1. Which of the following best completes the passage below?
In a survey of job applicants, two-fifths admitted to being at least a little dishonest. However, the survey may
underestimate the proportion of job applicants who are dishonest, because____.
A. some dishonest people taking the survey might have claimed on the survey to be honest
B. some generally honest people taking the survey might have claimed on the survey to be dishonest
C. some people who claimed on the survey to be at least a little dishonest may be very dishonest
D. some people who claimed on the survey to be dishonest may have been answering honestly
E. some people who are not job applicants are probably at least a little dishonest
2. The average life expectancy for the United States population as a whole is 73.9 years, but children born in
Hawaii will live an average of 77 years, and those born in Louisiana, 71.7 years. If a newlywed couple from
Louisiana were to begin their family in Hawaii, therefore, their children would be expected to live longer than
would be the case if the family remained in Louisiana.
Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion drawn in the passage?
A. Insurance company statisticians do not believe that moving to Hawaii will significantly lengthen the average
B. The governor of Louisiana has falsely alleged that statistics for his state are inaccurate.
C. The longevity ascribed to Hawaii’s current population is attributable mostly to genetically determined factors.
D. Thirty percent of all Louisianans can expect to live longer than 77 years.
E. Most of the Hawaiian Islands have levels of air pollution well below the national average for the United
3. The average life expectancy for the United States population as a whole is 73.9 years, but children born in
Hawaii will live an average of 77 years, and those born in Louisiana, 71.7 years. If a newlywed couple from
Louisiana were to begin their family in Hawaii, therefore, their children would be expected to live longer than
would be the case if the family remained in Louisiana.
Which of the following statements, if true, would most significantly strengthen the conclusion drawn in the
A. As population density increases in Hawaii, life expectancy figures for that state are likely to be revised
B. Environmental factors tending to favor longevity are abundant in Hawaii and less numerous in Louisiana.
C. Twenty-five percent of all Louisianans who move to Hawaii live longer than 77 years.
D. Over the last decade, average life expectancy has risen at a higher rate for Louisianans than for Hawaiians.
E. Studies show that the average life expectancy for Hawaiians who move permanently to Louisiana is roughly
equal to that of Hawaiians who remain in Hawaii.
4. Insurance Company X is considering issuing a new policy to cover services required by elderly people who
suffer from diseases that afflict the elderly. Premiums for the policy must be low enough to attract customers.
Therefore, Company X is concerned that the income from the policies would not be sufficient to pay for the
claims that would be made.
Which of the following strategies would be most likely to minimize Company X’s losses on the policies?
A. Attracting middle-aged customers unlikely to submit claims for benefits for many years.
B. Insuring only those individuals who did not suffer any serious diseases as children
C. Including a greater number of services in the policy than are included in other policies of lower cost
D. Insuring only those individuals who were rejected by other companies for similar policies
E. Insuring only those individuals who are wealthy enough to pay for the medical services
5. A program instituted in a particular state allows parents to prepay their children’s future college tuition at
current rates. The program then pays the tuition annually for the child at any of the state’s public colleges in
which the child enrolls. Parents should participate in the program as a means of decreasing the cost for their
children’s college education.
Which of the following, if true, is the most appropriate reason for parents NOT to participate in the program?
A. the parents are unsure about which public college in the state the child will attend.
B. The amount of money accumulated by putting the prepayment funds in an interest-bearing account today
will be greater than the total cost of tuition for any of the public colleges when the child enrolls.
C. The annual cost of tuition at the state’s public colleges is expected to increase at a faster rate than the
annual increase in the cost of living.
D. Some of the state’s public colleges are contemplating large increases in tuition next year.
E. The prepayment plan would not cover the cost of room and board at any of the state’s public colleges.
6. Company Alpha buys free-travel coupons from people who are awarded the coupons by Bravo Airlines for
flying frequently on Bravo airplanes. The coupons are sold to people who pay les for the coupons than they
would pay by purchasing tickets from Bravo. This making of coupons results in lost revenue for Bravo.
To discourage the buying and selling of free-travel coupons, it would be best for Bravo Airlines to restrict the
A. number of coupons that a person can be awarded in a particular year
B. use of the coupons to those who were awarded the coupons and members of their immediate families
C. days that the coupons can be used to Monday through Friday
D. amount of time that the coupons can be used after they are issued
E. number of routes on which travelers can use the coupons
7. The ice on the front windshield of the car had formed when moisture condensed during the night. The ice
melted quickly after the car was warmed up the next morning because the defrosting vent, which blows on the
front windshield, was turned on full force.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously jeopardizes the validity of the explanation for the speed with which
the ice melted?
A. The side windows had no ice condensation on them
B. Even though no attempt was made to defrost the back window, the ice there melted at the same rate as did
the ice on the front windshield.
C. The speed at which ice on a window melts increases as the temperature of the air blown on the window
D. The warm air from the defrosting vent for the front windshield cools rapidly as it dissipates throughout the
rest of the car.
E. The defrosting vent operates efficiently even when the heater, which blows warm air toward the feet or faces
of the driver and passengers, is on.
8. To prevent some conflicts of interest, Congress could prohibit high-level government officials from accepting
positions as lobbyists for three years after such officials leave government service. One such official concluded,
however, that such a prohibition would be unfortunate because it would prevent high-level government officials
from earning a livelihood for three years.
The official’s conclusion logically depends on which of the following assumptions?
A. Laws should not restrict the behavior of former government officials.
B. Lobbyists are typically people who have previously been high-level government officials.
C. Low-level government officials do not often become lobbyists when they leave government service.
D. High-level government officials who leave government service are capable of earning a livelihood only as
E. High-level government officials who leave government service are currently permitted to act as lobbyists for
only three years.
9. A conservation group in the United States is trying to change the long-standing image of bats as frightening
creatures. The group contends that bats are feared and persecuted solely because they are shy animals that are
active only at night.
Which of the following, if true, would cast the most serious doubt on the accuracy of the group’s contention?
A. Bats are steadily losing natural roosting places such as caves and hollow trees and are thus turning to more
developed areas for roosting.
B. Bats are the chief consumers of nocturnal insects and thus can help make their hunting territory more
pleasant for humans.
C. Bats are regarded as frightening creatures not only in the United States but also in Europe, Africa, and South
D. Raccoons and owls are shy and active only at night; yet they are not generally feared and persecuted.
E. People know more about the behavior of other greatly feared animal species, such as lions, alligators, and
greatly feared animal species, such as lions, alligators, and snakes, than they do about the behavior of bats.
10. Meteorite explosions in the Earth’s atmosphere as large as the one that destroyed forests in Siberia, with
approximately the force of a twelve-megaton nuclear blast, occur about once a century.
The response of highly automated systems controlled by complex computer programs to unexpected
circumstances is unpredictable.
Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn, if the statements above are true, about a highly
automated nuclear-missile defense system controlled by a complex computer program?
A. Within a century after its construction, the system would react inappropriately and might accidentally start a
B. The system would be destroyed if an explosion of a large meteorite occurred in the Earth’s atmosphere.
C. It would be impossible for the system to distinguish the explosion of a large meteorite from the explosion of a
D. Whether the system would respond inappropriately to the explosion of a large meteorite would depend on
the location of the blast.
E. It is not certain what the system’s response to the explosion of a large meteorite would be, if its designers
did not plan for such a contingency.
11. The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising of legal services, the more lawyers there are who
advertise their services, and the lawyers who advertise a specific service usually charge less for that service
than lawyers who do not advertise. Therefore, if the state removes any of its current restrictions, such as the one
against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements, overall consumer legal costs will be lower than if
the state retains its current restrictions.
If the statements in the passage are true, which of the following must be true?
A. Some lawyers who now advertise will charge more for specific services if they do not have to specify fee
arrangements in the advertisements.
B. More consumers will use legal services if there are fewer restrictions on the advertising of legal service.
C. If the restriction against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements is removed, more lawyers will
advertise their services.
D. If more lawyers advertise lower prices for specific services, some lawyers who do not advertise will also
charge less than they currently charge for those services.
E. If the only restrictions on the advertising of legal services were those that apply to every type of advertising,
most lawyers would advertise their services.
12. The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising of legal services, the more lawyers there are who
advertise their services, and the lawyers who advertise a specific service usually charge less for that service
than lawyers who do not advertise. Therefore, if the state removes any of its current restrictions, such as the one
against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements, overall consumer legal costs will be lower than if
the state retains its current restrictions.
Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the argument concerning overall consumer legal
A. The state has recently removed some other restrictions that had limited the advertising of legal services.
B. The state is unlikely to remove all of the restrictions that apply solely to the advertising of legal services.
C. Lawyers who do not advertise generally provide legal services of the same quality as those provided by
lawyers who do advertise.
D. Most lawyers who now specify fee arrangements in their advertisements would continue to do so even if the
specification were not required.
E. Most lawyers who advertise specific services do not lower their fees for those services when they begin to
13. Defense Department analysts worry that the ability of the United States to wage a prolonged war would be
seriously endangered if the machine-tool manufacturing base shrinks further. Before the Defense Department
publicly connected this security issue with the import quota issue, however, the machine-tool industry raised the
national security issue in its petition for import quotas.
Which of the following, if true, contributes most to an explanation of the machine-tool industry’s raising the issue
above regarding national security?
A. When the aircraft industries retooled, they provided a large amount of work for too builders.
B. The Defense Department is only marginally concerned with the effects of foreign competition on the
C. The machine-tool industry encountered difficulty in obtaining governmental protection against imports on
grounds other than defense.
D. A few weapons important for defense consist of parts that do not require extensive machining.
E. Several federal government programs have been designed which will enable domestic machine-tool
manufacturing firms to compete successfully with foreign toolmakers.
14. Opponents of laws that require automobile drivers and passengers to wear seat belts argue that in a free
society people have the right to take risks as long as the people do not harm other as a result of taking the risks.
As a result, they conclude that it should be each person’s decision whether or not to wear a seat belt.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the conclusion drawn above?
A. Many new cars are built with seat belts that automatically fasten when someone sits in the front seat.
B. Automobile insurance rates for all automobile owners are higher because of the need to pay for the
increased injuries or deaths of people not wearing seat belts.
C. Passengers in airplanes are required to wear seat belts during takeoffs and landings.
D. The rate of automobile fatalities in states that do not have mandatory seat belt laws is greater than the rate
of fatalities in states that do have such laws.
E. In automobile accidents, a greater number of passengers who do not wear seat belts are injured than are
passengers who do wear seat belts.
15. The cost of producing radios in Country Q is ten percent less than the cost of producing radios in Country Y.
even after transportation fees and tariff charges are added, it is still cheaper for a company to import radios from
Country Q to Country Y than to produce radios in Country Y.
The statements above, if true, best support which of the following assertions?
A. labor costs in Country Q are ten percent below those in Country Y.
B. importing radios from Country Q to Country Y will eliminate ten percent of the manufacturing jobs in Country
C. the tariff on a radio imported from Country Q to Country Y is less than ten percent of the cost of
manufacturing the radio in Country Y.
D. the fee for transporting a radio from Country Q to Country Y is more than ten percent of the cost of
manufacturing the radio in Country Q.
E. it takes ten percent less time to manufacture a radios in Country Q than it does in Country Y.
16. During the Second World War, about 375,000 civilians died in the United States and about 408,000 members
of the United States armed forces died overseas. On the basis the those figures, it can be concluded that it was
not much more dangerous to be overseas in the armed forces during the Second World War than it was to stay
at home as a civilian.
Which of the following would reveal most clearly the absurdity of the conclusion drawn above?
A. Counting deaths among members of the armed forces who served in the United State in addition to deaths
among members of the armed forces serving overseas
B. Expressing the difference between the numbers of deaths among civilians and members of the armed
forces as a percentage of the total number of deaths
C. Separating deaths caused by accidents during service in the armed forces from deaths caused by combat
D. Comparing death rates per thousand members of each group rather than comparing total numbers of deaths
E. Comparing deaths caused by accidents in the United States to deaths caused by combat in the armed
17. Toughened hiring standards have not been the primary cause of the present staffing shortage in public
schools. The shortage of teachers is primarily caused by the fact that in recent years teachers have not
experienced any improvements in working conditions and their salaries have not kept pace with salaries in other
Which of the following, if true, would most support the claims above?
A. Many teachers already in the profession would not have been hired under the new hiring standards.
B. Today more teachers are entering the profession with a higher educational level than in the past.
C. Some teachers have cited higher standards for hiring as a reason for the current staffing shortage.
D. Many teachers have cited low pay and lack of professional freedom as reasons for their leaving the
E. Many prospective teachers have cited the new hiring standards as a reason for not entering the profession.
18. A proposed ordinance requires the installation in new homes of sprinklers automatically triggered by the
presence of a fire. However, a home builder argued that because more than ninety percent of residential fires
are extinguished by a household member, residential sprinklers would only marginally decrease property
damage caused by residential fires.
Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the home builder’s argument?
A. most individuals have no formal training in how to extinguish fires.
B. Since new homes are only a tiny percentage of available housing in the city, the new ordinance would be
extremely narrow in scope.
C. The installation of smoke detectors in new residences costs significantly less than the installation of
D. In the city where the ordinance was proposed, the average time required by the fire department to respond
to a fire was less than the national average.
E. The largest proportion of property damage that results from residential fires is caused by fires that start
when no household member is present.
19. Even though most universities retain the royalties from faculty members’ inventions, the faculty members
retain the royalties from books and articles they write. Therefore, faculty members should retain the royalties
from the educational computer software they develop.
The conclusion above would be more reasonably drawn if which of the following were inserted into the argument
as an additional premise?
A. Royalties from inventions are higher than royalties from educational software programs.
B. Faculty members are more likely to produce educational software programs than inventions.
C. Inventions bring more prestige to universities that do books and articles.
D. In the experience of most universities, educational software programs are more marketable that are books
E. In terms of the criteria used to award royalties, educational software programs are more nearly comparable
to books and articles than to inventions.
20. Increase in the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the human bloodstream lower
bloodstream-cholesterol levels by increasing the body’s capacity to rid itself of excess cholesterol. Levels of HDL
in the bloodstream of some individuals are significantly increased by a program of regular exercise and weight
Which of the following can be correctly inferred from the statements above?
A. Individuals who are underweight do not run any risk of developing high levels of cholesterol in the
B. Individuals who do not exercise regularly have a high risk of developing high levels of cholesterol in the
bloodstream late in life.
C. Exercise and weight reduction are the most effective methods of lowering bloodstream cholesterol levels in
D. A program of regular exercise and weight reduction lowers cholesterol levels in the bloodstream of some
E. Only regular exercise is necessary to decrease cholesterol levels in the bloodstream of individuals of
21. When limitations were in effect on nuclear-arms testing, people tended to save more of their money, but
when nuclear-arms testing increased, people tended to spend more of their money. The perceived threat of
nuclear catastrophe, therefore, decreases the willingness of people to postpone consumption for the sake of
The argument above assumes that
A. the perceived threat of nuclear catastrophe has increased over the years.
B. most people supported the development of nuclear arms
C. people’s perception of the threat of nuclear catastrophe depends on the amount of nuclear-arms testing
D. the people who saved the most money when nuclear-arms testing was limited were the ones who supported
E. there are more consumer goods available when nuclear-arms testing increases
22. Which of the following best completes the passage below?
People buy prestige when they buy a premium product. They want to be associated with something special.
Mass-marketing techniques and price-reduction strategies should not be used because____.
A. affluent purchasers currently represent a shrinking portion of the population of all purchasers
B. continued sales depend directly on the maintenance of an aura of exclusivity
C. purchasers of premium products are concerned with the quality as well as with the price of the products
D. expansion of the market niche to include a broader spectrum of consumers will increase profits
E. manufacturing a premium brand is not necessarily more costly than manufacturing a standard brand of the
23. A cost-effective solution to the problem of airport congestion is to provide high-speed ground transportation
between major cities lying 200 to 500 miles apart. The successful implementation of this plan would cost far less
than expanding existing airports and would also reduce the number of airplanes clogging both airports and
Which of the following, if true, could be proponents of the plan above most appropriately cite as a piece of
evidence for the soundness of their plan?
A. An effective high-speed ground-transportation system would require major repairs to many highways and
B. One-half of all departing flights in the nation’s busiest airport head for a destination in a major city 225 miles
C. The majority of travelers departing from rural airports are flying to destinations in cities over 600 miles away.
D. Many new airports are being built in areas that are presently served by high-speed ground-transportation
E. A large proportion of air travelers are vacationers who are taking long-distance flights.
24. If there is an oil-supply disruption resulting in higher international oil prices, domestic oil prices in
open-market countries such as the United States will rise as well, whether such countries import all or none of
If the statement in the passage concerning oil-supply disruptions is true, which of the following policies in an
open-market nation is most likely to reduce the long-term economic impact on that nation of sharp and
unexpected increases in international oil prices?
A. Maintaining the quantity of oil imported at constant yearly levels
B. Increasing the number of oil tankers in its fleet
C. Suspending diplomatic relations with major oil-producing nations
D. Decreasing oil consumption through conservation
E. Decreasing domestic production of oil
25. If there is an oil-supply disruption resulting in higher international oil prices, domestic oil prices in
open-market countries such as the United States will rise as well, whether such countries import all or none of
Which of the following conclusions is best supported by the statement in the passage?
A. Domestic producers of oil in open-market countries are excluded from the international oil market when
there is a disruption in the international oil supply.
B. International oil-supply disruptions have little, if any, effect on the price of domestic oil as long as an
open-market country has domestic supplies capable of meeting domestic demand.
C. The oil market in an open-market country is actually part of the international oil market, even if most of that
country’s domestic oil is usually sold to consumers within its borders.
D. Open-market countries that export little or none of their oil can maintain stable domestic oil prices even
when international oil prices rise sharply.
E. If international oil prices rise, domestic distributors of oil in open-market countries will begin to import more
oil than they export.
26. The average normal infant born in the United States weighs between twelve and fourteen pounds at the age
of three months. Therefore, if a three-month-old child weighs only ten pounds, its weight gain has been below
the United States average.
Which of the following indicates a flaw in the reasoning above?
A. Weight is only one measure of normal infant development.
B. Some three-month-old children weigh as much as seventeen pounds.
C. It is possible for a normal child to weigh ten pounds at birth.
D. The phrase “below average” does not necessarily mean insufficient.
E. Average weight gain is not the same as average weight.
27. Red blood cells in which the malarial-fever parasite resides are eliminated from a person’s body after 120
days. Because the parasite cannot travel to a new generation of red blood cells, any fever that develops in a
person more than 120 days after that person has moved to a malaria-free region is not due to the malarial
Which is the following, if true, most seriously weakens the conclusion above?
A. The fever caused by the malarial parasite may resemble the fever caused by flu viruses.
B. The anopheles mosquito, which is the principal insect carrier of the malarial parasite, has been eradicated in
many parts of the world.
C. Many malarial symptoms other than the fever, which can be suppressed with anti-malarial medication, can
reappear within 120 days after the medication is discontinued.
D. In some cases, the parasite that causes malarial fever travels to cells of the spleen, which are less
frequently eliminated from a person’s body than are red blood cells.
E. In any region infested with malaria-carrying mosquitoes, there are individuals who appear to be immune to
28. Fact 1: Television advertising is becoming less effective: the proportion of brand names promoted on
television that viewers of the advertising can recall is slowly decreasing.
Fact 2: Television viewers recall commercials aired first or last in a cluster of consecutive commercials far better
than they recall commercials aired somewhere in the middle.
Fact 2 would be most likely to contribute to an explanation of fact 1 if which of the following were also true?
A. The average television viewer currently recalls fewer than half the brand names promoted in commercials
he or she saw.
B. The total time allotted to the average cluster of consecutive television commercials is decreasing.
C. The average number of hours per day that people spend watching television is decreasing.
D. The average number of clusters of consecutive commercials per hour of television is increasing.
E. The average number of television commercials in a cluster of consecutive commercials is increasing.
29. The number of people diagnosed as having a certain intestinal disease has dropped significantly in a rural
county this year, as compared to last year. Health officials attribute this decrease entirely to improved sanitary
conditions at water-treatment plants, which made for cleaner water this year and thus reduced the incidence of
Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the health officials’ explanation for the lower
incidence of the disease?
A. Many new water-treatment plants have been built in the last five years in the rural county.
B. Bottled spring water has not been consumed in significantly different quantities by people diagnosed as
having the intestinal disease, as compared to people who did not contract the disease.
C. Because of a new diagnostic technique, many people who until this year would have been diagnosed as
having the intestinal disease are now correctly diagnosed as suffering from intestinal ulcers.
D. Because of medical advances this year, far fewer people who contract the intestinal disease will develop
severe cases of the disease.
E. The water in the rural county was brought up to the sanitary standards of the water in neighboring counties
ten years ago.
30. The price the government pays for standard weapons purchased from military contractors is determined by a
pricing method called “historical costing.” Historical costing allows contractors to protect their profits by adding a
percentage increase, based on the current rate of inflation, to the previous year’s contractual price.
Which of the following statements, if true, is the best basis for a criticism of historical costing as an economically
sound pricing method for military contracts?
A. The government might continue to pay for past inefficient use of funds.
B. The rate of inflation has varied considerably over the past twenty years.
C. The contractual price will be greatly affected by the cost of materials used for the products.
D. Many taxpayers question the amount of money the government spends on military contracts.
E. The pricing method based on historical costing might not encourage the development of innovative
31. Some who favor putting governmental enterprises into private hands suggest that conservation objectives
would in general be better served if private environmental groups were put in charge of operating and financing
the national park system, which is now run by the government.
Which of the following, assuming that it is a realistic possibility, argues most strongly against the suggestion
A. Those seeking to abolish all restrictions on exploiting the natural resources of the parks might join the
private environmental groups as members and eventually take over their leadership.
B. Private environmental groups might not always agree on the best ways to achieve conservation objectives.
C. If they wished to extend the park system, the private environmental groups might have to seek contributions
from major donors and general public.
D. There might be competition among private environmental groups for control of certain park areas.
E. Some endangered species, such as the California condor, might die out despite the best efforts of the
private environmental groups, even if those groups are not hampered by insufficient resources.
32. A recent spate of launching and operating mishaps with television satellites led to a corresponding surge in
claims against companies underwriting satellite insurance. As a result, insurance premiums shot up, making
satellites more expensive to launch and operate. This, in turn, has added to the pressure to squeeze more
performance out of currently operating satellites.
Which of the following, if true, taken together with the information above, best supports the conclusion that the
cost of television satellites will continue to increase?
A. Since the risk to insurers of satellites is spread over relatively few units, insurance premiums are necessarily
B. When satellites reach orbit and then fail, the causes of failure are generally impossible to pinpoint with
C. The greater the performance demands placed on satellites, the more frequently those satellites break down.
D. Most satellites are produced in such small numbers that no economies of scale can be realized.
E. Since many satellites are built by unwieldy international consortia, inefficiencies are inevitable.
33. Rural households have more purchasing power than do urban or suburban households at the same income
level, since some of the income urban and suburban households use for food and shelter can be used by rural
households for other needs.
Which of the following inferences is best supported by the statement made above?
A. The average rural household includes more people than does the average urban or suburban household.
B. Rural households have lower food and housing costs than do either urban or suburban households.
C. Suburban households generally have more purchasing power than do either rural or urban households.
D. The median income of urban and suburban households is generally higher than that of rural households.
E. All three types of households spend more of their income on food and housing than on all other purchases
34. In 1985 state border colleges in Texas lost the enrollment of more than half, on average, of the Mexican
nationals they had previously served each year. Teaching faculties have alleged that this extreme drop resulted
from a rise in tuition for international and out-of-state students from $ 40 to $ 120 per credit hour.
Which of the following, if feasible, offers the best prospects for alleviating the problem of the drop in enrollment
of Mexican nationals as the teaching faculties assessed it?
A. Providing grants-in-aid to Mexican nationals to study in Mexican universities.
B. Allowing Mexican nationals to study in Texas border colleges and to pay in-state tuition rates, which are the
same as the previous international rate
C. Reemphasizing the goals and mission of the Texas state border colleges as serving both in-state students
and Mexican nationals
D. Increasing the financial resources of Texas colleges by raising the tuition for in-state students attending state
E. Offering career counseling for those Mexican nationals who graduate from state border colleges and intend
to return to Mexico
35. Affirmative action is good business. So asserted the National Association of Manufacturers while urging
retention of an executive order requiring some federal contractors to set numerical goals for hiring minorities and
women. “Diversity in work force participation has produced new ideas in management, product development,
and marketing,” the association claimed.
The association’s argument as it is presented in the passage above would be most strengthened if which of the
following were true?
A. The percentage of minority and women workers in business has increased more slowly than many minority
and women’s groups would prefer.
B. Those businesses with the highest percentages of minority and women workers are those that have been
the most innovative and profitable.
C. Disposable income has been rising as fast among minorities and women as among the population as a
D. The biggest growth in sales in the manufacturing sector has come in industries that market the most
E. Recent improvements in management practices have allowed many manufacturers to experience enormous
gains in worker productivity.
36. If the airspace around centrally located airports were restricted to commercial airliners and only those private
planes equipped with radar, most of the private-plane traffic would be forced to sue outlying airfields. Such a
reduction in the amount of private-plane traffic would reduce the risk of midair collision around the centrally
The conclusion draw in the first sentence depends on which of the following assumptions?
A. Outlying airfields would be as convenient as centrally located airports for most pilots of private planes.
B. Most outlying airfields are not equipped to handle commercial-airline traffic.
C. Most private planes that use centrally located airports are not equipped with radar.
D. Commercial airliners are at greater risk of becoming involved in midair collisions than are private planes.
E. A reduction in the risk of midair collision would eventually lead to increases in commercial-airline traffic.
37. If the airspace around centrally located airports were restricted to commercial airliners and only those private
planes equipped with radar, most of the private-plane traffic would be forced to sue outlying airfields. Such a
reduction in the amount of private-plane traffic would reduce the risk of midair collision around the centrally
Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the conclusion drawn in the second sentence?
A. Commercial airliners are already required by law to be equipped with extremely sophisticated radar
B. Centrally located airports are experiencing overcrowded airspace primarily because f sharp increases in
C. Many pilots of private planes would rather buy radar equipment than be excluded from centrally located
D. The number of midair collisions that occur near centrally located airports has decreased in recent years.
E. Private planes not equipped with radar systems cause a disproportionately large number of midair collisions
around centrally located airports.
38. Which of the following best completes the passage below?
Established companies concentrate on defending what they already have. Consequently, they tend not to be
innovative themselves and tend to underestimate the effects of the innovations of others. The clearest example
of this defensive strategy is the fact that___.
A. ballpoint pens and soft-tip markers have eliminated the traditional market for fountain pens, clearing the way
for the marketing of fountain pens as luxury or prestige items
B. a highly successful automobile was introduced by the same company that had earlier introduced a model
that had been a dismal failure
C. a once-successful manufacturer of slide rules reacted to the introduction of electronic calculators by trying to
make better slide rules
D. one of the first models of modern accounting machines, designed for use in the banking industry, was
purchased by a public library as well as by banks
E. the inventor of a commonly used anesthetic did not intend the product to be used by dentists, who currently
account for almost the entire market for that drug.
39. Most archaeologists have held that people first reached the Americas less than 20,000 years ago by
crossing a land bridge into North America. But recent discoveries of human shelters in South America dating
from 32,000 years ago have led researchers to speculate that people arrived in South America first, after
voyaging across the Pacific, and then spread northward.
Which of the following, if it were discovered, would be pertinent evidence against the speculation above?
A. A rock shelter near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, contains evidence of use by human beings 19,000 years ago.
B. Some North American sites of human habitation predate any sites found in South America.
C. The climate is warmer at the 32,000-year-old South American site than at the oldest known North American
D. The site in South America that was occupied 32,000 years ago was continuously occupied until 6,000 years
E. The last Ice Age, between 11,500 and 20,000 years ago, considerably lowered worldwide sea levels.
40. In Asia, where palm trees are non-native, the trees’ flowers have traditionally been pollinated by hand, which
has kept palm fruit productivity unnaturally low. When weevils known to be efficient pollinators of palm flowers
were introduced into Asia in 1980, palm fruit productivity increased-by up to fifty percent in some areas-but then
decreased sharply in 1984.
Which of the following statements, if true, would best explain the 1984 decrease in productivity?
A. Prices for palm fruit fell between 1980 and 1984 following the rise in production and a concurrent fall in
B. Imported trees are often more productive than native trees because the imported ones have left behind their
pests and diseases in their native lands.
C. Rapid increases in productivity tend to deplete trees of nutrients needed for the development of the
fruit-producing female flowers.
D. The weevil population in Asia remained at approximately the same level between 1980 and 1984.
E. Prior to 1980 another species of insect pollinated the Asian palm trees, but not as efficiently as the species
of weevil that was introduced in 1980.
41. Since the mayor’s publicity campaign for Greenville’s bus service began six months ago, morning
automobile traffic into the midtown area of the city has decreased seven percent. During the same period, there
has been an equivalent rise in the number of persons riding buses into the midtown area. Obviously, the mayor’s
publicity campaign has convinced many people to leave their cars at home and ride the bus to work.
Which of the following, if true, casts the most serious doubt on the conclusion drawn above?
A. Fares for all bus routes in Greenville have risen an average of five percent during the past six months.
B. The mayor of Greenville rides the bus to City Hall in the city’s midtown area.
C. Road reconstruction has greatly reduced the number of lanes available to commuters in major streets
leading to the midtown area during the past six months.
D. The number of buses entering the midtown area of Greenville during the morning hours is exactly the same
now as it was one year ago.
E. Surveys show that longtime bus riders are no more satisfied with the Greenville bus service than they were
before the mayor’s publicity campaign began.
42. In the aftermath of a worldwide stock-market crash, Country T claimed that the severity of the stock-market
crash it experienced resulted from the accelerated process of denationalization many of its industries underwent
shortly before the crash.
Which of the following, if it could be carried out, would be most useful in an evaluation of Country T’s
assessment of the causes of the severity of its stock-market crash?
A. calculating the average loss experienced by individual traders in Country T during the crash
B. using economic theory to predict the most likely date of the next crash in Country T
C. comparing the total number of shares sold during the worst days of the crash in Country T to the total
number of shares sold in Country T just prior to the crash
D. comparing the severity of the crash in Country T to the severity of the crash in countries otherwise
economically similar to Country T that have not experienced recent denationalization
E. comparing the long-term effects of the crash on the purchasing power of the currency of Country T to the
immediate, more severe short-term effects of the crash on the purchasing power of the currency of Country
43. With the emergence of biotechnology companies, it was feared that they would impose silence about
proprietary results on their in–house researchers and their academic consultants. This constraint, in turn, would
slow the development of biological science and engineering.
Which of the following, if true, would tend to weaken most seriously the prediction of scientific secrecy described
A. Biotechnological research funded by industry has reached some conclusions that are of major scientific
B. When the results of scientific research are kept secret, independent researchers are unable to build on
C. Since the research priorities of biotechnology companies are not the same as those of academic institutions,
the financial support of research by such companies distorts the research agenda.
D. To enhance the companies’ standing in the scientific community, the biotechnology companies encourage
employees to publish their results, especially results that are important.
E. Biotechnology companies devote some of their research resources to problems that are of fundamental
scientific importance and that are not expected to produce immediate practical applications.
44. Some people have questioned the judge’s objectivity in cases of sex discrimination against women. But the
record shows that in sixty percent of such cases, the judge has decided in favor of the women. This record
demonstrates that the judge has not discriminated against women in cases of sex discrimination against women.
The argument above is flawed in that it ignores the possibility that
A. a large number of the judge’s cases arose out of allegations of sex discrimination against women
B. many judges find it difficult to be objective in cases of sex discrimination against women
C. the judge is biased against women defendants or plaintiffs in cases that do not involve sex discrimination
D. the majority of the cases of sex discrimination against women that have reached the judge’s court have
been appealed from a lower court
E. the evidence shows that the women should have won in more than sixty percent of the judge’s cases
involving sex discrimination against women
45. The tobacco industry is still profitable and projections are that it will remain so. In the United States this year,
the total amount of tobacco sold by tobacco-farmers has increased, even though the number of adults who
smoke has decreased.
Each of the following, if true, could explain the simultaneous increase in tobacco sales and decrease in the
number of adults who smoke EXCEPT:
A. During this year, the number of women who have begun to smoke is greater than the number of men who
have quit smoking
B. The number of teen-age children who have begun to smoke this year is greater than the number of adults
who have quit smoking during the same period
C. During this year, the number of nonsmokers who have begun to use chewing tobacco or snuff is greater than
the number of people who have quit smoking
D. The people who have continued to smoke consume more tobacco per person than they did in the past
E. More of the cigarettes made in the United States this year were exported to other countries than was the
case last year.
