couple’s sleeping and waking cycles into alignment-but this by itself does not weaken the argument, so E is incorrect. 138. Sharon’s argument is essentially that, even if the facts are as Roland presents them, they are not in and of themselves a cause for alarm. Even circumstances reassuringly normal and unremarkable-a normal, moderate unemployment rate and having 50 or more workers among one’s acquaintances-imply the sort of fact Roland cites. Thus, that fact does not indicate that things are not normal (for example, that unemployment is alarmingly high). Choice A, therefore, is the best answer. Sharon’s argument focuses exclusively on whether Roland’s alarm is logically warranted, given the fact he cites. Sharon herself takes no position whatsoever on what the actual facts concerning unemployment statistics and concerning people’s self-reports are. Because choices B, C, D, and E are assertions about such matters, each is incorrect. 139. Sharon’s argument assumes that people are generally similar in how likely they are to have among their acquaintances people who are unemployed. Since heavy concentrations of unemployment in geographically isolated segments of the population would produce great differences in this respect, Sharon’s argument assumes few, if any, such concentrations. Choice B is therefore the best answer. If normal levels of unemployment were exceeded relatively frequently, and if Roland’s figure of 90 percent were an exaggeration, Sharon’s argument would be unaffected, so choices A and D are incorrect. At exceptionally low levels of unemployment, Sharon’s argument suggests that choice C is likely to be false, so C is not assumed. The fear of losing one’s job is not part of Sharon’s argument, so choice E is incorrect. 140. If, as choice B says, acid rain damage could be occurring without there yet being any visible symptoms, the absence of visible symptoms would not justify the conclusion that no damage was occurring. Thus, choice B is the best answer since it justifies the critics’ insistence that the conclusion be changed. Because the authors of the report evidently resist the change being demanded, any claim on which they and their critics are likely to be in agreement cannot provide justification for the change. Choices A, C, D, and E are all claims both parties can agree on, so none of them is correct. 141. 88
• (C) in attributing behavior that is criminal or delinquent to an allergy to some food (D) if some food allergy is attributed as the cause of criminal or delinquent behavior (E) in attributing a food allergy as the cause of criminal or delinquent behavior 22. The voluminous personal papers of Thomas Alva Edison reveal that his inventions typically sprang to life not in a flash of inspiration but evolved slowly from previous works. (A) (A) sprang to life not in a flash of inspiration but evolved slowly (B) sprang to life not in a flash of inspiration but were slowly evolved (C) did not spring to life in a flash of inspiration but evolved slowly (D) did not spring to life in a flash of inspiration but had slowly evolved (E) did not spring to life in a flash of inspiration but they were slowly evolved 23. A Labor Department study states that the numbers of women employed outside the home grew by more than a thirty-five percent increase in the past decade and accounted for more than sixty-two percent of the total growth in the civilian work force. (A) numbers of women employed outside the home grew by more than a thirty-five percent increase (B) numbers of women employed outside the home grew more than thirty-five percent (C) numbers of women employed outside the home were raised by more than thirty-five percent (D) number of women employed outside the home increased by more than thirty-five percent (E) number of women employed outside the home was raised by more than a thirty-five percent increase 24. The first decision for most tenants living in a building undergoing being converted to cooperative ownership is if to sign a no-buy pledge with the other tenants. (A) being converted to cooperative ownership is if to sign (B) being converted to cooperative ownership is whether they should be signing (C) being converted to cooperative ownership is whether or not they sign (D) conversion to cooperative ownership is if to sign (E) conversion to cooperative ownership is whether to sign 25. The end of the eighteenth century saw the emergence of prize-stock breeding, with individual bulls and cows receiving awards, fetching unprecedented prices, and excited enormous interest whenever they were put on show. (A) excited (B) it excited (C) exciting (D) would excite (E) it had excited 26. Of all the possible disasters that threaten American agriculture, the possibility of an adverse change in climate is maybe the more difficult for analysis. (A) is maybe the more difficult for analysis (B) is probably the most difficult to analyze (C) is maybe the most difficult for analysis (D) is probably the more difficult to analyze (E) is, it may be, the analysis that is most difficult 27. Published in Harlem, the owner and editor of the Messenger were two young journalists. Chandler Owen j and A. Philip Randolph, who would later make his reputation as a labor leader. (A) Published in Harlem, the owner and editor of the Messenger were two young journalists. Chandler Owen and A. Philip Randolph, who would later make his reputation as a labor leader. 110
• (B) Published in Harlem, two young journalists, Chandler Owen and A. Philip Randolph, who would later make his reputation as a labor leader, were the owner and editor of the Messenger. (C) Published in Harlem, the Messenger was owned and edited by two young journalists, A. Philip Randolph, who would later make his reputation as a labor leader, and Chandler Owen. (D) The Messenger was owned and edited by two young journalists. Chandler Owen and A. Philip Randolph, who would later make his reputation as a labor leader, and published in Harlem. (E) The owner and editor being two young journalists, Chandler Owen and A. Philip Randolph, who would later make his reputation as a labor leader, the Messenger was published in Harlem. 28. The rise in the Commerce Department's index of leading economic indicators suggest that the economy should continue its expansion into the coming months. but that the mixed performance of the index's indi- vidual components indicates that economic growth will proceed at a more moderate pace than in the first quarter of this year. (A) suggest that the economy should continue its expansion into the coming months, but that (B) suggest that the economy is to continue expansion in the coming months, but (C) suggests that the economy will continue its expanding in the coming months, but that (D) suggests that the economy is continuing to expand into the coming months, but that (E) suggests that the economy will continue to expand in the coming months, but 29. In three centuries--from 1050 to 1350--several million tons of stone were quarried in France for the building of eighty cathedrals, five hundred large churches, and some tens of thousands of parish churches. (A) for the building of eighty cathedrals, five hundred large churches, and some (B) in order that they might build eighty cathedrals, five hundred large churches, and some (C) so as they might build eighty cathedrals, five hundred large churches, and some (D) so that there could be built eighty cathedrals, five hundred large churches, and (E) such that they could build eighty cathedrals, five hundred large churches, and 30. What was as remarkable as the development of the compact disc has been the use of the new technology to revitalize, in better sound than was ever before possible, some of the classic recorded performances of the pre-LP era. (A) What was as remarkable as the development of the compact disc (B) The thing that was as remarkable as developing the compact disc (C) No less remarkable than the development of the compact disc (D) Developing the compact disc has been none the less remarkable than (E) Development of the compact disc has been no less remarkable as 31. Unlike computer skills or other technical skills, there is a disinclination on the part of many people to recognize the degree to which their analytical skills are weak. (A) Unlike computer skills or other technical skills, there is a disinclination on the part of many people to recognize the degree to which their analytical skills are weak. (B) Unlike computer skills or other technical skills, which they admit they lack, many people are disinclined to recognize that their analytical skills are weak. (C) Unlike computer skills or other technical skills, analytical skills bring out a disinclination in many people to recognize that they are weak to a degree. (D) Many people, willing to admit that they lack computer skills or other technical skills, are disinclined to recognize that their analytical skills are weak. (E) Many people have a disinclination to recognize the weakness of their analytical skills while willing to admit their lack of computer skills or other technical skills. 111
• (A) being worried over some foreign trade barriers being removed and our exports failing (B) worrying over some foreign trade barriers being removed, also over the failure of our exports (C) worried about the removal of some foreign trade barriers and the failure of our exports (D) in that they were worried about the removal of some foreign trade barriers and also about the failure of our exports (E) because of its worry concerning the removal of some foreign trade barriers, also concerning the failure of our exports 43. In the minds of many people living in England, before Australia was Australia, it was the antipodes, the opposite pole to civilization, an obscure and unimaginable place that was considered the end of the world. (A) before Australia was Australia, it was the antipodes (B) before there was Australia, it was the antipodes (C) it was the antipodes that was Australia (D) Australia was what was the antipodes (E) Australia was what had been known as the antipodes 44. Using a Doppler ultrasound device, fetal heartbeats can be detected by the twelfth week of pregnancy. (A) Using a Doppler ultrasound device, fetal heart-beats can be detected by the twelfth week of pregnancy. (B) Fetal heartbeats can be detected by the twelfth week of pregnancy, using a Doppler ultrasound device. (C) Detecting fetal heartbeats by the twelfth week of pregnancy, a physician can use a Doppler ultrasound device. (D) By the twelfth week of pregnancy, fetal heartbeats can be detected using a Doppler ultrasound device by a physician. (E) Using a Doppler ultrasound device, a physician can detect fetal heartbeats by the twelfth week of pregnancy. 45. Delighted by the reported earnings for the first quarter of the fiscal year, it was decided by the company manager to give her staff a raise. (A) it was decided by the company manager to give her staff a raise (B) the decision of the company manager was to give her staff a raise (C) the company manager decided to give her staff a raise (D) the staff was given a raise by the company manager (E) a raise was given to the staff by the company manager 114
• Alabama. (A) not unlike that of Rosa Parks, who refused (B) not unlike Rosa Parks, who refused (C) like (Rosa Parks and her refusal (D) like that of Rosa Parks for refusing (E) as that of Rosa Parks, who refused 52. The rising of costs of data-processing operations at many financial institutions has created a growing opportunity for independent companies to provide these services more efficiently and at lower cost. (A) The rising of costs (B) Rising costs (C) The rising cost (D) Because the rising cost (E) Because of rising costs 53. There is no consensus on what role. if any, is played by acid rain in slowing the growth or damaging forests in the eastern United States. (A) slowing the growth or damaging (B) the damage or the slowing of the growth of (C) the damage to or the slowness of the growth of (D) damaged or slowed growth of (E) damaging or slowing the growth of 54. Galileo was convinced that natural phenomena, as manifestations of the laws of physics, would appear the same to someone on the deck of a ship moving smoothly and uniformly through the water as a person standing on land. (A) water as a (B) water as to a (C) water; just as it would to a (D) water, as it would to the (E) water; just as to the 55. A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance. (A) had elected early retirement rather than face (B) had elected early retirement instead of facing (C) have elected retiring early instead of facing (D) have elected to retire early rather than facing (E) have elected to retire early rather than face 56. Architects and stonemasons, huge palace and temple clusters were built by the Maya without benefit of the wheel or animal transport. (A) huge palace and temple clusters were built by the Maya without benefit of the wheel or animal transport (B) without the benefits of animal transport or the wheel, huge palace and temple clusters were built by the Maya (C) the Maya built huge palace and temple clusters without the benefit of animal transport or the wheel (D) there were built, without the benefit of the wheel or animal transport, huge palace and temple clusters by the Maya 116
• (B) changing measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and varying (C) changing the strain as measured across a fault zone, and variations of (D) changes in the measured strain across a fault zone, and variations in (E) changes in measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and variations among 63. Health officials estimate that 35 million Africans are in danger of contracting trypanosomiasis, or "African sleeping sickness," a parasitic disease spread by the bites of tsetse flies. (A) are in danger of contracting (B) are in danger to contract (C) have a danger of contracting (D) are endangered by contraction (E) have a danger that they will contract 64. Unlike a funded pension system, in Which contributions are invested to pay future beneficiaries, a pay-as-you-go approach is the foundation of Social Security. (A) a pay-as-you-go approach is the foundation of Social Security (B) the foundation of Social Security is a pay-as-you-go approach (C) the approach of Social Security is pay-as-you-go (D) Social Security's approach is pay-as-you-go (E) Social Security is founded on a pay-as-you-go approach 65. Critics of the trend toward privately operated prisons consider corrections facilities to be an integral part of the criminal justice system and question if profits should be made from incarceration. (A) to be an integral part of the criminal justice system and question if (B) as an integral part of the criminal justice system and they question if (C) as being an integral part of the criminal justice system and question whether (D) an integral part of the criminal justice system and question Whether (E) are an integral part of the criminal justice system, and they question whether 66. The Federal Reserve Board's reduction of interest rates on loans to financial institutions is both an acknowledgment of past economic trends and an effort to influence their future direction. (A) reduction of interest rates on loans to financial institutions is both an acknowledgment of past economic trends and an effort (B) reduction of interest rates on loans to financial institutions is an acknowledgment both of past economic trends as well as an effort (C) reduction of interest rates on loans to financial institutions both acknowledge past economic trends and attempt (D) reducing interest rates on loans to financial institutions is an acknowledgment both of past economic trends and an effort (E) reducing interest rates on loans to financial institutions both acknowledge past economic trends as well as attempt 67. Congress is debating a bill requiring certain employers provide workers with unpaid leave so as to care for sick or newbom children. (A) provide workers with unpaid leave so as to (B) to provide workers with unpaid leave so as to (C) provide workers with unpaid leave in order that they (D) to provide workers with unpaid leave so that they can (E) provide workers with unpaid leave and 118
• paper. (A) clients; auditors may, for instance, allow (B) clients, as an instance, to allow (C) clients, like to allow (D) clients, such as to be allowing (E) clients; which might, as an instance, be the allowing of 75. If the proposed expenditures for gathering information abroad are reduced even further, international news reports have been and will continue to diminish in number and quality. (A) have been and will continue to diminish (B) have and will continue to diminish (C) will continue to diminish, as they already did, (D) will continue to diminish, as they have already, (E) will continue to diminish 76. Gall's hypothesis of there being different mental functions localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today. (A) of there being different mental functions localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today (B) of different mental functions that are localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today (C) that different mental functions are localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today (D) which is that there are different mental functions localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today (E) which is widely accepted today is that there are different mental functions localized in different parts of the brain 77. Though the term "graphic design" may suggest laying out corporate brochures and annual reports, they have come to signify widely ranging work, from package designs and company logotypes to signs, book jackets, computer graphics, and film titles. (A) suggest laying out corporate brochures and annual reports, they have come to signify widely ranging (B) suggest laying out corporate brochures and annual reports, it has come to signify a wide range of (C) suggest corporate brochure and annual report layout, it has signified widely ranging (D) have suggested corporate brochure and annual report layout, it has signified a wide range of (E) have suggested laying out corporate brochures and annual reports, they have come to signify widely ranging 78. The root systems of most flowering perennials either become too crowded, which results in loss in vigor, and spread too far outward, producing a bare center. (A) which results in loss in vigor, and spread (B) resulting in loss in vigor, or spreading (C) with the result of loss of vigor, or spreading (D) resulting in loss of vigor, or spread (E) with a resulting loss of vigor, and spread 79. George Sand (Aurore Lucile Dupin) was one of the first European writers to consider the rural poor to be legitimate subjects for literature and portray these with sympathy and respect in her novels. (A) to be legitimate subjects for literature and portray these (B) should be legitimate subjects for literature: portray these (C) as being legitimate subjects for literature an portraying them (D) as if they were legitimate subjects for literal; and portray them 120
• (E) legitimate subjects for literature and to portray them 80. Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro excavation in Pakistan, the site of an ancient civilization that flourished at the same time as the civilizations in the Nile delta and the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates. (A) that flourished at the same time as the civilizations (B) that had flourished at the same time as had the civilizations (C) that flourished at the same time those had (D) flourishing at the same time as those did (E) flourishing at the same time as those were 81. In 1973 mortgage payments represented twenty-one percent of an average thirty-year-old male's income; and forty-four percent in 1984. (A) income; and forty-four percent in 1984 (B) income; in 1984 the figure was forty-four percent (C) income, and in 1984 forty-four percent (D) income, forty-four percent in 1984 was the figure (E) income that rose to forty-four percent in 1984 82. In contrast to large steel plants that take iron ore through all the steps needed to produce several different kinds of steel, processing steel scrap into a specialized group of products has enabled small mills to put capital into new technology and remain economically viable. (A) processing steel scrap into a specialized group of products has enabled small mills to put capital into new technology and remain (B) processing steel scrap into a specialized group of products has enabled small mills to put capital into new technology, remaining (C) the processing of steel scrap into a specialized group of products has enabled small mills to put capital into new technology, remaining (D) small mills, by processing steel scrap into a specialized group of products, have been able to put capital into new technology and remain (E) small mills, by processing steel scrap into a specialized group of products, have been able to put capital into new technology and remained 83. Any medical test will sometimes fail to detect a condition when it is present and indicate that there is one when it is not. (A) a condition when it is present and indicate that there is one (B) when a condition is present and indicate that there is one (C) a condition when it is present and indicate that it is present (D) when a condition is present and indicate its presence (E) the presence of a condition when it is there and indicate its presence 84. One legacy of Madison Avenue's recent campaign to appeal to people fifty years old and over is the realization that as a person ages. their concerns change as well. (A) the realization that as a person ages, their (B) the realization that as people age, their (C) to realize that when a person ages, his or her (D) to realize that when people age, their (E) realizing that as people age, their 85. Out of America's fascination with all things antique have grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and 121
• fixtures that are bringing back the chaise lounge, the overstuffed sofa, and the claw-footed bathtub. (A) things antique have grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and fixtures that are bringing (B) things antique has grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and fixtures that is bringing (C) things that are antiques has grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and fixtures that bring (D) antique things have grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and fixtures that are bringing (E) antique things has grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and fixtures that bring 86. Having the right hand and arm being crippled by a sniper's bullet during the First World War. Horace Pippin, a Black American painter, worked by holding the brush in his right hand and guiding its movements with his left (A) Having the right hand and arm being crippled by a sniper's bullet during the First World War (B) In spite of his right hand and arm being crippled by a sniper's bullet during the First World War (C) Because there had been a sniper's bullet during the First World War that crippled his right hand and arm (D) The right hand and arm being crippled by a sniper's bullet during the First World War (E) His right hand and arm crippled by a sniper's bullet during the First World War 87. Beyond the immediate cash flow crisis that the museum faces, its survival depends on if it can broaden its membership and leave its cramped quarters for a site where it can store and exhibit its more than 12,000 artifacts. (A) if it can broaden its membership and leave (B) whether it can broaden its membership and leave (C) whether or not it has the capability to broaden its membership and can leave (D) its ability for broadening its membership and leaving (E) the ability for it to broaden its membership and leave 88. The Emperor Augustus, it appears, commissioned an idealized sculpture portrait, the features of which are so unrealistic as to constitute what one scholar calls an "artificial face." (A) so unrealistic as to constitute (B) so unrealistic they constituted (C) so unrealistic that they have constituted (D) unrealistic enough so that they constitute (E) unrealistic enough so as to constitute 89. A recent national study of the public schools shows that there are now one microcomputer for every thirty-two pupils, four times as many than there were four years ago. (A) there are now one microcomputer for every thirty-two pupils, four times as many than there were (B) there is now one microcomputer for every thirty-two pupils, four times as many than there were (C) there is now one microcomputer for every thirty-two pupils, four times as many as there were (D) every thirty-two pupils now have one microcomputer, four times as many than there were (E) every thirty-two pupils now has one microcomputer, four times as many as 90. Since 1986, when the Department of Labor began to allow investment officers' fees to be based on how the funds they manage perform, several corporations began paying their investment advisers a small basic fee, with a contract promising higher fees if the managers perform well. (A) investment officers’ fees to be based on how the funds they manage perform, several corporations began (B) investment officers’ fees to be based on the performance of the funds they manage, several corporations began 122
• (C) that fees of investment officers be based on how the funds they manage perform, several corporations have begun (D) fees of investment officers to be based on the performance of the funds they manage, several corporations have begun (E) that investment officers' fees be based on the performance of the funds they manage, several corporations began 91. Like many self-taught artists, Perle Hessing did not begin to paint until she was well into middle age. (A) Like (B) As have (C) Just as with (D) Just like (E) As did 92. Never before had taxpayers confronted so many changes at once as they had in the Tax Reform Act of 1986. (A) so many changes at once as they had in (B) at once as many changes as (C) at once as many changes that there were with (D) as many changes at once as they confronted in (E) so many changes at once that confronted them in 93. It is well known in the supermarket industry that how items are placed on shelves and the frequency of inventory turnovers can be crucial to profits. (A) the frequency of inventory turnovers can be (B) the frequency of inventory turnovers is often (C) the frequency with which the inventory turns over is often (D) how frequently is the inventory turned over are often (E) how frequently the inventory turns over can be 94. The psychologist William James believed that facial expressions not only provide a visible sign of an emotion, actually contributing to the feeling itself. (A) emotion, actually contributing to the feeling itself (B) emotion but also actually contributing to the feeling itself (C) emotion but also actually contribute to the feeling itself (D) emotion; they also actually contribute to the feeling of it (E) emotion; the feeling itself is also actually contributed to by them 95. Along with the drop in producer prices announced yesterday, the strong retail sales figures released today seem like it is indicative that the economy, although growing slowly, is not nearing a recession. (A) like it is indicative that (B) as if to indicate (C) to indicate that (D) indicative of (E) like an indication of 96. The National Transportation Safety Board has recommended the use of fail-safe mechanisms on airliner cargo door latches assuring the doors are properly closed before takeoff and to prevent them from popping open in flight. (A) assuring the doors are properly closed 123
• (B) for the assurance of proper closing (C) assuring proper closure (D) to assure closing the doors properly (E) to assure that the doors are properly closed 97. Iguanas have been an important food source in Latin America since prehistoric times, and it is still prized as a game animal by the campcsinos, who typically cook the meat in a heavily spiced stew. (A) it is still prized as a game animal (B) it is still prized as game animals (C) they are still prized as game animals (D) they are still prized as being a game animal (E) being still prized as a game animal 98. The financial crash of October 1987 demonstrated that the world's capital markets are integrated more closely than never before and events in one part of the global village may be transmitted to the rest of the village--almost instantaneously. (A) integrated more closely than never before and (B) closely integrated more than ever before so (C) more closely integrated as never before while (D) more closely integrated than ever before and that (E) more than ever before closely integrated as 99. New theories propose that catastrophic impacts of asteroids and comets may have caused reversals in the Earth's magnetic field, the onset of ice ages, splitting apart continents 80 million years ago, and great volcanic eruptions. (A) splitting apart continents (B) the splitting apart of continents (C) split apart continents (D) continents split apart (E) continents that were split apart 100. Wisconsin, Illinois, Florida, and Minnesota have begun to enforce statewide bans prohibiting landfills to accept leaves, brush, and grass clippings. (A) prohibiting landfills to accept leaves, brush, and grass clippings (B) prohibiting that landfills accept leaves, brush, and grass clippings (C) prohibiting landfills from accepting leaves, brush, and grass clippings (D) that leaves, brush, and grass clippings cannot be accepted in landfills (E) that landfills cannot accept leaves, brush, and grass clippings 101. Even though the direct costs of malpractice disputes amounts to a sum lower than one percent of the \$541 billion the nation spent on health care last year, doctors say fear of lawsuits plays a major role in health-care inflation. (A) amounts to a sum lower (B) amounts to less (C) amounted to less (D) amounted to lower (E) amounted to a lower sum 102. Except for a concert performance that the composer himself staged in 1911, Scott Joplin's ragtime opera Treemonisha was not produced until 1972, sixty-one years after its completion. 124