46. Kale has more nutritional value than spinach. But since collard greens have more nutritional value than
lettuce, if follows that kale has more nutritional value than lettuce.
Any of the following, if introduced into the argument as an additional premise, makes the argument above
logically correct EXCEPT:
A. Collard greens have more nutritional value than kale
B. Spinach has more nutritional value than lettuce
C. Spinach has more nutritional value than collard greens
D. Spinach and collard greens have the same nutritional value
E. Kale and collard greens have the same nutritional value
47. On the basis of a decrease in the college-age population, many colleges now anticipate increasingly smaller
freshman classes each year. Surprised by a 40 percent increase in qualified applicants over the previous year,
however, administrators at Nice College now plan to hire more faculties for courses taken by all freshmen.
Which of the following statements about Nice College’s current qualified applicants, if true, would strongly
suggest that the administrators’ plan is flawed?
A. A substantially higher percentage than usual plan to study for advanced degrees after graduation from
B. According to their applications, their level of participation in extracurricular activities and varsity sports is
C. According to their applications, none of them lives in a foreign country.
D. A substantially lower percentage than usual rate Nice College as their first choice among the colleges to
which they are applying
E. A substantially lower percentage than usual list mathematics as their intended major.
48. A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-system activity tend to score much
lower on tests of mental health than do people with normal or high immune-system activity. The researcher
concluded from this experiment that the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against
The researcher’s conclusion depends on which of the following assumptions?
A. High immune-system activity protects against mental illness better than normal immune-system activity
B. Mental illness is similar to physical disease in its effects on body systems.
C. People with high immune-system activity cannot develop mental illness.
D. Mental illness does not cause people’s immune-system activity to decrease.
E. Psychological treatment of mental illness is not as effective as is medical treatment.
49. A milepost on the towpath read “21” on the side facing the hiker as she approached it and “23” on its back.
She reasoned that the next milepost forward on the path would indicate that she was halfway between one
end of the path and the other. However, the milepost one mile further on read “20” facing her and “24” behind.
Which of the following, if true, would explain the discrepancy described above?
(A) The numbers on the next milepost had been reversed.
(B) The numbers on the mileposts indicate kilometers, not miles.
(C) The facing numbers indicate miles to the end of the path, not miles from the beginning.
(D) A milepost was missing between the two the hiker encountered.
(E) The mileposts had originally been put in place for the use of mountain bikers, not for hikers.
50 Airline: Newly developed collision-avoidance systems, although not fully tested to discover potential
malfunctions, must be installed immediately in passenger planes. Their mechanical warnings enable pilots to
Pilots: Pilots will not fly in planes with collision-avoidance systems that are not fully tested. Malfunctioning
systems could mislead pilots, causing crashes.
The pilots’ objection is most strengthened if which of the following is true?
(A) It is always possible for mechanical devices to malfunction.
(B) Jet engines, although not fully tested when first put into use, have achieved exemplary performance and
(C) Although collision-avoidance systems will enable pilots to avoid some crashes, the likely malfunctions of
the not-fully-tested systems will cause even more crashes.
(D) Many airline collisions are caused in part by the exhaustion of overworked pilots.
(E) Collision-avoidance systems, at this stage of development, appear to have worked better in passenger
planes than in cargo planes during experimental flights made over a six-month period.
51. Guitar strings often go “dead”—become less responsive and bright in tone—after a few weeks of intense use.
A researcher whose son is a classical guitarist hypothesized that dirt and oil, rather than changes in the
material properties of the string, were responsible.
Which of the following investigations is most likely to yield significant information that would help to evaluate
the researcher’s hypothesis?
(A) Determining if a metal alloy is used to make the strings used by classical guitarists
(B) Determining whether classical guitarists make their strings go dead faster than do folk guitarists
(C) Determining whether identical lengths of string, of the same gauge, go dead at different rates when strung
on various brands of guitars.
(D) Determining whether a dead string and a new string produce different qualities of sound
(E) Determining whether smearing various substances on new guitar strings causes them to go dead
52. Most consumers do not get much use out of the sports equipment they purchase. For example, seventeen
percent of the adults in the United States own jogging shoes, but only forty-five percent of the owners jog more
than once a year, and only seventeen percent jog more than once a week.
Which of the following, if true, casts most doubt on the claim that most consumers get little use out of the
sports equipment they purchase?
(A) Joggers are most susceptible to sports injuries during the first six months in which they jog.
(B) Joggers often exaggerate the frequency with which they jog in surveys designed to elicit such information.
(C) Many consumers purchase jogging shoes for use in activities other than jogging.
(D) Consumers who take up jogging often purchase an athletic shoe that can be used in other sports.
(E) Joggers who jog more than once a week are often active participants in other sports as well.
53. Two decades after the Emerald River Dam was built, none of the eight fish species native to the Emerald
River was still reproducing adequately in the river below the dam. Since the dam reduced the annual range of
water temperature in the river below the dam from 50 degrees to 6 degrees, scientists have hypothesized that
sharply rising water temperatures must be involved in signaling the native species to begin the reproductive
Which of the following statements, if true, would most strengthen the scientists’ hypothesis?
(A) The native fish species were still able to reproduce only in side streams of the river below the dam where the
annual temperature range remains approximately 50 degrees.
(B) Before the dam was built, the Emerald River annually overflowed its banks, creating backwaters that were
critical breeding areas for the native species of fish.
(C) The lowest recorded temperature of the Emerald River before the dam was built was 34 degrees, whereas
the lowest recorded temperature of the river after the dam was built has been 43 degrees.
(D)Nonnative species of fish, introduced into the Emerald River after the dam was built, have begun competing
with the declining native fish species for food and space.
(E) Five of the fish species native to the Emerald River are not native to any other river in North America.
54. It is true that it is against international law to sell plutonium to countries that do not yet have nuclear weapons.
But if United States companies do not do so, companies in other countries will.
Which of the following is most like the argument above in its logical structure?
(A) It is true that it is against the police department’s policy to negotiate with kidnappers. But if the police want
to prevent loss of life, they must negotiate in some cases.
(B) it is true that it is illegal to refuse to register for military service. But there is a long tradition in the United
States of conscientious objection to serving in the armed forces.
(C) It is true that it is illegal for a government official to participate in a transaction in which there is an apparent
conflict of interest. But if the facts are examined carefully, it will clearly be seen that there was no actual conflict
of interest in the defendant’s case.
(D) It is true that it is against the law to burglarize people’s homes. But someone else certainly would have
burglarized that house if the defendant had not done so first.
(E) It is true that company policy forbids supervisors to fire employees without two written warnings. But there
have been many supervisors who have disobeyed this policy.
55. In recent years many cabinetmakers have been winning acclaim as artists. But since furniture must be useful,
cabinetmakers must exercise their craft with an eye to the practical utility of their product. For this reason,
cabinetmaking is not art.
Which of the following is an assumption that supports drawing the conclusion above from the reason given for
(A) Some furniture is made to be placed in museums, where it will not be used by anyone.
(B) Some cabinetmakers are more concerned than others with the practical utility of the products they
(C) Cabinetmakers should be more concerned with the practical utility of their products than they currently are.
(D) An object is not an art object if its maker pays attention to the object’s practical utility.
(E) Artists are not concerned with the monetary value of their products.
56. Although custom prosthetic bone replacements produced through a new computer-aided design process will
cost more than twice as much as ordinary replacements, custom replacements should still be cost-effective.
Not only will surgery and recovery time be reduced, but custom replacements should last longer, thereby
reducing the need for further hospital stays.
Which of the following must be studied in order to evaluate the argument presented above?
(A) The amount of time a patient spends in surgery versus the amount of time spent recovering from surgery
(B) The amount by which the cost of producing custom replacements has declined with the introduction of the
new technique for producing them
(C)The degree to which the use of custom replacements is likely to reduce the need for repeat surgery when
compared with the use of ordinary replacements
(D) The degree to which custom replacements produced with the new technique are more carefully
manufactured than are ordinary replacements
(E) The amount by which custom replacements produced with the new technique will drop in cost as the
production procedures become standardized and applicable on a larger scale
57. Extinction is a process that can depend on a variety of ecological, geographical, and physiological variables.
These variables affect different species of organisms in different ways, and should, therefore, yield a random
pattern of extinctions. However, the fossil record shows that extinction occurs in a surprisingly definite pattern,
with many species vanishing at the same time.
Which of the following, if true, forms the best basis for at least a partial explanation of the patterned extinctions
revealed by the fossil record?
(A) Major episodes of extinction can result from widespread environmental disturbances that affect numerous
(B) Certain extinction episodes selectively affect organisms with particular sets of characteristics unique to
(C) Some species become extinct because of accumulated gradual changes in their local environments.
(D) In geologically recent times, for which there is no fossil record, human intervention has changed the
pattern of extinctions.
(E) Species that are widely dispersed are the least likely to become extinct.
58. Neither a rising standard of living nor balanced trade, by itself, establishes a country’s ability to compete in
the international marketplace. Both are required simultaneously since standards of living can rise because of
growing trade deficits and trade can be balanced by means of a decline in a country’s standard of living.
If the facts stated in the passage above are true, a proper test of a country’s ability to be competitive is its
(A) balance its trade while its standard of living rises
(B) balance its trade while its standard of living falls
(C) increase trade deficits while its standard of living rises
(D) decrease trade deficits while its standard of living falls
(E) keep its standard of living constant while trade deficits rise.
59.Certain messenger molecules fight damage to the lungs from noxious air by telling the muscle cells encircling
the lungs’ airways to contract. This partially seals off the lungs. An asthma attack occurs when the
messenger molecules are activated unnecessarily, in response to harmless things like pollen or household
Which of the following, if true, points to the most serious flaw of a plan to develop a medication that would
prevent asthma attacks by blocking receipt of any messages sent by the messenger molecules referred to
(A) Researchers do not yet know how the body produces the messenger molecules that trigger asthma
(B) Researchers do not yet know what makes one person’s messenger molecules more easily activated than
(C) Such a medication would not become available for several years, because of long lead times in both
development and manufacture.
(D) Such a medication would be unable to distinguish between messages triggered by pollen and household
dust and messages triggered by noxious air.
(E) Such a medication would be a preventative only and would be unable to alleviate an asthma attack once
it had started.
60. Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacteria capable of surviving antibiotic
environments, the presence of resistant bacteria in people could be due to the human use of prescription
antibiotics. Some scientists, however, believe that most resistant bacteria in people derive from human
consumption of bacterially infected meat.
Which of the following statements, if true, would most significantly strengthen the hypothesis of the
(A) Antibiotics are routinely included in livestock feed so that livestock producers can increase the rate of
growth of their animals.
(B) Most people who develop food poisoning from bacterially infected meat are treated with prescription
(C) The incidence of resistant bacteria in people has tended to be much higher in urban areas than in rural
areas where meat is of comparable quality.
(D) People who have never taken prescription antibiotics are those least likely to develop resistant bacteria.
(E) Livestock producers claim that resistant bacteria in animals cannot be transmitted to people through
61. The recent decline in the value of the dollar was triggered by a prediction of slower economic growth in the
coming year. But that prediction would not have adversely affected the dollar had it not been for the
government’s huge budget deficit, which must therefore be decreased to prevent future currency declines.
Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion about how to prevent future
(A) The government has made little attempt to reduce the budget deficit.
(B) The budget deficit has not caused a slowdown in economic growth.
(C) The value of the dollar declined several times in the year prior to the recent prediction of slower economic
(D) Before there was a large budget deficit, predictions of slower economic growth frequently caused
declines in the dollar’s value.
(E) When there is a large budget deficit, other events in addition to predictions of slower economic growth
sometimes trigger declines in currency value.
62. Which of the following best completes the passage below?
At a recent conference on environmental threats to the North Sea, most participating countries favored
uniform controls on the quality of effluents, whether or not specific environmental damage could be attributed
to a particular source of effluent. What must, of course, be shown, in order to avoid excessively restrictive
controls, is that ___________.
(A) any uniform controls that are adopted are likely to be implemented without delay
(B) any substance to be made subject to controls can actually cause environmental damage
(C) the countries favoring uniform controls are those generating the largest quantities of effluents
(D) all of any given pollutant that is to be controlled actually reaches the North Sea at present
(E) environmental damage already inflicted on the North Sea is reversible
63. Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned step-by-step has been considered preferable to
intuitive decision-making. However, a recent study found that top managers used intuition significantly more
than did most middle-or lower-level managers. This confirms the alternative view that intuition is actually
more effective than careful, methodical reasoning.
The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions?
(A) Methodical, step-by-step reasoning is inappropriate for making many real-life management decisions.
(B) Top managers have the ability to use either intuitive reasoning or methodical, step-by-step reasoning in
(C) The decisions made by middle-and lower-level managers can be made as easily by using methodical
reasoning as by using intuitive reasoning.
(D) Top managers use intuitive reasoning in making the majority of their decisions.
(E) Top managers are more effective at decision-making than middle-or lower-level managers
64. The imposition of quotas limiting imported steel will not help the big American steel mills. In fact, the quotas
will help “mini-mills” flourish in the United States. Those small domestic mills will take more business from the
big Americal steel mills than would have been taken by the foreign steel mills in the absence of quotas.
Which of the following, if true, would cast the most serious doubt on the claim made in the last sentence
(A) Quality rather than price is a major factor in determining the type of steel to be used for a particular
(B) Foreign steel mills have long produced grades of steel comparable in quality to the steel produced by the
big American mills.
(C) American quotas on imported goods have often induced other countries to impose similar quotas on
(D) Domestic “mini-mills” consistently produce better grades of steel than do the big American mills.
(E) Domestic “mini-mills” produce low-volume, specialized types of steels that are not produced by the big
American steel mills.
65. Correctly measuring the productivity of service workers is complex. Consider, for example, postal workers:
they are often said to be more productive if more letters are delivered per postal worker. But is this really true?
what if more letters are lost or delayed per worker at the same time that more are delivered?
The objection implied above to the productivity measure described is based on doubts about the truth of
which of the following statements?
(A) Postal workers are representative of service workers in general.
(B) The delivery of letters is the primary activity of the postal service.
(C) Productivity should be ascribed to categories of workers, not to individuals.
(D) The quality of services rendered can appropriately be ignored in computing productivity.
(E) The number of letters delivered is relevant to measuring the productivity of postal workers.
66. Male bowerbirds construct elaborately decorated nests, or bowers. Basing their judgment on the fact that
different local populations of bowerbirds of the same species build bowers that exhibit different building and
decorative styles, researchers have concluded that the bowerbirds’ building styles are a culturally acquired,
rather than a genetically transmitted, trait.
Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the conclusion drawn by the researchers?
(A) There are more common characteristics than there are differences among the bower-building styles of
the local bowerbird population that has been studied most extensively
(B) Young male bowerbirds are inept at bower-building and apparently spend years watching their elders
before becoming accomplished in the local bower style.
(C) The bowers of one species of bowerbird lack the towers and ornamentation characteristic of the bowers
of most other species of bowerbird.
(D) Bowerbirds are found only in New Guinea and Australia, where local populations of the birds apparently
seldom have contact with one another.
(E) It is well known that the song dialects of some songbirds are learned rather than transmitted genetically.
67. A greater number of newspapers are sold in Town S than in Town T. Therefore, the citizens of Town S are
better informed about major world events than are the citizens of Town T.
Each of the following, if true, weakens the conclusion above EXCEPT:
(A) Town S has a larger population than Town T.
(B) Most citizens of Town T work in Town S and buy their newspapers there.
(C) The average citizen of Town S spends less time reading newspapers than does the average citizen of
(D) A weekly newspaper restricted to the coverage of local events is published in Town S.
(E) The average newsstand price of newspapers sold in Town S in lower than the average price of
newspapers sold in Town T.
68. A drug that is highly effective in treating many types of infection can, at present, be obtained only from the
bark of the ibora, a tree that is quite rare in the wild. It takes the bark of 5,000 tree to make one kilogram of the
drug. It follows, therefore, that continued production of the drug must inevitably lead to the ibora’s extinction.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above?
(A) The drug made from ibora bark is dispensed to doctors from a central authority.
(B) The drug made from ibora bark is expensive to produce.
(C) The leaves of the ibora are used in a number of medical products.
(D) The ibora can be propagated from cuttings and grown under cultivation.
(E) The ibora generally grows in largely inaccessible places.
69. High levels of fertilizer and pesticides, needed when farmers try to produce high yield of the same crop year
after year, pollute water supplies. Experts therefore urge farmers to diversify their crops and to rotate their
To receive governmental price-support benefits for a crop, farmers must have produced that same crop for the
past several years.
The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?
(A) The rules for governmental support of farm prices work against efforts to reduce water pollution.
(B) The only solution to the problem of water pollution from fertilizers and pesticides is to take farmland out of
(C) Farmers can continue to make a profit by rotating diverse crops, thus reducing costs for chemicals, but not
by planting the same crop each year.
(D) New farming techniques will be developed to make it possible for farmers to reduce the application of
fertilizers and pesticides.
(E) Governmental price supports for farm products are set at levels that are not high enough to allow farmers
to get out of debt.
70. Shelby Industries manufactures and sells the same gauges as Jones Industries. Employee wages account
for forty percent of the cost of manufacturing gauges at both Shelby Industries and Jones Industries. Shelby
Industries is seeking a competitive advantage over Jones Industries. Therefore, to promote this end, Shelby
Industries should lower employee wages.
Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument above?
(A) Because they make a small number of precision instruments, gauge manufacturers cannot receive volume
discounts on raw materials.
(B) Lowering wages would reduce the quality of employee work, and this reduced quality would lead to
(C) Jones Industries has taken away twenty percent of Shelby Industries’ business over the last year.
(D) Shelby Industries pays its employees, on average, ten percent more than does Jones Industries.
(E) Many people who work for manufacturing plants live in areas in which the manufacturing plant they work
for is the only industry.
71. Some communities in Florida are populated almost exclusively by retired people and contain few, if any,
families with small children. Yet these communities are home to thriving businesses specializing in the rental
of furniture for infants and small children.
Which of the following, if true, best reconciles the seeming discrepancy described above?
(A) The businesses specializing in the rental of children’s furniture buy their furniture from distributors outside
(B) The few children who do reside in these communities all know each other and often make overnight visits
to one another’s houses.
(C) Many residents of these communities who move frequently prefer renting their furniture to buying it
(D) Many residents of these communities must provide for the needs of visiting grandchildren several weeks a
(E) Children’s furniture available for rental is of the same quality as that available for sale in the stores.
72. Large national budget deficits do not cause large trade deficits. If they did, countries with the largest budget
deficits would also have the largest trade deficits. In fact, when deficit figures are adjusted so that different
countries are reliably comparable to each other, there is no such correlation.
If the statements above are all true, which of the following can properly be inferred on the basis of them?
(A) Countries with large national budget deficits tend to restrict foreign trade.
(B) Reliable comparisons of the deficit figures of one country with those of another are impossible.
(C) Reducing a country’s national budget deficit will not necessarily result in a lowering of any trade deficit that
country may have.
(D) When countries are ordered from largest to smallest in terms of population, the smallest countries
generally have the smallest budget and trade deficits.
(E) Countries with the largest trade deficits never have similarly large national budget deficits.
73. “Fast cycle time” is a strategy of designing a manufacturing organization to eliminate bottlenecks and delays
in production. Not only does it speed up production, but it also assures quality. The reason is that the
bottlenecks and delays cannot be eliminated unless all work is done right the first time.
The claim about quality made above rests on a questionable presupposition that
(A) any flaw in work on a product would cause a bottleneck or delay and so would be prevented from occurring
on a “fast cycle” production line
(B) the strategy of “fast cycle time” would require fundamental rethinking of product design
(C) the primary goal of the organization is to produce a product of unexcelled quality, rather than to generate
profits for stockholders
(D) “fast cycle time” could be achieved by shaving time off each of the component processes in production
(E) “fast cycle time” is a concept in business strategy that has not yet been put into practice in a factory
74. Many breakfast cereals are fortified with vitamin supplements. Some of these cereals provide 100 percent of
the recommended daily requirement of vitamins. Nevertheless, a well-balanced breakfast, including a variety
of foods, is a better source of those vitamins than are such fortified breakfast cereals alone.
Which of the following, if true, would most strongly support the position above?
(A) In many foods, the natural combination of vitamins with other nutrients makes those vitamins more usable
by the body than are vitamins added in vitamin supplements.
(B) People who regularly eat cereals fortified with vitamin supplements sometimes neglect to eat the foods in
which the vitamins occur naturally.
(C)Foods often must be fortified with vitamin supplements because naturally occurring vitamins are removed
(D) Unprocessed cereals are naturally high in several of the vitamins that are usually added to fortified
(E) Cereals containing vitamin supplements are no harder to digest than similar cereals without added
75. Which of the following best completes the passage below?
The more worried investors are about losing their money, the more they will demand a high potential return on
their investment; great risks must be offset by the chance of great rewards. This principle is the fundamental
one in determining interest rates, and it is illustrated by the fact that——.
(A) successful investors are distinguished by an ability to make very risky investments without worrying about
(B) lenders receive higher interest rates on unsecured loans than on loans backed by collateral
(C) in times of high inflation, the interest paid to depositors by banks can actually be below the rate of inflation
(D) at any one time, a commercial bank will have a single rate of interest that it will expect all of its individual
borrowers to pay
(E) the potential return on investment in a new company is typically lower than the potential return on
investment in a well-established company
76. A famous singer recently won a lawsuit against an advertising firm for using another singer in a commercial
to evoke the famous singer’s well-known rendition of a certain song. As a result of the lawsuit, advertising
firms will stop using imitators in commercials. Therefore, advertising costs will rise, since famous singers’
services cost more than those of their imitators.
The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions?
(A) Most people are unable to distinguish a famous singer’s rendition of a song from a good imitator’s
rendition of the same song.
(B) Commercials using famous singers are usually more effective than commercials using imitators of
(C) The original versions of some well-known songs are unavailable for use in commercials.
(D) Advertising firms will continue to use imitators to mimic the physical mannerisms of famous singers.
(E) The advertising industry will use well-known renditions of songs in commercials.
77. A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day on private vehicles entering the city, claiming that
the fee will alleviate the city’s traffic congestion. The mayor reasons that, since the fee will exceed the cost of
round-trip bus fare from many nearby points, many people will switch from using their cars to using the bus.
Which of the following statements, if true, provides the best evidence that the mayor’s reasoning is flawed?
(A) Projected increases in the price of gasoline will increase the cost of taking a private vehicle into the city.
(B) The cost of parking fees already makes it considerably more expensive for most people to take a private
vehicle into the city than to take a bus.
(C) Most of the people currently riding the bus do not own private vehicles.
(D) Many commuters opposing the mayor’s plan have indicated that they would rather endure traffic
congestion than pay a five-dollar-per day fee.
(E) During the average workday, private vehicles owned and operated by people living within the city account
for twenty percent of the city’s traffic congestion.
78. A group of children of various ages was read stories in which people caused harm, some of those people
doing so intentionally, and some accidentally. When asked about appropriate punishments for those who had
caused harm, the younger children, unlike the older ones, assigned punishments that did not vary according
to whether the harm was done intentionally or accidentally. Younger children, then, do not regard people’s
intentions as relevant to punishment.
Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion above?
(A) In interpreting these stories, the listeners had to draw on a relatively mature sense of human psychology
in order to tell whether harm was produced intentionally or accidentally.
(B) In these stories, the severity of the harm produced was clearly stated.
(C) Younger children are as likely to produce harm unintentionally as are older children.
(D) The older children assigned punishment in a way that closely resembled the way adults had assigned
punishment in a similar experiment.
(E) The younger children assigned punishments that varied according to the severity of the harm done by the
agents in the stories.
79. When hypnotized subjects are told that they are deaf and are then asked whether they can hear the
hypnotist, they reply, “No.” Some theorists try to explain this result by arguing that the selves of hypnotized
subjects are dissociated into separate parts, and that the part that is deaf is dissociated from the part that
Which of the following challenges indicates the most serious weakness in the attempted explanation
(A) Why does the part that replies not answer, “Yes”?
(B) Why are the observed facts in need of any special explanation?
(C) Why do the subjects appear to accept the hypnotist’s suggestion that they are deaf?
(D) Why do hypnotized subjects all respond the same way in the situation described?
(E) Why are the separate parts of the self the same for all subjects?
Questions 13-14 are based on the following.
The program to control the entry of illegal drugs into the country was a failure in 1987. If the program had been
successful, the wholesale price of most illegal drugs would not have dropped substantially in 1987.
80. The argument in the passage depends on which of the following assumptions?
(A) The supply of illegal drugs dropped substantially in 1987.
(B) The price paid for most illegal drugs by the average consumer did not drop substantially in 1987.
(C) Domestic production of illegal drugs increased at a higher rate than did the entry of such drugs into the
(D) The wholesale price of a few illegal drugs increased substantially in 1987.
(E) A drop in demand for most illegal drugs in 1987 was not the sole cause of the drop in their wholesale
81. The argument in the passage would be most seriously weakened if it were true that
(A) in 1987 smugglers of illegal drugs, as a group, had significantly more funds at their disposal than did the
country’s customs agents
(B) domestic production of illegal drugs increased substantially in 1987
(C) the author’s statements were made in order to embarrass the officials responsible for the drug-control
(D) in 1987 illegal drugs entered the country by a different set of routes than they did in 1986
(E) the country’s citizens spent substantially more money on illegal drugs in 1987 than they did in 1986.
82. Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus revealed a pattern of debris and collapsed
buildings typical of towns devastated by earthquakes. Archaeologists have hypothesized that the destruction
was due to a major earthquake known to have occurred near the island in A.D.365.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the archaeologists’ hypothesis?
(A) Bronze ceremonial drinking vessels that are often found in graves dating from years preceding and
following A.D.365 were also found in several graves near Kourion.
(B) No coins minted after A.D.365 were found in Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in
(C) Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occurred near the island in A.D.365.
(D) Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D.300 and 400 were
found in Kourion.
(E) Stone inscriptions in a form of the Greek alphabet that was definitely used in Cyprus after A.D.365 were
found in Kourion.
83. Sales of telephones have increased dramatically over the last year. In order to take advantage of this
increase, Mammoth Industries plans to expand production of its own model of telephone, while continuing its
already very extensive advertising of this product.
Which of the following, if true, provides most support for the view that Mammoth Industries cannot increase its
sales of telephones by adopting the plan outlined above?
(A) Although it sells all of the telephones that it produces, Mammoth Industries’ share of all telephone sales
has declined over the last year.
(B) Mammoth Industries’ average inventory of telephones awaiting shipment to retailers has declined slightly
over the last year.
(C) Advertising has made the brand name of Mammoth Industries’ telephones widely known, but few
consumers know that Mammoth Industries owns this brand.
(D) Mammoth Industries’ telephone is one of three brands of telephone that have together accounted for the
bulk of the last year’s increase in sales.
(E) Despite a slight decline in the retail price, sales of Mammoth Industries’ telephones have fallen in the last
84. Many institutions of higher education suffer declining enrollments during periods of economic slowdown. At
two-year community colleges, however, enrollment figures boom during these periods when many people
have less money and there is more competition for jobs.
Each of the following, if true, helps to explain the enrollment increases in two-year community colleges
described above EXCEPT:
(A) During periods of economic slowdown, two-year community colleges are more likely than four-year
colleges to prepare their students for the jobs that are still available.
(B) During periods of economic prosperity, graduates of two-year community colleges often continue their
studies at four-year colleges.
(C) Tuition at most two-year community colleges is a fraction of that at four-year colleges.
(D) Two-year community colleges devote more resources than do other colleges to attracting those students
especially affected by economic slowdowns.
(E) Students at two-year community colleges, but not those at most four-year colleges, can control the cost of
their studies by choosing the number of courses they take each term.
Question 85-86 are based on the following.
Hardin argued that grazing land held in common (that is, open to any user) would always be used less carefully
than private grazing land. Each rancher would be tempted to overuse common land because the benefits would
accrue to the individual, while the costs of reduced land quality that results from overuse would be spread
among all users. But a study comparing 217 million acres of common grazing land with 433 million acres of
private grazing land showed that the common land was in better condition.
85. The answer to which of the following questions would be most useful in evaluating the significance, in
relation to Hardin’s claim, of the study described above?
(A) Did any of the ranchers whose land was studied use both common and private land?
(B) Did the ranchers whose land was studied tend to prefer using common land over using private land for
(C) Was the private land that was studied of comparable quality to the common land before either was used
(D) Were the users of the common land that was studied at least as prosperous as the users of the private
(E) Were there any owners of herds who used only common land, and no private land, for grazing?
86. Which of the following, if true and known by the ranchers, would best help explain the results of the study?
(A) With private grazing land, both the costs and the benefits of overuse fall to the individual user.
(B) The cost in reduced land quality that is attributable to any individual user is less easily measured with
common land than it is with private land.
(C) An individual who overuses common grazing land might be able to achieve higher returns than other
users can, with the result that he or she would obtain a competitive advantage.
(D) If one user of common land overuses it even slightly, the other users are likely to do so even more, with
the consequence that the costs to each user outweigh the benefits.
(E)There are more acres of grazing land held privately than there are held in common.
87. In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive result indicates that people have pironoma when, in
fact, they do not; a false negative result indicates that people do not have pironoma when, in fact, they do. To
detect pironoma most accurately, physicians should use the laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of
false positive results.
Which of the following, if true, gives the most support to the recommendation above?
(A) The accepted treatment for pironoma does not have damaging side effects.
(B) The laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results causes the same minor side
effects as do the other laboratory tests used to detect pironoma.
(C) In treating pironoma patients, it is essential to begin treatment as early as possible, since even a week of
delay can result in loss of life.
(D) The proportion of inconclusive test results is equal for all laboratory tests used to detect pironoma.
(E) All laboratory tests to detect pironoma have the same proportion of false negative results.
Questions 88-89 are based on the following.
In many corporations, employees are being replaced by automated equipment in order to save money. However,
many workers who lose their jobs to automation will need government assistance to survive, and the same
corporations that are laying people off will eventually pay for that assistance through increased taxes and
unemployment insurance payments.
88. The author is arguing that
(A) higher taxes and unemployment insurance payments will discourage corporations from automating
(B) replacing people through automation to reduce production costs will result in increases of other costs to
(C) many workers who lose their jobs to automation will have to be retrained for new jobs
(D) corporations that are laying people off will eventually rehire many of them
(E) corporations will not save money by automating because people will be needed to run the new machines
89.Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the author's argument?
Many workers who have already lost their jobs to automation have been unable to find new jobs.
Many corporations that have failed to automate have seen their profits decline.
Taxes and unemployment insurance are paid also by corporations that are not automating.
Most of the new jobs created by automation pay less than the jobs eliminated by automation did.
The initial investment in machinery for automation is often greater than the short-term savings in labor costs.
90. The sustained massive use of pesticides in farming has two effects
that are especially pernicious. First, it often kills off the pests' natural
enemies in the area. Second, it often unintentionally gives rise to
insecticide-resistant pests, since those insects that survive a particu-
lar insecticide will be the ones most resistant to it, and they are the
ones left to breed.
From the passage above, it can be properly inferred that the effective-
ness of the sustained massive use of pesticides can be extended by
doing which of the following, assuming that each is a realistic possibility?
Using only chemically stable insecticides
Periodically switching the type of insecticide used
Gradually increasing the quantities of pesticides used
Leaving a few fields fallow every year
Breeding higher-yielding varieties of crop plants
91. When a polygraph test is judged inconclusive, this is no reflection on the examinee. Rather, such a judgment
means that the test has failed to show whether the examinee was truthful or untruthful. Nevertheless, employers
will sometimes refuse to hire a job applicant because of an inconclusive polygraph test result.
Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the information above?
Most examinees with inconclusive polygraph test results are in fact untruthful.
Polygraph tests should not be used by employers in the consideration of job applicants.
An inconclusive polygraph test result is sometimes unfairly held against the examinee.
A polygraph test indicating that an examinee is untruthful can sometimes be mistaken.
Some employers have refused to consider the results of polygraph tests when evaluating job applicants.
92. According to the new office smoking regulations, only employees who have enclosed office may smoke at
their desks. Virtually all employees with enclosed offices are at the professional level, and virtually all secretarial
employees lack enclosed offices. Therefore, secretaries who smoke should be offered enclosed offices.
Which of the following is an assumption that enables the conclusion above to be properly drawn?
(A) Employees at the professional level who do not smoke should keep their enclosed offices.
(B) Employees with enclosed offices should not smoke at their desks, even though the new regulations permit
them to do so.
(C) Employees at the secretarial level should be allowed to smoke at their desks, even if they do not have
(D) The smoking regulations should allow all employees who smoke an equal opportunity to do so, regardless
of an employee’s job level.
(E) The smoking regulations should provide equal protection from any hazards associated with smoking to all
employees who do not smoke.
93. Dental researchers recently discovered that tooth-brushes can become contaminated wth bacterial that
cause pneumonia and strep throat. They found that contamination usually occurs after toothbrushes have been
used for four weeks. For that reason, people should replace their toothbrushes at least once a month.
Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the conclusion above?
(A) The dental researchers could not discover why toothbrush contamination usually occurred only after
toothbrushes had been used for four weeks.
(B) The dental researchers failed to investigate contamination of toothbrushes by viruses, yeasts, and other
(C) The dental researchers found that among people who used toothbrushes contaminated with bacterial that
cause pneumonia and strep throat, the incidence of these diseases was no higher than among people who
used uncontaminated toothbrushes.
(D) The dental researchers found that people who rinsed their toothbrushes thoroughly in hot water after each
use were as likely to have contaminated toothbrushes as were people who only rinsed their toothbrushes
hurriedly in cold water after each use.
(E) The dental researchers found that, after six weeks of use, greater length of use of a toothbrush did not
correlate with a higher number of bacterial being present.
Questions 94-95 are based on the following.
To protect certain fledgling industries, the government of country Z banned imports of the types of products
those industries were starting to make. As a direct result, the cost of those products to the buyers, several
export-dependent industries in Z, went up, sharply limiting the ability of those industries to compete effectively in
their export markets.
94. Which of the following can be most properly inferred from the passage about the products whose importation
(A) Those products had been cheaper to import than they were to make within country Z’s fledgling industries.
(B) Those products were ones that country Z was hoping to export in its turn, once the fledgling industries
(C) Those products used to be imported from just those countries to which country Z’s exports went.
(D) Those products had become more and more expensive to import, which resulted in a foreign trade deficit
just before the ban.
(E) Those products used to be imported in very small quantities, but they were essential to country Z’s
95. Which of the following conclusions about country Z’s adversely affected export-dependent industries is best
supported by the passage?
(A) Profit margins in those industries were not high enough to absorb the rise in costs mentioned above.
(B) Those industries had to contend with the fact that other countries banned imports from country Z.
(C) Those industries succeeded in expanding the domestic market for their products.
(D) Steps to offset rising materials costs by decreasing labor costs were taken in those industries.
(E) Those industries started to move into export markets that they had previously judged unprofitable.
96.The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line is that a used plane can be bought for one-third the price
of the train line, and the plane, which is just as fast, can fly anywhere. The train would be a fixed linear system,
and we live in a world that is spreading out in all directions and in which consumers choose the free-wheel
systems (cars, buses, aircraft), which do not have fixed routes. Thus a sufficient market for the train will not exist.
Which of the following, if true, most severely weakens the argument presented above?
(A) Cars, buses, and planes require the efforts of drivers and pilots to guide them, whereas the train will be
(B) Cars and buses are not nearly as fast as the high-speed train will be.
(C) Planes are not a free-wheel system because they can fly only between airports, which are less convenient
for consumers than the high-speed train’s stations would be.
(D) The high-speed train line cannot use currently underutilized train stations in large cities.
(E) For long trips, most people prefer to fly rather than to take ground-level transportation.
97.Leaders of a miners’ union on strike against Coalco are contemplating additional measures to pressure the
company to accept the union’s contract proposal. The union leaders are considering as their principal new tactic
a consumer boycott against Gasco gas stations, which are owned by Energy Incorporated, the same corporation
that owns Coalco.
Answer to which of the following questions is LEAST directly relevant to the union leaders’ consideration of
whether attempting a boycott of Gasco will lead to acceptance of their contract proposal?
(A) Would revenue losses by Gasco seriously affect Energy Incorporated?
(B) Can current Gasco customers easily obtain gasoline elsewhere?
(C) Have other miners’ unions won contracts similar to the one proposed by this union?
(D) Have other unions that have employed a similar tactic achieved their goals with it?
(E) Do other corporations that own coal companies also own gas stations?
Questions 98-99 are based on the following.
Transnational cooperation among corporations is experiencing a model renaissance among United States firms,
even though projects undertaken by two or more corporations under a collaborative agreement are less
profitable than projects undertaken by a singly corporation . The advantage of transnational cooperation is that
such joint international projects may allow United States firms to win foreign contracts that they would not
otherwise be able to win.
98. Which of the following statements by a United States corporate officer best fits the situation of United States
firms as described in the passage above?
(A) “We would rather make only a share of the profit and also risk only a share of a possible loss than run the full
risk of a loss.”
(B) “We would rather make a share of a relatively modest profit than end up making none of a potentially much
(C) “We would rather cooperate and build good will than poison the business climate by all-out competition.”
(D) “We would rather have foreign corporations join us in American projects than join them in projects in their
(E) “We would rather win a contract with a truly competitive bid of our own than get involved in less profitable
99. Which of the following is information provided by the passage above?
(A) Transnational cooperation involves projects too big for a single corporation to handle.
(B) Transnational cooperation results in a pooling of resources leading to high-quality performance.
(C) Transnational cooperation has in the past been both more common and less common than it is now among
United States firms.
(D) Joint projects between United States and foreign corporation are not profitable enough to be worth
(E) Joint projects between United States and foreign corporations benefit only those who commission the
100. A compelling optical illusion called the illusion of velocity and size makes objects appear to be moving more
slowly the larger the objects are. Therefore, a motorist’s estimate of the time available for crossing a highway
with a small car approaching is bound to be lower than it would be with a large truck approaching.
The conclusion above would be more properly drawn if it were made clear that the
(A) truck’s speed is assumed to be lower than the car’s
(B) truck’s speed is assumed to be the same as the car’s
(C) truck’s speed is assumed to be higher than the car’s
(D) motorist’s estimate of time available is assumed to be more accurate with cars approaching than with trucks
(E) motorist’s estimate of time available is assumed to be more accurate with trucks approaching than with cars
101. Biological functions of many plants and animals vary in cycles that are repeated every 24 hours. It is
tempting to suppose that alteration in the intensity of incident light is the stimulus that controls these daily
biological rhythms. But there is much evidence to contradict this hypothesis.
Which of the following, if known, is evidence that contradicts the hypothesis stated in lines 2-5 above?
(A) Human body temperature varies throughout the day, with the maximum occurring in the late afternoon and
the minimum in the morning.
(B) While some animals, such as the robin, are more active during the day, others, such as mice, show greater
activity at night.
(C) When people move from one time zone to another, their daily biological rhythms adjust in a matter of days to
the periods of sunlight and darkness in the new zone.
(D) Certain single-cell plants display daily biological rhythms even when the part of the cell containing the
nucleus is removed.
(E) Even when exposed to constant light intensity around the clock, some algae display rates of photosynthesis
that are much greater during daylight hours than at night.
102. Although migraine headaches are believed to be caused by food allergies, putting patients on diets that
eliminate those foods to which the patients have been demonstrated to have allergic migraine reactions
frequently does not stop headaches. Obviously, some other cause of migraine headaches besides food allergies
Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the conclusion above?
(A) Many common foods elicit an allergic response only after several days, making it very difficult to observe
links between specific foods patients eat and headaches they develop.
(B) Food allergies affect many people who never develop the symptom of migraine headaches.
(C) Many patients report that the foods that cause them migraine headaches are among the foods that they
most enjoy eating.
(D) Very few patients have allergic migraine reactions as children live migraine-free adult lives once they have
eliminated from their diets foods to which they have been demonstrated to be allergic.
(E) Very rarely do food allergies cause patients to suffer a symptom more severe than that of migraine
103. The technological conservatism of bicycle manufacturers is a reflection of the kinds of demand they are
trying to meet. The only cyclists seriously interested in innovation and willing to pay for it are bicycle racers.
Therefore, innovation in bicycle technology is limited by what authorities will accept as standard for purpose of
competition in bicycle races.
Which of the following is an assumption made in drawing the conclusion above?
(A) The market for cheap, traditional bicycles cannot expand unless the market for high-performance
competition bicycles expands.
(B) High-performance bicycles are likely to be improved more as a result of technological innovations
developed in small workshops than as a result of technological innovations developed in major
(C) Bicycle racers do not generate a strong demand for innovations that fall outside what is officially recognized
as standard for purposes of competition.
(D) The technological conservatism of bicycle manufacturers results primarily from their desire to manufacture
a product that can be sold without being altered to suit different national markets.
(E) The authorities who set standards for high-performance bicycle racing do not keep informed about
innovative bicycle design.
104. Spending on research and development by United States businesses for 1984 showed an increase of about
8 percent over the 1983 level. This increase actually continued a downward trend evident since 1981 – when
outlays for research and development increased 16.4 percent over 1980 spending. Clearly, the 25 percent tax
credit enacted by Congress in 1981, which was intended to promote spending on research and development,
did little or nothing to stimulate such spending.
The conclusion of the argument above cannot be true unless which of the following is true?
(A) Business spending on research and development is usually directly proportional to business profits.
(B) Business spending for research and development in 1985 could not increase by more than 8.3%.
(C) Had the 1981 tax credit been set higher than 25%, business spending for research and development after
1981 would have increased more than it did.
(D) In the absence of the 25% tax credit, business spending for research and development after 1981 would not
have been substantially lower than it was.
(E) Tax credits market for specific investments are rarely effective in inducing businesses to make those
105. Treatment for hypertension forestalls certain medical expenses by preventing strokes and heart disease.
Yet any money so saved amounts to only one-fourth of the expenditures required to treat the hypertensive
population. Therefore, there is no economic justification for preventive treatment for hypertension.
Which of the following, if true, is most damaging to the conclusion above?
(A) The many fatal strokes and heart attacks resulting from untreated hypertension cause insignificant medical
expenditures but large economic losses of other sorts.
(B) The cost, per patient, of preventive treatment for hypertension would remain constant even if such treatment
were instituted on a large scale.
(C) In matters of health care, economic considerations should ideally not be dominant.
(D) Effective prevention presupposes early diagnosis, and programs to ensure early diagnosis are costly.
(E) The net savings in medical resources achieved by some preventive health measures are smaller than the
net losses attributable to certain other measures of this kind.
106. Property taxes are typically set at a flat rate per $ 1,000 of officially assessed value. Reassessments should
be frequent in order to remove distortions that arise when property values change at differential rates. In practice,
however, reassessments typically occur when they benefit the government – that is, when their effect is to
increase total tax revenue.
If the statements above are true, which of the following describes a situation in which a reassessment should
occur but is unlikely to do so?
(A) Property values have risen sharply and uniformly.
(B) Property values have all risen – some very sharply, some less so.
(C) Property values have for the most part risen sharply yet some have dropped slightly.
(D) Property values have for the most part dropped significantly; yet some have risen slightly.
(E) Property values have dropped significantly and uniformly.
107. The number of patents granted to inventors by the United States Patent Office dropped from 56,000 in 1971
to 45,000 in 1978. Spending on research and development, which peaked at 3 percent of the gross national
product (GNP) in 1964, was only 2.2 percent of the GNP in 1978. During this period, when the United States
percentage was steadily decreasing, West Germany and Japan increased the percentage of their GNP’s spent
on research and development to 3.2 percent and 1.6 percent, respectively.
Which of the following conclusions is best supported by the information above?
(A) There is direct relationship between the size of a nation’s GNP and the number of inventions it produces.
(B) Japan and West Germany spent more money on research and development is directly related to the number
of inventions patented in that nation.
(C) The amount of money a nation spends on research and development is directly relocated to the number of
inventions patented in that nation.
(D) Between 1964 and 1978 the United States consistently spent a larger percentage of its GNP on research
and development than did Japan.
(E) Both West Germany and Japan will soon surpass the United States in the number of patents granted to
108. When three Everett-owned Lightning-built airplanes crashes in the same month, the Everett company
ordered three new Lightning-built airplanes as replacements. This decision surprised many in the airline industry
because, ordinarily when a product is involved in accidents, users become reluctant to buy that product.
Which of the following, if true, provides the best indication that the Everett company’s decision was logically well
(A) Although during the previous year only one Lightning-built airplane crashed, competing manufacturers had a
perfect safety record.
(B) The Lightning-built airplanes crashed due to pilot error, but because of the excellent quality of the planes
there were many survivors.
(C) The Federal Aviation Association issued new guidelines for airlines in order to standardize safety
requirements governing preflight inspections.
(D) Consumer advocates pressured two major airlines into purchasing safer airplanes so that the public would
be safer while flying.
(E) Many Lightning Airplane Company employees had to be replaced because they found jobs with the
109. Recently a court ruled that current law allows companies to reject a job applicant if working in the job would
entail a 90 percent chance that the applicant would suffer a heart attack. The presiding judge justified the ruling,
saying that it protected both employees and employers.
The use of this court ruling as part of the law could not be effective in regulating employment practices if which of
the following were true?
(A) The best interests of employers often conflict with the interests of employees.
(B) No legally accepted methods exist for calculating the risk of a job applicant’s having a heart attack as a
result of being employed in any particular occupation.
(C) Some jobs might involve health risks other than the risk of heart attack.
(D) Employees who have a 90 percent chance of suffering a heart attack may be unaware that their risk is so
(E) The number of people applying for jobs at a company might decline if the company, by screening applicants
for risk of heart attack, seemed to suggest that the job entailed high risk of heart attack.
110. Robot satellites relay important communications and identify weather patterns. Because the satellites can
be repaired only in orbit, astronauts are needed to repair them. Without repairs, the satellites would eventually
malfunction. Therefore, space flights carrying astronauts must continue.
Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the argument above?
(A) Satellites falling from orbit because of malfunctions burn up in the atmosphere.
(B) Although satellites are indispensable in the identification of weather patterns, weather forecasters also make
some use of computer projections to identify weather patters.
(C) The government, responding to public pressure, has decided to cut the budget for space flights and put
more money into social welfare programs.
(D) Repair of satellites requires heavy equipment, which adds to the amount of fuel needed to lift a spaceship
carrying astronauts into orbit.
(E) Technical obsolescence of robot satellites makes repairing them more costly and less practical than sending
new, improved satellites into orbit.
111. Advocates of a large-scale space-defense research project conclude that it will represent a net benefit to
civilian business. They say that since government-sponsored research will have civilian applications, civilian
businesses will reap the rewards of government-developed technology.
Each of the following, if true, raises a consideration arguing against the conclusion above, EXCEPT:
(A) The development of cost-efficient manufacturing techniques is of the highest priority for civilian business and
would be neglected for civilian business and would be neglected if resources go to military projects, which
do not emphasize cost efficiency.
(B) Scientific and engineering talent needed by civilian business will be absorbed by the large-scale project.
(C) Many civilian businesses will receive subcontracts to provide materials and products needed by the
(D) If government research money is devoted to the space project, it will not be available for specifically targeted
needs of civilian business, where it could be more efficiently used.
(E) The increase in taxes or government debt needed to finance the project will severely reduce the vitality of
the civilian economy.
112. In an attempt to promote the widespread use of paper rather than plastic, and thus reduce
nonbiodegradable waster, the council of a small town plans to ban the sale of disposable plastic goods for which
substitutes made of paper exist. The council argues that since most paper is entirely biodegradable, paper
goods are environmentally preferable.
Which of the following, if true, indicates that the plan to ban the sale of disposable plastic goods is ill suited to the
town council’s environmental goals?
(A) Although biodegradable plastic goods are now available, members of the town council believe
biodegradable paper goods to be safer for the environment.
(B) The paper factory at which most of the towns-people are employed plans to increase production of
biodegradable paper goods.
(C) After other towns enacted similar bans on the sale of plastic goods, the environmental benefits were not
discernible for several years.
(D) Since most townspeople prefer plastic goods to paper goods in many instances, they are likely to purchase
them in neighboring towns where plastic goods are available for sale.
(E) Products other than those derived from wood pulp are often used in the manufacture of paper goods that are
113. Since the deregulation of airlines, delays at the nation’s increasingly busy airports have increased by 25
percent. To combat this problem, more of the takeoff and landing slots at the busiest airports must be allocated
to commercial airlines.
Which of the following, if true, casts the most doubt on the effectiveness of the solution proposed above?
(A) The major causes of delays at the nation’s busiest airports are bad weather and overtaxed air traffic control
(B) Since airline deregulation began, the number of airplanes in operation has increased by 25 percent.
(C) Over 60 percent of the takeoff and landing slots at the nation’s busiest airports are reserved for commercial
(D) After a small Midwestern airport doubled its allocation of takeoff and landing slots, the number of delays that
were reported decreased by 50 percents.
(E) Since deregulation the average length of delay at the nation’s busiest airports has doubled.
114. The more frequently employees take time to exercise during working hours each week, the fewer sick days
they take. Even employees who exercise only once a week during working hours take less sick time than those
who do not exercise. Therefore, if companies started fitness programs, the absentee rate in those companies
would decrease significantly.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above?
(A) Employees who exercise during working hours occasionally fall asleep for short periods of time after they
(B) Employees who are frequently absent are the least likely to cooperate with or to join a corporate fitness
(C) Employees who exercise only once a week in their company’s fitness program usually also exercise after
(D) Employees who exercise in their company’s fitness program use their working time no more productively
than those who do not exercise.
(E) Employees who exercise during working hours take slightly longer lunch breaks than employees who do not
115. Many people argue that tobacco advertising plays a crucial role in causing teen-agers to start or continue
smoking. In Norway, however, where there has been a ban on tobacco advertising since 1975, smoking is at
least as prevalent among teen-agers as it is in countries that do not ban such advertising.
Which of the following statements draws the most reliable conclusion from the information above?
(A) Tobacco advertising cannot be the only factor that affects the prevalence of smoking among teen-agers.
(B) Advertising does not play a role in causing teen-agers to start or continue smoking.
(C) Banning tobacco advertising does not reduce the consumption of tobacco.
(D) More teen-agers smoke if they are not exposed to tobacco advertising than if they are.
(E) Most teen-agers who smoked in 1975 did not stop when the ban on tobacco advertising was implemented.
116. Laws requiring the use of headlights during daylight hours can prevent automobile collisions. However,
since daylight visibility is worse in countries farther from the equator, any such laws would obvisouly be more
effective in preventing collisions in those countries. In fact, the only countries that actually have such laws are
farther from the equator than is the continental United States.
Which of the following conclusions could be most properly drawn from the information given above?
(A) Drivers in the continental United States who used their headlines during the day would be just as likely to
become involved in a collision as would drivers who did not use their headlights.
(B) In many countries that are farther from the equator than is the continental United States poor daylight
visilibty is the single most important factor in automobile collisions.
(C) The proportion of automobile collisions that occur in the daytime is greater in the continental United States
than in the countries that have daytime headlight laws.
(D) Fewer automobile collisions probably occur each year in countries that have daytime headlight laws than
occur within the continental United States.
(E) Daytime headlight laws would probably do less to prevent automobile collisions in the continental United
States than they do in the countries that have the laws.
117. A company’s two divisions performed with remarkable consistency over the past three years: in each of
those years, the pharmaceuticals division has accounted for roughly 20 percent of dollar sales and 40 percent of
profits, and the chemicals division for the balance.
Which of the following can properly be inferred regarding the past three years from the statement above?
(A) Total dollar sales for each of the company’s divisions have remained roughly constant.
(B) The pharmaceuticals division has faced stiffer competition in its markets than has the chemecials division.
(C) The chemicals division has realized lower profits per dollar of sales than has the pharmaceuticals division.
(D) The product mix offered by each of the company’s divisions has remained unchaged.
(E) Highly profitable products accounted for a higher percentage of the chemicals division’s sales than of those
of the pharmaceuticals divisions.
118. According to a review of 61 studies of patients suffering from severely debilitating depression, a large
majority of the patients reported that missing a night’s sleep immediately lifted their depression. Yet
sleep-deprivation is not used to treat depression even though the conventional treatments, which use drugs and
electric shocks, often have serious side effects.
Which of the following, if true, best explains the fact that sleep-deprivation is not used as a treatment for
(A) For a small percentage of depressed patients, missing a night’s sleep induces a temporary sense of
(B) Keeping depressed patients awake is more difficult than keeping awake people who are not depressed.
(C) Prolonged loss of sleep can lead to temporary impairment of judgment comparable to that induced by
consuming several ounces of alcohol.
(D) The dramatic shifts in mood connected with sleep and wakefulness have not been traced to particular
changes in brain chemistry.
(E) Depression returns in full force as soon as the patient sleeps for even a few minutes.
Questions 119 – 120 are based on the following.
According to the Tristate Transportation Authority, making certain improvements to the main commuter rail line
would increase ridership dramatically. The authority plans to finance these improvements over the course of five
years by raising automobile tolls on the two high-way bridges along the route the rail line serves. Although the
proposed improvements are indeed needed, the authority’s plan for securing the necessary funds should be
rejected because it would unfairly force drivers to absorb the entire cost of something from which they receive no
119. Which of the following, if true, would cast the most doubt on the effectiveness of the authority’s plan to
finance the proposed improvements by increasing bridge tolls?
(A) Before the authority increases tolls on any of the area bridges, it is required by law to hold public hearings at
which objections to the proposed increase can be raised.
(B) Whenever bridge tolls are increased, the authority must pay a private contractor to adjust the automated
(C) Between the time a proposed toll increase is announced and the time the increase is actually put into effect,
many commuters buy more tokens than usual to postpone the effects of the increase.
(D) When tolls were last increased on the two bridges in question, almost 20 percent of the regular commuter
traffic switched to a slightly longer alternative route that has since been improved.
(E) The chairman of the authority is a member of the Tristate Automobile Club that has registered strong
opposition to the proposed toll increase.
120. Which of the following, if true, would provide the authority with the strongest counter to the objection that its
plan is unfair?
(A) Even with the proposed toll increase, the average bridge toll in the tristate region would remain less than the
tolls charged in neighboring states.
(B) Any attempt to finance the improvements by raising rail fares would result in a decrease in ridership and so
would be self-defeating.
(C) Automobile commuters benefit from well-maintained bridges, and in the tristate region bridge maintenance
is funded out of general income tax revenues to which both automobile and rail commuters contribute.
(D) The roads along the route served by the rail line are highly congested and drivers benefit when commuters
are diverted from congested roadways to mass transit.
(E) The only alternative way of funding the proposed improvements now being considered is through a regional
income tax surcharge, which would affect automobile commuters and rail commuters alike.
121. Manufacturers sometimes discount the price of a product to retailers for a promotion period when the
product is advertised to consumers. Such promotion often result in a dramatic increase in amount of product
sold by the manufacturers to retailers. Nevertheless, the manufacturers could often make more profit by not
holding the promotions.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the claim above about the manufacturers’ profit?
(A) The amount of discount generally offered by manufacturers to retailers is carefully calculated to represent
the minimum needed to draw consumers’ attention to the product.
(B) For many consumer products the period of advertising discounted prices to consumers is about a week, not
sufficiently long for consumers to become used to the sale price.
(C) For products that are not newly introduced, the purpose of such promotions is to keep the products in the
minds of consumers and to attract consumers who are currently using competing products.
(D) During such a promotion retailers tend to accumulate in their warehouses inventory bought at discount; they
then sell much of it later at their regular price.
(E) If a manufacturer fails to offer such promotions but its competitor offers them, that competitor will tend to
attract consumers away from the manufacturer’s product.
122. When people evade income taxes by not declaring taxable income, a vicious cycle results. Tax evasion
forces lawmakers to raise income tax rates, which causes the tax burden on nonevading taxpayers to become
heavier. This, in turn, encourages even more taxpayers to evade income taxes by hiding taxable income.
The vicious cycle described above could not result unless which of the following were true?
(A) An increase in tax rates tends to function as an incentive for taxpayers to try to increase their pretax
(B) Some methods for detecting tax evaders, and thus recovering some tax revenue lost through evasion, bring
in more than they cost, but their success rate varies from years to year.
(C) When lawmakers establish income tax rates in order to generate a certain level of revenue, they do not allow
adequately for revenue that will be lost through evasion.
(D) No one who routinely hides some taxable income can be induced by a lowering of tax rates to stop hiding
such income unless fines for evaders are raised at the same time.
(E) Taxpayers do not differ from each other with respect to the rate of taxation that will cause them to evade
123. When people evade income taxes by not declaring taxable income, a vicious cycle results. Tax evasion
forces lawmakers to raise income tax rates, which causes the tax burden on nonevading taxpayers to become
heavier. This, in turn, encourages even more taxpayers to evade income taxes by hiding taxable income.
The vicious cycle described above could not result unless which of the following were true?
(A) An increase in tax rates tends to function as an incentive for taxpayers to try to increase their pretax
(B) Some methods for detecting tax evaders, and thus recovering some tax revenue lost through evasion, bring
in more than they cost, but their success rate varies from year to year.
(C) When lawmakers establish income tax rates in order to generate a certain level of revenue, they do not allow
adequately for revenue that will be lost through evasion.
(D) No one who routinely hides some taxable income can be induced by a lowering of tax rates to stop hiding
such income unless fines of evaders are raised at the same time.
(E) Taxpayers do not differ from each other with respect to the rate of taxation that will cause them to evade
124. The local board of education found that, because the current physics curriculum has little direct relevance
to today’s world, physics classes attracted few high school students. So to attract students to physics classes,
the board proposed a curriculum that emphasizes principles of physics involved in producing and analyzing
Which of the following, if true, provides the strongest reason to expect that the proposed curriculum will be
successful in attracting students?
(A) Several of the fundamental principles of physics are involved in producing and analyzing visual images.
(B) Knowledge of physics is becoming increasingly important in understanding the technology used in today’s
(C) Equipment that a large producer of photographic equipment has donated to the high school could be used
in the proposed curriculum.
(D) The number of students interested in physics today is much lower than the number of students interested
in physics 50 years ago.
(E) In today’s world the production and analysis of visual images is of major importance in communications,
business, and recreation.
125. Unlike the wholesale price of raw wool, the wholesale price of raw cotton has fallen considerably in the last
year. Thus, although the retail price of cotton clothing at retail clothing stores has not yet fallen, it will inevitably
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above?
(A) The cost of processing raw cotton for cloth has increased during the last year.
(B) The wholesale price of raw wool is typically higher than that of the same volume of raw cotton.
(C) The operating costs of the average retail clothing store have remained constant during the last year.
(D) Changes in retail prices always lag behind changes in wholesale prices.
(E) The cost of harvesting raw cotton has increased in the last year.
126. Many companies now have employee assistance programs that enable employees, free of charge, to
improve their physical fitness, reduce stress, and learn ways to stop smoking. These programs increase
worker productivity, reduce absenteeism, and lessen insurance costs for employee health care. Therefore,
these programs benefit the company as well as the employee.
Which of the following, if true, most significantly strengthens the conclusion above?
(A) Physical fitness programs are often the most popular services offered to employees.
(B) Studies have shown that training in stress management is not effective for many people.
(C) Regular exercise reduces people's risk of heart disease and provides them with increased energy.
(D) Physical injuries sometimes result from entering a strenuous physical fitness program too quickly.
(E) Employee assistance programs require companies to hire people to supervise the various
127. Small-business groups are lobbying to defeat proposed federal legislation that would substantially raise the
federal minimum wage. This opposition is surprising since the legislation they oppose would, for the first time,
exempt all small businesses from paying any minimum wage.
Which of the following, if true, would best explain the opposition of small-business groups to the proposed
(A) Under the current federal minimum-wage law, most small businesses are required to pay no less than the
minimum wage to their employees.
(B) In order to attract workers, small companies must match the wages offered by their larger competitors, and
these competitors would not be exempt under the proposed laws.
(C) The exact number of companies that are currently required to pay no less than the minimum wage but that
would be exempt under the proposed laws is unknown.
(D) Some states have set their own minimum wages---in some cases, quite a bit above the level of
the minimum wage mandated by current federal law---for certain key industries.
(E) Service companies make up the majority of small businesses and they generally employ more employees
per dollar of revenues than do retail or manufacturing businesses.
128. Reviewer: The book Art's Decline argues that European painters today lack skills that were common among
European painters of preceding centuries. In this the book must be right, since its analysis of 100 paintings, 50
old and 50 contemporary, demonstrates convincingly that none of the contemporary paintings are executed as
skillfully as the older paintings.
Which of the following points to the most serious logical flaw in the reviewer's argument?
(A) The paintings chosen by the book's author for analysis could be those that most support the book's thesis.
(B) There could be criteria other than the technical skill of the artist by which to evaluate a painting.
(C) The title of the book could cause readers to accept the book's thesis even before they read the analysis of
the paintings that supports it.
(D) The particular methods currently used by European painters could require less artistic skill than do
methods used by painters in other parts of the world.
(E) A reader who was not familiar with the language of art criticism might not be convinced by the book's
analysis of the 100 paintings.
129. The pharmaceutical industry argues that because new drugs will not be developed unless heavy
development costs can be recouped in later sales, the current 20 years of protection provided by patents
should be extended in the case of newly developed drugs. However, in other industries new-product
development continues despite high development costs, a fact that indicates that the extension is
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the pharmaceutical industry's argument against the
challenge made above?
(A) No industries other than the pharmaceutical industry have asked for an extension of the 20-year limit on
(B) Clinical trials of new drugs, which occur after the patent is granted and before the new drug can be
marketed, often now take as long as 10 years to complete.
(C) There are several industries in which the ratio of research and development costs to revenues is higher
than it is in the pharmaceutical industry.
(D) An existing patent for a drug does not legally prevent pharmaceutical companies from bringing to market
alternative drugs, provided they are sufficiently dissimilar to the patented drug.
(E) Much recent industrial innovation has occurred in products---for example, in the computer and electronics
industries---for which patent protection is often very ineffective.
Questions 130-131 are based on the following.
Bank depositors in the United States are all financially protected against bank failure because the government
insures all individuals' bank deposits. An economist argues that this insurance is partly responsible for the high
rate of bank failures, since it removes from depositors any financial incentive to find out whether the bank that
holds their money is secure against failure. If depositors were more selective, then banks would need to be
secure in order to compete for depositors' money.
130. The economist's argument makes which of the following assumptions?
(A) Bank failures are caused when big borrowers default on loan repayments.
(B) A significant proportion of depositors maintain accounts at several different banks.
(C) The more a depositor has to deposit, the more careful he or she tends to be in selecting a bank.
(D) The difference in the interest rates paid to depositors by different banks is not a significant
factor in bank failures.
(E) Potential depositors are able to determine which banks are secure against failure.
131. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the economist's argument?
(A) Before the government started to insure depositors against bank failure, there was a lower rate of bank
failure than there is now.
(B) When the government did not insure deposits, frequent bank failures occurred as a result of depositors'
fears of losing money in bank failures.
(C) Surveys show that a significant proportion of depositors are aware that their deposits are insured by the
(D) There is an upper limit on the amount of an individual's deposit that the government will insure, but very few
individuals' deposits exceed thislimit.
(E) The security of a bank against failure depends on the percentage of its assets that are loaned out and also
on how much risk its loans involve.
132. Passengers must exit airplanes swiftly after accidents, since gases released following accidents are toxic to
humans and often explode soon after being released. In order to prevent passenger deaths from gas
inhalation, safety officials recommend that passengers be provided with smoke hoods that prevent inhalation
of the gases.
Which of the following, if true, constitutes the strongest reason not to require implementation of the safety
(A) Test evacuations showed that putting on the smoke hoods added considerably to the overall time it took
passengers to leave the cabin.
(B) Some airlines are unwilling to buy the smoke hoods because they consider them to be prohibitively
(C) Although the smoke hoods protect passengers from the toxic gases, they can do nothing to prevent the
gases from igniting.
(D) Some experienced flyers fail to pay attention to the safety instructions given on every commercial flight
(E) In many airplane accidents, passengers who were able to reach emergency exits were overcome by toxic
gases before they could exit the ariplane.
133. In 1960, 10 percent of every dollar paid in automobile insurance premiums went to pay costs arising from
injuries incurred in car accidents. In 1990, 50 percent of every dollar paid in automobile insurance premiums
went toward such costs, despite the fact that cars were much safer in 1990 than in 1960.
Which of the following, if true, best explains the discrepancy outlined above?
(A) There were fewer accidents in 1990 than in 1960.
(B) On average, people drove more slowly in 1990 than in 1960.
(C) Cars grew increasingly more expensive to repair over the period in question.
(D) The price of insurance increased more rapidly than the rate of inflation between 1960 and 1990.
(E) Health-care costs rose sharply between 1960 and 1990.