• (A) Except for a concert performance that the composer himself staged (B) Except for a concert performance with the composer himself staging it (C) Besides a concert performance being staged by the composer himself (D) Excepting a concert performance that the composer himself staged (E) With the exception of a concert performance with the staging done by the composer himself 103. Students in the metropolitan school district lack math skills to such a large degree as to make it difficult to absorb them into a city economy becoming ever more dependent on information-based industries. (A) lack math skills to such a large degree as to make it difficult to absorb them into a city economy becoming (B) lack math skills to a large enough degree that they will be difficult to absorb into a city's economy that becomes (C) lack of math skills is so large as to be difficult to absorb them into a city's economy that becomes (D) are lacking so much in math skills as to be difficult to absorb into a city's economy becoming (E) are so lacking in math skills that it will be difficult to absorb them into a city economy becoming 104. The diet of the ordinary Greek in classical times was largely vegetarian--vegetables, fresh cheese, oatmeal, and meal cakes, and meat rarely. (A) and meat rarely (B) and meat was rare (C) with meat as rare (D) meat a rarity (E) with meat as a rarity 105. An inventory equal to 90 days sales is as much as even the strongest businesses carry, and then only as a way to anticipate higher prices or ensure against shortages. (A) as much as even (B) so much as even (C) even so much as (D) even as much that (E) even so much that 106. The decision by one of the nation's largest banks to admit to \$3 billion in potential losses on foreign loans could mean less lending by commercial banks to developing countries and increasing the pressure on multigovernment lenders to supply the funds. (A) increasing the pressure (B) the increasing pressure (C) increased pressure (D) the pressure increased (E) the pressure increasing 107. Downzoning, zoning that typically results in the reduction of housing density, allows for more open space in areas where little water or services exist. (A) little water or services exist (B) little water or services exists (C) few services and little water exists (D) there is little water or services available (E) there are few services and little available water 108. Reporting that one of its many problems had been the recent extended sales slump in women's apparel, 125
• the seven-store retailer said it would start a three-month liquidation sale in all of its stores. (A) its many problems had been the recent (B) its many problems has been the recently (C) its many problems is the recently (D) their many problems is the recent (E) their many problems had been the recent 109. Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both public and private employers that pay be the same for jobs historically held by women as for jobs requiring comparable skill that are usually held by men. (A) that pay be the same for jobs historically held by women as for jobs requiring comparable skill that are (B) that pay for jobs historically held by women should be the same as for a job requiring comparable skills (C) to pay the same in jobs historically held by women as in jobs of comparable skill that are (D) to pay the same regardless of whether a job was historically held by women or is one demanding comparable skills (E) to pay as much for jobs historically held by women as for a job demanding comparable skills 110. It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least \$20 billion a year. (A) the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least \$20 billion a year (B) the annual cost of illiteracy to the United States is at least \$20 billion a year because of lost industrial output and tax revenues (C) illiteracy costs the United States at least \$20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues (D) \$20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues is the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy (E) lost industrial output and tax revenues cost the United States at least \$20 billion a year because of illiteracy 111. Egyptians are credited as having pioneered embalming methods as long ago as 2650 B.C. (A) as having (B) with having (C) to have (D) as the ones who (E) for being the ones who 112. Domestic automobile manufacturers have invested millions of dollars into research to develop cars more gasoline-efficient even than presently on the road. (A) into research to develop cars more gasoline-efficient even than presently on the road (B) into research for developing even more gasoline-efficient cars on the road than at present (C) for research for cars to be developed that are more gasoline-efficient even than presently the road (D) in research to develop cars even more gasoline-efficient than those at present on the road (E) in research for developing cars that are even more gasoline-efficient than presently on the road 113. Visitors to the park have often looked up into the leafy canopy and saw monkeys sleeping on the branches. whose arms and legs hang like socks on a clothesline. (A) saw monkeys sleeping on the branches, whose arms and legs hang (B) saw monkeys sleeping on the branches, whose arms and legs were hanging (C) saw monkeys sleeping on the branches, with arms and legs hanging 126
• potential crop yield of a tract of land, and also damage or destroy young plants. (A) and also damage or destroy (B) as well as damaging or destroying (C) but they also cause damage or destroy (D) but also damage or destroy (E) but also causing damage or destroying 126. More than thirty years ago Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner, reported that genes can "jump," as pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another. (A) as pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another (B) like pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another (C) as pearls do that move mysteriously from one necklace to others (D) like pearls do that move mysteriously from one necklace to others (E) as do pearls that move mysteriously from one necklace to some other one 127. In theory, international civil servants at the United Nations are prohibited from continuing to draw salaries from their own governments; in practice, however, some governments merely substitute living allowances for their employees' paychecks. assigned by them to the United Nations. (A) for their employees' paychecks, assigned by them (B) for the paychecks of their employees who have been assigned (C) for the paychecks of their employees, having been assigned (D) in place of their employees' paychecks, for those of them assigned (E) in place of the paychecks of their employees to have been assigned by them 128. New hardy varieties of rice show promise of producing high yields without the costly requirements of irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer by earlier high-yielding varieties. (A) requirements of irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer by earlier high-yielding varieties (B) requirements by earlier high-yielding varieties of application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation (C) requirements for application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation of earlier high-yielding varieties (D) application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation that was required by earlier high-yielding varieties (E) irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer that were required by earlier high-yielding varieties 129. In an effort to reduce their inventories, Italian vintners have cut prices; their wines have been priced to sell. and they are. (A) have been priced to sell, and they are (B) are priced to sell, and they have (C) are priced to sell, and they do (D) are being priced to sell, and have (E) had been priced to sell, and they have 130. In a 5-to-4 decision, the Supreme Court ruled that two upstate New York counties owed restitution to three tribes of Oneida Indians for the unlawful seizure of their ancestral lands in the eighteenth century. (A) that two upstate New York counties owed restitution to three tribes of Oneida Indians for the unlawful seizure of (B) that two upstate New York counties owed restitution to three tribes of Oneida Indians because of their unlawful seizure of (C) two upstate New York counties to owe restitution to three tribes of Oneida Indians for their unlawful seizure of (D) on two upstate New York counties that owed restitution to three tribes of Oneida Indians because they 129
• unlawfully seized (E) on the restitution that two upstate New York counties owed to three tribes of Oneida Indians for the unlawful seizure of 131. The Commerce Department announced that the economy grew during the second quarter at a 7.5 percent annual rate, while inflation eased when it might have been expected for it to rise. (A) it might have been expected for it to rise (B) it might have been expected to rise (C) it might have been expected that it should rise (D) its rise might have been expected (E) there might have been an expectation it would rise 132. According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, about equivalent to the enrollment of the nation's four-year colleges and universities. (A) equivalent to the enrollment of (B) the equivalent of those enrolled in (C) equal to those who are enrolled in (D) as many as the enrollment of (E) as many as are enrolled in 133. In Holland, a larger percentage of the gross national product is spent on defense of their coasts from rising seas than is spent on military defense in the United States. (A) In Holland, a larger percentage of the gross national product is spent on defense of their coasts from rising seas than is spent on military defense in the United States. (B) In Holland they spend a larger percentage of their gross national product on defending their coasts from rising seas than the United States does on military defense. (C) A larger percentage of Holland's gross national product is spent on defending their coasts from rising seas than the United States spends on military defense. (D) Holland spends a larger percentage of its gross national product defending its coasts from rising seas than the military defense spending of the United States. (E) Holland spends a larger percentage of its gross national product on defending its coasts from rising seas than the United States does on military defense. 134. Canadian scientists have calculated that one human being should be struck every nine years by a meteorite, while each year sixteen buildings can be expected to sustain damage from such objects. (A) one human being should be struck every nine years by a meteorite (B) a human being should be struck by a meteorite once in every nine years (C) a meteorite will strike one human being once in every nine years (D) every nine years a human being will be struck by a meteorite (E) every nine years a human being should be struck by a meteorite 135. Intar, the oldest Hispanic theater company in New York, has moved away from the Spanish classics and now it draws on the works both of contemporary Hispanic authors who live abroad and of those in the United States. (A) now it draws on the works both of contemporary Hispanic authors who live abroad and of (B) now draws on the works of contemporary Hispanic authors, both those who live abroad and those who live (C) it draws on the works of contemporary Hispanic authors now, both those living abroad and who live 130
• (D) draws now on the works both of contemporary Hispanic authors living abroad and who are (E) draws on the works now of both contemporary Hispanic authors living abroad and those 136. Although schistosomiasis is not often fatal, it is so debilitating that it has become an economic drain on many developing countries. (A) it is so debilitating that it has become an economic (B) it is of such debilitation, it has become an economical (C) so debilitating is it as to become an economic (D) such is its debilitation, it becomes an economical (E) there is so much debilitation that it has become an economical 137. In 1982 the median income for married-couple families with a wage-earning wife was \$9,000 more than a family where the husband only was employed. (A) a family where the husband only (B) of a family where only the husband (C) that for families in which only the husband (D) a family in which only the husband (E) those of families in which the husband only 138. Senator Lasker has proposed legislation requiring that employers should retain all older workers indefinitely or show just cause for dismissal. (A) that employers should retain all older workers (B) that all older workers be retained by employers (C) the retaining by employers of all older workers (D) employers' retention of all older workers (E) employers to retain all older workers 139. The extraordinary diary of William Lyon Mackenzie King, prime minister of Canada for over twenty years, revealed that this most bland and circumspect of men was a mystic guided in both public and private life by omens, messages received at seances, and signs from heaven. (A) that this most bland and circumspect of men was a mystic guided in both public and (B) that this most bland and circumspect of men was a mystic and also guided both in public as well as (C) this most bland and circumspect of men was a mystic and that he was guided in both public and (D) this most bland and circumspect of men was a mystic and that he was guided in both public as well as (E) this most bland and circumspect of men to have been a mystic and that he guided himself both in public as well as 140. Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring. (A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is (B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is (C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is (D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are (E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are 141. Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is the same, all patients receiving hearts or other organs must take antirejection drugs for the rest of their lives. (A) Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is the same (B) Besides transplants involving identical twins with the same genetic endowment (C) Unless the transplant involves identical twins who have the same genetic endowment 131
• (D) Aside from a transplant between identical twins with the same genetic endowment (E) Other than transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is the same 142. In one of the most stunning reversals in the history of marketing, the Coca-Cola company in July 1985 yielded to thousands of irate consumers demanding that it should bring back the original Coke formula. (A) demanding that it should (B) demanding it to (C) and their demand to (D) who demanded that it (E) who demanded it to 143. Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australian egg-laying mammals of today are a branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution rather than developing independently from a common ancestor of mammals more than 220 million years ago. (A) rather than developing independently from (B) rather than a type that developed independently from (C) rather than a type whose development was independent of (D) instead of developing independently from (E) instead of a development that was independent of 144. Efforts to equalize the funds available to school districts, a major goal of education reformers and many states in the 1970's, has not significantly reduced the gaps existing between the richest and poorest districts. (A) has not significantly reduced the gaps existing (B) has not been significant in reducing the gap that exists (C) has not made a significant reduction in the gap that exists (D) have not significantly reduced the gap that exists (E) have not been significant in a reduction of the gaps existing 145. Most state constitutions now mandate that the state budget be balanced each year. (A) mandate that the state budget be balanced (B) mandate the state budget to be balanced (C) mandate that the state budget will be balanced (D) have a mandate for a balanced state budget (E) have a mandate to balance the state budget 146. A patient accusing a doctor of malpractice will find it difficult to prove damage if there is a lack of some other doctor to testify about proper medical procedures. (A) if there is a lack of some other doctor to testify (B) unless there will be another doctor to testify (C) without another doctor's testimony (D) should there be no testimony from some other doctor (E) lacking another doctor to testify 147. Samuel Sewall viewed marriage, as other seventeenth-century colonists, like a property arrangement rather than an emotional bond based on romantic love. (A) Samuel Sewall viewed marriage, as other seventeenth-century colonists, like a property arrangement rather than (B) As did other seventeenth-century colonists, Samuel Sewall viewed marriage to be a property arrangement rather than viewing it as 132