134. Caterpillars of all species produce an identical hormone called "juvenile hormone" that maintains feeding
behavior. Only when a caterpillar has grown to the right size for pupation to take place does a special enzyme
halt the production of juvenile hormone. This enzyme can be synthesized and will, on being ingested by
immature caterpillars, kill them by stopping them from feeding.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the view that it would not be advisable to try to
eradicate agricultural pests that go through a caterpillar stage by spraying croplands with the enzyme
(A) Most species of caterpillar are subject to some natural predation.
(B) Many agricultural pests do not go through a caterpillar stage.
(C) Many agriculturally beneficial insects go through a caterpillar stage.
(D) Since caterpillars of different species emerge at different times, several sprayings would be necessary.
(E) Although the enzyme has been synthesized in the laboratory, no large-scale production facilities exist as
135. Although aspirin has been proven to eliminate moderate fever associated with some illnesses, many
doctors no longer routinely recommend its use for this purpose. A moderate fever stimulates the activity of the
body's disease-fighting white blood cells and also inhibits the growth of many strains of disease-causing
If the statements above are true, which of the following conclusions is most strongly supported by them?
(A) Aspirin, an effective painkiller, alleviates the pain and discomfort of many illnesses.
(B) Aspirin can prolong a patient's illness by eliminating moderate fever helpful in fighting some diseases.
(C) Aspirin inhibits the growth of white blood cells, which are necessary for fighting some illnesses.
(D) The more white blood cells a patient's body produces, the less severe the patient's illness will be.
(E) The focus of modern medicine is on inhibiting the growth of disease-causing bacteria within the body.
136. Because postage rates are rising, Home Decorator magazine plans to maximize its profits by reducing by
one half the number of issues it publishes each year.
The quality of articles, the number of articles published per year, and the subscription price will not change.
Market research shows that neither subscribers nor advertisers will be lost if the magazine's plan is
Which of the following, if true, provides the strongest evidence that the magazine's profits are likely to decline
if the plan is instituted?
(A) With the new postage rates, a typical issue under the proposed plan would cost about one-third more to
mail than a typical current issue would.
(B) The majority of the magazine's subscribers are less concerned about a possible reduction in the quantity
of the magazine's articles than about a possible loss of the current high quality of its articles.
(C) Many of the magazine's long-time subscribers would continue their subscriptions even if the subscription
price were increased.
(D) Most of the advertisers that purchase advertising space in the magazine will continue to spend the same
amount on advertising per issue as they have in the past.
(E) Production costs for the magazine are expected to remain stable.
137. A study of marital relationships in which one partner's sleeping and waking cycles differ from those of the
other partner reveals that such couples share fewer activities with each other and have more violent arguments
than do couples in a relationship in which both partners follow the same sleeping and waking patterns. Thus,
mismatched sleeping and waking cycles can seriously jeopardize a marriage.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above?
(A) Married couples in which both spouses follow the same sleeping and waking patterns also occasionally
have arguments than can jeopardize the couple's marriage.
(B) The sleeping and waking cycles of individuals tend to vary from season to season.
(C) The individuals who have sleeping and waking cycles that differ significantly from those of their spouses
tend to argue little with colleagues at work.
(D) People in unhappy marriages have been found to express hostility by adopting a different sleeping and
waking cycle from that of their spouses.
(E) According to a recent study, most people's sleeping and waking cycles can be controlled and modified
Questions 138-139 are based on the following.
Roland: The alarming fact is that 90 percent of the people in this country now report that they know someone
who is unemployed.
Sharon: But a normal, moderate level of unemployment is 5 percent, with 1 out of 20 workers unemployed. So at
any given time if a person knows approximately 50 workers, 1 or more will very likely be unemployed.
138. Sharon's argument is structured to lead to which of the following as a conclusion?
(A) The fact that 90% of the people know someone who is unemployed is not an indication
that unemployment is abnormally high.
(B) The current level of unemployment is not moderate.
(C) If at least 5% of workers are unemployed, the result of questioning a representative group of people
cannot be the percentage Roland cites.
(D) It is unlikely that the people whose statements Roland cites are giving accurate reports.
(E) If an unemployment figure is given as a certain percent, the actual percentage of those without jobs is
139. Sharon's argument relies on the assumption that
(A) normal levels of unemployment are rarely exceeded
(B) unemployment is not normally concentrated in geographically isolated segments of the population
(C) the number of people who each know someone who is unemployed is always higher than 90% of the
(D) Roland is not consciously distorting the statistics he presents
(E) knowledge that a personal acquaintance is unemployed generates more fear of losing one's job than
does knowledge of unemployment statistics
140. A report on acid rain concluded, “ Most forests in Canada are not being damaged by acid rain.” Critics of the
report insist the conclusion be changed to, “Most forests in Canada do not show visible symptoms of damage by
acid rain, such as abnormal loss of leaves, slower rates of growth, or higher mortality.”
Which of the following, if true, provides the best logical justification for the critics’ insistence that the report’s
conclusion be changed?
(A) Some forests in Canada are being damaged by acid rain.
(B) Acid rain could be causing damage for which symptoms have not yet become visible.
(C) The report does not compare acid rain damage to Canadian forests with acid rain damage to
forests in other countries.
(D) All forests in Canada have received acid rain during the past fifteen years.
(E) The severity of damage by acid rain differs from forest to forest.
141. In the past most airline companies minimized aircraft weight to minimize fuel costs. The safest airline seats
were heavy, and airlines equipped their planes with few of these seats. This year the seat that has sold best to
airlines has been the safest one—a clear indication that airlines are assigning a higher priority to safe seating
than to minimizing fuel costs.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above?
(A) Last year’s best-selling airline seat was not the safest airline seat on the market.
(B) No airline company has announced that it would be making safe seating a higher priority this year.
(C) The price of fuel was higher this year than it had been in most of the years when the safest airline seats
(D) Because of increases in the cost of materials, all airline seats were more expensive to manufacture this
year than in any previous year.
(E) Because of technological innovations, the safest airline seat on the market this year weighed less than
most other airline seats on the market.
142. A computer equipped with signature-recognition software, which restricts access to a computer to those
people whose signatures are on file, identifies a person’s signature by analyzing not only the form of the
signature but also such characteristics as pen pressure and signing speed. Even the most adept forgers
cannot duplicate all of the characteristics the program analyzes.
Which of the following can be logically concluded from the passage above?
(A) The time it takes to record and analyze a signature makes the software impractical for everyday use.
(B) Computers equipped with the software will soon be installed in most banks.
(C) Nobody can gain access to a computer equipped with the software solely by virtue of skill at forging
(D) Signature-recognition software has taken many years to develop and perfect.
(E) In many cases even authorized users are denied legitimate access to computers equipped with the
143. Division manager: I want to replace the Microton computers in my division with Vitech computers.
General manager: Why?
Division manager: It costs 28 percent less to train new staff on the Vitech.
General manager: But that is not a good enough reason. We can simply hire only people who already know
how to use the Microton computer.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the general manager’s objection to the replacement
of Microton computers with Vitechs?
(A) Currently all employees in the company are required to attend workshops on how to use Microton
computers in new applications.
(B) Once employees learn how to use a computer, they tend to change employers more readily than before.
(C) Experienced users of Microton computers command much higher salaries than do prospective
employees who have no experience in the use of computers.
(D) The average productivity of employees in the general manager’s company is below the average
productivity of the employees of its competitors.
(E) The high costs of replacement parts make Vitech computers more expensive to maintain than Microton
144. An airplane engine manufacturer developed a new engine model with safety features lacking in the earlier
model, which was still being manufactured. During the first year that both were sold, the earlier model far outsold
the new model; the manufacturer thus concluded that safety was not the customers’ primary consideration.
Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the manufacturer’s conclusion?
(A) Both private plane owners and commercial airlines buy engines from this airplane engine manufacturer.
(B) Many customers consider earlier engine models better safety risks than new engine models, since more
is usually known about the safety of the earlier models.
(C) Many customers of this airplane engine manufacturer also bought airplane engines from manufacturers
who did not provide additional safety features in their newer models.
(D) The newer engine model can be used in all planes in which the earlier engine model can be used.
(E) There was no significant difference in price between the newer engine model and the earlier engine
145. Between 1975 and 1985, nursing-home occupancy rates averaged 87 percent of capacity, while admission
rates remained constant, at an average of 95 admissions per 1,000 beds per year. Between 1985 and 1988,
however, occupancy rates rose to an average of 92 percent of capacity, while admission rates declined to 81 per
1,000 beds per year.
If the statements above are true, which of the following conclusions can be most properly drawn?
(A) The average length of time nursing-home residents stayed in nursing homes increased between 1985
(B) The proportion of older people living in nursing homes was greater in 1988 than in 1975.
(C) Nursing home admission rates tend to decline whenever occupancy rates rise.
(D) Nursing homes built prior to 1985 generally had fewer beds than did nursing homes built between 1985
(E) The more beds a nursing home has, the higher its occupancy rate is likely to be.
146. Firms adopting “profit-related-pay” (PRP) contracts pay wages at levels that vary with the firm’s profits. In
the metalworking industry last year, firms with PRP contracts in place showed productivity per worker on
average 13 percent higher than that of their competitors who used more traditional contracts.
If, on the basis of the evidence above, it is argued that PRP contracts increase worker productivity, which of the following, if
true, would most seriously weaken that argument?
(A) Results similar to those cited for the metal-working industry have been found in other industries where
PRP contracts are used.
(B) Under PRP contracts costs other than labor costs, such as plant, machinery, and energy, make up an
increased proportion of the total cost of each unit of output.
(C) Because introducing PRP contracts greatly changes individual workers’ relationships to the firm,
negotiating the introduction of PRP contracts in complex and time consuming.
(D) Many firms in the metalworking industry have modernized production equipment in the last five years,
and most of these introduced PRP contracts at the same time.
(E) In firms in the metalworking industry where PRP contracts are in place, the average take-home pay is 15
percent higher than it is in those firms where workers have more traditional contracts.
147. Crops can be traded on the futures market before they are harvested. If a poor corn harvest is predicted, prices
of corn futures rise; if a bountiful corn harvest is predicted, prices of corn futures fall. This morning meteorologists
are predicting much-needed rain for the corn-growing region starting tomorrow. Therefore, since adequate moisture
is essential for the current crop’s survival, prices of corn futures will fall sharply today.
Which of the following, if true, most weakens the argument above?
(A) Corn that does not receive adequate moisture during its critical pollination stage will not produce a
(B) Futures prices for corn have been fluctuating more dramatically this season than last season.
(C) The rain that meteorologists predicted for tomorrow is expected to extend well beyond the corn-growing
(D) Agriculture experts announced today that a disease that has devastated some of the corn crop will spread
widely before the end of the growing season.
(E) Most people who trade in corn futures rarely take physical possession of the corn they trade.
148. A discount retailer of basic household necessities employs thousands of people and pays most of them at
the minimum wage rate. Yet following a federally mandated increase of the minimum wage rate that increased
the retailer’s operating costs considerably, the retailer’s profits increased markedly.
Which of the following, if true, most helps to resolve the apparent paradox?
(A) Over half of the retailer’s operating costs consist of payroll expenditures; yet only a small percentage of
those expenditures go to pay management salaries.
(B) The retailer’s customer base is made up primarily of people who earn, or who depend on the earnings of
others who earn, the minimum wage.
(C) The retailer’s operating costs, other than wages, increased substantially after the increase in the minimum
wage rate went into effect.
(D) When the increase in the minimum wage rate went into effect, the retailer also raised the age rate for
employees who had been earning just above minimum wage.
(E) The majority of the retailer’s employees work as cashiers, and most cashiers are paid the minimum wage.
149. The cotton farms of Country Q became so productive that the market could not absorb all that they
produced. Consequently, cotton prices fell. The government tried to boost cotton prices by offering farmers who
took 25 percent of their cotton acreage out of production direct support payments up to a specified maximum per
The government’s program, if successful, will not be a net burden on the budget. Which of the following, if
true, is the best basis for an explanation of how this could be so?
(A) Depressed cotton prices meant operating losses for cotton farms, and the government lost revenue from
taxes on farm profits.
(B) Cotton production in several counties other than Q declined slightly the year that the support-payment
program went into effect in Q.
(C) The first year that the support-payment program was in effect, cotton acreage in Q was 5% below its level
in the base year for the program.
(D) The specified maximum per farm meant that for very large cotton farms the support payments were less
per acre for those acres that were withdrawn from production than they were for smaller farms.
(E) Farmers who wished to qualify for support payments could not use the cotton acreage that was withdrawn
from production to grow any other crop.
150. United States hospitals have traditionally relied primarily on revenues from paying patients to offset losses
from unreimbursed care. Almost all paying patients now rely on governmental or private health insurance to pay
hospital bills. Recently, insurers have been strictly limiting what they pay hospitals for the care of insured patients
to amounts at or below actual costs.
Which of the following conclusions is best supported by the information above?
(A) Although the advance of technology has made expensive medical procedures available to the wealthy,
such procedures are out of the reach of low-income patients.
(B) If hospitals do not find ways to raising additional income for unreimbursed care, they must either deny
some of that care of suffer losses if they give it.
(C) Some patients have incomes too high for eligibility for governmental health insurance but are unable to
afford private insurance for hospital care.
(D) If the hospitals reduce their costs in providing care, insurance companies will maintain the current level of
reimbursement, thereby providing more funds for unreimbursed care.
(E) Even though philanthropic donations have traditionally provided some support for the hospitals, such
donations are at present declining.
151. Generally scientists enter their field with the goal of doing important new research and accept as their
colleagues those with similar motivation. Therefore, when any scientist wins renown as an expounder of science
to general audiences, most other scientists conclude that this popularizer should no longer be regarded as a true
The explanation offered above for the low esteem in which scientific popularizers are held by research
scientists assumes that
(A) serious scientific research is not a solitary activity, but relies on active cooperation among a group of
(B) research scientists tend not to regard as colleagues those scientists whose renown they envy
(C) a scientist can become a famous popularizer without having completed any important research
(D) research scientists believe that those who are well known as popularizers of science are not motivated
to do important new research
(E) no important new research can be accessible to or accurately assessed by those who are not
152. Mouth cancer is a danger for people who rarely brush their teeth. In order to achieve early detection of
mouth cancer in these individuals, a town’s public health officials sent a pamphlet to all town residents,
describing how to perform weekly self-examinations of the mouth for lumps.
Which of the following, if true, is the best criticism of the pamphlet as a method of achieving the public health
(A) Many dental diseases produce symptoms that cannot be detected in a weekly self-examination.
(B) Once mouth cancer has been detected, the effectiveness of treatment can vary from person to person.
(C) The pamphlet was sent to all town residents, including those individuals who brush their teeth regularly.
(D) Mouth cancer is much more common in adults than in children.
(E) People who rarely brush their teeth are unlikely to perform a weekly examination of their mouth.
153. Technological improvements and reduced equipment costs have made converting solar energy directly into
electricity far more cost-efficient in the last decade. However, the threshold of economic viability for solar power
(that is, the price per barrel to which oil would have to rise in order for new solar power plants to be more
economical than new oil-fired power plants) is unchanged at thirty-five dollars.
Which of the following, if true, does most to help explain why the increased cost-efficiency of solar power has
not decreased its threshold of economic viability?
(A) The cost of oil has fallen dramatically.
(B) The reduction in the cost of solar-power equipment has occurred despite increased raw material costs
for that equipment.
(C) Technological changes have increased the efficiency of oil-fired power plants.
(D) Most electricity is generated by coal-fired or nuclear, rather than oil-fired, power plants.
(E) When the price of oil increases, reserves of oil not previously worth exploiting become economically
154. Start-up companies financed by venture capitalist have a much lower failure rate than companies financed
by other means. Source of financing, therefore, must be a more important causative factor in the success of a
start-up company than are such factors as the personal characteristics of the entrepreneur, the quality of
strategic planning, or the management structure of the company.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above?
(A) Venture capitalists tend to be more responsive than other sources of financing to changes in a start-up
company’s financial needs.
(B) The strategic planning of a start-up company is a less important factor in the long-term success of the
company than are the personal characteristics of the entrepreneur.
(C) More than half of all new companies fall within five years.
(D) The management structures of start-up companies are generally less formal than the management
structures of ongoing businesses.
(E) Venture capitalists base their decisions to fund start-up companies on such factors as the
characteristics of the entrepreneur and quality of strategic planning of the company.
155. The proportion of women among students enrolled in higher education programs has increased over the
past decades. This is partly shown by the fact that in 1959, only 11 percent of the women between twenty and
twenty-one were enrolled in college, while in 1981, 30 percent of the women between twenty and twenty-one
were enrolled in college.
To evaluate the argument above, it would be most useful to compare 1959 and 1981 with regard to which of
the following characteristics?
(A) The percentage of women between twenty and twenty-one who were not enrolled in college
(B) The percentage of women between twenty and twenty-five who graduated from college
(C) The percentage of women who, after attending college, entered highly paid professions
(D) The percentage of men between twenty and twenty-one who were enrolled in college
(E) The percentage of men who graduated from high school
Questions 156-157 are based on the following.
Companies O and P each have the same number of employees who work the same number of hours per week.
According to records maintained by each company, the employees of Company O had fewer job-related
accidents last year than did the employees of Company P. Therefore, employees of Company O are less likely to
have job-related accidents than are employees of Company P.
156. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the conclusion above?
(A) Company P manufactures products that are more hazardous for workers to produce than does Company
(B) Company P holds more safety inspections than does Company O.
(C) Company P maintains a more modern infirmary than does Company O.
(D) Company O paid more for new job-related medical claims than did Company P.
(E) Company P provides more types of health-care benefits than does Company O.
157. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the conclusion above?
(A) The employees of Company P lost more time at work due to job-related accidents than did the employees
of Company O.
(B) Company P considered more types of accidents to be job-related than did Company O.
(C) The employees of Company P were sick more often than were the employees of Company O.
(D) Several employees of Company O each had more than one job-related accident.
(E) The majority of job-related accidents at Company O involved a single machine.
158. In comparison to the standard typewriter keyboard, the EFCO keyboard, which places the most-used keys
nearest the typist’s strongest fingers, allows faster typing and results in less fatigue, Therefore, replacement of
standard keyboards with the EFCO keyboard will result in an immediate reduction of typing costs.
Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the conclusion drawn above?
(A) People who use both standard and EFCO keyboards report greater difficulty in the transition from the EFCO
keyboard to the standard keyboard than in the transition from the standard keyboard to the EFCO keyboard.
(B) EFCO keyboards are no more expensive to manufacture than are standard keyboards and require less
frequent repair than do standard keyboards.
(C) The number of businesses and government agencies that use EFCO keyboards is increasing each year.
(D) The more training and experience an employee has had with the standard keyboard, the more costly it is
to train that employee to use the EFCO keyboard.
(E) Novice typists can learn to use the EFCO keyboard in about the same amount of time it takes them to
learn to use the standard keyboard.
Questions 159-160 are based on the following.
Half of the subjects in an experiment—the experimental group—consumed large quantities of a popular artificial
sweetener. Afterward, this group showed lower cognitive abilities than did the other half of the subjects—the
control group—who did not consume the sweetener. The detrimental effects were attributed to an amino acid
that is one of the sweetener’s principal constituents.
159. Which of the following, if true, would best support the conclusion that some ingredient of the sweetener was
responsible for the experimental results?
(A) Most consumers of the sweetener do not consume as much of it as the experimental group members did.
(B) The amino acid referred to in the conclusion is a component of all proteins, some of which must be
consumed for adequate nutrition.
(C) The quantity of the sweetener consumed by individuals in the experimental group is considered safe by
federal food regulators.
(D) The two groups of subjects were evenly matched with regard to cognitive abilities prior to the experiment.
(E) A second experiment in which subjects consumed large quantities of the sweetener lacked a control group
of subjects who were not given the sweetener.
160. Which of the following, if true, would best help explain how the sweetener might produce the observed
(A) The government’s analysis of the artificial sweetener determined that it was sold in relatively pure form.
(B) A high level of the amino acid in the blood inhibits the synthesis of a substance required for normal brain
(C) Because the sweetener is used primarily as a food additive, adverse reactions to it are rarely noticed by
(D) The amino acid that is a constituent of the sweetener is also sold separately as a dietary supplement.
(E) Subjects in the experiment did not know whether they were consuming the sweetener or a second,
161. Adult female rats who have never before encountered rat pups will start to show maternal behaviors after
being confined with a pup for about seven days. This period can be considerably shortened by disabling the
female’s sense of smell or by removing the scent-producing glands of the pup.
Which of the following hypotheses best explains the contrast described above?
(A) The sense of smell in adult female rats is more acute than that in rat pups.
(B) The amount of scent produced by rat pups increases when they are in the presence of a female rat that did
not bear them.
(C) Female rats that have given birth are more affected by olfactory cues than are female rats that have never
(D) A female rat that has given birth shows maternal behavior toward rat pups that she did not bear more
quickly than does a female rat that has never given birth.
(E) The development of a female rat's maternal interest in a rat pup that she did not bear is inhibited by the
odor of the pup.
162. The interview is an essential part of a successful hiring program because, with it, job applicants who have
personalities that are unsuited to the requirements of the job will be eliminated from consideration.
The argument above logically depends on which of the following assumptions?
(A) A hiring program will be successful if it includes interviews.
(B) The interview is a more important part of a successful hiring program than is the development of a job
(C) Interviewers can accurately identify applicants whose personalities are unsuited to the requirements of the
(D) The only purpose of an interview is to evaluate whether job applicants’ personalities are suited to the
requirements of the job.
(E) the fit of job applicants’ personalities to the requirements of the job was once the most important factor in
making hiring decisions.
163. An overly centralized economy, not the changes in the climate, is responsible for the poor agricultural
production in Country X since its new government came to power. Neighboring Country Y has experienced the
same climatic conditions, but while agricultural production has been falling in Country X, it has been rising in
Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument above?
(A) Industrial production also is declining in Country X.
(B) Whereas Country Y is landlocked, Country X has a major seaport.
(C) Both Country X and Country Y have been experiencing drought conditions.
(D) The crops that have always been grown in Country X are different from those that have always been
grown in Country Y.
(E) Country X’s new government instituted a centralized economy with the intention of ensuring an equitable
distribution of goods.
164. Useful protein drugs, such as insulin, must still be administered by the cumbersome procedure of injection
under the skin. If proteins are taken orally, they are digested and cannot reach their target cells. Certain
nonprotein drugs, however, contain chemical bonds that are not broken down by the digestive system. They
can, thus, be taken orally.
The statements above most strongly support a claim that a research procedure that successfully
accomplishes which of the following would be beneficial to users of protein drugs?
(A) Coating insulin with compounds that are broken down by target cells, but whose chemical bonds are
resistant to digestion
(B) Converting into protein compounds, by procedures that work in the laboratory, the nonprotein drugs that
(C) Removing permanently from the digestive system any substances that digest proteins
(D) Determining, in a systematic way, what enzymes and bacteria are present in the normal digestive system
and whether they tend to be broken down within the body
(E) Determining the amount of time each nonprotein drug takes to reach its target cells.
165. Country Y uses its scarce foreign-exchange reserves to buy scrap iron for recycling into steel. Although the
steel thus produced earns more foreign exchange than it costs, that policy is foolish. Country Y’s own
territory has vast deposits of iron ore, which can be mined with minimal expenditure of foreign exchange.
Which of the following, if true, provides the strongest support for Country Y’s policy of buying scrap iron
(A) The price of scrap iron on international markets rose significantly in 1987.
(B) Country Y’s foreign-exchange reserves dropped significantly in 1987.
(C) There is virtually no difference in quality between steel produced from scrap iron and that produced from
(D) Scrap iron is now used in the production of roughly half the steel used in the world today, and experts
predict that scrap iron will be used even more extensively in the future.
(E) Furnaces that process scrap iron can be built and operated in Country Y with substantially less foreign
exchange than can furnaces that process iron ore.
166. Last year the rate of inflation was 1.2 percent, but for the current year it has been 4 percent. We can
conclude that inflation is on an upward trend and the rate will be still higher next year.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the conclusion above?
(A) The inflation figures were computed on the basis of a representative sample of economic data rather than
all of the available data.
(B) Last year a dip in oil prices brought inflation temporarily below its recent stable annual level of 4 percent.
(C) Increases in the pay of some workers are tied to the level of inflation, and at an inflation rate of 4 percent
or above, these pay raises constitute a force causing further inflation.
(D) The 1.2 percent rate of inflation last year represented a ten-year low.
(E) Government intervention cannot affect the rate of inflation to any significant degree.
167. Because no employee wants to be associated with bad news in the eyes of a superior, information about
serious problems at lower levels is progressively softened and distorted as it goes up each step in the
management hierarchy. The chief executive is, therefore, less well informed about problems at lower levels
than are his or her subordinates at those levels.
The conclusion drawn above is based on the assumption that
(A) problems should be solved at the level in the management hierarchy at which they occur
(B) employees should be rewarded for accurately reporting problems to their superiors
(C) problem-solving ability is more important at higher levels than it is at lower levels of the management
(D) chief executives obtain information about problems at lower levels from no source other than their
(E) some employees are more concerned about truth than about the way they are perceived by their
168. In the United States in 1986, the average rate of violent crime in states with strict gun-control laws was 645
crimes per 100,000 persons—about 50 percent higher than the average rate in the eleven states where strict
gun-control laws have never been passed. Thus one way to reduce violent crime is to repeal strict gun
Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument above?
(A) The annual rate of violent crime in states with strict gun-control laws has decreased since the passage of
(B) In states with strict gun-control laws, few individuals are prosecuted for violating such laws.
(C) In states without strict gun-control laws, many individuals have had no formal training in the use of
(D) The annual rate of nonviolent crime is lower in states with strict gun-control laws than in states without
(E) Less than half of the individuals who reside in states without strict gun-control laws own a gun.
169. Corporate officers and directors commonly buy and sell, for their own portfolios, stock in their own
corporations. Generally, when the ratio of such inside sales to inside purchases falls below 2 to 1 for a given
stock, a rise in stock prices is imminent. In recent days, while the price of MEGA Corporation stock has been
falling, the corporation’s officers and directors have bought up to nine times as much of it as they have sold.
The facts above best support which of the following predictions?
(A) The imbalance between inside purchases and inside sales of MEGA stock will grow even further.
(B) Inside purchases of MEGA stock are about to cease abruptly.
(C) The price of MEGA stock will soon begin to go up.
(D) The price of MEGA stock will continue to drop, but less rapidly.
(E) The majority of MEGA stock will soon be owned by MEGA’s own officers and directors.
170. The proposal to hire ten new police officers in Middletown is quite foolish. There is sufficient funding to pay
the salaries of the new officers, but not the salaries of additional court and prison employees to process the
increased caseload of arrests and convictions that new officers usually generate.
Which of the following, if true, will most seriously weaken the conclusion drawn above?
(A) Studies have shown that an increase in a city’s police force does not necessarily reduce crime.
(B) When one major city increased its police force by 19 percent last year, there were 40 percent more
arrests and 13 percent more convictions.
(C) If funding for the new police officers’ salaries is approved, support for other city services will have to be
reduced during the next fiscal year.
(D) In most United States cities, not all arrests result in convictions, and not all convictions result in prison
(E) Middletown’s ratio of police officers to citizens has reached a level at which an increase in the number of
officers will have a deterrent effect on crime.
171. A recent report determined that although only three percent of drivers on Maryland highways equipped their
vehicles with radar detectors, thirty-three percent of all vehicles ticketed for exceeding the speed limit were
equipped with them. Clearly, drivers who equip their vehicles with radar detectors are more likely to exceed
the speed limit regularly than are drivers who do not.
The conclusion drawn above depends on which of the following assumptions?
(A) Drivers who equip their vehicles with radar detectors are less likely to be ticketed for exceeding the speed
limit than are drivers who do not.
(B) Drivers who are ticketed for exceeding the speed limit are more likely to exceed the speed limit regularly
than are drivers who are not ticketed.
(C) The number of vehicles that were ticketed for exceeding the speed limit was greater than the number of
vehicles that were equipped with radar detectors.
(D) Many of the vehicles that were ticketed for exceeding the speed limit were ticketed more than once in the
time period covered by the report.
(E) Drivers on Maryland highways exceeded the speed limit more often than did drivers on other state
highways not covered in the report.
172. There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of many surgical procedures—up to tenfold
variation per hundred thousand between different areas in the numbers of hysterectomies, prostatectomies,
To support a conclusion that much of the variation is due to unnecessary surgical procedures, it would be
most important to establish which of the following?
(A) A local board of review at each hospital examines the records of every operation to determine whether the
surgical procedure was necessary.
(B) The variation is unrelated to factors (other than the surgical procedures themselves) that influence the
incidence of diseases for which surgery might be considered.
(C) There are several categories of surgical procedure (other than hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies)
that are often performed unnecessarily.
(D) For certain surgical procedures, it is difficult to determine after the operation whether the procedures were
necessary or whether alternative treatment would have succeeded.
(E) With respect to how often they are performed unnecessarily, hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and
tonsillectomies are representative of surgical procedures in general.
173. Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to have relatively low metabolic rates,
lose weight primarily through dieting, their metabolisms generally remain unchanged. They will thus burn
significantly fewer calories at the new weight than do people whose weight is normally at that level. Such
newly thin persons will, therefore, ultimately regain weight until their body size again matches their metabolic
The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?
(A) Relatively few very overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tend to continue to consume
substantially fewer calories than do people whose normal weight is at that level.
(B) The metabolisms of people who are usually not overweight are much more able to vary than the metabolisms of
people who have been very overweight.
(C) The amount of calories that a person usually burns in a day is determined more by the amount that is
consumed that day than by the current weight of the individual.
(D) Researchers have not yet determined whether the metabolic rates of formerly very overweight individuals can be
accelerated by means of chemical agents.
(E) Because of the constancy of their metabolic rates, people who are at their usual weight normally have as much
difficulty gaining weight as they do losing it.
174. In 1987 sinusitis was the most common chronic medical condition in the United States, followed by arthritis
and high blood pressure, in that order.
The incidence rates for both arthritis and high blood pressure increase with age, but the incidence rate for
sinusitis is the same for people of all ages.
The average age of the United States population will increase between 1987 and 2000.
Which of the following conclusions can be most properly drawn about chronic medical conditions in the
United States from the information given above?
(A) Sinusitis will be more common than either arthritis or high blood pressure in 2000.
(B) Arthritis will be the most common chronic medical condition in 2000.
(C) The average age of people suffering from sinusitis will increase between 1987 and 2000.
(D) Fewer people will suffer from sinusitis in 2000 than suffered from it in 1987.
(E) A majority of the population will suffer from at least one of the medical conditions mentioned above by the
175. Parasitic wasps lay their eggs directly into the eggs of various host insects in exactly the right numbers for
any suitable size of host egg. If they laid too many eggs in a host egg, the developing wasp larvae would
compete with each other to the death for nutrients and space. If too few eggs were laid, portions of the host
egg would decay, killing the wasp larvae.
Which of the following conclusions can properly be drawn from the information above?
(A) The size of the smallest host egg that a wasp could theoretically parasitize can be determined from the
wasp’s egg-laying behavior.
(B) Host insects lack any effective defenses against the form of predation practiced by parasitic wasps.
(C) Parasitic wasps learn from experience how many eggs to lay into the eggs of different host species.
(D) Failure to lay enough eggs would lead to the death of the developing wasp larvae more quickly than
would laying too many eggs.
(E) Parasitic wasps use visual clues to calculate the size of a host egg.
176. Northern Air has dozens of flights daily into and out of Belleville Airport, which is highly congested. Northern
Air depends for its success on economy and quick turnaround and consequently is planning to replace its large
planes with Skybuses, whose novel aerodynamic design is extremely fuel efficient. The Skybus’ fuel efficiency
results in both lower fuel costs and reduced time spent refueling.
Which of the following, if true, could present the most serious disadvantage for Northern Air in replacing their
large planes with Skybuses?
(A) The Skybus would enable Northern Air to schedule direct flights to destinations that currently require stops
(B) Aviation fuel is projected to decline in price over the next several years.
(C) The fuel efficiency of the Skybus would enable Northern Air to eliminate refueling at some of its destinations,
but several mechanics would lose their jobs.
(D) None of Northern Air’s competitors that use Belleville Airport are considering buying Skybuses.
(E) The aerodynamic design of the Skybus causes turbulence behind it when taking off that forces other planes
on the runway to delay their takeoffs.
177. Products sold under a brand name used to command premium prices because, in general, they were
superior to nonbrand rival products. Technical expertise in product development has become so widespread,
however, that special quality advantages are very hard to obtain these days and even harder to maintain. As a
consequence, brand-name products generally neither offer higher quality nor sell at higher prices. Paradoxically,
brand names are a bigger marketing advantage than ever.
Which of the following, if true, most helps to resolve the paradox outlined above?
(A) Brand names are taken by consumers as a guarantee of getting a product as good as the best rival
(B) Consumers recognize that the quality of products sold under invariant brand names can drift over time.
(C) In many acquisitions of one corporation by another, the acquiring corporation is interested more in acquiring
the right to use certain brand names than in acquiring existing production facilities.
(D) In the days when special quality advantages were easier to obtain than they are now, it was also easier to
get new brand names established.
(E) The advertising of a company’s brand-name products is at times transferred to a new advertising agency,
especially when sales are declining.
178. In countries in which new life-sustaining drugs cannot be patented, such drugs are sold at widely affordable
prices; those same drugs, where patented, command premium prices because the patents shield patent-holding
manufacturers from competitors. These facts show that future access to new life-sustaining drugs can be
improved if the practice of granting patents on newly developed life-sustaining drugs were to be abolished
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?
(A) In countries in which life-sustaining drugs cannot be patented, their manufacture is nevertheless a
(B) Countries that do not currently grant patents on life-sustaining drugs are, for the most part, countries with
(C) In some countries specific processes for the manufacture of pharmaceutical drugs can be patented even in
cases in which the drugs themselves cannot be patented.
(D) Pharmaceutical companies can afford the research that goes into the development of new drugs only if
patents allow them to earn high profits.
(E) Countries that grant patents on life-sustaining drugs almost always ban their importation from countries that
do not grant such patents.
179. A museum has been offered an undocumented statue, supposedly Greek and from the sixth century B.C.
Possibly the statue is genuine but undocumented because it was recently unearthed or because it has been
privately owned. However, an ancient surface usually has uneven weathering, whereas the surface of this statue
has the uniform quality characteristically produced by a chemical bath used by forgers to imitate a weathered
surface. Therefore, the statue is probably a forgery.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?
(A) Museums can accept a recently unearthed statue only with valid export documentation from its country of
(B) The subject’s pose and other aspects of the subject’s treatment exhibit all the most common features of
Greek statues of the sixth century B.C.
(C) The chemical bath that forgers use was at one time used by dealers and collectors to remove the splotchy
surface appearance of genuinely ancient sculptures.
(D) Museum officials believe that forgers have no technique that can convincingly simulate the patchy
weathering characteristic of the surfaces of ancient sculptures.
(E) An allegedly Roman sculpture with a uniform surface similar to that of the stature being offered to the
museum was recently shown to be a forgery.
180. In the arid land along the Colorado River, use of the river’s water supply is strictly controlled: farms along
the river each have a limited allocation that they are allowed to use for irrigation. But the trees that grow in
narrow strips along the river’s banks also use its water. Clearly, therefore, if farmers were to remove those trees,
more water would be available for crop irrigation.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?
(A) The trees along the river’s banks shelter it from the sun and wind, thereby greatly reducing the amount of
water lost through evaporation.
(B) Owners of farms along the river will probably not undertake the expense of cutting down trees along the
banks unless they are granted a greater allocation of water in return.
(C) Many of the tree species currently found along the river’s banks are specifically adapted to growing in places
where tree roots remain constantly wet.
(D) The strip of land where trees grow along the river’s banks would not be suitable for growing crops if the trees
(E) The distribution of water allocations for irrigation is intended to prevent farms farther upstream from using
water needed by farms farther downstream.
Consumer health advocate: Your candy company adds caffeine to your chocolate candy bars so that each one
delivers a specified amount of caffeine. Since caffeine is highly addictive, this indicates that you intend to keep
your customers addicted.
Candy manufacturer: Our manufacturing process results in there being les caffeine in each chocolate candy bar
than in the unprocessed cacao beans from which the chocolate is made.
The candy manufacturer’s response is flawed as a refutation of the consumer health advocate’s argument
(F) fails to address the issue of whether the level of caffeine in the candy bars sold by the manufacture is
enough to keep people addicted
(G) assumes without warrant that all unprocessed cacao beans contain a uniform amount of caffeine
(H) does not specify exactly how caffeine is lost in the manufacturing process
(I) treats the consumer heal advocate’s argument as though it were about each candy bar rather than about the
manufacturer’s candy in general
(J) merely contradicts the consumer health advocate’s conclusion without giving any reason to believe that the
advocate’s reasoning is unsound
The earliest Mayan pottery found at Colha, in Belize, is about 3,000 years old. Recently, however,
4,500-year-oold stone agricultural implements were unearthed at colha. These implements resemble Mayan
stone implements of a much later period, also found at Colha. Moreover, the implements’ designs are strikingly
different from the designs of stone implements produced by other cultures known to have inhabited the area in
prehistoric times. Therefore, there were surely Mayan settlements in Colha 4,500 years ago.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument/
(A) Ceramic ware is not known to have been used by the Maya to make agricultural implements.
(B) Carbon dating of corn pollen in Colha indicates that agriculture began there around 4,500 years ago.
(C) Archaeological evidence indicates that some of the oldest stone implements found at Colha were used to cut
away vegetation after controlled burning of trees to open areas of swampland for cultivation.
(D) Successor cultures at a given site often adopt the style of agricultural implements used by earlier inhabitants
of the same site.
(E) Many religious and social institutions of the Mayan people who inhabited Colha 3,000 years ago relied on a
highly developed system of agricultural symbols.
Regulations recently imposed by the government of Risemia call for unprecedented reductions in the amounts of
pollutants manufacturers are allowed to discharge into the environment. It will take costly new pollution control
equipment requiring expensive maintenance to comply with these regulations. Resultant price increases for
Risemian manufactured goods will lead to the loss of some export markets.
Clearly, therefore, annual exports of Risemian manufactured goods will in the future occur at diminished levels.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument in the editorial?
(A) The need to comply with the new regulations will stimulate the development within Risemia of new pollution
control equipment for which a strong worldwide demand is likely to emerge.
(B) The proposed regulations include a schedule of fines for noncompliance that escalate steeply in cases of
(C) Savings from utilizing the chemicals captured by the pollution control equipment will remain far below the
cost of maintaining the equipment.
(D) By international standards, the levels of pollutants currently emitted by some of Risemia’s manufacturing
plants are not considered excessive.
(E) The stockholders of most Risemia’s manufacturing corporations exert substantial pressure on the
corporations to comply with environmental laws.
Codex Berinensis, a Florentine copy of an ancient Roman medical treatise, is undated but contains clues to
when it was produced. Its first eighty pages are by a single copyist, but the remaining twenty pages are by three
different copyists, which indicate some significant disruption. Since a letter in handwriting identified as that of the
fourth copyist mentions a plague that killed many people in Florence in 1148, Codex Berinensis was probably
produced in that year.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis that codex Berinensis was produced in
(A) Other than Codex Berinensis, there are no known samples of the handwriting of the first three copyists.
(B) According to the account by the fourth copyists, the plague went on for ten months.
(C) A scribe would be able to copy a page of text the size and style of Codex Berinensis in a day.
(D) There was only one outbreak of plague in Florence in the 1100’s.
(E) The number of pages of Codex Berinnesis produced by a single scribe becomes smaller with each
successive change of copyist.
Near Chicago a newly built hydroponic spinach “factuory,” a completely controlled environment for growing
spinach, produces on 1 acre of floor space what it takes 100 acres of fields to produce. Expenses, especially for
electricity, are high ,hwoever, and the spinach produced costs about four times as much as washed California
field spinach, the spinach commonly sold throughout the United States.
Which of the following, if true, best supports a projection that the spinach-growing facility near Chicago will be
(A) Once the operators of the facility are experienced, they will be able to cut operating expenses by about 25
(B) There is virtually no scope for any further reduction in the cost per pound for California field spinach.
(C) Unlike washed field spinach, the hydroponically grown spinach is untainted by any pesticides or herbicides
and thus will sell at exceptionally herbicides an thus will sell at exceptionally high prices to such customers
as health food restaurants.
(D) Since spinach is a crop that ships relatively well, the market for the hydroponically grown spinach is no more
limited to the Chicago area than the market for California field spinach is to California.
(E) A second hydroponics facility is being built in Canada, taking advantage of inexpensive electricity and high
Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk of an oil spill, but importing oil on tankers presently
entails an even greater such risk per barrel of oil. Therefore, if we are to reduce the risk of an oil spill without
curtailing our use of oil, we must invest more in offshore operations and import less oil on tankers.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above?
(A) Tankers can easily be redesigned so that their use entails less risk of an oil spill.
(B) Oil spills caused by tankers have generally been more serious than those caused by offshore operations.
(C) The impact of offshore operations on the environment can be controlled by careful management.
(D) Offshore operations usually damage the ocean floor, but tankers rarely cause such damage.
(E) Importing oil on tankers is currently less expensive than drilling for it offshore.
Automobile Dealer’s Advertisement:
The Highway Traffic Safety Institute reports that the PZ 1000 has the fewest injuries per accident of any car in its
class. This shows that the PZ 1000 is one of the safest cars available today.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument in the advertisement?
(A) The Highway Traffic Safety Institute report listed many cars in other classes that had more injuries per
accident than did the PZ 1000.
(B) In recently years many more PZ 1000’s have been sold than have any other kind of car in its class.
(C) Cars in the class to which the PZ 1000 belongs are more likely to be involved in accidents than are other
types of cars.
(D) The difference between the number of injuries per accident for the PZ 1000 and that for other cars in its
class is quite pronounced.
(E) The Highway Traffic Safety Institute issues reports only once a year.
When demand for a factory’s products is high, more money is spent at the factory for safety precautions and
machinery maintenance than when demand is low. Thus the average number of on-the-job accidents per
employee each month should be lower during periods when demand is high than when demand is low and less
money is available for safety precautions and machinery maintenance.
Which of the following, if true about a factory when demand for its products is high, casts the most serious doubt
on the conclusion drawn above?
(A) Its employees ask for higher wages than they do at other times.
(B) It s management hires new workers but lacks the time to train them properly.
(C) Its employees are less likely to lose their jobs than they are at other times.
(D) Its management sponsors a monthly safety award for each division in the factory.
(E) Its old machinery is replaced with moderns, automated models.
Studies have shown that elderly people who practice a religion are much more likely to die immediately after an
important religious holiday period than immediately before one. Researchers have concluded that the will to live
can prolong life, at least for short periods of time.
Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the researchers’ conclusion?
(A) Elderly people who practice a religion are less likely to die immediately before or during an important
religious holiday than at any other time of the year.
(B) Elderly people who practice a religion appear to experience less anxiety at the prospect of dying than do
(C) Some elderly people who do practice a religion live much longer than most elderly people who do not.
(D) Most elderly people who participate in religious holidays have different reasons for participating than young
(E) Many religions have important holidays in the spring and fall, seasons with the lowest death rates for elderly
Manufacturers of mechanical pencils make most of their profit on pencil leads rather than on the pencils
themselves. The Write Company, which cannot sell its leads as cheaply as other manufacturers can, plans to
alter the design of its mechanical pencil so that it will accept only a newly designed Write Company lead, which
will be sold at the same price as the Write Company’s current lead.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the Write Company’s projection that its plan will lead to an
increase in its sales of pencil lead?
(A) First-time buyers of the mechanical pencils tend to buy the least expensive mechanical pencils available.
(B) Annual sales of mechanical pencils are expected to triple over the next five years.
(C) A Write Company executive is studying ways to reduce the cost of manufacturing pencil leads.
(D) A rival manufacture recently announced similar plans to introduce a mechanical pencil that would accept
only the leads produced by that manufacturer.
(E) In extensive text marketing, mechanical-pencil users found the new Write Company pencil markedly
superior to other mechanical pencils they had used.
To evaluate a plan to save money on office-space expenditures by having its employees work at home, XYZ
Company asked volunteers from its staff to try the arrangement for six months. During this period, the
productivity of these employees was as high as or higher than before.
Which of the following, if true, would argue most strongly against deciding, on the basis of the trial results, to
implement the company’s plan?
(A) The employees who agreed to participate in the test of the plan were among the company’s most
self-motivated and independent workers.
(B) The savings that would accrue from reduced office-space expenditures alone would be sufficient to justify
the arrangement for the company, apart from any productivity increase.
(C) Other companies that have achieved successful results from work-at-home plans have work forces that are
substantially larger than that of XYZ.
(D) The volunteers who worked at home were able to communicate with other employees as necessary for
performing the work.
(E) Minor changes in the way office work is organized at XYZ would yield increases in employee productivity
similar to those achieved in the trial.
Mourdet Winery: Danville Winery’s new wine was introduced to compete with our most popular wine, which is
sold in a distinctive tall, black bottle. Danville uses a similar bottle. Thus, it is likely that many customers
intending to buy our wine will mistakenly buy theirs instead.
Danville Winery: Not so. The two bottles can be readily distinguished: the label on ours, but not on theirs, is gold
Which of the following, if true, most undermines Danville Winery’s response?
(A) Gold is the background color on the label of many of the wines produced by Danville Winery.
(B) When the bottles are viewed side by side, Danville Winery’s bottle is perceptibly taller than Mourdet
(C) Danville Winery, unlike Mourdet Winery, displays its wine’s label prominently in advertisements.
(D) It is common for occasional purchasers to buy a bottle of wine on the basis of a general impression of the
most obvious feature of the bottle.
(E) Many popular wines are sold in bottles of a standard design.
The mayor plans to deactivate the city’s fire alarm boxes, because most calls received from them are false
alarms. The mayor claims that the alarm boxes are no longer necessary, since most people now have access to
either public or private telephone. But the city’s commercial district, where there is the greatest risk of fire, has
few residents and few public telephones, so some alarm boxes are still necessary.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the editorial’s argument?
(A) Maintaining the fire alarm boxes costs the city more than five million dollars annually.
(B) Commercial buildings have automatic fire alarm systems that are linked directly to the fire department.
(C) The fire department gets less information from an alarm box than it does from a telephone call.
(D) The city’s fire department is located much closer to the residential areas than to the commercial district.
(E) On average, almost 25 percent of the public telephones in the city are out of order.
A major impediment to wide acceptance of electric vehicles even on the part of people who use their cars almost
exclusively for commuting is the inability to use electric vehicles for occasional extended trips. In an attempt to
make purchasing electric vehicles more attractive to commuters, one electric vehicle producer is planning to
offer customers three days free rental of a conventional car for every 1,000 miles that they drive their electric
Which of the following, if true, most threatens the plan’s prospects for success?
(A) Many eclectic vehicles that are used for commercial purposes are not needed for extended trips.
(B) Because a majority of commuters drive at least 100 miles a week, the cost to the producer of making good
the offer would add considerably to the already high price of electric vehicles.
(C) The relatively long time it takes to recharge the battery of an electric vehicle can easily be fitted into the
regular patterns of car use characteristic of commuters.
(D) Although eclectic vehicles are essentially emission-free in actual use, generating the electricity necessary
for charging an electric vehicle’s battery can burden the environment.
(E) Some family vehicles are used primarily not for commuting but for making short local trips, such as to do
A proposed change to federal income tax laws would eliminate deductions from taxable income for donations a
taxpayer has made to charitable and educational institutions. If this change were adopted, wealthy individuals
would no longer be permitted such deductions. Therefore, many charitable and educational institutions would
have to reduce services, and some would have to close their doors.
The argument above assumes which of the following?
(A) Without the incentives offered by federal income tax laws, at least some wealthy individuals would not
donate as much money to charitable and educational institutions as they otherwise would have.
(B) Money contributed by individuals who make their donations because of provisions in the federal tax laws
provides the only source of funding for many charitable and educational institutions.
(C) The primary reason for not adopting the proposed change in the federal income tax laws cited above is to
protect wealthy individuals from having to pay higher taxes.
(D) Wealthy individuals who donate money to charitable and educational institutions are the only individuals who
donate money to such institutions.
(E) Income tax laws should be changed to make donations to charitable and educational institutions the only
permissible deductions from taxable income.
An unusually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was blanketed by a blue haze resulting from
the eruption of the Laki Volcano in the Europeans republic of Iceland in the summer of 1984. Thus, it is evident
that major eruptions cause the atmosphere to become cooler than it would be otherwise.
Which of the following statements, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above?
(A) The cooling effect triggered by volcanic eruptions in 1985 was counteracted by an unusual warming of
(B) There is a strong statistical link between volcanic eruptions and the severity of the rainy season in India.
(C) A few months after EI Chichon’s large eruption in April 1982, air temperatures throughout the region
remained higher than expected, given the long-term weather trends.
(D) The climatic effects of major volcanic eruptions can temporality mask the general warming trend resulting
from an excess of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
(E) Three months after an early springtime eruption in South America during the late 19th century, sea surface
temperatures near the coast began to fall.
To persuade consumers to buy its personal computers for home use, SuperComp has enlisted computer dealers
in shopping centers to sell its product and launched a major advertising campaign that has already increased
public awareness of the SuperComp bran. Despite the fact that these dealers achieved dramatically increased
sales of computers last month, however, analysts doubt that the marketing plan is brining Super Comp the
Which of the following, if true, best supports the claim that the analysts’ doubt is well founded?
(A) In market surveys, few respondents who had been exposed to SuperComp’s advertising campaign said they
thought there was no point in owning a home computer.
(B) People who own a home computer often buy a second such computer, but only rarely do people buy a third
(C) SuperComp’s dealers also sell other brands of computers that are very similar to SuperComp’s but less
expensive and that afford the dealers a significantly higher markup.
(D) The dealers who were chosen to sell SuperComp’s computers were selected in part because their stores
are located in shopping centers that attract relatively wealthy shoppers.
(E) Computer-industry analysts believed before the SuperComp campaign began that most consumers who
already owned home computers were not yet ready to replace them.
A factory was trying out a new process for producing one of its products, with the goal of reducing production
costs. A trial production run using the new process showed a 15 percent reduction in costs compared with past
performance using the standard process. The production managers therefore concluded that the new process
did produce a cost savings.
Which of the following, if true, casts most doubt on the production manager’s conclusion?
(A) In the cost reduction project that eventually led to the trial of the new process, production managers had
initially been seeking cost reductions of 50 percent.
(B) Analysis of the trial of the new process showed that the cost reduction during the trial was entirely
attributable to a reduction in the umber of finished products rejected by quality control.
(C) While the trial was being conducted, production costs at the factory for a similar product, produced without
benefit of the new process, also showed a 15 percent reduction.
(D) Although some of the factory’s managers have been arguing that the product is outdated and ought to be
redesigned, the use of the new production process does not involve any changes in the finished product.
(E) Since the new process differs from the standard process only in the way in which the stage of production are
organized and ordered, the cost of the materials used in the product is the same in both processes.
Vitacorp, a manufacturer, wishes to make its information booth at an industry convention more productive in
terms of boosting sales. The booth offers information introducing the company’s new products and services. To
achieve the desired result, Vitacorp’s marketing department will attempt to attract more people to the both. The
marketing director’s first measure was to instruct each salesperson to call his or her five best customers and
personally invite them to visit the booth.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the prediction that the marketing director’s first measure
will contribute to meeting the goals of boosting sales?
(A) Vitacorp’s salespeople routinely inform each important customer about new products and services as soon
as the decision to launch them has been made.
(B) Many of Vitacorp’s competitors have made plans for making their won information booths more productive in
(C) An information booth that is well attended tends to attract visitors who would not otherwise have attended
(D) Most of Vitacorp’s best customers also have business dealings with Vitacorp’s competitors.
(E) Vitacorp has fewer new products and services available this year than it had in previous years.
Outsourcing is the practice of obtaining from an independent supplier a product or service that a company has
previously provided for itself. Since a company’s chief objective is to realize the highest possible year-end profits,
any product or service that can be obtained from an independent supplier for less than it would cost the
company to provide the product or service on its own should be outsourced.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?
(A) If a company decides to use independent suppliers for a product, it can generally exploit the vigorous
competition arising among several firms that are interested in supplying that product.
(B) Successful outsourcing requires a company to provide its suppliers with information about its products and
plans that can fall into the hands of its competitors and give them a business advantage.
(C) Certain tasks, such as processing a company’s payroll, are commonly outsourced, whereas others, such as
handling the company’s core business, are not.
(D) For a company to provide a product or service for itself as efficiently as an independent supplier can provide
it, the managers involved need to be as expert in the area of that product or service as the people in charge
of that product or service at an independent supplier are.
(E) When a company decides to sue an independent supplier for a product or service, the independent supplier
sometimes hires members of the company’s staff who formerly made the product or provided the service
that the independent supplier now supplies.
State spokesperson: Many businesspeople who have not been to our state believe that we have an inadequate
road system. Those people are mistaken, as is obvious from the fact that in each of the past six years, our state
has spent more money per mile on road improvements than any other state.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the reasoning in the spokesperson’s argument?
(A) In the spokesperson’s state, spending on road improvements has been increasing more slowly over the past
six years than it has in several other states.
(B) Adequacy of a state’s road system is generally less important to a businessperson considering doing
business there than is the availability of qualified employees.
(C) Over the past six years, numerous businesses have business have moved into the state.
(D) In general, the number of miles of road in a state’ road system depends on both the area and the population
of the state.
(E) Only states with seriously inadequate road systems need to spend large amounts of money on road
Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both grain and meat. However, as per capita income in
Gortland has risen toward the world average, per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world
average, and it takes several pounds of grain to produce one pound of meat. Therefore, since per capita income
continues to rise, whereas domestic grain production will not increase, Gortland will soon have to import either
grain or meat or both.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
(A) The total acreage devoted to grain production in Gortland will not decrease substantially.
(B) The population of Gortland has remained relatively constant during the country’s years of growing
(C) The per capita consumption of meat in Gortland is roughly the same across all income levels.
(D) In Gortland, neither meat nor grain is subject to government price controls.
(E) People in Gortland who increase their consumption of meat will not radically decrease their consumption of
Journalist: In physics journals, the number of articles reporting the results of experiments involving particle
accelerators was lower last year than it had been in previous years. Several of the particle accelerators at major
research institutions were out of service the year before last for repairs, so it is likely that the low number of
articles was due to the decline in availability of particle accelerators.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the journalist’s argument?
(A) Every article based on experiments with particle accelerators that was submitted for publication last year
actually was published.
(B) The average time scientists must wait for access to a particle accelerator has declined over the last several
(C) The number of physics journals was the same last year as in previous years.
(D) Particle accelerators can be used for more than one group of experiments in any given year.
(E) Recent changes in the editorial policies of several physics journals have decreased the likelihood that
articles concerning particle-accelerator research will be accepted for publication.
An eyeglass manufacturer tried to boost sales for the summer quarter by offering its distributors a special
discount if their orders for that quarter exceeded those for last year’s summer quarter by at least 20 percent.
Many distributors qualified for this discount. Even with much merchandise discounted, sales increased enough
to produce a healthy gain in net profits. The manufacturer plans to repeat this success by offering the same sort
of discount for the fall quarter.
Which of the following, if true, most clearly points to a flaw in the manufacturer’s plan to repeat the successful
performance of the summer quarter?
(A) In general, a distributor’s orders for the summer quarter are no higher than those for the spring quarter.
(B) Along with offering special discounts to qualifying distributors, the manufacturer increased newspaper and
radio advertising in those distributors’ sales areas.
(C) The distributors most likely to qualify for the manufacturer’s special discount are those whose orders were
unusually low a year earlier.
(D) The distributors how qualified for the manufacturer’s special discount were free to decide how much of that
discount to pass on to their own customers.
(E) The distributors’ ordering more goods in the summer quarter left them overstocked for the fall quarter.
Consumer advocate: it is generally true, at least in this state, that lawyers who advertise a specific service
charge less for that service than lawyers who do not advertise. It is also true that each time restrictions on the
advertising of legal services have been eliminated, the number of lawyers advertising their services has
increased and legal costs to consumers have declined in consequence. However, eliminating the state
requirement that legal advertisements must specify fees for specific services would almost certainly increase
rather than further reduce consumer’s legal costs. Lawyers would no longer have an incentive to lower their fees
when they begin advertising and if no longer required to specify fee arrangements, many lawyers who now
advertise would increase their fees.
In the consumer advocate’s argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
(A) The first is a generalization that the consumer advocate accepts as true; the second is presented as a
consequence that follows from the truth of that generalization.
(B) The first is a pattern of cause and effect that the consumer advocate argues will be repeated in the case at
issue; the second acknowledges a circumstance in which that pattern would not hold.
(C) The first is pattern of cause and effect that the consumer advocate predicts will not hold in the case at issue;
the second offers a consideration in support of that prediction.
(D) The first is evidence that the consumer advocate offers in support of a certain prediction; the second is that
(E) The first acknowledges a consideration that weighs against the main position that the consumer advocate
defends; the second is that position.
A is the best answer.
If applicants who are in fact dishonest claimed to be honest, the survey results would show a smaller proportion
of dishonest applicants than actually exists. Therefore, this choice is the best answer. B is inappropriate because
generally honest applicants who claimed to be dishonest could contribute to the overestimation, but not to the
underestimation, of dishonest applicants. D is inappropriate because applicants who admitted their dishonesty
would not contribute to an underestimation of the proportion of dishonest applicants. C and E are inappropriate
because the argument is concerned neither with degrees of dishonesty nor with the honesty of non-applicants.
C is the best answer.
This choice suggests that a significant proportion of Hawaii’s population is genetically predisposed to be long
lived. Since Louisianans are not necessarily so predisposed, and since the Louisianans’ children will acquire
their genetic characteristics from their parents, not from their birthplace, this choice presents a reason to doubt
that Hawaiian born children of native Louisianans will have an increased life expectancy. Therefore, this choice
is the best answer. Because the conclusion concerns people born in Hawaii, not the average Louisianan, A does
not weaken the conclusion. Because the governor’s allegation is false, it cannot affect the conclusion. D fails to
weaken the conclusion because it is consistent with the information given and the conclusion about life
expectancy. By suggesting that Hawaii’s environment is in one respect particularly healthy, E supports the
If B is true, the greater abundance of longevity-promoting environmental factors it mentions is probably at least
partly responsible for the higher life expectancy in Hawaii. Children born in Hawaii benefit from these factors
from birth, and thus Louisianans who have children in Hawaii increase their children’s chances of living longer.
Therefore, B is the best answer. If life expectancy in Hawaii is likely to be falling, as A says, the argument is
weakened rather than strengthened. C and E, in the absence of other relevant information, have no bearing on
the conclusion; thus, they are inappropriate. D is irrelevant, because the information it mentions about rates
would already have been incorporated into the statistics cited in the passage.
Insurance companies can improve the ratio of revenues to claims paid, thus minimizing losses, if they insure as
many people belonging to low-risk groups as they can. Because the strategy described in A adds a low-risk
group to the pool of policyholders, this choice is the best answer. B is irrelevant, since no link is established
between childhood diseases and diseases affecting the elderly. C is inappropriate, since increasing the number
of services covered is unlikely to minimize losses. D is inappropriate, since it would increase the likelihood that
claims against the policy will be made. Because policyholders will file claims against the policy for services
covered rather than pay for the cost of the services themselves, E is irrelevant.
The passage recommends that parents participate in a tuition prepayment program as a means of decreasing
the cost of their children’s future college education. If B is true, placing the funds in an interest bearing account
would be more cost-effective than participating in the prepayment program. Therefore, B would be a reason for
NOT participating and is the best answer. A is not clearly relevant to deciding whether to participate since the
program applies to whatever public college the child might attend. C and D, by stating that tuition will increase,
provide support for participating in the program. E is not clearly relevant to deciding whether to participate, since
the expenses mentioned fall outside the scope of the program.
Restricting use of the coupons to the immediate families of those awarded them, as B suggests, would make the
coupons valueless for anyone else, so that marketing the coupons would no longer be possible. The coupons,
however, would still allow the people to whom Bravo gives them to enjoy free travel. Thus, awarding coupons
would remain a strong incentive to frequent travel on Bravo. Therefore, B is the best answer. A would do nothing
to reduce the resale value of the coupons. C, D and E all not only fail to prevent Alpha’s coupon sales from
competing with Bravo’s own ticket sales, but also potentially reduce the usefulness of the coupons to the people
to whom they are awarded.
The speed with which the ice on the windshield melted is attributed to the air blowing full force from the
defrosting vent onto the front windshield. This explanation of B is undermined if, as B states, no attempt was
made to defrost the back window and the ice on the back window melted as quickly as did the ice on the
windshield. Therefore, B is the best answer. In the absence of other information, the lack of ice condensation on
the side windows that is mentioned in A is irrelevant to the validity of the explanation. C might support the
explanation, since the air from the defrosting vent was warm. Neither of D and E gives a reason to doubt that air
from the vent caused the ice’s melting, and thus neither jeopardizes the explanation’s validity.
The official argues that prohibiting high-level government officials from accepting positions as lobbyists for three
years would prevent the officials from earning a livelihood for that period. The reasoning tacitly excludes the
possibility of such officials earning a living through work other than lobbying. Therefore, D, which expresses this
tacit assumption, is the best answer. The official’s argument does not depend on the assumption in A, since the
argument would not be invalidated if some restrictions on the behavior of government officials were desirable.
The official’s argument does not depend on the assumption in B, since the argument would not be invalidated if
lobbyists were not typically former high-level government officials. The official’s argument does not depend on
the assumption in C, since the argument would not be invalidated if former low-level government officials did
often become lobbyists. The official’s argument does not depend on the assumption in E, since the argument
would not be invalidated if former high-level government officials could act as lobbyists indefinitely.
The group’s contention suggests that animals that are shy and active at night are feared and persecute for that
reason. D establishes that raccoons and owls are shy and active at night, but that they are neither feared nor
persecuted. Therefore, D is the best answer. Although an increasing prevalence of bats might explain the
importance of addressing people’s fear of bats, A does not address the original causes of that fear. B and E,
while relevant to the rationality of people’s fear of bats, do not affect the assessment of the accuracy of the
group’s contention. That bats are feared outside the United States, as C states, does not conflict with the group’s
explanation for fear of bats in the United States.
If the defense system designers did not plan for the contingency of large meteorite explosions, such explosions
would, from the system’s perspective, be unexpected. The system’s response to such explosions is
consequently unpredictable. E expresses this inference and is thus the best answer. A cannot be inferred since it
is consistent with the stated information that no meteorite explosion will occur within a century. B cannot be
inferred since there is no information to suggest that meteorite explosions in the atmosphere would destroy the
system. C cannot be inferred since it is consistent with the stated information that an appropriately designed
nuclear defense system might be able to distinguish nuclear from meteorite explosions. D cannot be inferred
since there is no information to suggest that the location of blasts would determine the appropriateness of
defense system’s response.
The supposition in c involves reducing by one the number of restrictions on the advertising of legal services. Any
such reduction will, if the stated correlation exists, be accompanied by an increase in the number of lawyers
advertising their services, as C predicts. Therefore, C is the best answer. A does not follow from the stated
information since it is still possible that no lawyers would raise their fees. B does not follow from the stated
information since it is still possible that there would be no increase in the number of consumers using legal
services. D does not follow the stated information since it is still possible that none of the lawyers who do not
advertise would decide to lower their prices. E does not follow the stated information since it is still possible that
few lawyers would advertise their legal services.
If E is true, the lawyers who begin advertising when the restriction is removed might all be among those who do
not lower their fees on beginning to advertise, in which case no decrease in consumer legal costs will occur.
Therefore, E weakens the argument and is the best answer. Since A does not relate the recent removal of
restrictions to changes in consumer legal costs, it alone does not weaken the argument. Since the argument is
unconcerned with whatever restrictions remain in effect but focuses only on those that will be removed, B does
not weaken the argument. C and D are irrelevant to an evaluation of the argument, which is concerned with cost
considerations, not with the quality of legal services or the content of lawyers’ advertisements.
Since the size of the machine-tool manufacturing base presumably has implications in area beyond national
security, one might find it surprising that the industry raised the security issue in its petition. C, the best answer,
explains that the industry turned to this issue because others tended to be ineffective in efforts to obtain
governmental protection. A explains why the industry might NOT raise the security issue, since it suggests that it
might have raised the issue of jobs instead. B explains why the industry might NOT raise the security issue
about import quotas, since it suggests that the Defense Department had no interest in import quotas whatsoever.
Neither of D and E is relevant to the industry’s choice of strategy for securing import quotas.