• (C) Samuel Sewall viewed marriage to be a property arrangement, like other seventeenth-century colonists, rather than viewing it as (D) Marriage to Samuel Sewall, like other seventeenth-century colonists, was viewed as a property arrangement rather than (E) Samuel Sewall, like other seventeenth-century colonists, viewed marriage as a property arrangement rather than 148. Under the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Environmental Protection Agency is required either to approve individual state plans for controlling the discharge of wastes into underground water or that they enforce their own plan for states without adequate regulations. (A) that they enforce their (B) for enforcing their (C) they should enforce their (D) it should enforce its (E) to enforce its 149. Last year, land values in most parts of the pinelands rose almost so fast. and in some parts even faster than what they did outside the pinelands. (A) so fast, and in some parts even faster than what they did (B) so fast, and in some parts even faster than, those (C) as fast, and in some parts even faster than, those (D) as fast as, and in some parts even faster than, those (E) as fast as, and in some parts even faster than what they did 150. In the mid-1960's a newly installed radar warning system mistook the rising of the moon as a massive missile attack by the Soviets. (A) rising of the moon as a massive missile attack by the Soviets (B) rising of the moon for a massive Soviet missile attack (C) moon rising to a massive missile attack by the Soviets (D) moon as it was rising for a massive Soviet missile attack (E) rise of the moon as a massive Soviet missile attack 151. If Dr. Wade was right, any apparent connection of the eating of highly processed foods and excelling at sports is purely coincidental. (A) If Dr. Wade was right, any apparent connection of the eating of (B) Should Dr. Wade be right, any apparent connection of eating (C) If Dr. Wade is right, any connection that is apparent between eating of (D) If Dr. Wade is right, any apparent connection between eating (E) Should Dr. Wade have been right, any connection apparent between eating 152. When the technique known as gene-splicing was invented in the early 1970's, it was feared that scientists might inadvertently create an "Andromeda strain," a microbe never before seen on Earth that might escape from the laboratory and it would kill vast numbers of humans who would have no natural defenses against it. (A) it would kill vast numbers of humans who would have no natural defenses against it (B) it might kill vast numbers of humans with no natural defenses against it (C) kill vast numbers of humans who would have no natural defenses against it (D) kill vast numbers of humans who have no natural defenses against them (E) kill vast numbers of humans with no natural defenses against them 153. A recording system was so secretly installed and operated in the Kennedy Oval Office that even Theodore 133
• home-owners. whose equity--in many cases representing a life's savings--can plunge or even disappear. (A) they are potentially devastating for homeowners, whose (B) they can potentially devastate homeowners in that their (C) for homeowners they are potentially devastating, because their (D) for homeowners, it is potentially devastating in that their (E) it can potentially devastate homeowners, whose 160. While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by attempting to change people's attitudes toward pirating, others by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling for the prosecution of those who copy software illegally. (A) by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling (B) by suggesting the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others call (C) suggest the reduction of software prices for decreasing the incentive for pirating, and still others call (D) suggest the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling (E) suggest reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others are calling 161. A wildlife expert predicts that the reintroduction of the caribou into northern Minnesota would tail if the density of the timber wolf population in that region is more numerous than one wolf for every 39 square miles. (A) would fail if the density of the timber wolf population in that region is more numerous than (B) would fail provided the density of the timber wolf population in that region is more than (C) should fail if the timber wolf density in that region was greater than (D) will fail if the density of the timber wolf population in that region is greater than (E) will fail if the timber wolf density in that region were more numerous than 162. Concerned at the increase in accident fatalities, Tennessee adopted a child-passenger protection law requiring the parents of children under four years of age to be restrained in a child safety seat. (A) the parents of children under four years of age to be restrained in a child safety seat (B) the restraint of parents of children under four years of age in a child safety seat (C) that parents restrain children under four years of age in a child safety seat (D) that children be restrained under four years of age in a child safety seat by their parents (E) children to be restrained under four years of age by their parents in a child safety seat 163. Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep fifteen hours a day. moving infrequently enough that two species of algae grow on its coat and between its toes. (A) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep fifteen hours a day, moving infrequently enough (B) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs, they sleep fifteen hours a day, and with such infrequent movements (C) sloths use their long rubbery limbs to hang from trees, sleep fifteen hours a day, and move so infrequently (D) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeping fifteen hours a day and moving so infrequently (E) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeps fifteen hours a day, and it moves infrequently enough 164. The commission proposed that funding for the park's development, which could be open to the public early 135
• next year. is obtained through a local bond issue. (A) that funding for the park's development, which could be open to the public early next year, is (B) that funding for development of the park, which could be open to the public early next year, be (C) funding for the development of the park, perhaps open to the public early next year, to be (D) funds for the park's development, perhaps open to the public early next year, be (E) development funding for the park, which could be open to the public early next year, is to be 165. At Shiprock, New Mexico, a perennially powerful girls' high school basketball team has become a path to college for some and a source of pride for a community where the household incomes of 49 percent of them are below the poverty level. (A) where the household incomes of 49 percent of them are (B) where they have 49 percent of the household incomes (C) where 49 percent of the household incomes are (D) which has 49 percent of the household incomes (E) in which 49 percent of them have household incomes 166. The prime lending rate is a key rate in the economy: not only are the interest rates on most loans to small and medium-sized businesses tied to the prime, but also on a growing number of consumer loans, including home equity loans. (A) not only are the interest rates on most loans to small and medium-sized businesses tied to the prime, but also on (B) tied to the prime are the interest rates not only on most loans to small and medium-sized businesses, but also on (C) the interest rates not only on most loans to small and medium-sized businesses are tied to the prime, but also (D) not only the interest rates on most loans to small and medium-sized businesses are tied to the prime, but also on (E) the interest rates are tied to the prime, not only on most loans to small and medium-sized businesses, but also 167. Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes and so were probably without language, a shortcoming that may explain why they were supplanted by our own species. (A) Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes (B) Neanderthals had a vocal tract resembling an ape's (C) The vocal tracts of Neanderthals resembled an ape's (D) The Neanderthal's vocal tracts resembled the apes’ (E) The vocal tracts of the Neanderthals resembled those of the apes 168. Today, because of improvements in agricultural technology, the same amount of acreage produces double the apples that it has in 1910. (A) double the apples that it has (B) twice as many apples as it did (C) as much as twice the apples it has (D) two times as many apples as there were (E) a doubling of the apples that it did 169. Seismologists studying the earthquake that struck northern California in October 1989 are still investigating some of its mysteries: the unexpected power of the seismic waves, the upward thrust that threw one man straight into the air. and the strange electromagnetic signals detected hours before the temblor. 136
• (C) A letter by Mark Twain, written in the same year that The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was published, (D) Mark Twain wrote a letter in the same year as he published The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn that (E) Mark Twain wrote a letter in the same year of publication as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn that 175. Two new studies indicate that many people become obese more due to the fact that their bodies burn calories too slowly than overeating. (A) due to the fact that their bodies burn calories too slowly than overeating (B) due to their bodies burning calories too slowly than to eating too much (C) because their bodies bum calories too slowly than that they are overeaters (D) because their bodies bum calories too slowly than because they eat too much (E) because of their bodies burning calories too slowly than because of their eating too much 176. As a result of the ground-breaking work of Barbara McClintock, many scientists now believe that all of the information encoded in 50.000 to 100.000 of the different genes found in a human cell are contained in merely three percent of the cell's DNA. (A) 50,000 to 100,000 of the different genes found in a human cell are contained in merely (B) 50,000 to 100,000 of the human cell's different genes are contained in a mere (C) the 50,000 to 100,000 different genes found in human cells are contained in merely (D) 50,000 to 100,000 of human cells' different genes is contained in merely (E) the 50,000 to 100,000 different genes found in a human cell is contained in a mere 177. So poorly educated and trained are many young recruits to the United States work force that many business executives fear this country will lose its economic preeminence. (A) So poorly educated and trained are many young recruits to the United States work force that (B) As poorly educated and trained as many young recruits to the United States work force are, (C) Because of many young recruits to the United States work force who are so poorly educated and trained, (D) That many young recruits to the United States work force are so poorly educated and trained is why (E) Many young recruits to the United States work force who are so poorly educated and trained explains why 178. In the last few years, the number of convicted criminals given community service sentences. which allow the criminals to remain unconfined while they perform specific jobs benefiting the public, have risen dramatically. (A) sentences, which allow the criminals to remain unconfined while they perform specific jobs benefiting the public, have (B) sentences, performing specific jobs that benefit the public while being allowed to remain unconfined, have (C) sentences, performing specific jobs beneficial to the public while they are allowed to remain unconfined, have (D) sentences which allow them to remain unconfined in their performing of specific jobs beneficial to the public has (E) sentences allowing them to remain unconfined while performing specific jobs that 179. During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as "wilderness" by the newcomers, Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land. were a help in the rescuing of many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even death. (A) Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of 138
• (B) Native Americans knew the ecology and the land intimately and this enabled them to help in the rescue of (C) Native Americans, with their intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, helped to rescue (D) having intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land. Native Americans helped the rescue of (E) knowing intimately the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped to rescue 180. Quasars are so distant that their light has taken billions of years to reach the Earth; consequently, we see them as they were during the formation of the universe. (A) we see them as they were during (B) we see them as they had been during (C) we see them as if during (D) they appear to us as they did in (E) they appear to us as though in 181. Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large. (A) to survive (B) of firms to survive (C) for surviving (D) for survival (E) for firms' survival 182. Consumers may not think of household cleaning products to be hazardous substances, but many of them can be harmful to health, especially if they are used improperly. (A) Consumers may not think of household cleaning products to be (B) Consumers may not think of household cleaning products being (C) A consumer may not think of their household cleaning products being (D) A consumer may not think of household cleaning products as (E) Household cleaning products may not be thought of, by consumers, as 183. Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered chalice, which dates from the eighth century, was probably buried to keep from being stolen by invaders. (A) to keep from (B) to keep it from (C) to avoid (D) in order that it would avoid (E) in order to keep from 184. As measured by the Commerce Department, corporate profits peaked in the fourth quarter of 1988 and have slipped since then, as many companies have been unable to pass on higher (A) and have slipped since then, as many companies have been unable to pass on higher costs (B) and have slipped since then, the reason being because many companies have been unable to pass on higher costs (C) and slipped since then, many companies being unable to pass on higher costs (D) but, many companies unable to pass on higher costs, they have slipped since then (E) yet are slipping since then, because many companies were unable to pass on higher costs 185. The recent surge in the number of airplane flights has clogged the nation's air-traffic control system, to lead to 55 percent more delays at airports, and prompts fears among some officials that safety is being 139