The principle that people are entitled to risk injury provided they do not thereby harm others fails to justify the
individual’s right to decide not to wear seat belts if it can be shown, as B shows, that that decision does harm
others. Therefore, B is the best answer. A suggests that the law may be irrelevant in some cases, but it does not
address the issue of the law’s legitimacy. C cites a requirement analogous to the one at issue, but its existence
alone does not bear on the legitimacy of the one at issue. The argument implicitly concedes that individuals take
risks by not wearing seat belts; therefore, D and E, which simply confirm this concession, do not weaken the
If the tariff on importing radios from Country Q to Country Y were as high as ten percent or more of the cost of
producing radios in Y, then, contrary to what the passage says, the cost of importing radios from Q to Y would be
equal to or more than the cost of producing radios in Y. thus, the tariff cannot be that high, and C is the best
answer. A and E give possible partial explanations for the cost difference, but neither is supported by the
passage because the cost advantage in Q might be attributable to other factors. B and D are both consistent
with the information in the passage, but the passage provides no evidence to support them.
Concluding from the similar numbers of deaths in two groups that the relative danger of death was similar for
both groups is absurd if, as here, one group was far smaller. D exposes this absurdity by pointing out the need to
compare death rates of the two groups, which would reveal the higher death rate for the smaller group.
Therefore, D is the best answer. Since the conclusion acknowledges the difference between the number of
civilian and armed forces deaths, expressing this difference as a percentage, as suggested by B, is beside the
point. A is inappropriate because it simply adds a third group to the two being compared. Because cause of
death in not at issue, C and E are irrelevant.
The passage rejects one explanation of the shortage of teachers-that it results from toughened hiring
standards-and advances an alternative-that it results from deficiencies in pay and wording conditions. D
provides corroborative evidence for the latter explanation by suggesting that, for many former teachers, poor pay
and working conditions were reasons for their quitting the profession. Therefore, D is the best answer. A, C and
E provide evidence that tends to implicate new hiring standards in the staffing shortage, and thus support the
explanation that the passage rejects. B describes what may be a result of the new hiring standards, but it
provides no evidence favoring one explanation of the staffing shortage over the other.
The home builder reasons from evidence about most residential fires to a conclusion about the effectiveness of
sprinklers in preventing property damage. But this reasoning is faulty because of the possibility that most of the
property damage results from the minority of fires excluded from the builder’s evidence. That possibility is
realized if E is true. Thus, E is the best answer. Because the builder’s argument concerns neither the cost of
installing sprinklers not a comparison with fire department performance in other locations, C and D are irrelevant.
The evidence the home builder cites suggests that formal training is not needed in order to extinguish fires. So A
is not the correct answer. B supports the builder’s view that requiring sprinklers would have a limited effect.
The passage concludes that, where royalty retention of faculty members’ works is concerned, software should
be treated as books and articles are, not as inventions are. The conclusion requires an additional premise
establishing that software is, in relevant respects, more comparable to books and articles than to inventions. E
provides this kind of premise and is therefore the best answer. A, B,C and D each describe some difference
between software and inventions, or between inventions and books and articles, or between software and books
and articles. However, none establishes the required relationship among inventions, software, and books and
If increased HDL levels cause reduced cholesterol levels and if a certain program increases HDL levels in some
individuals, it follows that some individuals who undertake that program achieve reduced cholesterol levels. D is
thus correctly inferable and the best answer. A cannot be correctly inferred because the statements do not
establish any connection between being underweight and levels of cholesterol. Neither of B and E is inferable,
since there is no indication that exercise alone is either necessary or sufficient to increase HDL levels or to
decrease cholesterol levels. C is inappropriate because other methods of cholesterol reduction are not
On the basis of an observed correlation between arms testing and people’s tendency to save money, the
argument concludes that there is a causal connection between a perception of threat and the tendency not to
save. That connection cannot be made unless C, linking the perception of threat to the amount of testing being
done, is assumed to be true. Therefore, C is the best answer. The conclusion does not depend on there having
been an increase in the perceived threat over time or on how many people supported the development of
nuclear arms. Hence, neither of A and B is assumed. The argument does not deal with those who supported
arms limitations or with the availability of consumer goods. Thus, D and E are not assumed.
The incomplete passage calls for an explanation of why price-reduction and mass-marketing methods should
not be used for premium products. B, which states that sales of these products require that they appear specials,
provides such an explanation. Therefore, B is the best answer. No other choice offers an appropriate
explanation. The diminishing proportion of affluent buyers cited in A argues for using price reductions to attract
buyers of lesser means. C suggests that purchasers of premium products find reduced prices attractive, and it
has not been established that the methods affect quality or perception of quality. D argues for, rather than
against, using mass marketing. E is inappropriate, since there is no indication that manufacturing costs are
The plan proposes that high-speed ground transportation would be a less expensive solution to airport
congestion than would airport expansion. B indicates that between the cities to be served by the plan there is
substantial air travel to which ground transportation would represent an alternative. Therefore, B is the best
answer. No other choice could be cited appropriately. A and D both provide some evidence against the plan. A by
emphasizing the likely costs of providing high-speed ground transportation is not by itself a solution to airport
congestion. D by indicating that such an alternative is not by itself a solution to airport congestion. C and E say
that there are many travelers for whom the proposed system would actually provide no alternative.
If the statement about oil-supply disruption is true, domestic oil prices in an open-market country will rise when
an oil-supply disruption causes increased international oil prices. A reduction in the amount of oil an
open-market country consumes could reduce the economic impact of these increases. D gives a way to reduce
oil consumption and is thus the best answer. A and E describe policies that could actually increase the long-term
impact of increases in international oil prices, so neither of these choices is appropriate. No relationship is
established between the economic impact and either the number of oil tankers or diplomatic relations in B and C,
so neither of these choices is appropriate.
If the oil market in an open-market country were independent, fluctuations in international oil prices would not
affect domestic oil prices. However, if the statement about oil-supply disruption is true, it is evidence that
domestic oil prices are dependent on the international market and hence that the domestic oil market is a part of
the international oil market. Therefore, C is the best answer. B and D are not supported, since each contradicts
the claim that an international oil-supply disruption will lead to rising oil prices in an open-market nation. Nor are
A and E supported, since the statement provides information only about the effect of disruption on oil prices, not
domestic producers or distributors.
The evidence on which the conclusion is based concerns only average weight, but the conclusion concerns
average weight gain. Because there is not necessarily a connection between an absolute measurement-such as
weight-and a rate of increase-such as weight gain-this argument is flawed. The relevant reasoning error is
described in E, which is the best answer. Neither of A and D identifies a reasoning error in the passage, since the
passage makes no claim that weight is the only relevant measure of infant development in general, and no claim
about sufficiency. B and C are consistent with the claims in the passage, and neither identifies a flaw in the
The passage concludes that, because the malarial parasite cannot reside in red blood cells for more than 120
days, the malarial parasite cannot cause fever more than 120 days after infection. However, according to D,
there is a site in the body where the parasite could reside for more than 120 days after infection. Therefore, D
weakens the conclusion and is the best answer. The resemblance between malarial-fever symptoms and those
of other diseases, the existence of other malarial symptoms, and the possibility of immunity to malaria are
irrelevant to the issue of the conditions under which malarial fever can occur. B provides confirmation for the
existence of malaria-free regions but does not otherwise bear on the conclusion.
Because E indicates that the number of commercials in a cluster is increasing, it entails that proportionally more
commercials are aired in intermediate positions. Hence, E helps fact 2 explain fact 1 by showing that
increasingly more commercials are aired in positions in which viewers find them difficult to recall. E is the best
answer. A testifies to the ineffectiveness of television advertising but does not help fact 2 explain fact 1. B
indicates that fact 2 contradicts rather than explains fact 1, since it suggests that the number of commercials per
cluster is decreasing. C and D help to explain fact 1-by describing a change in viewing habits and a change in
programming-but neither relates fact 2 to fact 1.
The health officials’ explanation assumes that the decrease in the number of people diagnosed with the disease
accurately reflects a diminution in cases of the disease. By pointing out that this assumption is false, C
undermines the officials’ explanation and thus is the best answer. Since A supports the view that sanitary
conditions have been improving, it tends to support the officials’ explanation. B also tends to support the officials’
explanation, because it eliminates a factor that might have differentiated between those contracting and those
not contracting the disease and thus rules out an alternative explanation. The reduction of the severity of the
diagnosed cases does not bear on the officials’ explanation. So D is not correct. Since the standards in
neighboring counties might themselves have been inadequate, E does not weaken the officials’ explanation.
If the original contractual price for the weapons purchased incorporated an inefficient use of funds, then, since
historical costing merely adds to the original price, it preserves these inefficiencies. An economically sound
pricing method should at least allow the possibility of reductions in price as such inefficiencies are removed.
Hence, A is the best answer. Because historical costing responds to inflation, B and C are consistent with the
economic soundness of historical costing-the rate of inflation and costs that are reflected in inflation. D offers no
grounds for questioning the economic soundness of historical costing in particular. Historical costing applies to
standard weapons only, not to the innovative weapons that are mentioned in E.
If those seeking to abolish restrictions on exploiting the natural resources of the parks assumed the leadership of
a group that was placed in charge of operating the park system, conservation objectives would not be better
served. A suggests that such a scenario might result from the proposed policy and is thus the best answer. B
indicates the potential for disagreement among various private environmental groups, but it does not suggest
that disagreements could not be resolved. C, D and E list problems that might confront private environmental
groups in charge of parks, but they do not give reason to believe that such groups would not be better able to
pursue conservation objectives than is the current administration of the park system.
According to the passage, satellite mishaps caused a surge in insurance claims, which, in turn, caused
increased insurance premiums. Higher premiums made the satellites more costly, resulting in increased
performance demands. If C is true, the greater demands on performance will lead to further increases in costs
by increasing the number of mishaps, and thus pushing insurance premiums still higher. Thus, C is the best
answer. A, D and E all describe factors relevant to costs, but there is no reason to think that the situation
described in the passage will cause the costs resulting from these factors to increase. Similarly, the impossibility
of pinpointing the cause of failure, mentioned in B, is consistent with the cost of satellites remaining stable.
If the greater purchasing power of rural households results from their having more money left over after meeting
basic expenses, it follows, as B says, that those expenses are lower for those households than they are for
suburban or urban households at the same income level. Consequently, B is the best answer. A is not a
supported inference, since there is no information to suggest that larger households are not more likely to have
either more purchasing power or lower food and shelter expenses. C and D are not supported, since the
passage compares only households that share the same income level. Because the relative amounts spent on
different types of expenditures are not specified for any of the categories of households, E is not supported.
The teaching faculties attribute the drop in enrollment of Mexican nationals to an increase in tuition costs. If the
faculties are correct, reducing these costs should halt the drop in enrollment. B offers a plan for reducing these
costs and so is the best answer. None of C, D and E offers a plan that would reduce the costs taken to be
responsible for the drop in enrollment. Nor does A offer such a plan: because the problem to be addressed is a
drop in enrollment of Mexican nationals at Texas border colleges, providing financial incentive for Mexican
nationals to study at Mexican universities, as A suggests, would offer no prospect of alleviating the problem.
If, as B says, businesses with the highest percentages of minorities and women have been the most profitable,
there is reason to believe that, because it increases the level of participation of women and minorities in the work
force, affirmative action is good business. Thus, B is the best answer. A suggests that minority and women’s
groups have reason to support affirmative action, but it does not indicate that affirmative action is good business.
Because there is no indication that the improvement in disposable income noted in C is due to affirmative action,
C does not strengthen the argument given for affirmative action. D and E address growth in sales and
improvements in management; neither, however, asserts that these benefits are due to affirmative action.
The first sentence concludes that prohibiting private planes that are not radar-equipped from centrally located
airports would force most private planes away from those airports. This conclusion cannot be true unless it is
true that, as C says, most private planes that use these airports are not radar-equipped. Therefore, the first
sentence’s conclusion assumes this choice, which is thus the best answer. The conclusion need not assume
that outlying airfields are convenient for private planes (A), since the restrictions would give planes that are not
radar equipped no choice. The conclusion concerns only how the radar requirement would affect the volume of
private plane traffic, so B, D and E, which deal with commercial planes and with risk of midair collision, need not
The second sentence concludes that the reduction described in the first sentence would reduce the risk of midair
collisions around centrally located airports. According to E, such a reduction would remove precisely the kind of
plane that causes a disproportionate number of midair collisions. Thus, E is the best answer. Because A does
not address the question of whether reducing private-plane traffic would reduce the risk of midair collisions, it is
inappropriate. B and C concern the question of whether or not the proposed restrictions would reduce plane
traffic, but not the question of whether any resulting reductions would reduce the risk of midair collisions. That
the number of midair collisions has recently decreased is irrelevant to whether the proposed reduction would
further reduce collisions, so D is inappropriate.
C is a clear example of a defensive, non-innovative strategy that underestimates the effects of others’
innovations: the slide-rule manufacturer acted as though any advantages offered by the newer and
fundamentally different technology of a competing product, the electronic calculator, could be matched by
improving the older, more familiar product. C is thus the best answer. A is not an example of the defensive
strategy; it presents a case in which innovative products displaces an older product from its traditional market
but in so doing made possible a new marketing strategy for the older product. B is not clearly an example of the
defensive strategy since it does no describe a response to the innovations of others. D and E are cases of new
products finding unintended users, not of responses to innovations of others, so they are not examples of the
defensive strategy described.
The reasoning behind the researchers’ speculation that people first arrived in South America is that there is no
evidence of North American sites that predate the human shelters discovered in South America. If it were
discovered that, as B states, some North American sites predate those in South America, the reasoning behind
the speculation would no longer hold. Thus, B is the best answer. The facts related in A and E both involve time
periods occurring after those discussed in the passage, and so create no conflict with the speculation. Although
C and D describe discoveries about the South American site, neither the relative climates nor the duration of
occupation mentioned provides evidence against the speculation.
If C is true, the rapid increase in productivity among Asian palm trees after 1980 probably depleted nutrients
needed for the development of fruit-producing flowers. Thus, C explains why the palms’ productivity could
subsequently decline, and is the best answer. A relates a drop in the price of palm fruit to a rise in production and
a fall in demand, but it does not explain the subsequent drop in the trees’ productivity. B gives no reason for the
decrease in productivity of the trees introduced to Asia. D does not explain the decrease in productivity, since the
stability of the weevil population described would support stability of palm fruit productivity between 1980 and
1984 rather than a decrease. Because E describes the pollination of the trees prior to 1980, it cannot explain a
change occurring in 1984.
The passage concludes that the mayor’s publicity campaign has persuaded people to ride the bus to word
instead of driving, and it cites as evidence the decreased morning automobile traffic and increased bus ridership
into the midtown area. But the road reconstruction described in C provides an alternative explanation for this
evidence, so C is the best answer. A eliminates decreased fares as a possible explanation for the increased
ridership, so it supports rather than casts doubt on the conclusion. The fact that the mayor rides the bus, cited in
B, may contribute to the effectiveness of the publicity campaign, but it is irrelevant to assessing whether the
campaign caused the increased ridership. D eliminates a possible explanation-that the increased ridership is a
result of extra buses-and thus supports the conclusion rather than casts doubt on it. E eliminates a possible
explanation-that the increased ridership is a result of improved service-and thus supports the conclusion rather
than casts doubt on it.
The comparison suggested in D would be useful in evaluating Country T’s assessment of the cause of the
severity of its stock market crash. If the severity of the crash is at least as great in the countries that are, except
for recent nationalization, economically similar to Country T, Country T’s assessment is undermined. if the
severity of the crash is not as great in these countries as in Country T, however, the assessment is supported.
Thus, D is the best answer. A, C and E are not good answers because each concerns only determining the
severity of the crash in Country T, not assessing a hypothesis about the causes of the crash. The date of
Country T’s next crash is not relevant to any hypothesis about what caused its latest crash to be so severe; thus
B is inappropriate.
D weakens the prediction of secrecy by establishing that biotechnology companies have a strong motive to
encourage their researchers to publicize results. Therefore, it is the best answer. A and B support the argument
that developments in biological science and engineering would be slowed if the prediction of secrecy were
fulfilled, but do not provide any reason to expect that the prediction will not be fulfilled. The distortion of the
research agenda asserted in C is not relevant to the question of scientific secrecy. E, which says that
biotechnology companies devote some resources to fundamental problems without immediate practical benefits,
is merely consistent with that argument and so does not weaken the prediction.
The flaw in the argument is that is assumes erroneously that a majority of decisions favorable to women in sex
discrimination cases demonstrates absence of discriminatory behavior against women on the part of the judge
who made those decisions. E exposes this flaw by pointing out that the judge may well have failed to decide in
favor of women in cases where evidence shows that the women should have won. Therefore, it is the best
answer. A and D have no bearing on the reasoning of the argument, because the origin of the cases is not at
issue in the argument. B and C introduce considerations with no bearing on the reasoning of the argument.
Because the argument concerns a particular judge, and cases of a particular type, B and C are inappropriate.
If the number of men beginning to smoke and the number of women quitting smoking during the year are equal,
A would result in an increase, not a decrease, in the number of adults who smoke. Hence, A does NOT explain
the facts cited and is the best answer. Given the decrease in the number of adults who smoke, the increase in
tobacco sales could be explained by a proportionally greater increase in the non-adults who smoke or the
nonsmokers who use tobacco. An increase in total tobacco use by smokers or in the sales in the United States
tobacco abroad would also explain the facts cited. Thus, because B, C, D and E could explain the facts cited,
none of them can be the best answer.
The question asks for an additional premise that does NOT make the argument logically correct. Adding A to the
information given in the passage leaves open the possibility that, in order of nutritional value, the vegetables
rank: collard greens, lettuce, kale, spinach. Because this order is contrary to the conclusion of the argument, A
leaves open the possibility that the conclusion of the argument is false; it is thus the best answer. By contrast,
any of other choices, when added to the information that the nutritional value of kale is greater than that of
spinach and that the nutritional value of collard greens is greater than that of lettuce, makes the conclusion-that
kale has more nutritional value than lettuce-follow logically.
If, as D states, a substantial percentage of the qualified applicants do not rate Nice college as their first choice,
then, provided many of these applicants are accepted at and enroll in the colleges that are their first choices, the
increase in applications to Nice College might not result in any increase in the size of its freshman class. So D is
the best answer. Nothing can be determined from A, B, C and E about the size of the freshman class, so none of
these choices is relevant to the question of whether Nice College should hire more faculty to teach courses
taken by all freshmen. Thus, these choices are inappropriate.
The researcher concludes from the association of low immune-system activity with low mental-health sores that,
in effect, immune system activity can inhibit mental illness. If, contrary to D, mental illness can depress
immune-system activity, the association mentioned does not support the researcher’s conclusion. So D must be
assumed. Normal immune-system activity could protect against mental illness without high-immune system
activity offering increased protection or prevention, contrary to what A and C state, so neither of A and C is
assumed. The conclusion does not depend on there being a similarity between mental and physical illness or a
difference in treatments, so B and E are not assumed.
The hiker’s reasoning assumes that the number that faced her indicated distance from the path’s beginning. The
numbers on the second milepost show that this assumption was erroneous. They are, however, the numbers
that would be expected if the facing number indicated the distance to the path’s end with the number on the back
indicating the distance from the beginning. Thus choice C explains the discrepancy and is the best answer.
The next milepost being reversed (Choice A) cannot be in explanation, because if the hiker’s reasoning were
accurate both numbers on the milepost would be 22. The units (choice B) would not affect whether the number
became smaller or larger. Nor would a missing milepost (choice D) affect the direction of change. The mode of
transportation (choice E) is irrelevant to distance.
Choice C states that what the pilots think could happen is likely to happen. Thus, C is the best choice.
Choice A is inappropriate because it says nothing about the malfunctions that most concern the pilots-those that
might mislead. Nor does A distinguish tested from not-fully-tested systems. Choice B is inappropriate. The only
outcome of using insufficiently tested equipment that might strengthen the pilots’ objection is an unfavorable one,
but B reports on a favorable outcome. Choice D is inappropriate because it mentions a problem that needs to be
addressed whether or not the collision-avoidance systems are installed immediately. Choice E is inappropriate
because it provides no evidence that any malfunctions were of a sort to mislead pilots and cause crashes.
The hypothesis has two parts: first, that intense use does not bring material changes that cause the string to go
dead and, second, that dirt and oil do cause the phenomenon. The experiment suggested in choice E directly
tests this hypothesis by contaminating strings that are known to have their original material properties. Thus, E is
Because factors associated with style of play (choice B) and brand of guitar (Choice C) might affect how the
strings become contaminated, no result of the investigations in B and C will allow clear evaluation of the
hypothesis. Information about the strings’ material (choice A) will need considerable supplementation before its
bearing on the hypothesis is clear. The passage already gives the information promised by investigation D.
The claim that most consumers do not get much use out of the sports equipment they purchase is supported by
the infrequency with which jogging shoes are used for jogging. This reasoning overlooks the possibility that
jogging shoes are used for other purposes; thus, choice C is the best answer.
Because injured joggers are less likely to use their jogging shoes, choice A is inappropriate. If B is true, joggers
use their jogging shoes even less than the study cited states. So choice B is inappropriate. Because the
consumers and joggers mentioned in D and E respectively are most likely to be among those who frequently use
sports equipment and whose existence the argument concedes, D and E are inappropriate.
For the hypothesis to be tenable it is important that the fish in streams in the Emerald River area that retain a
wide temperature difference have not lost their ability to reproduce. Choice A asserts that these fish could still
reproduce and is thus the best answer.
Choice B undermines the hypothesis by suggesting a completely different hypothesis; choice C tends to support
the claim that the temperature variation has lessened but does not show that this is the right explanation; since
D relates a development after the native species began to decline, it does not bear on the hypothesis, which
concerns the decline’s original cause; and choice E emphasizes the seriousness of the problem but sheds no
light on what causes it.
The argument in the passage acknowledges that a certain action contravenes a law, but it presents an excuse
for the action by presupposing that someone will inevitably break this law. Only choice D shares all these
features, and is thus the best answer.
In Choice A, an excuse is presented for contravening a stated policy. However, unlike in the passage and choice
D, there is no presupposition that the policy will inevitably be contravened. Similarly, choices B and E report that
illegal activities have occurred, without presupposing that they inevitably will. Choice C describes a case as
being one to which the law that is stated is inapplicable.
The argument concludes that cabinetmaking is not an art because cabinetmakers must consider the practical
utility of their products. If it is true that an object is not a work of art if its maker pays attention to the object’s
practical utility, as choice D says, the conclusion is supported. Thus, choice D is the best answer.
The argument is concerned with whether or not the cabinetmakers must take the practical utility of their products
into consideration, not with either their monetary value (choice E) or what actually happens to them (choice A).
The argument is not concerned with precise degree to which individual cabinetmakers take the practical utility of
cabinets into consideration. Thus, neither B nor C is appropriate.
Although costly to produce, custom bone replacements are tentatively projected to be cost-effective because of
other savings. To evaluate the argument it must be determined whether these savings will compensate for the
increased cost. Thus, study of the expected reduction in the need for further hospital stays is needed, and
choice C is the best answer.
The argument requires no study of the ratio between surgery and recovery time, so choice A is inappropriate.
Past and future changes in cost are irrelevant to evaluating an argument that is based on the currently projected
cost, so choices B and E are inappropriate. Finally, since studying the care with which the custom replacements
are made does not itself provide information about costs, choice D is also incorrect.
Choice A, the best answer, asserts that some environmental disturbances can be so widespread as to cause the
extinction of numerous species. This fact helps to explain why the fossil record frequently shows many species
becoming extinct at the same time, despite the variety of factors that can cause a species to become extinct.
None of the other choices explain how numerous extinctions could have occurred simultaneously in the past.
Choice B explains why sometimes only a very limited range of species become extinct. Choice C explains how
some individual species become extinct. Choice D explains why the modern period is unlike the period of the
fossil record, and choice E states which species are least likely to become extinct.
The passage states that a country capable of competing in the international marketplace must balance trade
while its standard country’s ability to compete in the international marketplace will establish that both of these
conditions are met simultaneously. Since neither choice B, nor choice C, nor choice D, nor choice E describes
tests that incorporate both of these criteria, these answers are inappropriate. Choice A, which describes a test
that does, is the best answer.
The medication to be developed is intended to prevent asthma attacks by suppressing the natural action of
certain molecules in the lungs. Choice D asserts that this suppression would occur not only when the molecules’
action is superfluous, but also when it is necessary. This would be a serious flaw in the medication, so D is the
Choices A and B refer to a lack of knowledge about how the messenger molecules are produced or activated,
but not about how they act in the lungs. Choice C describes how long the development might takes, but does not
rule out the possibility of success. Choice E asserts merely that the medication would be unable to do something
it was not intended to do.
If livestock are routinely fed antibiotics, as choice A states, meat from livestock is likely to contain the resistant
bacteria, since any routine of antibiotics can result in resistant bacteria. Thus, choice A is the best answer.
How cases of food poisoning are treated (choice B) fails to indicate whether the infecting bacteria are resistant
bacteria. Choice C suggests that meat consumption is not the primary culprit for the high incidence of resistant
bacteria. Choice D tends to support the competing hypothesis that prescription antibiotics are responsible.
Choice E asserts that livestock farmers claim that the hypothesis is false, but it provides no basis for evaluating
the truth of the claim.
The argument assumes that a particular predict can cause a currency decline only if accompanied by a large
budget deficit. Since choice D states that this prediction can cause a currency decline without a large budget
deficit, choice D is the best answer.
That a method is not fully implemented does not imply that the method is ineffective. Thus, choice A is
inappropriate. Since no slowdown in economic growth is asserted, what might cause such a slowdown is
irrelevant. Thus, choice B is inappropriate. Since C supports the claim that a budget deficit is the underlying
cause of the currency decline, C is inappropriate. Choice E is inappropriate because it supports the claim that a
decrease in the budget deficit is necessary.
If a substance that causes no environmental damage were subject to controls, those controls would be more
restrictive than necessary. Choice B is therefore the best answer.
Ensuring prompt implementation of controls, as choice A claims, is not a necessary part of avoiding excessively
restrictive controls. Although it would probably help to avoid excessive restrictions if some of the countries
producing the most effluents favored uniform controls, it is not necessary that all such countries do, as choice C
claims. Not all of any given pollutant need reach the North Sea, as choice D claims, since at most some needs to.
Since the controls can be excessively restrictive even if the damage already inflicted is reversible, choice E is
If top managers are not the more effective decision makers, then the fact that they use intuition more often than
lower-level managers does not support the conclusion that intuition is more effective. Because the argument
must assume E, choice E is the best answer.
To the extent that less effective methods are inappropriate, the passage does not assume A, but argues for it.
Since the argument leaves open the possibility of situations in which top managers are unable to use one of the
methods, choice B is inappropriate. Since the ease with which a method is implemented is not at issue, choice C
is inappropriate. The argument is consistent with managers at all levels using intuition in the minority of
decisions made. Thus, choice D is inappropriate.
If, as choice E asserts, large and small mills produce different types of steels, increasing sales by small mills
need not lead to decreasing sales by large one. Thus, choice E casts a serious doubt on the claim and is the
Choice A does not present enough information about the relative quality of steel from foreign and domestic mills
to cast any doubt on the claim. Similarly, choice B does not provide enough information about small American
mills, nor does choice C provide enough information about the likely consequences of quotas imposed by
foreign countries to cast doubt on the claim. Choice D tends to support the claim, since better steel should sell
better than poorest steel.
The critique of the proposed purely quantitative measure of productivity raises the issue of quality of service,
which implies that quality of service is a potentially relevant consideration. Thus, choice D is the best answer.
The objection assumes that postal workers are a suitable illustrative example of service workers in general; thus,
choice A is inappropriate. By delivery of letters, the argument treats letter delivery as the primary activity of
postal workers; thus, choice B is inappropriate. Because the passage explicitly ascribes productivity to entire
categories of workers, choice C is inappropriate. Choice E is inappropriate, since the objector does not question
the relevance of the number of letters delivered but implies that something else might also be relevant.
The information in choice B says that young bowerbirds progress slowly toward mastery of a bower-building
style, which suggests that the skill is one they must learn, rather than one whose transmission is wholly genetic.
Choice B also suggests a means of cultural transmission, namely, observation of older birds’ technique. Thus, B
supports the conclusion and is the best answer.
That differences within building styles are outnumbered by similarities (choice A) and that local populations have
little contact (choice D) are both equally consistent with building-style differences being culturally acquired or
genetically transmitted. Nor are differences among species of bowerbird (choice C) the issue. Finally, choice E
confirms the possibility of birds leaning skills, but it is not evidence that bower-building styles are learned.
The conclusion is based on comparing newspaper sales in Town S and Town T. Four answer choices indicate
why greater newspaper sales in S need not imply that citizens of S are better informed about world events.
Choice B suggests that many newspapers sold in S inform citizens of T, not S. Choices A and C both show how
greater newspaper sales can occur without the average citizen having greater familiarity with the news. Finally,
choice D suggests that much newspaper reading in S is not a source of information about world events.
The price differential noted in E might help to explain the difference in sales, but it does not undermine the
conclusion based on that difference. Therefore, E is the best answer.
If the ibora can be successfully cultivated, it is possible to continue production of the drug without threatening the
ibora with extinction. Therefore, choice D is the best answer.
If production continues, the method for distributing the drug aftr it has been produced (choice A) is not likely, on
its own, to have consequences for the continued existence of the ibora. Nor is the price of the drug (choice B). If
the leaves of the ibora also have a use (choice C), the threat of extinction is strengthened rather than weakened.
Finally, if the ibora is largely inaccessible (choice E), this bears on the question of whether production of the drug
could continue, not on what would happen if it did continue.
Farmers benefit from governmental price supports only when they produce the same crops from year to year.
Farmers who wish to receive the benefit of these price supports will be unlikely to reduce water pollution
because they will not follow the experts’ advice regarding diversification and rotation. Thus, A is the best answer.
Since the experts’ advice is evidently their favored solution, the notion that the sole solution is something else
(choice B) is not supported. The statements mention neither farmers’ cost and revenues nor developments in
farming techniques, and thus support no conclusions about prospects for profits (choice C) or future farming
techniques (choice D). Because no information is given about either the amount of price support or farmers’ debt,
choice E is not supported.
According to choice B, the effect of lowering wages is to reduce quality sufficiently to reduce sales. This is a
good reason to doubt that wage cuts would give Shelby Industries any competitive advantage, so choice B is the
Some of the other choices provide good reasons for, rather than against, lowering wages. Choice A implies that
reducing the cost of raw materials is not possible, choice D indicates that Shelby Industries’ wages are relatively
high, and choice E suggests that Shelby Industries would not lose many workers if it did reduce wages. Choice
C gives a reason for Shelby Industries to be concerned about its competitive position but no reason to think
wage cuts would not improve that position.
If many residents of these communities host visiting grandchildren several weeks a year, as D states, that in
itself might generate sufficient demand for rented children’s furniture to support thriving businesses. Thus, D
helps reconcile the apparent discrepancy and is the best answer.
The few households mentioned in choice B are unlikely to generate sufficient demand for rental businesses to
thrive. Similarly, choices A and E, though they provide information concerning the furniture that is rented in these
communities, do not address the prior issue of why there should be such demand for children’s furniture. Choice
C helps explain why these communities have an unusually high demand for rental furniture, but not why such a
demand would extend to children’s furniture.
The passage asserts that large budgets deficits do not cause large trade deficits. If this is so, it is possible that a
country with large budget and trade deficits could reduce its budget deficit and yet retain a large trade deficit.
Thus, choice C is the best answer.
None of the other choices can be inferred. The passage says nothing about how countries respond to large
budget deficits (choice A). The passage states that comparing deficit figures for different countries can be
reliable (contrary to choice B). Correlation between deficit size and population size (choice D) is not at issue in
the passage. Finally, it is consistent with the passage that countries with the largest trade deficits sometimes
have similarly large budget deficits (choice E).
The argument presupposes that, if bottlenecks and delays are eliminated, production work must have been
accomplished flawlessly. This presupposition is questionable, since there might well be flaws that do not impede
the manufacturing process. The best answer is thus choice A.
None of the other choices is presupposed. The argument is consistent with redesigning the manufacturing
process and not the product (choice B). The primary goal might be profits, and quality merely a means to that
end (choice C). The argument does not rely on the feasibility of any one method of implementing “fast cycle
time” (choice D). Finally, the concept of “fast cycle time” could already have been implemented operationally
By pointing out that, when occurring in natural combination with other nutrients, vitamins are more usable by the
body than are those same vitamins when added as a supplement, choice A provides reason to believe that a
well-balanced breakfast is a better source of vitamins than is a fortified breakfast cereal. A is the best answer.
Choice B does not support the position taken, although the position taken, if correct, is relevant to the people
mentioned. Choice E describes a similarity between fortified cereals and other cereals. Choice C provides a
reason for adding supplements to processed cereals, and choice D gives information about unprocessed
cereals, but neither adds support for the alleged advantage of a well-balanced breakfast over a fortified cereal.
Since an unsecured loan is more risky, from the lender’s point of view, than a loan baked by collateral, the fact
that lenders receive higher interest rates for unsecured loans is an illustration of the principle outlined in the
passage. Thus, choice B is the best answer.
None of the other choices gives a clear instance in which increased risk is compensated by the potential for
increased return. Choice A does not concern return on investment at all. Choice C is an instance of low return
unrelated to risk. In choice D, contrary to the principle, the rate of return remains constant despite possible
variations in risk, and choice E also runs counter to the principle if investments in well-established companies
entail less risk.
If choice E were not assumed, the costs of the services of the famous singers of well-known renditions of songs
would not be said to affect advertising costs. Since advertising costs are, however, projected to rise because of
the relatively high cost of famous singers’ services, choice E is assumed and is the best answer.
Choice A is irrelevant to the argument, since famous singers’ service cost more than imitators’ anyway. The
argument addresses commercials’ cost, not their effectiveness, so choice B is not assumed. The argument
assumes that some well-known renditions of songs are available, but does not require that any versions be
unavailable (choice C). Since the argument states that advertising firms will stop using imitators, choice D is not
77. The mayor’s reasoning rests on assuming that, if it costs more to travel to the city by car than by bus, people
will choose to travel by bus rather than by car. Choice B provides evidence that this assumption is false, and is
therefore the best answer.
Choice A does not undermine the mayor’s view that the five-dollar fee will provide an incentive to switch to buses.
Choice C makes it unlikely that the bus system will lose current riders if new riders are attracted. Choice D is
inappropriate since many drivers not switching to buses is entirely consistent with many people making the
switch. Choice E supports the mayor’s proposal by indicating that vehicles entering the city produce most of the
Choice A, the best answer, indicates that younger children might be unable to tell whether the harm in the stories
was produced intentionally. Thus, even if younger children do regard people’s intentions as relevant, they might
be unable to apply this criterion here. Therefore, A undermines the conclusion’s support.
Choice B and E support the conclusion by suggesting that another factor-severity of harm-either possibly
(choice B) or actually (choice E) motivated variations in the punishments assigned by younger children. Neither
choice C nor choice D affects the conclusion. The conclusion concerns what children recognize about others’
behavior, not children’s own behavior (choice C). The similarity between older children’s and adult’s assignment
(choice D) leaves open the question of why younger children’s assignments differed.
Since the question elicits a reply, the question was presumably heard, but presumably not by the part that is deaf.
The explanation’s obvious weakness, therefore, is that it fails to indicate why the part that replies would reply as
if it were the part that is deaf. Choice A points to this failure and is the best answer.
Choice B does not challenge the explanation itself, but the need for an explanation in the first place. Choices C
and D raise pertinent questions concerning the facts described, but do not address the proffered explanation of
those facts. Choice E points to a question to which the attempted explanation gives rises, but does not challenge
the adequacy of the explanation.
The only choice that must be true in order to conclude legitimately from the drop in the wholesale price of illegal
drugs that the program was a failure is choice E, the best answer. If the drop in price was caused by a drop in
demand, there is no reason to suspect that there has been any increase in supply caused by drugs entering the
The other choices can be false without affecting the argument. The supply of illegal drugs need not have
dropped (choice A), and the retail price could have dropped (choice B). The entry of illegal drugs could have
risen at a higher rate than domestic production (choice C), and no illegal drug need have undergone a
substantial price rise (choice D).
If domestic production of illegal drugs increased substantially, the overall supply could have increased (and the
price fallen) without more illegal drugs entering the country, and without any failure of the program. Thus, choice
B is the best answer.
None of the other choices weakens the argument. The smugglers’ having more money (choice A) suggests that
they would have resources to evade controls. The author’s intention (choice C) is irrelevant to whether the
reasoning the statements express is cogent. A charge of routes (choice D) would have increased the chance of
the program failing, and an increase in the amount of money spent (choice E) also provides evidence that the
program did fail, given the low price levels.
The archaeologists hypothesized that Kourion was devastated by an earthquake known to have occurred in A. D.
365. Since choice B provides evidence that A.D. 365 was the date when life in Kourion was disrupted, B
supports the hypothesis that it was the A. D. 365 earthquake that devastated Kourion. Thus, B is the best
By contrast, choices A, D, and E all give information about artifacts found in or used in Kourion, but they do not
specifically point to A. D. 365 as the date of the devastation. Thus, A, D, and E are inappropriate. Since choice C
supports something already established, namely, that an earthquake occurred in A. D. 365, C is inappropriate.
Choice E indicates that Mammoth’s telephones already fail to participate in the industry trend of higher sales
despite heavy advertising. Producing more of the same model would thus be unlikely to generate increased
sales for Mammoth, so E is the best answer.
If Mammoth has sold all the telephones it produced, it might increase sales by producing more, even if it has lost
market share, as choice A states. Choice D indicates that Mammoth’s sales are increasing, and similarly for B if
the decrease in inventory results from retailers taking delivery of more telephones. So long as consumers
recognize the brand name of Mammoth’s telephones, as choice C states, it probably does not matter whether
they associate it with Mammoth.
Four of the choices give reasons why, in an economic showdown, many people would choose a two-year college.
Choice A indicates that a two-year college education gives one a better chance of finding a job when economic
conditions are poor. Choice C and E indicate why people with less money might prefer two-year colleges. Finally,
choice D suggests that more is being done to attract people whose lives are affected by the slowdown to
two-year than to four-year colleges.
Choice B, the best answer, might explain the decreased enrollment at four-year colleges during the slowdown,
but because it deals with graduates of two-year colleges it cannot explain why enrollment at these colleges
Hardin’s claim is that common grazing land deteriorates more quickly than private grazing land because of
overuse. The study indicates that common grazing land is currently in better shape, but this would not
undermine Hardin’s claim if common grazing land was in far better shape before grazing began. Thus, choice C
is the best answer.
Choices A and E are inappropriate since the study can undermine Hardin’s Claim whether or not some ranchers
use both sorts of land, or use only common land. Similarly, the study can undermine Hardin’s claim whether or
not ranchers prefer to use common land, as B says. Finally, D is inappropriate since the force of the study is not
diminished if users of common land are more or less prosperous.
The study indicates that common lands are in better shape than private lands. The best answer, D, indicates that,
contrary to Hardin’s claim, it is in each rancher’s self-interest not to overuse common land, which would explain
why common lands are in relatively good shape.
Choices A and C can only explain why private land is in better shape than common land, not the reverse. Neither
the fact that it is more difficult to attribute deterioration of common land to any particular user (choice B) nor the
fact that the relative amounts of common and private land differ (choice E) gives a reason for farmers not to
graze their herds on common land as much as possible.
The most accurate test for pironoma would be the one with the fewest false results. If all tests have the same
proportion of false negatives, then the most accurate is the one that has the lowest proportion of false positives.
Thus, E supports the recommendation and is the best answer.
Choice A and C deal with the treatment for pironoma and are irrelevant to the accuracy of tests pironoma.
Choice B deals with the side effects of tests for pironoma, and does not address their accuracy. That the
proportion of inconclusive test results is equal for all tests (choice D) leaves open the question of which test is
more accurate, since it does not indicate which test has fewest false results.
The author argues that replacing employees with automated equipment might lend to less savings for
corporations than anticipated, since laying off workers will lead to other costs. Choice B states the author’s main
points and thus is the best answer.
The author argues that corporations that automate might incur unexpected costs, but the author does not argue
that these costs will discourage corporations from automating (choice A). The author does not address the
issues of retraining (choice C) and rehiring (choice D). Although the author argues that some unanticipated costs
might offsets savings resulting from automation, the cost of running the new machines (choice E) is clearly not
one of these unanticipated costs.
The threat envisioned by the author to the economic survival of workers displaced by automation will be serious
only if they cannot find new jobs. Choice A, the best answer, says that there are already many such workers
unable to find new jobs, and so strengthens the author’s argument.
Since the causes for declining profits for corporations that fail to automate are not analyzed in the passage, B is
inappropriate. By saying that costs associated with unemployment C weakens the argument. Since the author
tacitly grants that, initially, automation will cut costs, the detail given in D provides us added support. Choice E is
inappropriate because it concerns short-term rather than long-term results of automation.
Choice B gives a way of counteracting a serious drawback of the sustained massive use of pesticides. By
periodically changing the pesticide used, pests resistant to one pesticide might be killed by the next pesticide,
and those resistant to that pesticide might be killed by another, and so. Therefore, B is the best answer.
Choice A is inappropriate, since the effects of stable pesticides would simply be more persistent. Gradually
increasing pesticide amounts (choice C) will likely have no effect on pests already resistant to massive amounts.
Leaving a few fields fallow (choice D) is not relevant to the effectiveness of sustained use of pesticides. Breeding
higher-yielding crops (choice E) might temporarily increase yields, but not because of anything to do with
The passage indicates that an inconclusive polygraph test tells nothing about the person who has taken the test,
and yet employers sometimes refuse to hire someone whose results from such a test are inclusive. Treating lack
of information as if it were unfavorable evidence about a person can reasonably be considered unfair. There, C
is the best choice.
Choice A is not supported, since the passage says that an inconclusive polygraph test is no reflection on the
examinee. Neither B nor D is supported, since the information given includes nothing either implicit or explicit
about polygraph tests that yield conclusive results. Since the passage is consistent with both E and its denial, E
is not supported.
The regulations allow some employees-those with enclosed offices-but not others the opportunity to smoke at
their desks. If it is assumed that the regulations should allow all employees equal opportunity to smoke, those
who are currently denied this opportunity should be given it, and so secretaries who smoke should be offered
enclosed offices. Therefore, choice D is the best answer.
None of the other choices enables the conclusion to be properly drawn. Choice A tends to conflict with the
conclusion, unless some enclosed offices are vacant. Choice B supports no conclusion about how secretaries
should be treated, and choice C undermines the conclusion. Finally, nonsmokers already have equal protection
from hazards, so choice E cannot be used to justify making any changes.
According to choice C, using a contaminated toothbrush does not increase the incidence of infection, so the
recommendation to replace a toothbrush before it becomes contaminated is greatly undermined. Choice C is
therefore the best answer.
Since the recommendation is based on the discovery that bacterial contamination occurs after about four weeks,
the researchers’ inability to discover why contamination takes that long to appear does not weaken the
recommendation (choice A), nor does their failure to investigate other forms of contamination (choice B), nor
does the discovery that contamination does not worsen after six weeks (choice E). According to choice D, even
thorough washing cannot prevent contamination, so replacing the toothbrush appears more essential, rather
than less so.
In Z, when the government banned imports of certain products the cost of those produces rose, so the products
must have been cheaper to import than they were to make in Z. Therefore choice A is the best answer.
None of the other choices can be inferred. Country Z need have had no plan to export those products later
(choice B), nor need the products have come previously from those countries to which country Z exported goods
(choice C). The products need not have become more expensive before the ban (choice D), and they could have
been imported in relatively large quantities (choice E).
When the cost of the products rose, the competitive ability of those export-dependent industries that bought
them was sharply limited. This fact strongly supports the claim that those industries did not have sufficiently high
profit margins to enable them to absorb the price increase, so choice A is the best answer.
Given the limitation on their competitive ability, it is unlikely that those industries would be able either to expand
their domestic markets (choice C) or to enter into new export markets (choice E). The other choices relate
situations that would be possible but that are not strongly supported: other countries could have continued to
permit imports from Z (choice B), and the industries may have unable to decrease labor costs (choice D).
The author argues that planes, since they are a free-wheel system, will be preferred to the high-speed train.
Choice C weakens the argument by pointing out that planes are not a free-wheel system and are les convenient
than the high-speed train would be. Thus C is the best answer.
The special feature of the high-speed train described in A is not one that clearly affects consumer choice one
way or the other way. Since it is planes that would compete effectively with the proposed trains, the fact that cars
and buses might not do so is irrelevant. Non-availability of certain station (choice D) and the consumer
preferences described in choice E tend to make the proposed train less, not more, attractive and so both choices
strengthen the argument.
Whether corporations, other than Energy Incorporated, that own coal companies also own gas stations is not
directly relevant to whether attempting a boycott of Gasco gas stations will coerce Coalco to accept the contract
proposal. Thus choice E is the best answer.
Each of the other four questions is relevant to evaluating the chances the union strategy has of succeeding.
Choice A bears on whether the strategy would apply sufficient economic pressure on Energy Incorporated.
Choice B is relevant to whether consumers can respond to the call for a boycott. Choice C is relevant to whether
the union’s contract proposal is a reasonable one. Choice D is relevant because a successful precedent would
favorably reflect on the union’s chances of success.
According to the passage, for certain foreign contracts United States firms can either cooperate and hope to
earn a modest profit, or not cooperate, not win the contract, and earn no part of a larger profit. This is how choice
B describes the situation, so choice B is the best answer.
In order to earn a profit, United States firms must cooperate, so the alternatives described in several of the
choices are not in practice open to them: the alternatives of a modest risk versus a full risk (choice A).,
cooperation versus competition (choice C), and winning on their own versus collaborating (choice E). Since they
do not have the same need to cooperate with foreign corporations to win American contracts, choice D does not
To say that transnational cooperation is experiencing a modest renaissance means that it used to be relatively
common, became less so, and is now becoming more common again. Therefore choice C is the best answer,
since it follows from that statement.
None of the other choices presents information provided by the passage. The passage says nothing about the
size of the projects (choice A), nor about the quality of work in cases of transnational cooperation (choice B).
Since the passage strongly suggests transnational cooperation can be profitable for the firms concerned, it
thereby tends to contradict both the claims that joint projects are not profitable (choice D) and that they only
benefit those who commission the projects (choice E).
If the truck’s speed is assumed to be the same the car’s, then since the truck is larger, the optical illusion will
make it appear that there is more time to cross the highway with the truck approaching than with the car
approaching. Thus, choice B helps in establishing the conclusion and is the best answer.
If the truck’s speed is lower than the cars (choice A), the conclusion does not depend on the illusion. If the truck’s
speed is higher than the car’s (choice C), the speed of the truck might counteract the illusion’s effect. Since the
illusion works as stated regardless of what vehicle the estimate happens to be accurate for, neither choice D nor
choice E assists in drawing the conclusions.
Algae whose rate of photosynthesis varies on a 24-hour basis even when they are under constant light
constitute evidence against the hypothesis that it is alterations in light that control biological cycles. Therefore
choice E is the best answer.
Choices A and B describe biological cycles, but provide no evidence about what controls them. Choice C says
that cycles can become adapted to new patterns of light, weakly supporting the hypothesis that alterations in
light control cycles. Finally, choice D provides evidence against a different hypothesis, namely, that it is the cell
nucleus of single-cell plants that controls their biological cycles.
If it is difficult to determine which foods cause migraines, then some foods that cause allergic reactions might not
have been demonstrated to do so. Hence, if choice A is true, eliminating foods that have been demonstrated to
cause migraines might not eliminate migraines, even if food allergies are the only cause of migraines. Choice A
is the best answer.
Neither the fact some food allergies do not result in migraines (choice B), nor the fact that few allergies result in
symptoms more severe than migraines. Choice C suggests that migraine suffers do not naturally avoid the foods
at issue. Choice D reiterates the information that eliminating certain foods does not usually solve the problem.
If racers, the only cyclists interested in innovation, created a strong demand for innovations for purposes other
than official competition, then the conclusion would not follow. Therefore choice C-which asserts that racers
generate no such demand-is assumed and is the best answer.
Since the argument is stated generally in terms of where demand for innovation lies and how manufacturers
respond to demand, no assumption is made about the structure of the market for bicycles themselves (choice A)
nor about which manufactures are most likely to produce innovations (choice B). Choice D presents another
pressure toward technological conservatism, but the pressure is not required by the argument. Finally, the
authorities may keep a close eye on innovation (choice E) without the argument being affected.
The conclusion that the tax credit did nothing to stimulate spending on research and development would not be
true if, without the credit, such spending would have been even lower than it actually was. Thus choice D must
be true for the conclusion to be true and is the best answer.
Since a tax credit generally improves business profits, if the conclusion is true choice A is unlikely to be true. If
the tax credit was ineffective, some other factors must determine the level of spending, and could lead to much
higher levels of spending in 1985 (against choice B), and could render a higher level of tax credit ineffective
(against choice C), but it could be that credits are generally effective (against choice E).
If the results of untreated hypertension cause large economic losses, as choice A claims, then the treatment of
hypertension may well be economically justifiable. Therefore choice A is most damaging to the conclusion and is
the best answer.
Choices B and D tend to support the conclusion; choice B says that making preventive treatment widespread
would not introduce economies of scale, and choice D identifies one aspect of prevention that is both costly and
essential. Choice C undermines a different conclusion-that society should not support treatment for
hypertension-but does not damage the conclusion actually drawn. The fact that different preventive health
measures have different economic consequences (choice D) gives no specific information about treatment for
hypertension, and so cannot affect the conclusion drawn.
If most property values have dropped significantly, but some have risen slightly, a reassessment should occur
(since values have changed at different rates) but is unlikely (since it will not benefit the government). Thus
choice D describes the required situation and is the best answer.
According to the passage, choices A and E describe situations in which there is no need for a reassessment,
since change has occurred uniformly. Similarly, choices B and C both describe situations in which a
reassessment should occur, and is likely to, since the government will benefit.
From 1964 to 1978, spending on research and development never fell below 2.2 percent of the GNP in the
United States and never rose above 1.6 percent in Japan. Therefore choice D follows from the information given
and is the best answer.
Since no information is provided about the size of the GNP of any of the countries mentioned, neither choice A
nor choice B is supported. The amount of information given about numbers of patents granted is insufficient to
establish any general relation between spending and numbers of patents, so choice C is unsupported; and given
that there is no information about the number of inventions patented in Japan and West Germany, choice E is
not supported either.
Everett’s decision is most logically well supported if the crashes were not due to deficiencies in the planes,
particularly if there is evidence that the airplanes provide significant protection to occupants in the event of a
crash. Thus choice B is the best answer.
Choices A and E are incorrect because each suggests that the decision might be ill founded. Competing
manufacturers’ models might actually be safer (choice A), and Lightning might have lost its most able
employees-those able to get new jobs (choice E). Choice C is incorrect because it provides no reason for
preferring Lightning-built airplanes to other makes of airplane. Choice D is incorrect because, though it
underscores the advisability of buying safe airplanes, it offers no evidence that the airplanes that Everett bought
The ruling would be ineffective in regulating employment practices if it could never be used to justify rejecting
some application. According to choice B the ruling cannot be applied in a legally acceptable way. Thus choice B
is the best answer.
None of the other choices casts doubt on the effectiveness of the ruling. Choice A suggests that the judge’s
justification for the ruling would be unavailable in many situations but not that the ruling itself would be ineffective.
Choice C raises the possibility that there might be further rulings of a similar nature in the future. Choice D
concerns employees, not job applicants; its concern is thus outside the scope of the ruling. Choice E describes
one indirect effect on the job market that might stem from the ruling.
The argument presented in support of manned spaceflights rests on the notion that astronauts are needed to
repair satellites. If sending up a new, improved satellite is less costly and more practical than repairing an old
one, however, as choice E states, the argument is weakened. Choice E is therefore the best answer.
None of the other choices gives any reason to think that manned spaceflights are not a necessity, so none of
them is correct. Choice A describes one consequence of not repairing satellites, while choice B refers to another
tool that weather forecasters use in addition to satellites. Choice C describes the circumstances in which
defending manned spaceflight has become an issue, and choice D states a practical, but not insuperable,
difficulty faced by flights intended for repair projects.
Choice C describes a benefit to civilian business of the research project, and therefore provides support to the
conclusion that the project will represent a net benefit to civilian business, rather than arguing against that
conclusion. Choice C is therefore the best answer.
Each of the other choices presents a disadvantage of the project for civilian business that might outweigh the
stated benefit, so none is correct. Cost efficiency, vital to civilian business, would be neglected (choice A);
technical talent needed by civilian business would b e unavailable (choice B); the government funding could be
used more efficiently if directed specifically to the needs of civilian business (choice D); and the burden of
financing the project would hamper civilian business (choice E).
If choice D is true, townspeople are likely to circumvent the local ban by purchasing disposable plastic goods in
neighboring towns. The ban is thus likely to be largely ineffectual. Choice D is therefore the best answer.
None of choices A, B, C, or E indicates that the ban is ill chosen as a means of reaching the town council’s
environmental goals. Choice A indicates that the town council’s basic criterion is avoidance of harm to the
environment, not merely biodegradability. Choice B does nothing to call the ban into question, whether or not the
factory sells biodegradable paper goods locally. Choice C suggests that environmental benefits would ensure,
albeit not immediately. Choice E merely provides background details about paper that is completely
The passage presents a problem-delays at airports-and proposes a solution-allocating more slots to commercial
airlines. Choice A states, however, that the major causes of the delays lie elsewhere, thereby casting doubt on
the effectiveness of the proposed solution, and is thus the best answer.
None of the other choices gives any reason to think that allocating slots will not be an effective solution. Choice
B describes another part of the problem, but says nothing about who uses the additional airplanes. Choice C
implies that at least some slots are available to be allocated to commercial airlines. Choice D gives one example
where allocation was in fact successful, and choice E gives additional information about the scope of the
Even supposing that increasing the frequency of exercise leads to less sick time being taken, starting a
company-supported fitness program might not produce significantly lowered absentee rates if employees who
are frequently absent would not cooperate with such a program. Choice B says that such cooperation is unlikely
and is the best answer.
Choices A and E suggest that exercise during working hours has undesirable consequences, and choice D
indicates that such exercise fails to produce an added benefit, but none of these bears on sick time taken.
Choice C concerns exercise done after work by employees participating in a fitness program, but provides no
indication of the effect, if any, of that exercise on sick time taken.
If tobacco advertising were the only factor that affected teenage smoking, there would be a difference in the
prevalence of smoking between countries that ban such advertising and those that do not. According to the
passage, there is no difference, so tobacco advertising cannot be the only factor. Therefore, choice A is the best
Since no information is given about what effect, if any, the Norwegian ban on tobacco advertising had on
teenage smoking in Norway, none of choices B through E can be concluded, since each makes some claim
about the effects of tobacco advertising, or of banning such advertising, on teenage smoking or on tobacco
Since the laws are more effective in countries farther from the equator than the United States, the laws would
probably do less to prevent collisions in the United States than they do in the countries that now have such
laws—countries that are all farther from the equator than the United States. So choice E is the best answer.
The passage does not indicate that the use of headlights during the day is totally ineffective, so choice A is
incorrect. No information is given about the importance of daylight visibility relative to other causes of collisions,
so choice B is incorrect. The passage contains no quantitative information for comparing the United States to
countries that have the laws, so neither C nor D is correct.
The pharmaceuticals division made 40 percent of the profits on only 20 percent of the sales, while the chemicals
division, making up the balance, made 60 percent of the profits on 80 percent of the sales. Thus, the chemicals
division made a lower profit per dollar of sale than the pharmaceuticals division, as choice C asserts. Choice C is
the best answer.
The passage provides no information about total dollar sales, so choice A is incorrect, nor about the severity of
competition, so choice B is incorrect. Similarly, no information is provided about the mix of products offered, nor
about the breakdown between highly profitable and not highly profitable products in either division, so neither
choice D nor choice E is correct.
The more severely sleep-deprived a patient would be, the more likely it would be that the patient would,
whenever possible, catch at least a few minutes of sleep, and according to choice E, depression would then
return in full force. This could explain why sleep-deprivation is not used to treat depression, so choice E is the
If sleep-deprivation could be used as an effective treatment for severely debilitating depression, the benefit
derived would be so great that the occasional extra benefit of euphoria (choice A), the need for expending some
extra effort (choice B), the occasional drawback of impaired judgment (choice C), and the lack of thorough
scientific understanding (choice D) would each be a comparatively insignificant consideration.
Increasing bridge tolls might not increase revenues if such increases prompt a significant percentage of regular
bridge users to switch to alternative routes. Choice D says that a previous increase prompted such switches.
Choice D, by establishing a strong precedent for commuters’ responding to higher tolls by avoiding them
altogether, raises doubts about the plan’s effectiveness and is thus the best answer.
Choices A and E suggest that the plan might face opposition but not that it will be defeated not that the
anticipated revenue will not be generated. Therefore neither A nor E is correct. Weighed against five years’
projected revenues, the considerations raised in choices B and C would not have a significant impact. Thus
neither B nor C is correct.
The plan is called unfair because it forces drivers to pay for something from which they receive no benefit.
Choice D, however, claims that drivers would receive a benefit: a decrease in traffic congestion on the roads
along the rail line. Choice D thereby strongly counters the charge of unfairness and is thus the best answer.
The charge of unfairness is not countered by indicating that the amounts involved are relatively low (choice A),
or that a seemingly fair funding alternative is unworkable (choice B). Income tax funding as described in choices
C and E might be viewed as less unfair than the proposed funding from bridge tolls, but it gives no reason for
regarding the bridge tolls as anything but unfair.
Choice D indicates that during promotions retailers buy much greater quantities of products at discounted prices
than they in turn sell to consumers during those promotions. There is, then, much merchandise that retailers sell
at their regular price on which the manufacturers, however, do not realize normal profits. Since this loss of
normal profits might outweigh the benefits of attracting new consumers during the promotion period, the
manufacturers might be better off not holding the promotions. Choice D is, therefore, the best answer.
Attracting consumers’ attention (choice A), noninterference with sales at regular, non-promotional prices (choice
B), and attracting and holding customers (choices C and E) are all features of promotions compatible with
manufacturers making high profits, so none of these choice is correct.
For tax evasion to force a raise in income tax rates it must be true that tax evasion causes actual tax revenues to
fall short of revenue needs. This is the situation that choice C describes; choice C is therefore the best answer.
None of the other choices states a requirement for the vicious cycle to result. Increasing in pretax incomes
(income A) would tend to work against perpetuation of the cycle. Success at catching tax evaders (choice B)
should likewise have an inhibiting effect. Choice D describes how problems in breaking existing habits of tax
evasion might be overcome. Choice E essentially denies that raising the tax rate in response to some tax
evasion could cause additional tax-payers to evade taxes.
MegaCorp wishes to at least meet customer expectations. Since these expectations will always tend to move
beyond whatever level of quality MegaCorp happens to have attained, MegaCorp will, as choice C indicates, be
able to meet its goal only if continuing improvements in the quality of its products are possible. Choice C is thus
the best answer.
Choice A is incorrect since success in attracting customers depends only on actual product quality, not on a
company’s goals regarding quality. Since quality improvements can themselves shape customer expectations,
choice B is incorrect. Since nothing has been said to indicate a difficulty with maintaining a given level of product
quality, choice D is incorrect. Since having a goal does not imply meeting it, choice E is incorrect.
For the proposed curriculum change to attract students to physics classes, producing and analyzing visual
images must have direct relevance to today’s world. Choice E provides have direct relevance to today’s world.
Choice E provides evidence that this is so, and thus is the best answer.
Choices A and C mention things relevant to the new curriculum: that it would indeed teach physics and that
equipment facilitating its implementation is available. Choice B underscores how desirable it would be for the
new curriculum to succeed, and choice D establishes that there is past precedent that more students can be
attracted to physics. Not one of choices A, B, C, or D, however, indicates why the new curriculum would be
thought to be attractive to students, so none of them is correct.
The argument concludes that declining wholesale prices for raw cotton, will produce declining retail prices for
cotton products. Choice A weakens the argument by pointing to higher processing costs for raw cotton, which
could offset lower wholesale prices. A is therefore the best answer.
Choice B is incorrect because the argument focuses on incorrect because it in effect denies that lower wholesale
prices for cotton have been offset by rising operating costs. Choice D is incorrect because it is entirely consistent
with the prediction made. Choice E is incorrect because the rising cost of harvesting raw cotton, though possibly
affecting wholesale prices, cannot affect the relationship between wholesale and retail prices.
The conclusion is that the programs benefit both companies and employees. For companies, reducing
employees’ risk of heart disease is likely to reduce insurance costs, and increasing employee energy is likely to
increase worker productivity. For employees, the benefits of having a reduced risk of heart disease and of having
increased energy are self-evident. Choice C is the best answer.
Knowing which programs are popular does not bear on what benefits the programs confer, so choice A is
incorrect. B and D indicate ways in which the programs can fail to provide the intended results, so neither of
these is the correct answer. Having to hire additional personnel does not benefit a company, so choice E is not
The opposition of small-business groups despite an exemption apparently favoring them would be less
surprising if, in fact, the exemption did not favor them. Choice B is thus the best answer because it explains that
small businesses would have to match the higher wages that larger businesses are required to pay.
Choice A confirms that the new exemption constitutes a significant change but does not explain small-business
opposition to that changes, so choice A is incorrect. Choice C is incorrect because the exact numbers
represented by the small-business groups are surely irrelevant. Choice D suggests that in some states the
proposed legislation would make no difference, and choice E suggests that most small businesses should value
the exemption. Neither choice explains small-business opposition.
Because the number of old and contemporary paintings vastly exceeds the 50 of each type analyzed by Art’s
Decline, the reviewer’s argument will be logically flawed if those 100 paintings do not constitute a reasonably
representative sample. Choice A says that the sample might be grossly biased, so A is the best answer.
Choices B and D are both incorrect because a sharply defined focus is not a flaw in an argument; the reviewer
makes clear that only artistic skill and only European painters are being considered. The reviewer’s argument
that the book supports its central thesis well is not weakened just because there may be readers less methodical
and less competent than the reviewer. Therefore, neither C nor E is correct.
The pharmaceutical industry’s argument is best supported by an explanation of why the patent period sufficient
for other industries to recoup their development costs is insufficient for the pharmaceutical industry. Choice B is
the best answer because it provides an explanation: required clinical trials prevent new drugs from being sold for
much of the time they receive patent protection.
Choice A is incorrect: the fact that the pharmaceutical industry’s request is unique does nothing to justify that
request. Choice C and E, if true, could undermine the pharmaceutical industry’s argument, so they are incorrect.
Choice D indicates that alternative drugs might render patent protection worthless, but that is clearly no reason
to extend the protection.
Giving potential depositors a financial incentive to select only secure banks will not lead to increased bank
security unless the potential depositors can distinguish banks that actually are secure from those that are not.
Choice E is a statement of this prerequisite and is thus the best answer.
The argument is about choosing or avoiding banks likely to fail, regardless of how the failure comes about, so
neither choice A nor choice D is specifically assumed. The argument is consistent with each depositor’s money
being held by a single bank, so B is not assumed. The argument neither asserts nor assumes that depositors
currently exercise care in selecting the banks where they deposit their money. Therefore choice C, in particular,
is not assumed.
The argument that deposit insurance, because of its impact on depositors’ choices of banks, is partially
responsible for the high rate of bank failures would be weakened if deposit insurance also prevented certain
bank failures. Choice B suggests that deposit insurance does prevent certain bank failures, and is thus the best
Choice A weakly supports the view that insuring deposits contributes to bank failures. Choice C supports the
economist’s position that depositors take the safety of deposits into account. Choice D supports the argument’s
relevance by indicating that virtually all depositors can afford to be nonselective. It follows that none of these
three choices is correct. Choice E is incorrect because it fails to establish any connection between deposit
insurance and the factors controlling bank failures.
A strong reason for rejecting the recommendation would be that the hoods endanger passengers. Passengers
delayed in exiting the plane are more exposed to the risk of a gas explosion. Choice A says that the hoods would
delay passengers and is thus the best answer.
If some airlines are unwilling to buy the hoods, it might be necessary to require them to, so B is incorrect. That
the hoods protect from only one major risk is no reason in itself for rejection, so D is incorrect. Choice E is not a
good answer; it supports the recommendation by indicating that he hoods might enable more passengers to exit
If cars were safer in 1990 than in 1960, car accidents should have resulted in fewer and in less severe injuries.
Yet coverage of injuries took up a greater share of insurance premiums. One possible explanation is that the
treatment cost per injury rose sharply. Choice E supports this explanation and is thus the best answer.
Choice A and B both suggest that the number of injuries decreased. Since such a decrease would not explain
why injuries take up a greater share of insurance premiums, both of these choices are incorrect. Choice C is
incorrect because it suggests, falsely, that costs not related to injuries rose disproportionately. Choice D is
incorrect because it does not deal with shifts in the cost components that insurance premiums cover.
Since the enzyme kills caterpillars of all species, spraying croplands might not be advisable if caterpillars of
beneficial insect species would also be killed. According to choice C, there are many such beneficial species.
Choice C thus supports the view that spraying would be inadvisable and is the best answer.