• compromised. (A) to lead to 55 percent more delays at airports, and prompts (B) leading to 55 percent more delay at airports and prompting (C) to lead to a 55 percent increase in delay at airports and prompt (D) to lead to an increase of 55 percent in delays at airports, and prompted (E) leading to a 55-percent increase in delays at airports and prompting 186. Judge Bonham denied a motion to allow members of the jury to go home at the end of each day instead of to confine them to a hotel. (A) to allow members of the jury to go home at the end of each day instead of to confine them to (B) that would have allowed members of the jury to go home at the end of each day instead of confined to (C) under which members of the jury are allowed to go home at the end of each day instead of confining them in (D) that would allow members of the jury to go home at the end of each day rather than confinement in (E) to allow members of the jury to go home at the end of each day rather than be confined to 187. In one of the bloodiest battles of the Civil War, fought at Sharpsburg, Maryland, on September 17, 1862, four times as many Americans were killed as would later be killed on the beaches of Normandy during D-Day. (A) Americans were killed as (B) Americans were killed than (C) Americans were killed than those who (D) more Americans were killed as there (E) more Americans were killed as those who 188. As a result of medical advances, many people that might at one time have died as children of such infections as diphtheria, pneumonia, or rheumatic fever now live well into old age. (A) that might at one time have died as children (B) who might once have died in childhood (C) that as children might once have died (D) who in childhood might have at one time died (E) who, when they were children, might at one time have died 189. Proponents of artificial intelligence say they will be able to make computers that can understand English and other human languages, recognize objects, and reason as an expert does-computers that will be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to authorize a loan, or other purposes such as these. (A) as an expert does--computers that will be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to authorize a loan, or other purposes such as these (B) as an expert does, which may be used for purposes such as diagnosing equipment breakdowns or deciding whether to authorize a loan (C) like an expert--computers that will be used for such purposes as diagnosing equipment breakdowns or deciding whether to authorize a loan (D) like an expert, the use of which would be for purposes like the diagnosis of equipment breakdowns or the decision whether or not a loan should be authorized (E) like an expert, to be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to authorize a loan or not, or the like 190. Manifestations of Islamic political militancy in the first period of religious reformism were the rise of the 140
• Wahhabis in Arabia, the Sanusi in Cyrenaica. the Fulani in Nigeria, the Mahdi in the Sudan, and the victory of the Usuli "mujtahids" in Shiite Iran and Iraq. (A) Manifestations of Islamic political militancy in the first period of religious reformism were the rise of the Wahhabis in Arabia, the Sanusi in Cyrenaica, the Fulani in Nigeria, the Mahdi in the Sudan, and (B) Manifestations of Islamic political militancy in the first period of religious reformism were shown in the rise of the Wahhabis in Arabia, the Sanusi in Cyrenaica, the Fulani in Nigeria, the Mahdi in the Sudan, and also (C) In the first period of religious reformism, manifestations of Islamic political militancy were the rise of the Wahhabis in Arabia, of the Sanusi in Cyrenaica, the Fulani in Nigeria, the Mahdi in the Sudan, and (D) In the first period of religious reformism, manifestations of Islamic political militancy were shown in the rise of the Wahhabis in Arabia, the Sanusi in Cyrenaica, the Fulani in Nigeria, the Mahdi in the Sudan, and (E) In the first period of religious reformism, Islamic political militancy was manifested in the rise of the Wahhabis in Arabia, the Sanusi in Cyrenaica, the Fulani in Nigeria, and the Mahdi in the Sudan, and in 191. Lawmakers are examining measures that would require banks to disclose all fees and account requirements in writing, provide free cashing of government checks, and to create basic savings accounts to carry minimal fees and require minimal initial deposits. (A) provide free cashing of government checks, and to create basic savings accounts to carry (B) provide free cashing of government checks, and creating basic savings accounts carrying (C) to provide free cashing of government checks, and creating basic savings accounts that carry (D) to provide free cashing of government checks, creating basic savings accounts to carry (E) to provide free cashing of government checks, and to create basic savings accounts that carry 192. Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the four thousand Acadians who migrated there in 1755; their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English. Spanish. and Italian words. (A) to which has been added English, Spanish, and Italian words (B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words (C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added (D) with English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it (E) and, in addition, English, Spanish, and Italian words are added 193. Unlike the United States, where farmers can usually depend on rain or snow all year long. the rains in most parts of Sri Lanka are concentrated in the monsoon months, June to September, and the skies are generally clear for the rest of the year. (A) Unlike the United States, where farmers can usually depend on rain or snow all year long, the rains in most parts of Sri Lanka (B) Unlike the United States farmers who can usually depend on rain or snow all year long, the rains in most parts of Sri Lanka (C) Unlike those of the United States, where farmers can usually depend on rain or snow all year long, most parts of Sri Lanka's rains (D) In comparison with the United States, whose farmers can usually depend on rain or snow all year long, the rains in most parts of Sri Lanka (E) In the United States, farmers can usually depend on rain or snow all year long, but in most parts of Sri Lanka the rains 194. Presenters at the seminar, one who is blind, will 141
• (E) Occurring from 1982 to 1987 was an annual increase of five and ten percent in the sales of new small boats. 204. In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor. (A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics (B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers (C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics (D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers (E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers 205. The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produce ripples in the air flowing over them; the resulting flow pattern, with crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are known as "standing waves." (A) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are (B) crests and troughs that remain stationary although they are formed by rapidly moving air, are (C) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, is (D) stationary crests and troughs although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are (E) stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air, is 206. Like Auden. the language of James Merrill is chatty, arch, and conversational--given to complex syntactic flights as well as to prosaic free-verse strolls. (A) Like Auden, the language of James Merrill (B) Like Auden, James Merrill's language (C) Like Auden's, James Merrill's language (D) As with Auden, James Merrill's language (E) As is Auden's the language of James Merrill 207. In the textbook publishing business, the second quarter is historically weak, because revenues are low and marketing expenses are high as companies prepare for the coming school year. (A) low and marketing expenses are high as companies prepare (B) low and their marketing expenses are high as they prepare (C) low with higher marketing expenses in preparation (D) low, while marketing expenses are higher to prepare (E) low, while their marketing expenses are higher in preparation 208. Teratomas are unusual forms of cancer because they are composed of tissues such as tooth and bone not normally found in the organ in which the tumor appears. (A) because they are composed of tissues such as tooth and bone (B) because they are composed of tissues like tooth and bone that are (C) because they are composed of tissues, like tooth and bone, tissues (D) in that their composition, tissues such as tooth and bone, is (E) in that they are composed of tissues such as tooth and bone, tissues 209. The Senate approved immigration legislation that would grant permanent residency to millions of aliens currently residing here and if employers hired illegal aliens they would be penalized. (A) if employers hired illegal aliens they would be penalized (B) hiring illegal aliens would be a penalty for employers (C) penalize employers who hire illegal aliens (D) penalizing employers hiring illegal aliens 144
• (E) employers to be penalized for hiring illegal aliens 210. Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest. (A) extending (B) extends (C) extended (D) it extended (E) is extending 211. The period when the great painted caves at Lascaux and Altamira were occupied by Upper Paleolithic people has been established by carbon-14 dating, but what is much more difficult to determine are the reason for their decoration, the use to which primitive people put the caves, and the meaning of the magnificently depicted animals. (A) has been established by carbon-14 dating, but what is much more difficult to determine are (B) has been established by carbon-14 dating, but what is much more difficult to determine is (C) have been established by carbon-14 dating, but what is much more difficult to determine is (D) have been established by carbon-14 dating, but what is much more difficult to determine are (E) are established by carbon-14 dating, but that which is much more difficult to determine is 212. The Baldrick Manufacturing Company has for several years followed a policy aimed at decreasing operating costs and improving the efficiency of its distribution system. (A) aimed at decreasing operating costs and improving (B) aimed at the decreasing of operating costs and to improve (C) aiming at the decreasing of operating costs and improving (D) the aim of which is the decreasing of operating costs and improving (E) with the aim to decrease operating costs and to improve 213. The Federalist papers, a strong defense of the United States Constitution and important as a body of work in political science as well represents the handiwork of three different authors. (A) and important as a body of work in political science as well, represents (B) as well as an important body of work in political science, represent (C) and also a body of work of importance in political science is representing (D) an important body of work in political science and has been representative of (E) and as political science an important body of work too, represent 214. Although the term "psychopath" is popularly applied to an especially brutal criminal, in psychology it is someone who is apparently incapable of feeling compassion or the pangs of conscience. (A) it is someone who is (B) it is a person (C) they are people who are (D) it refers to someone who is (E) it is in reference to people 215. Parliament did not accord full refugee benefits to twelve of the recent immigrants because it believed that to do it rewards them for entering the country illegally. (A) to do it rewards (B) doing it rewards 145
• (C) to do this would reward (D) doing so would reward (E) to do it would reward 216. Many policy experts say that shifting a portion of health-benefit costs back to the workers helps to control the employer's costs, but also helps to limit medical spending by making patients more careful consumers. (A) helps to control the employer's costs, but also helps (B) helps the control of the employer's costs, and also (C) not only helps to control the employer's costs, but also helps (D) helps to control not only the employer's costs, but (E) not only helps to control the employer's costs, and also helps 217. The plot of The Bostonians centers on the rivalry between Olive Chancellor, an active feminist, with her charming and cynical cousin. Basil Ransom, when they find themselves drawn to the same radiant young woman whose talent for public speaking has won her an ardent following. (A) rivalry between Olive Chancellor, an active feminist, with her charming and cynical cousin, Basil Ransom (B) rivals Olive Chancellor, an active feminist, against her charming and cynical cousin, Basil Ransom (C) rivalry that develops between Olive Chancellor, an active feminist, and Basil Ransom, her charming and cynical cousin (D) developing rivalry between Olive Chancellor, an active feminist, with Basil Ransom, her charming and cynical cousin (E) active feminist. Olive Chancellor, and the rivalry with her charming and cynical cousin Basil Ransom 218. Despite protests from some waste-disposal companies, state health officials have ordered the levels of bacteria in seawater at popular beaches to be measured and that the results be published. (A) the levels of bacteria in seawater at popular beaches to be measured and that the results be (B) that seawater at popular beaches should be measured for their levels of bacteria, with the results being (C) the measure of levels of bacteria in seawater at popular beaches and the results to be (D) seawater measured at popular beaches for levels of bacteria, with their results (E) that the levels of bacteria in seawater at popular beaches be measured and the results 219. While larger banks can afford to maintain their own data-processing operations, many smaller regional and community banks are finding that the cost associated with upgrading data-processing equipment and with the development and maintenance of new products and technical staff are prohibitive. (A) cost associated with (B) costs associated with (C) costs arising from (D) cost of (E) costs of 220. For almost a hundred years after having its beginning in 1788, England exiled some 160,000 criminals to Australia. (A) For almost a hundred years after having its beginning in 1788, (B) Beginning in 1788 for a period of a hundred years, (C) Beginning a period of almost a hundred years, in 1788 (D) During a hundred years, a period beginning in 1788, (E) Over a period of a hundred years beginning in 1788, 221. Eating saltwater fish may significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks and also aid for sufferers of 146
• rheumatoid arthritis and asthma, according to three research studies published in the New England Journal of Medicine. (A) significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks and also aid for (B) be significant in reducing the risk of heart attacks and aid for (C) significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks and aid (D) cause a significant reduction in the risk of heart attacks and aid to (E) significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks as well as aiding 222. By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligence Agency broad discretionary powers enabling it to withhold from the public the identities of its sources of intelligence information. (A) enabling it to withhold from the public (B) for it to withhold from the public (C) for withholding disclosure to the public of (D) that enable them to withhold from public disclosure (E) that they can withhold public disclosure of 223. As business grows more complex, students majoring in specialized areas like those of finance and marketing have been becoming increasingly successful in the job market. (A) majoring in specialized areas like those of finance and marketing have been becoming increasingly (B) who major in such specialized areas as finance and marketing are becoming more and more (C) who majored in specialized areas such as those of finance and marketing are being increasingly (D) who major in specialized areas like those of finance and marketing have been becoming more and more (E) having majored in such specialized areas as finance and marketing are being increasingly 224. Inuits of the Bering Sea were in isolation from contact with Europeans longer than Aleuts or Inuits of the North Pacific and northern Alaska. (A) in isolation from contact with Europeans longer than (B) isolated from contact with Europeans longer than (C) in isolation from contact with Europeans longer than were (D) isolated from contact with Europeans longer than were (E) in isolation and without contacts with Europeans longer than 225. Minnesota is the only one of the contiguous forty-eight states that still has a sizable wolf population. and where this predator remains the archenemy of cattle and sheep. (A) that still has a sizable wolf population, and where (B) that still has a sizable wolf population, where (C) that still has a sizable population of wolves, and where (D) where the population of wolves is still sizable; (E) where there is still a sizable population of wolves and where 226. Pablo Picasso, the late Spanish painter, credited African art with having had a strong influence on his work. (A) with having had (B) for its having (C) to have had (D) for having (E) in that it had 227. Judicial rules in many states require that the identities of all prosecution witnesses are made known to defendants so they can attempt to rebut the testimony, but the Constitution explicitly requires only that the 147
• defendant have the opportunity to confront an accuser in court. (A) that the identities of all prosecution witnesses are made known to defendants so they can attempt to rebut (B) that the identities of all prosecution witnesses be made known to defendants so that they can attempt to rebut (C) that the defendants should know the identities of all prosecution witnesses so they can attempt a rebuttal of (D) the identities of all prosecution witnesses should be made known to defendants so they can attempt rebutting (E) making known to defendants the identities of all prosecution witnesses so that they can attempt to rebut 228. Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most distant observable objects in the universe, believed to be the cores of galaxies in an early stage of development. (A) believed to be (B) are believed to be (C) some believe them to be (D) some believe they are (E) it is believed that they are 229. The colorization of black-and-white films by computers is defended by those who own the film rights, for the process can mean increased revenues for them; many others in the film industry, however, contend that the technique degrades major works of art, which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue. (A) which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue (B) which they liken to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it (C) which they liken to lipstick put on a Greek statue (D) likening it to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it (E) likening it to putting lipstick on a Greek statue 230. In reference to the current hostility toward smoking. smokers frequently expressed anxiety that their prospects for being hired and promoted are being stunted by their habit. (A) In reference to the current hostility toward smoking, smokers frequently expressed anxiety that (B) Referring to the current hostility toward smoking, smokers frequently expressed anxiety about (C) When referring to the current hostility toward smoking, smokers frequently express anxiety about (D) With reference to the current hostility toward smoking, smokers frequently expressed anxiety about (E) Referring to the current hostility toward smoking, smokers frequently express anxiety that 231. Ms. Chambers is among the forecasters who predict that the rate of addition to arable lands will drop while those of loss rise. (A) those of loss rise (B) it rises for loss (C) those of losses rise (D) the rate of loss rises (E) there are rises for the rate of loss 232. Unlike auto insurance, the frequency of claims does not affect the premiums for personal property coverage, but if the insurance company is able to prove excessive loss due to owner negligence, it may decline to renew the policy. (A) Unlike auto insurance, the frequency of claims does not affect the premiums for personal property 148
• (E) that see whether pigeons are able to be trained for help in finding 237. It seems likely that a number of astronomical phenomena, such as the formation of planetary nebulas, may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other at close range. (A) may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other (B) may be caused by the interaction between two stars that each orbit the other (C) are because of the interaction between two stars that orbit each other (D) are caused by the interaction of two stars where each is orbiting the other (E) are caused by the interaction of two stars orbiting each other 238. According to a recent study by Rutgers University, the number of women in state legislatures has grown in every election since 1968. (A) the number of women in state legislatures has grown (B) the number of women who are in state legislatures have grown (C) there has been growth in the number of women in state legislatures (D) a growing number of women have been in state legislatures (E) women have been growing in number in state legislatures 239. Organized in 1966 by the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Breeding Bird Survey uses annual roadside counts along established routes for monitoring of population changes of as many as. or of more than 250 bird species, including 180 songbirds. (A) for monitoring of population changes of as many as, or of (B) to monitor population changes of as many, or (C) to monitor changes in the populations of (D) that monitors population changes of (E) that monitors changes in populations of as many as, or 240. What brought the automobile company back from the verge of bankruptcy shortly after the Second World War was a special, governmentally sanctioned price increase allowed during a period of wage and price controls. (A) What brought (B) The thing that brought (C) That which brought (D) Bringing (E) What has brought 241. As well as heat and light, the Sun is the source of a continuous stream of atomic particles known as the solar wind. (A) As well as heat and light, the Sun is the source of a continuous stream (B) Besides heat and light, also the Sun is the source of a continuous stream (C) Besides heat and light, the Sun is also the source of a continuous streaming (D) The Sun is the source not only of heat and light, but also of a continuous stream (E) The Sun is the source of not only heat and light but, as well, of a continuous streaming 242. Even their most ardent champions concede that no less than a technical or scientific breakthrough is necessary before solar cells can meet the goal of providing one percent of the nation's energy needs. (A) that no less than a technical or scientific breakthrough is necessary (B) that nothing other than a technical or scientific breakthrough is needed (C) that a technical or scientific breakthrough is necessary (D) the necessity for an occurrence of a technical or scientific breakthrough 150
• (E) the necessity for a technical or scientific breakthrough occurring 243. Some scientists have been critical of the laboratory tests conducted by the Federal Drug Administration on the grounds that the amounts of suspected carcinogens fed to animals far exceeds those that humans could consume. (A) far exceeds those that humans could consume (B) exceeds by far those humans can consume (C) far exceeds those humans are able to consume (D) exceed by far those able to be consumed by humans (E) far exceed those that humans could consume 244. Like their male counterparts, women scientists are above average in terms of intelligence and creativity, but unlike men of science, their female counterparts have had to work against the grain of occupational stereotyping to enter a "man's world." (A) their female counterparts have had to work (B) their problem is working (C) one thing they have had to do is work (D) the handicap women of science have had is to work (E) women of science have had to work 245. Unlike Schoenberg's twelve-tone system that dominated the music of the postwar period, Bartok founded no school and left behind only a handful of disciples. (A) Schoenberg's twelve-tone system that dominated (B) Schoenberg and his twelve-tone system which dominated (C) Schoenberg, whose twelve-tone system dominated (D) the twelve-tone system of Schoenberg that has dominated (E) Schoenberg and the twelve-tone system, dominating 246. Joachim Raff and Giacomo Meyerbeer are examples of the kind of composer who receives popular acclaim while living, often goes into decline after death, and never regains popularity again. (A) often goes into decline after death, and never regains popularity again (B) whose reputation declines after death and never regains its status again (C) but whose reputation declines after death and never regains its former status (D) who declines in reputation after death and who never regained popularity again (E) then has declined in reputation after death and never regained popularity 247. Faced with an estimated \$2 billion budget gap, the city's mayor proposed a nearly 17 percent reduction in the amount allocated the previous year to maintain the city's major cultural institutions and to subsidize hundreds of local arts groups. (A) proposed a nearly 17 percent reduction in the amount allocated the previous year to maintain the city's major cultural institutions and to subsidize (B) proposed a reduction from the previous year of nearly 17 percent in the amount it was allocating to maintain the city's major cultural institutions and for subsidizing (C) proposed to reduce, by nearly 17 percent, the amount from the previous year that was allocated for the maintenance of the city's major cultural institutions and to subsidize (D) has proposed a reduction from the previous year of nearly 17 percent of the amount it was allocating for maintaining the city's major cultural institutions, and to subsidize (E) was proposing that the amount they were allocating be reduced by nearly 17 percent from the previous year for maintaining the city's major cultural institutions and for the subsidization 151
• (A) colder and wetter than was usual in some regions, which slowed (B) which was colder and wetter than usual in some regions, slowing (C) since it was colder and wetter than usually in some regions, which slowed (D) being colder and wetter than usually in some regions, slowing (E) having been colder and wetter than was usual in some regions and slowed 254. Balding is much more common among White males than males of other races. (A) than (B) than among (C) than is so of (D) compared to (E) in comparison with 255. The bank holds \$3 billion in loans that are seriously delinquent or in such trouble that they do not expect payments when due. (A) they do not expect payments when (B) it does not expect payments when it is (C) it does not expect payments to be made when they are (D) payments are not to be expected to be paid when (E) payments are not expected to be paid when they will be 256. The nephew of Pliny the Elder wrote the only eyewitness account of the great eruption of Vesuvius in two letters to the historian Tacitus. (A) The nephew of Pliny the Elder wrote the only eyewitness account of the great eruption of Vesuvius in two letters to the historian Tacitus. (B) To the historian Tacitus, the nephew of Pliny the Elder wrote two letters, being the only eyewitness accounts of the great eruption of Vesuvius. (C) The only eyewitness account is in two letters by the nephew of Pliny the Elder writing to the historian Tacitus an account of the great eruption of Vesuvius. (D) Writing the only eyewitness account, Pliny the Elder's nephew accounted for the great eruption of Vesuvius in two letters to the historian Tacitus. (E) In two letters to the historian Tacitus, the nephew of Pliny the Elder wrote the only eyewitness account of the great eruption of Vesuvius. 257. The direction in which the Earth and the other solid planets --Mercury, Venus, and Mars -- spins were determined from collisions with giant celestial bodies in the early history of the Solar System. (A) spins were determined from (B) spins were determined because of (C) spins was determined through (D) spin was determined by (E) spin was determined as a result of 258. The British sociologist and activist Barbara Wootton once noted as a humorous example of income maldistribution that the elephant that gave rides to children at the Whipsnade Zoo was earning annually exactly what she then earned as director of adult education for London. (A) that the elephant that gave rides to children at the Whipsnade Zoo was earning (B) that the elephant, giving rides to children at the Whipsnade Zoo, had been earning (C) that there was an elephant giving rides to children at the Whipsnade Zoo, and it earned (D) the elephant that gave rides to children at the Whipsnade Zoo and was earning 153
• (E) the elephant giving rides to children at the Whipsnade Zoo and that it earned 259. Five fledgling sea eagles left their nests in western Scotland this summer, bringing to 34 the number of wild birds successfully raised since transplants from Norway began in 1975. (A) bringing (B) and brings (C) and it brings (D) and it brought (E) and brought 260. According to some economists, the July decrease in unemployment so that it was the lowest in two years suggests that the gradual improvement in the job market is continuing. (A) so that it was the lowest in two years (B) so that it was the lowest two-year rate (C) to what would be the lowest in two years (D) to a two-year low level (E) to the lowest level in two years 261. Being a United States citizen since 1988 and born in Calcutta in 1940, author Bharati Mukherjee has lived in England and Canada, and first came to the United States in 1961 to study at the Iowa Writers' Workshop. (A) Being a United States citizen since 1988 and born in Calcutta in 1940, author Bharati Mukherjee has (B) Having been a United States citizen since 1988, she was born in Calcutta in 1940; author Bharati Mukherjee (C) Born in Calcutta in 1940, author Bharati Mukherjee became a United States citizen in 1988; she has (D) Being born in Calcutta in 1940 and having been a United States citizen since 1988, author Bharati Mukherjee (E) Having been born in Calcutta in 1940 and being a United States citizen since 1988, author Bharati Mukherjee 262. Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992. Project SETI pledged a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. (A) Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, Project SETI pledged a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. (B) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, a \$100 million investment in the search for -extraterrestrial intelligence was pledged by Project SETI. (C) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, Project SETI pledged a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. (D) Pledging a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, the . initiation of Project SETI five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992. (E) Pledging a \$100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, on Columbus Day 1992, the initiation of Project SETI took place. 263. In A.D. 391. resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria, later generations lost all but the lliad and Odyssey among Greek epics, most of the poetry of Pindar and Sappho, and dozens of plays by Aeschylus and Euripides. (A) resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria, (B) the destroying of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria resulted and (C) because of the result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world, (D) as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world, 154
• (E) Alexandria's largest library of the ancient world was destroyed, and the result was 264. Scientists believe that unlike the males of most species of moth, the male whistling moths of Nambung, Australia, call female moths to them by the use of acoustical signals, but not olfactory ones, and they attract their mates during the day, rather than at night. (A) by the use of acoustical signals, but not olfactory ones, and they attract (B) by the use of acoustical signals instead of using olfactory ones, and attracting (C) by using acoustical signals, not using olfactory ones, and by attracting (D) using acoustical signals, rather than olfactory ones, and attract (E) using acoustical signals, but not olfactory ones, and attracting 265. Thomas Eakins' powerful style and his choices of subject--the advances in modern surgery, the discipline of sport, the strains of individuals in tension with society or even with themselves--was as disturbing to his own time as it is compelling for ours. (A) was as disturbing to his own time as it is (B) were as disturbing to his own time as they are (C) has been as disturbing in his own time as they are (D) had been as disturbing in his own time as it was (E) have been as disturbing in his own time as 266. In a recent poll, 86 percent of the public favored a Clean Air Act as strong or stronger than the present act. (A) a Clean Air Act as strong or stronger than (B) a Clean Air Act that is stronger, or at least so strong as, (C) at least as strong a Clean Air Act as is (D) a Clean Air Act as strong or stronger than is (E) a Clean Air Act at least as strong as 267. Like Rousseau. Tolstoi rebelled against the unnatural complexity of human relations in modern society. (A) Like Rousseau, Tolstoi rebelled (B) Like Rousseau, Tolstoi's rebellion was (C) As Rousseau, Tolstoi rebelled (D) As did Rousseau, Tolstoi's rebellion was (E) Tolstoi's rebellion, as Rousseau's, was 268. Ranked as one of the most important of Europe's young playwrights, Franz Xaver Kroetz has written forty plays; his works--translated into over thirty languages--are produced more often than any contemporary German dramatist. (A) than any (B) than any other (C) than are any (D) than those of any other (E) as are those of any Answer to Question 1 Choice D is best. The phrasing a divorce that occurred when they were children correctly uses the relative clause that occurred to modify a divorce and includes a pronoun and verb (they were) that refer unambiguously to their antecedent, men and women. Choice A incorrectly introduces the when... phrase with occurring, thus illogically making divorce the grammatical referent of when a child; furthermore, the singular child does not agree with the plural men and women. B replaces child with children but otherwise fails to 155
• because it clearly refers to the dioxin mentioned earlier. Answer to Question 7 The best choice is C. The phrase the more the children should be completed by a parallel phrase that begins with a comparative adjective and a noun phrase, as in the greater their... advantage. Only C correctly completes the structure with a parallel phrase. Choices A. B, D, and E present structures that are unwieldy and awkward in addition to being nonparallel, and that state the relationship between language use and skills development less clearly than C does. Also, underlaying in B and underlay in D are incorrect; the meaning of this sentence requires the present participle of "underlie," underlying, as a modifier of skills. Answer to Question 8 Choices A and B incorrectly use the plural verb are with the singular noun equipment. In B, C, and E, when used by does not parallel amount... used by and nonsensically suggests that the people are used by the equipment. D, the best choice, correctly parallels the amount... used by with that used by, in which that is the pronoun substitute for amount. Moreover, D solves the agreement problem of A and B by omitting the to be verb used with visible and placing visible before equipment', the phrase visible equipment is also parallel with unobtrusive equipment. Answer to Question 9 Choice E is best. The pronoun that in A and B should be deleted, since the pronoun one is sufficient to introduce the modifier and the sentence is more fluid without that. In B and C, it and that it are intrusive and ungrammatical: the idiom is "believe x to be y." In the context of this sentence, the infinitive to be is more appropriate than the limited present-tense is in referring to an event that occurred long ago but has been discovered only recently. Finally, A, B, and D lack o/and so illogically equate this particular explosion with the whole class of explosions to which it belongs: it is not a type but possibly one of a type. Answer to Question 10 A is the best choice. Choices B, C, and D incorrectly omit that after agree; that is needed to create the parallel construction agree that there is waste . . . and that the government... spends. Choice E, though it retains that, is grammatically incorrect: because E starts with an independent rather than a subordinate clause and separates its two independent clauses with a comma, it creates a run-on sentence with no logical connection established between the halves. In B, the agreement ... to the fact is unidiomatic, and B, C, and E alter the sense of the original sentence by saying that voters agree rather than that they may agree. Answer to Question 11 In choice A, the introductory clause beginning Based on modifies scholars, the noun that immediately follows it: in other words, A says that scholars were based on the accounts of various ancient writers. Choice B is awkward and imprecise in that the referent for the pronoun it is not immediately clear. C and D are also wordy and awkward, and in D By the accounts... they used is an unidiomatic and roundabout way of saying that scholars used me accounts. E, the best choice, is clear and concise; it correctly uses a present participle (or "-ing" verb) to introduce the modifier describing how the scholars worked. Answer to Question 12 In A, the they after because is ambiguous; it seems illogically to refer to Formulas because they and Formulas 157
• Answer to Question 18 Each choice but C contains errors of agreement. In both A and E, the singular subject (each in A, every one in E) does not agree with the plural verb were, while in D, the plural subject women is mismatched with the singular verb was. In B, the subject and verb agree, but the descriptive phrase placed between them creates an illogical statement because each cannot be wives; each can be one of the wives, or a wife. The pronoun constructions in A, B, D, and E are wordy; also, B, D, and E are very awkwardly structured and do not convey the point about Hemingway's wives clearly. Choice C correctly links wives with were, eliminates the unnecessary pronouns, and provides a clearer structure. Answer to Question 19 In this sentence, the initial clause modifies the nearest noun, identifying it as the thing being compared with wheat. By making protein the noun modified, choices A, C, and D illogically compare wheat with protein and claim that the protein in rice has more protein than wheat does. In C and D, the comparative structure higher in quality than it is in wheat absurdly suggests that rice protein contains wheat. B, the best choice, logically compares wheat to rice by placing the noun rice immediately after the initial clause. B also uses that to refer to protein in making the comparison between the proteins of rice and wheat. Choice E needs either that in or does after wheat to make a complete and logical comparison. Answer to Question 20 Choice A is best. The construction so abundant has capital been... that correctly and clearly expresses the relationship between the abundance and the investors' response. In choice B, the repetition of so is illogical and unidiomatic. Choices C, D, and E alter somewhat the intended meaning of the sentence; because of its position in these statements, such functions to mean "of a kind" rather than to intensify abundant. Choice D awkwardly separates has and been, and the omission of that from C and E makes those choices ungrammatical. Answer to Question 21 In choices A, C, and E, in attributing ... behavior modifies the perpetrators, producing the illogical statement that the perpetrators rather than the defense attorneys are attributing behavior to food allergies. Choice C is also wordy, and attributing ... as is unidiomatic in E. In the correct form of the expression, one attributes x, an effect, to y, a cause; or, if a passive construction is used, x is attributed to y. D avoids the initial modification error by using a passive construction (in which the attributors are not identified), but attributed x as the cause of y is unidiomatic. Choice B is best. Answer to Question 22 C, the best choice, places not and but in such a way that the distinction between springing to life in a flash of inspiration and evolving slowly is logically and idiomatically expressed. A and B are faulty because, for grammatical parallelism, not in a flash... must be followed by but in..., not by a conjugated form of the verb. Moreover, were slowly evolved is incorrect in B because evolve, in this sense of the word, cannot be made passive. Choices C, D, and E all correctly place not before spring. D, however, contains inconsistent verb tenses; E contains the faulty passive and an intrusive they. Answer to Question 23 Because a count of women employed outside the home at any given time will be expressed by a single number, 159
• sentence. Choice E is best. Answer to Question 29 Choice A is best. The other choices are unidiomatic or unnecessarily wordy, and the pronoun they, which appears in B, C, and E, has no grammatical referent. Answer to Question 30 Besides being wordy, the clauses beginning What was in A and The thing that was in B cause inconsistencies in verb tense: the use of the new technology cannot logically be described by both the present perfect has been and the past was. In B and D, developing the compact disc is not parallel to the use of new technology to revitalize ... performances; in C, the best answer, the noun development is parallel to use. The phrases none the less ... than in D and no less... as in E are unidiomatic; the correct form of expression, no less ... than, appears in C, the best choice. Answer to Question 31 Choice D is best. Choice A illogically compares skills to a disinclination; choice B compares skills to many people. Choice C makes the comparison logical by casting analytical skills as the subject of the sentence, but it is awkward and unidiomatic to say skills bring out a disinclination. Also in C, the referent of they is unclear, and weak to a degree changes the meaning of the original statement. In E, have a disinclination... while willing is grammatically incomplete, and admit their lack should be admit to their lack. By making people the subject of the sentence, D best expresses the intended contrast, which pertains not so much to skills as to people's willingness to recognize different areas of weakness. Answer to Question 32 Choice B is best. Choices A and C illogically state that some buildings were both destroyed and damaged; or is needed to indicate that each of the buildings suffered either one fate or the other. In using only one verb tense, were, A fails to indicate that the buildings were constructed before the earthquake occurred. Choices C and D use the present perfect tense incorrectly, saying in effect that the buildings have been constructed after they were destroyed last year. Choice E suggests that the construction of the buildings, rather than the earthquake, occurred last year, thus making the sequence of events unclear. Only B uses verb tenses correctly to indicate that construction of the buildings was completed prior to the earthquake. Answer to Question 33 Choice A is best. The activities listed are presented as parallel ideas and should thus be expressed in grammatically parallel structures. Choice A correctly uses the simple past tense defined to parallel organized and provided. Choice A also correctly joins the last two parallel phrases with and and clearly expresses the relationship of rights and obligations to resources. Choice C preserves parallelism but is wordy, and its has no logical referent. Choices B, D, and E each replace the verb phrase with a subordinate modifier, violating parallelism and making the statements ungrammatical. Furthermore, it is unclear what defining ... consumption in B is intended to modify; in D, whose incorrectly attributes rights and obligations to resources', and E presents rights and obligations as defining, rather than as being defined. Answer to Question 34 161
• A, B, and D illogically suggest that the palace and temple clusters were architects and stonemasons. For the modification to be logical. Architects and stonemasons must immediately precede the Maya, the noun phrase it is meant to modify. A, B, and D also use the passive verb form were built, which produces unnecessary awkwardness and wordiness. E is awkwardly phrased and produces a sentence fragment, because the appositive noun phrase Architects and stonemasons cannot serve as the subject of were the Maya. C, the best answer, places the Maya immediately after its modifier and uses the active verb form built. Answer to Question 57 Choice A is best because it is idiomatic and because its passive verb construction, has been shifted, clearly indicates that the light has been acted upon by the rapid motion. In B, the active verb has shifted suggests that the light, not the motion, is the agency of action, but such a construction leaves the phrase by the rapid motion of the galaxy away from the Earth without any logical or grammatical function. In C, the construction the extent that light is ungrammatical; denotes the extent must be completed by to which. D incorrectly employs an active verb, shifting, and extent of light is imprecise and awkward. E is faulty because it contains no verb to express the action performed by the rapid motion. Answer to Question 58 The construction range from x must be completed by to y, as in choice B, the best answer: Johnson's paintings range from... portraits ... to... views. Each of the other choices produces an unidiomatic construction. Answer to Question 59 D, the best choice, is idiomatic, clear, and concise. Both A and B incorrectly use much rather than many to describe the countable noun others; much should be used with uncountable nouns such as "joy" and "labor." Even if this error were 166
• corrected, though, A and B would still be wrong. Because man than x necessarily includes the sense of at least as many as x. it is redundant and confusing to use elements of both expressions to refer to the same number of women. In A and C, not any support agreements is wordy and awkward. Like A and B, E redundantly uses both at least and more, and it incorrectly links the singular verb was with the plural subject others. Answer to Question 60 The intended comparison should be completed by a clause beginning with as and containing a subject and verb that correspond to the subject and verb of the main clause. In E, the best choice, it refers unambiguously to the phrasal subject owning ... land, the verb was corresponds to is, and today's young adults are appropriately compared to earlier generations. Choices A and B lack a verb corresponding to is and a clear referent for that. Choices C and D are confusing and illogical because their verbs, did and have, cannot substitute for is in the main clause. Answer to Question 61 Choice C is best. In A and B, the plural pronouns their and they do not agree with the singular noun bank. B, like D and E, illogically shifts from the plural customers and funds to the singular check, as if the customers were jointly depositing only one check. In D, requires a bank that it should is ungrammatical; requires that a bank is the appropriate idiom. In E, the use of the passive construction is to be delayed is less informative than the active voice because the passive does not explicitly identify the bank as the agent responsible for the delay. Answer to Question 62 D, the best choice, describes the warning signs in parallel phrases. Despite surface appearances, the nouns changes and variations are parallel with tilting, but the verbal forms changing and varying in A, B, and C are not: tilting, one of the deformations of the Earth's crust, is used here as a noun that is parallel to fluctuations, whereas changing and varying are used as verbs indicating some action undertaken. Moreover, these verbs are used incorrectly because the sentence mentions no subject that is performing these actions. B and E illogically state that it is not the strain but the measurements that portend danger, and among in E wrongly suggests a comparison of different electrical properties rather than of different behaviors of the same properties. Answer to Question 63 Choice A, which is both idiomatic and concise, is best. In choice B, to contract is wrong because the phrase are in danger must be followed by of, not by an infinitive. The phrase have a danger is unidiomatic in C. In D, the phrase by contraction trypanosomiasis requires of after contraction; even if this correction were made, though, the passive construction in D would be unnecessarily wordy and also imprecise, because it is the disease more than the act of contracting it that poses the danger. In E, have a danger is again unidiomatic, and the to that clause following the phrase is, within the structure of the sentence, ungrammatical and awkward. Answer to Question 64 In this sentence, the first noun of the main clause grammatically identifies what is being compared with a funded pens ion system; to be logical, the comparison must be made between comparable things. Only E, the best choice, compares one kind of system of providing for retirees, the funded pension system, with another such system. Social Security. Choices A, C, and D all illogically compare the pension system with the approach taken by Social Security itself. In B, the comparison of pension system with foundation is similarly flawed. 167
• In English, x [is] expected to y is idiomatic usage: expected for it to in choice A and expected that it should in choice C are thus unidiomatic. Choice D awkwardly substitutes its rise for the pronoun it as the subject of might have been expected; since it refers to inflation, the subject of the verb eased, it is preferable as the subject of might have been expected, the verb form corresponding to eased. Choice E is needlessly wordy, roundabout, and vague. Choice B is best. Answer to Question 132 The phrases equivalent to in A, the equivalent of in B, and equal to in C have too broad a range of meanings to be used precisely here: that is, they can suggest more than merely numerical equality. Also, as quantitative expressions, equivalent and equal often modify nouns referring to uncountable things, as in "an equivalent amount of resistance" or "a volume of water equal to Lake Michigan." To establish numerical comparability between groups with countable members, the phrase as many as is preferable. Choice D, however, uses this phrase improperly in comparing eight million people to enrollment, not to other people. The comparison in E, the best choice, is logical because people is understood as the subject of are enrolled. Answer to Question 133 In choices A, B, and C, the plural pronouns their and they have no plural noun for a logical referent. Since In Holland modifies all of the sentence that follows, A states confusedly that Holland spends a percentage of its gross national product on military defense in the United States. In C, the passive is spent is not parallel with the active spends. Lack of parallelism in choice D produces an illogical comparison: the percentage that Holland spends is said to exceed not the percentage that the United States spends but rather its total military defense spending. Parallel phrasing allows E, the best choice, to make a logical comparison between what Holland spends and what the United States does [spend]. Answer to Question 134 Choices A, B, and E can be faulted for using should in place of will to indicate future occurrences: should carries the suggestion, especially unwarranted in this context, that the Canadian scientists are describing what ought to happen. The phrase once in every nine years is needlessly wordy in B and C. Also, the language of C implies more than can reasonably be maintained: i.e., that a meteorite will strike one person, and no one else, exactly once during every nine-year period. Choice D is best: the phrasing is concise and free of unintended suggestions, and the use of the indefinite article in a human being is appropriate for describing what is expected to be true only on the average. Answer to Question 135 In choices A and C, it intrudes between the halves of the compound verb has moved... and [now] draws to introduce a new grammatical subject, thereby creating a run-on sentence: the inclusion of it requires a comma after classics to set off the new independent clause. The placement of now is awkward in C, and the construction living abroad... and who is not parallel in C and D. Misplacement of words creates ambiguity in E: for example, the positioning of both immediately before the phrase describing the authors suggests that there are only two contemporary Hispanic authors living abroad. The logical word placement and parallel phrasing of B, the best choice, resolve such confusions. 180
• Answer to Question 157 A, the best choice, correctly (1) uses a noun clause introduced by that after contend, (2) keeps the "contention" clear by making all of the thousands of languages the subject of the noun clause, and (3) precisely indicates the relationship of the thousands of languages to the common root language (they can be traced back to it). B and C produce convoluted and ill-focused sentences by making the world's five billion people the subject of the noun clause. The phrase of which all in B is unidiomatic (all of which is the idiom). C uses the wordy and indirect traceable back to. D incorrectly substitutes an infinitive clause for the "that" noun clause required after contend. E, in substituting a noun phrase, becomes incoherent and ungrammatical. Answer to Question 158 The word or phrase that begins this sentence should establish the contrast between the size of the United States population and the activities of its citizens. Choices D and E are the only ones that establish the contrast, and only E, the best choice, expresses meaning accurately with the phrase Although accounting for. With in choice A and Despite having in choice D confusingly suggest that United States citizens somehow possess, rather than constitute, 5 percent of the world's population. Choices B and C lose the contrast between the opening phrase and the main clause, and As is unidiomatic in B. Answer to Question 159 Choice A is the best. Its wording is unambiguous and economical. The plural pronoun they agrees with its antecedent, property values. The pronoun whose clearly refers to homeowners and efficiently connects them with the idea of lost equity. In B, C, and D, substituting in that their or because their for whose is wordy and confusing since the antecedent of their might be they, not homeowners. Furthermore, can potentially is redundant in B and E. Both D and E use the singular pronoun it, which does not agree with its logical antecedent, property values. Answer to Question 160 Choice E, the best answer, uses constructions that are parallel to some propose', others suggest. . . , and still others are calling .... Choices A and B immediately lose the parallel construction, and also produce sentence fragments, by shifting to by suggesting ... and by calling .... Choice B starts like choice A and then shifts back to the verb call, losing the parallel with the second part (by suggesting). Choices C and D correctly begin the second part of the parallel by using suggest. Choice C, however, introduces the nonidiomatic for decreasing, which creates some difficulty in meaning. Choice D loses parallel construction in the third part by shifting to by calling. Answer to Question 161 D, the best choice, uses a correct sequence of present and future indicative verb forms--predicts, will fail, and is--in the three related clauses. Density, an abstract "mass" noun, is logically construed with greater than. In A and B, would fail disagrees with the other verbs in tense and mood. Choice A misconstrues density with more numerous than, and B uses the pretentious and illogical word provided for ifm a conditional clause after a negative idea (would fail). C's should fail and was are confusing and inconsistent with predicts. C and E use the absurd phrase timber wolf density. (The wolves are not dense; their population is dense.) E also uses an inconsistent subjunctive form, were, and misconstrues density with more numerous than. 185
• Answer to Question 162 This question requires the correct placement of sentence parts to achieve accurate meaning and to avoid awkwardness. Choice C most accurately and efficiently expresses the meaning of the Tennessee child-passenger protection law. Choices A and B absurdly indicate that it is the parents, not the children, who are to be restrained. Choices D and E misplace the phrase under four years of age so the phrase dangles and seems to modify restrained rather than children. In addition, E misplaces the phrase in a child safely seat to create the idea that the parents are in a child safety seat. Answer to Question 163 D, the best choice, correctly subordinates sleeping and moving to hangs while using the idiomatically correct phrasing so (infrequently) that.... The pronoun its shows clearly that the limbs belong to the sloth, not the trees. Choice A illogically coordinates hang and sleep and, like E, uses the unidiomatic expression infrequently enough that. B creates an awkward and nonparallel series: sloths hang ..., they sleep ..., and with.... C creates a confusing and absurd image with use their... limbs to hang ..., sleep ..., and move .... A, B, and C all mistakenly use the plural sloths, which does not agree , with its coat and... its toes. E wrongly coordinates hangs and sleeps and violates parallelism by inserting it before moves to create a new independent clause. Answer to Question 164 Choice B is best. Choice A attaches the relative clause which could be open ... to the noun development, when, in fact, it is the park that could be open. Choice C omits that, the object of proposed that is needed to introduce the clause describing the proposal. C also uses to be unidiomatically where be is correct: the commission proposed [that] funding ... to be obtained is wrong. Choice D incorrectly uses perhaps open to the public ... to modify development; the phrase should modify park. Choice E, which seriously distorts meaning, says that the commission proposed development funding and that such funding could be open to the public .... Answer to Question 165 C, the best choice, uses a clear, direct, and economical adjective clause to indicate the percentage of household incomes below the poverty line in the community in question. Choices A and E insert the pronoun them without a stated antecedent. In addition, the wording of both A and E confuses the percentage of community residents (the implied referent of them) with the percentage of households, not the same thing at all. Choice B introduces the pronoun they without an antecedent. Furthermore, the use of have in B and E and of has in D illogically suggests that the community possesses 49% of all the household incomes below the poverty line. Answer to Question 166 This sentence uses idiomatic paired coordinators, not only..., but also.., to relate two basic kinds of loans to the prime lending rate: (1) loans to small and medium-sized businesses and (2) consumer loans. B, the best choice, is the only one that maintains the necessary parallelism in the phrases following the paired coordinates: not only on..., but also on.... Choices C and E omit the on after but also. Choices A (not only are ..., but also on) and D (not only the interest rates ..., but also on) are not parallel either. Choice D especially garbles the meaning. Answer to Question 167 The sentence requires a subject appropriate to both members of a compound predicate, the second member 186