Choice A is incorrect because spraying, if effective, would make natural predation irrelevant. Choice B is
incorrect because the existence of pests that the spraying inadvisable. Choice D and E each raise a point
concerning details of how and when spraying programs might be implemented, without challenging the
advisability of such programs. Both choices are therefore incorrect.
By stimulating disease-fighting white blood cells and inhibiting the growth of disease-causing bacteria, moderate
fever can aid the body in fighting infection. However, aspirin can eliminate moderate fever. Thus, as choice B
states, aspirin can prolong a patient’s illness by eliminating moderate fever and thereby also eliminating its
disease-fighting effects. B is the best answer.
Choice A is not the correct answer because no mention is made of aspirin’s role as a painkiller. The passage
also says nothing about aspirin’s effect on the growth or production of white blood cells, mentioning only its
effect on their activity, so neither C nor D is correct. Because the statements given could be true regardless of
the focus of modern medicine, E is also incorrect.
Home Decorator magazine’s profits would be likely to decline if, as a result of instituting the plan, revenues were
to decrease substantially. Choice D indicates that the plan would produce substantially lower revenues because
most advertisers will pay the magazine the same amount per issue, but there will be only half as many issues.
Therefore, D is the best answer.
Choice A notes that mailing costs per issue will rise by one-third, but since there will be fewer issues, total annual
mailing costs will fall. Therefore, A is incorrect. Choices B and C are incorrect because neither describes
concerns that subscribers have about the plan under consideration. Choice E is incorrect because stable
production costs would not lead to lower profits.
The argument assumes that mismatched sleeping and waking cycles precede martial problems. Choice D
weakens the argument by indicating that this assumption is false, and D is the best answer.
The argument does not depend on there being only one cause of marital problems, so choice A is incorrect. That
sleeping and waking cycles can change seasonally or might not affect interactions with colleagues does not
address the issue of how mismatched cycles between spouses affect their marriage, so B and C are incorrect.
Choice E suggests that there is a way to test the conclusion-by brining a couple’s sleeping and waking cycles
into alignment-but this by itself does not weaken the argument, so E is incorrect.
Sharon’s argument is essentially that, even if the facts are as Roland presents them, they are not in and of
themselves a cause for alarm. Even circumstances reassuringly normal and unremarkable-a normal, moderate
unemployment rate and having 50 or more workers among one’s acquaintances-imply the sort of fact Roland
cites. Thus, that fact does not indicate that things are not normal (for example, that unemployment is alarmingly
high). Choice A, therefore, is the best answer.
Sharon’s argument focuses exclusively on whether Roland’s alarm is logically warranted, given the fact he cites.
Sharon herself takes no position whatsoever on what the actual facts concerning unemployment statistics and
concerning people’s self-reports are. Because choices B, C, D, and E are assertions about such matters, each is
Sharon’s argument assumes that people are generally similar in how likely they are to have among their
acquaintances people who are unemployed. Since heavy concentrations of unemployment in geographically
isolated segments of the population would produce great differences in this respect, Sharon’s argument
assumes few, if any, such concentrations. Choice B is therefore the best answer.
If normal levels of unemployment were exceeded relatively frequently, and if Roland’s figure of 90 percent were
an exaggeration, Sharon’s argument would be unaffected, so choices A and D are incorrect. At exceptionally low
levels of unemployment, Sharon’s argument suggests that choice C is likely to be false, so C is not assumed.
The fear of losing one’s job is not part of Sharon’s argument, so choice E is incorrect.
If, as choice B says, acid rain damage could be occurring without there yet being any visible symptoms, the
absence of visible symptoms would not justify the conclusion that no damage was occurring. Thus, choice B is
the best answer since it justifies the critics’ insistence that the conclusion be changed.
Because the authors of the report evidently resist the change being demanded, any claim on which they and
their critics are likely to be in agreement cannot provide justification for the change. Choices A, C, D, and E are
all claims both parties can agree on, so none of them is correct.
If the safest airline seats are now among the lightest, as choice E says, then buying them could be part of a
strategy of minimizing fuel costs, rather than indicating a shift away from that goal. Choice E, therefore, is the
Choice A merely confirms that seat safety has improved, and thus does not weaken the argument. Many policy
shifts take place without being publicly announced, so choice B does not weaken the argument. Choice C
indicates that minimizing fuel costs remains a priority, but it is neutral on whether safety has become more
important, so C is incorrect. Choice D does not distinguish between safe and unsafe seats, and is thus also
The passage asserts that skill at forging signatures is not by itself sufficient to match all of the characteristics that
the software analyzes to identify signatures. Because the software gives access only after identifying a signature,
access cannot be achieved by someone employing forging skill alone. Choice C is thus the best answer.
The passage gives no information about how fast the software operates or about how long the software was
under development, so neither A nor D can be concluded. Choice B is incorrect since the software might have
features not mentioned in the passage that make it unattractive to banks. The passages give no reason to think
that errors of the sort that choice E describes, even if made, would be numerous.
The general manager’s objection is based on avoiding training costs altogether. But if, as choice C says, hiring
experienced users of Microton computers is significantly more costly than hiring otherwise qualified people who
would have to be trained to use Vitech computers, the force of the objection is weakened. Choice C, therefore, is
the best answer.
Choices A, B, and D are all incorrect; none of them provides information relevant to an evaluation of Microton
computers as compared with Vitech computers. Choice E argues independently against replacing Microton
computers with Vitech and thus is also incorrect.
The manufacturers’ conclusion would be weakened if it could be argued that, in the opinion of customers, safety
considerations favor the earlier model. Choice B supports such an argument and is the best answer.
The groups mentioned in choice A would both expected to consider safety important, so their failing to buy the
new model would be striking, without casting doubt on the conclusion; thus, choice A is incorrect. Choice C
might support the conclusion, because customers bought other engine support the conclusion, because
customers bought other engine models that might not include the newer safety features. Choice D and E
suggest that usability and price, respectively, were not the customers’ primary consideration in favoring the
earlier model, but neither choice weakens the conclusion that safety was not their primary consideration.
Between 1985 and 1988, nursing home occupancy rates rose although admission rates declined. Choice A
receives support from these facts since it would be a basis fro an adequate account of how they arose. Because
it is the only choice that receives support, A is therefore the best answer.
Without information about the population of older people, nothing can be concluded about percentages in
nursing homes; thus, choice B is incorrect. Since there is nothing to indicate whether the development that took
place between 1985 and 1988 was an unusual development or a common one, choice C receives no support.
No information about numbers of beds is provided, so neither choice D nor choice E is correct.
According to choice D, many firms with PRP contracts also have modernized equipment. Since the cause of
their improved productivity might be the modernized equipment, not the PRP contracts, this weakens the
argument, so D is the best answer.
Choice A does not weaken the argument: it is merely more evidence of the sort already being used. Choice B is
incorrect because it is a natural consequence of increased worker productivity if other costs remain stable.
Choice C is incorrect because it explains why introducing PRP contracts is difficult, but says nothing about the
results of doing so. Choice E is incorrect because it is not implausible that workers’ pay should roughly
correspond to their productivity.
The argument, in predicting a drop in the price of corn futures, relies on news suggesting a good-sized corn crop.
This prediction is undermined if there is, at the same time, news suggesting a small crop. Choice D presents
such news and is therefore the best answer.
Choice A provides background information describing a stage at which rains are essential, and choice C makes
rain over the entire corn-growing area seem more certain. Both are fully compatible with the argument and do
nothing to weaken it. Past price changes (choice B) and details of who handles harvested corn (choice E) cannot
affect the eventual size of this year’s corn crop, so neither is relevant to the argument.
The question to be resolved is why the mandated wage increase, which increased operating costs, was
accompanied by an increase in profits. By showing how the wage increase might have led to an increase in the
retailer’s sales, choice B helps resolve this question, and thus is the best answer.
Choices A and E are incorrect, since they suggest that the wages that rose as a result of the mandated increase
constituted a significant proportion of the retailer’s expenditures, which if anything adds to the seeming paradox.
Choices C and D also contribute to the paradox, since they indicate that along with increases in the minimum
wage there were increases in the retailer’s operating costs; so choices C and D are also incorrect.
If the government’s program of support payments to cotton farmers succeeded in raising revenue for the
government that would, in the absence of the program, not be raised, this could explain why the program will not
be a net burden on the budget. Choice A suggests that the program would raise revenue: by raising the price of
cotton, the direct support payments will boost cotton framers’ profits and thereby increase the tax revenues the
government receives from cotton farmers. Therefore, A is the best answer.
None of the other choices provides a source of revenue to the government or suggests that savings would be
realized in a governmental expense category, so choices B, C, D, and E are all incorrect.
The passage explains that the primary way hospitals have covered the cost of unreimbursed care in the past is
no longer available to them. It follows that they have three options: finding a new way to cover that cost, reducing
it by giving less unreimbused care, or suffering a loss. This is essentially what choice B concludes, so B is the
The passage touches neither on kinds of medical procedures administered in hospitals (choice A) nor on
revenue other than that received from patients or their insurers (choice E), so neither choice is correct. The
passage gives no hint of who the paying patients are how do not rely on insurance, so choice C is unsupported.
Concerning choice D, the passage actually suggests that it is false.
The passage indicates that research scientists accept as colleagues only scientists with motivation to do
important new research. This fact explains the tendency of scientists to reject scientists who are renowned
popularizers of science only if research scientists believe popularizers lack such motivation; choice D is the best
Since the passage is concerned only with whether certain scientists have the goal of doing important new
research, not with how research is done, or with who understands new research, choices A and E are both
incorrect. Choice B is incorrect because it suggest an alternative explanation of rejection of popularizers. Since
the explanation offered remains unaffected even if unsuccessful research scientists cannot become famous
popularizers, choice C is incorrect.
If choice E is true, the very people said to be at risk for mouth cancer are unlikely to be led by the content of the
pamphlet to an early detection of this cancer. Choice E thus questions the pamphlet’s utility and is the best
Choice A is incorrect because it does not specifically cast doubt on self-examination as a means of detecting
mouth cancer. Choice B is concerned with the situation following detection, but not with detection itself, so it is
incorrect. Choice C is incorrect: although it suggests a certain inefficiency in handling the pamphlets, it does not
suggest that the pamphlets will not achieve their purpose. Choice D supports the general appropriateness of
sending written instructions, and is thus incorrect.
If gains in cost-efficiency of solar power have not improved its economical viability relative to oil-derived power,
the explanation must be that oil-derived power itself has become more cost-efficient. Choice C points to this
explanation and is thus the best answer.
Actual oil prices control how far, given the viability threshold, solar power is from economic viability but do not
figure in the determination of the threshold, so choices A and E are incorrect. Choice B provides background on
data that give rise to the puzzle but leaves the puzzle unresolved, so it is incorrect. Because the viability
threshold for solar power is defined in relation to generating electricity from oil, choice D is irrelevant to
determining the threshold and thus incorrect.
Given choice E, it is possible that companies with those combinations of factors that are most likely to lead to
success are the very companies that venture capitalists select for financing. This weakens the argument that the
financing itself must be more important for success than those factors. Thus, E is the best answer.
Choice A is incorrect because, rather than weakening the argument, it provides an explanation for how funding
by venture capitalists could aid the success of a company. None of choices B, C, and D weakens because each
of them makes a statement about start-up companies in general, without regard to their source of financing.
The argument presents a substantial increase in the proportion of women between twenty and twenty-one who
were enrolled in college as evidence that there was an increase in the proportion of higher education students
who were women. This evidence would lack force if a similar increase in college enrollment had occurred among
men. Choice D is therefore the best answer.
Since percentages of men graduating from high school do not indicate the percentages enrolling in college that
year, choice E is incorrect. Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because the information they refer to, being about
women only, does not facilitate a comparison of women’s enrollment to men’s enrollment in higher education
The passage’s statistical data support the conclusion, but give information about one year and identify no factor
that would cause a higher accident rate at Company P. By describing such a factor, choice A, the best answer,
suggests that these data can support a generalization like the conclusion.
Company P’s greater number of safety inspections (choice B) may simply indicate greater attention to workers’
safety. The infirmary (choice C) and health benefits (choice E) perhaps indicate that Company P makes better
provisions for accident victims, but dot mean that accidents are more frequent there. That Company O paid more
in job-related medical claims (choice D) says something about the consequences of accidents at the two
companies, but not about causes of accidents.
The data used to support the conclusion come from the companies’ own records. Since, however, choice B
indicates that, as compared with Company O, Company P tends to overstate the number of job-related
accidents, choice B weakens the conclusion drawn and is the best answer. Choice A does not weaken the
conclusion, but is simply a consequence that would be expected given the data. The relevance of employees’
sicknesses (choice C) cannot be assessed without information about the links, if any, between sickness and
job-related accidents. Choices D and E both give reasons for predicting a smaller likelihood that any arbitrary
employee of Company O will have a job-related accidents, and thus support the conclusion.
Choice D, the best answer, undermines the conclusion by pointing to a serious short-term cost of replacing
standard keyboards with EFCO keyboards. The employees who are probably the most productive currently,
those with the most training and experience, will cause the greatest retraining costs, according to choice D.
Choice A, by contrast, suggests that the transition to the EFCO keyboard is comparatively easy, at least for
typists already experienced with both types of keyboards. Choices B and E both eliminate possible sources of
increased expense associated with the EFCO keyboard, namely equipment expenses (choice B) and training of
new typists (choice E). Choice C, which suggest that some offices have found the switch advantageous, is
consistent with there being an immediate reduction of typing costs.
If, as choice D indicates, the two groups were every matched with regard to cognitive abilites prior to the
experiment, the conclusion that some ingredient of the sweetener was detrimental to cognitive functioning is
strongly supported. Thus, D is the best answer.
Neither choice A nor choice C provides additional reason to believe that some ingredient in the sweetener was
responsible for the experimental results, because neither is relevant to interpreting the experimental results.
Choice B indicates that, outside of the experiment, both groups consume the amino acid. If relatively small
quantities are involved, the conclusion is unaffected; otherwise it is weakened. Choice E claims that a second
experiment lacked a control group; yet this failing has no bearing on the experiment at issue.
Choice B entails that a principal constituent of the sweetener can impede normal brain functioning if high levels
of it occur account for a decline in cognitive abilites, choice B helps explain the results and is the best answer.
Choice A suggests that the effect was not due to an impurity in the sweetener, and choice D suggests that further
testing could be done using the amino acid alone, but neither helps explain how the sweetener might produce
the effect. Neither does choice C: what it helps explain is how the sweetener could be thought harmless even if
the sweetener is responsible could be thought harmless even if the sweetener is responsible for diminished
cognitive functioning. Choice E gives a reason to trust the experimental results, but it does not explain them.
The contrast to be explained is that female rats develop maternal behaviors toward pups that are not their own
faster when they cannot smell the pups than when they can. If the odor of a strange pup inhibits the
development of maternal interest, the contrast is explained, so E is the best answer.
The other choices can only explain different contrasts. Choice A explains contrasts between pups and adult
females. Choice B explains contrasts between pups that are in different circumstance. Choices C and D explain
contrasts between two different groups of females, those that have given birth and those that have not.
If interviewers cannot accurately identify unsuitable applicants, the interviews cannot play the role that is claimed
to make them an essential part of a successful hiring program. Thus the argument depends on choice C being
true, making C the best answer.
Although the argument claims that the interview is an essential part of a successful hiring program, the interview
need not ensure success (contrary to choice A), nor need it b e more important than another part (contrary to
choice B). The interview can also have other purposes, such checking on technical qualifications, so D is not
depended upon. Nothing is implied about how past hiring decisions were made, so there is no dependence on
choice E either.
The argument assumes that agricultural production in Countries X and Y would be affected in the same way by
given climatic changes. By pointing out that the crops grown in the two countries differ, choice D undermines this
assumption and is the best answer.
The dissimilarity between Country X and Country Y that choice B describes is unlikely to explain why their trends
in agricultural production have diverged. The information in choice A cannot be evaluated without more
information about industries in Countries X, whereas choice C merely supplies a detail about climate, which has
already been explicitly considered in the argument. Choice E explains why Country X’s government chose a
centralized economy, but it does not address the effects of that choice.
Coating insulin as described in choice A, the best answer, would benefit protein-drug users by removing the
obstacle identified in the passage that prevents protein drugs, such as insulin, from being taken orally. The
insulin would become available to the target cells, since these cells would break down the coating.
Converting nonprotein drugs into protein compounds (choice B) would necessitate administration by injection,
benefiting neither their users nor users of protein drugs. If removing substances that digest proteins (choice C)
enabled protein drugs to be taken orally, it would be at the expense of normal digestive function. The breakdown
of normally occurring bacteria and enzymes (choice D) and the activity of nonprotein drugs (choice E) are
irrelevant to the problems associated with protein drugs.
Choice E, the best answer, furnishes two pieces of information that together support the policy. First, furnaces
that process scrap iron may be unable to process iron ore. Second, obtaining and operating furnaces that can
process iron ore would require substantially more foreign exchange, thus possibly offsetting any advantage from
processing domestic iron ore.
The possibility of increases in scrap iron’s price (choice A) speaks against the policy. The vulnerability of Country
Y’s foreign-exchange reserves (choice B) emphasizes the need to conserve foreign exchange, but does not
indicate which mode of steel production best accomplishes this. Choice C is neutral between the modes
production. Choice D would support the policy only with assumptions about the reasons for the experts’
According to choice B, last year’s inflation figure was an anomaly, and inflation has returned to its recent stable
level. There is thus less reason to conclude that inflation will rise any further, making B the best answer.
So long as the sample on which the figures are based is representative, there is no reason to doubt that they are
essentially accurate, so choice A does not affect the argument. Choice C supports the conclusion by suggesting
that there are forces in place to push inflation higher, and choice E supports it indirectly by suggesting that the
government is powerless to prevent further increase. Finally, choice D by itself has no clearly defined
consequences one way or the other with respect to the conclusion.
Unless chief executives rely solely on their subordinates for information about problems at lower levels, the
progressive softening and distorting of information described in the passage need not bar the chief executive
from obtaining accurate information. Thus, the conclusion that the chief executive is comparatively poorly
informed about such problems is based on assuming choice D, which is therefore the best answer.
None of the other choices is assumed. Choices A and B are recommendations that the facts in the passage
might support. The issue of where problem-solving ability is best deployed (choice C) may be affected by the
conclusion’s truth or falsity, but need not be decided in order to draw the conclusion. Choice E, if true, would
tend to counteract the phenomenon the passage describes.
The argument assumes that it is because of their strict gun-control laws that states with such laws have a high
rate of violent crime. If that were so, passage of these laws should be associated with increased violent crime.
Choice A, the best answer, indicates that the opposite is true and so weakens the argument.
No other choice undermines the argument. The infrequency of prosecutions under strict gun-control laws
(choice B) does not indicate that these laws have no effect on violent crime. For choice C and E to be relevant
more information is needed, such as comparative data about states with strict gun-control laws. Similarly,
without more information the relevance of the nonviolent crime rate (choice D) cannot be assessed.
Since MEGA’s officers and directors have bought almost nine ties as much of MEGA’s stock as they have sold,
the ratio of inside sales to inside purchases is roughly 1 to 9, well below 2 to 1. Hence, by the generalization
stated in the passage, a rise in MEGA’s stock price is imminent and choice C is the best answer.
Since the prediction in choice D runs counter to the stated generalization, choice D is not supported. The
passage does not suggest there will be an increase in the imbalance between such purchases and sales. Thus,
choice A is not supported. Similarly, the passage suggests neither that inside purchases are about to cease nor
that the majority of MEGA stocks will soon be owned by MEGA officers and directors. Thus, neither choice B nor
choice E is supported.
The passage says that hiring new officers usually brings new court expenses, but according to choice E hiring
new officers in Middletown will lead to a reduction in crime and thus, perhaps, a reduction in court and prison
expenses. Therefore, choice E weakens the conclusion drawn and is the best answer.
Three of the other choices tend to support claims made in the passage; choice A suggests that arrests will
increase, choice B says that in one city arrests did increase, choice C confirms the scarcity of funds. Choice D is
irrelevant; it merely states the obvious about rates of arrest, conviction, and imprisonment.
The conclusion concerns regularly exceeding the speed limit, but the data derive from isolated occasions when
drivers exceed the speed limit and are ticketed. The conclusion thus assumes that these instances provide
evidence of regular behavior-that drivers ticketed for exceeding the speed limit are likely to be drivers who
regularly exceed it. Choice B states this assumption and is the best answer.
Choices A, C, and D provide additional data that might be relevant to the conclusion, but if choice B is assumed,
the additional data are unnecessary for drawing the conclusion. The difference that choice E describes between
Maryland and other states would simply suggest that the report’s findings cannot be extrapolated to other states.
It does not help in drawing the conclusion.
To establish that much of the variation is due to unnecessary surgical procedures, it is necessary to eliminate the
possibility that the geographical variation reflects variation in the incidence of disease treated with these
procedures. Choice B, if established, would eliminate this possibility and is thus the best answer.
Review boards (choice A) would provide some control against unnecessary procedures, so choice A would, if
anything, tell against the suggested conclusion. Neither choice C nor choice E bears on the conclusion, since
neither the conclusion nor the cited geographical variation involves procedures are of the kind choice D
describes, the difficulty of determining an individual operation’s necessity would merely increase the difficulty of
verifying the suggested conclusion.
If compared with people who have not been overweight, newly thin people burned fewer calories but also
generally consumed fewer calories, one would not reliably conclude that the newly thin people would regain
weight. Therefore, the conclusion assumes that the newly thin do not generally consume few calories, making
choice A the best answer.
The conclusion does not rely on differences in the variability of the metabolism (choice B), just on differences in
the rate of metabolism, nor does it rely on the relative significance of different factors in determining how many
calories a person burns in a day (choice C). Neither does the conclusion assume anything about whether
accelerators for the metabolism have been discovered (choice D), or about why some people have difficulty
gaining weight (choice E).
Given that the incidence rate for sinusitis is the same for people of all ages, and that the average age of the
population will increase, if follows that the average age of people suffering from sinusitis will increase. Therefore,
C is the best answer.
Although it follows that sinusitis will become less common relative to arthritis and high blood pressure, nothing
can be concluded about the exact ranking of the three diseases, so choices A and B are ruled out. Just because
sinusitis will become relatively less common, one cannot conclude that it will become absolutely less common
(choice D). Lacking information about levels of incidence of the diseases, one cannot conclude what proportion
of the population has at least one of them (choice E).
Comparing two host eggs in which parasitic wasps have laid different numbers of eggs, it is theoretically
possible laid different numbers of eggs, it is theoretically possible to determine what size of host egg would be
required for a single wasp egg. This would be the smallest egg the wasp could parasitized, so A is the best
None of the other choices follows from the information given. Host insects could conceal their eggs from the
wasps (choice B)., and the wasps could have inborn abilities to lay appropriate numbers o eggs (choice C).
Laying too many eggs could lead to the death of the larvae faster than laying too few (choice D), and the wasps
could use tactile clues to calculate the size of a host egg (choice E).
The passage presents some facts about Northern Air’s business-in particular that its success depends on quick
turnaround and economy. The airline plans to promote these goals by purchasing Skybuses, which will reduce
fuel costs and time spend refueling. The question asks you to identify a disadvantage for the airline in this plan.
Choice E is the best answer because from the passage we know that Belleville Airport is highly congested and
that Northern Air has many flights out of this airport daily. Therefore, the delay that Skybus takeoffs cause for
other planes will impact Northern Air‘s flights, reducing the airline’s ability to achieve rapid turnaround.
Choice A and C are incorrect since the ability to have more destinations served by direct flights (choice A) and to
eliminate refueling at some destinations (choice C) are both potential advantages of Northern Air’s plan. Choice
B is incorrect for the reason that although a decline in the price of aviation fuel would reduce the cost savings
from introducing the Skybus, a reduction in fuel costs would still be an advantage, although a smaller one.
Choice D is incorrect. The simple fact that Northern Air’s competitors are not considering buying Skybuses does
not itself present either an advantage or a disadvantage for Northern Air, although the reasons the competitors
might have could include both advantage and disadvantage.
The passage explains that brand-name products can generally no longer be sold for higher prices than
nonbrand rival products, since many nonbrand products now equal brand-name products in quality. Yet despite
this parity, brand-name products have a larger marketing advantage than before over nonbrand products.
The question asks for a fact that would resolve this paradox. That is, the best answer marketing a product with a
recognized brand name even when that product can be priced no higher than rival nonbrand products.
Choice A is the best answer because a product that consumers believe not to be bettered in quality by any
equally priced competing product will tend to sell better than products whose quality consumers are less sure
Choice B and E are incorrect since both choices point to difficulties that brand-name products sometimes have
in the marketplace but without identifying any compensating advantage that they enjoy. Choice C is incorrect as
this choice attests to the fact that corporations believe brand names to be valuable but does not explain why that
should be so. Answer choice D works in the wrong direction: it is the information in the passage-that quality
advantages cannot be obtained or maintained yet brand names confer marketing advantages-that might explain
the difficulty of establishing new brand names.
The passage argues that access to life-sustaining drugs would be improved if patents on them were abolished,
based on information about the lower cost of such drugs in countries where there are no patents. You are asked
to identify the answer choice that most weakens the argument.
If without patents pharmaceutical companies could not afford to develop new drugs, then abolishing patents
would mean that people would have reduced access to new life-sustaining drugs, thereby weakening the
argument presented. Therefore, choice D is the correct answer.
Choices A and B both present advantages available in countries without patents on the drugs-manufacturing the
drugs can be profitable (choice A) and there is a large potential market (choice B). Neither presents a drawback
to abolishing the patents. Choice C is incorrect since the possibility of patenting manufacturing processes
introduces some limitation to the benefits of abolishing patents on the drugs, but does not mean that there would
be no benefits. Choice E present a further way in which patents are linked to restrictions on the availability of
new life-sustaining drugs, and therefore it support rather than weakens the argument in favor of abolishing
The passage presents an argument that a particular statue is a forgery because its surface appears to have
been given a chemical treatment that forgers typically use. You are then asked to identify the answer choice that
weakens the argument.
If the treatment often used by forgers was also used by others on genuine antiquities, the argument that the
statue is a forgery is weakened. Therefore choice C is the best answer.
Choice A is not correct because information about whether the museum can accept the statue is not relevant to
the question of whether the statue is a forgery, which is the focus of the argument. Since both genuine antiquities
and forgeries would share the most common features, choice B does not cast any doubt on the argument that
the statue is a forgery. Choice D indicates that a statue that showed uneven weathering would not be a forgery.
Since the statue in question does not have uneven weathering, this choice leaves the argument unaffected, and
is therefore incorrect. Choice E reinforces the possibility that the statue is a forgery, so does not weaken the
The passage argues that cutting down the trees along the banks of the Colorado River would make more water
available for crop irrigation, given that the trees use water. You are asked to identify the choice that most
weakens this argument.
If trees also help conserve water, the argument that cutting them down would make more water available for
irrigation is weakened, so choice A is the best answer.
Choice B is incorrect because it focuses on the farmers’ motivations for cutting the trees down, not on what
effects cutting them down would have on the availability of water. The additional information presented in choice
C about the trees involved is irrelevant to the question whether removing them would make more water available
for irrigation. Although choice D presents a drawback to removing the trees, the drawback does not weaken the
argument that removing them would make more water available. Choice E is incorrect because it provides
background information that does not address the relationship between the trees and the water that is central to
In the dialogue, the candy manufacturer tries to rebut the claim that caffeine is added to chocolate candy bars in
order to keep consumers addicted. The rebuttal is that the caffeine added is restoring to the product caffeine that
was lost during manufacture. The question asks you to identify why this rebuttal is inadequate.
Choice A is the best answer. The candy manufacturer’s rebuttal amounts to an admission that the candy bars
could be manufactured to contain less caffeine than they do. Therefore, the crucial issue for assessing the
health advocate’s account of the reason for adding the caffeine is whether the amount of caffeine added is
enough to make the candy addictive.
Although choices B and D both describe possible flaws in a response, neither of them is a correct description of
the response the manufacturer actually gives. With respect to choice C, although the manufacturer does not
specify how the caffeine is lost, the mechanism of manufacture is not relevant to the issue that the health
advocate raises. With respect to choice E, the manufacturer does not give any reason for thinking the advocate’s
reason is unsound. But contrary to what this choice says, the manufacturer does not actually contradict the
health advocate’s conclusion.
The passage argues that the Maya inhabited Colha 4,500 years ago from the fact that 4,500-year-old stone
implements from Colha are like much later stone implements that are known to be Mayan. You are asked to
identify the choice that weakens the argument.
Choice D suggests a different explanation for the similarity of the implements: the Maya copied the design from
an earlier culture. Choice D therefore weakens the argument that the Maya inhabited Colha 4,500 years ago and
is thus the best answer.
Since the argument in choice A is based on the similarity of stone implements of different ages, the lack of
ceramic agricultural implements leaves the argument unaffected. Choice B and C provide no information about
who was practicing agriculture in Colha 4,500 years ago, so they fail to weaken the argument. In choice E the
fact that by 3,000 years ago Mayan culture was deeply rooted in agriculture indicates a history that goes back
before that date and does nothing to weaken the argument.
The passage argues that because new pollution control equipment will reduce he competitiveness of some
goods manufactured in Risemia, annual exports will be at a lower level in the future. You are asked to identify
something that weakens this argument.
Choice A is the best answer, since if the new pollution control equipment itself becomes a product that Risemian
manufacturers can export, the loss of certain other export markets will not necessarily lead to a reduction in
exports. Therefore this fact weakens the argument.
Choice B and C both emphasize that Risemian manufacturers will have additional costs whether they comply
with the regulations or not, so the increase the likelihood that the manufacturers will be less competitive on world
markets. Thus these choices strengthen rather than weaken the argument. Choice D is incorrect; the passage
states that the pollution control equipment will be expensive, so even if the level of pollution ot be controlled is
not excessive, exports will still be more expensive. Choice E strengthens the argument rather than weakens it,
since it asserts that the stockholders will encourage Risemian manufacturers to comply with the regulations
despite the economic disadvantages of doing so.
The passage points out that the changes in copyists indicate that something prevented the first three copyists
from completing the work. The passage then identifies this disruptive factor as the plague of 1148, thus dating
the production of the Codex. The question asks you to identify information that would support this dating.
Choice D is the best answer because if there had been other outbreaks of plague in the relevant period, one of
these, instead of the plague of 1148, might have disrupted the manuscript’s production. This information
therefore supports the hypothesis.
Choice A is incorrect since other documents with handwriting by any of the first three copyists might help in
establishing a date for the Codex, but the absence of this evidence provides no additional support for the 1148
dating. Choices B, C, and D are incorrect for the reason that information about the duration of the plague, the
length of time it took to produce the Codex, and the length of time each scribe worked on the Codex cannot,
without considerable further data, provide evidence for or against the 1148 dating.
This item presents a scenario in which hydroponically grown spinach is four times as expensive as California
field spinach. You are asked to identify an option that shows how, despite this disadvantage, the hydroponic
spinach-growing facility can be profitable.
Choice C presents an advantage to the hydroponically grown spinach-it can be sold to certain customers who
are prepared to pay very high prices for it. This supports the projection that the facility will be profitable, and is
thus the best answer.
Choice A and B present the likelihood of changes in the cost of the two kinds of spinach, but neither choice
suggests that the current large price differential can be overcome, so neither supports the projection. Choice D
presents one advantage shared by the two kinds of spinach, but it does nothing to diminish the cost
disadvantage of hydropnonic spinach. Choice E gives some reason to think that another hydroponic facility can
be profitable but gives no reason to think that the facility under discussion can be so.
The passage presents an argument for increasing offshore oil-drilling operations and decreasing oil imports on
tankers, relying on information about the risk of oil spills. You are then asked to identify something that weakens
According to choice A, tankers can be easily redesigned to reduce the risk of oil spills; if so, increasing offshore
drilling operations may not be the only way to reduce the risk of one. Therefore, choice A weakens the argument
and is the best answer.
Choices B and C present further evidence against the use of tankers and for offshore operations, so neither of
them weakens the argument, and neither is correct. Choice D raises a concern about offshore operations, but it
is not a concern related to the risk of oil spills, and hence does not weaken the argument. Choice E presents a
factor in favor of importing oil on tankers, but because this factor is not related to the risk of an oil spill, it does not
weaken the argument.
The advertisement argues that the PZ 1000 is one of the safest cars available, on the basis of the fact that,
within its class, the PZ 1000 has the fewest injuries per accident. You are asked to find something that
challenges this argument.
According to choice C, the class of cars to which the PZ 1000 belongs is more dangerous than average in a
certain respect, so having the lowest injury rate per accident within that class does not count as strong evidence
that the PZ 1000 is a highly safe car overall. Therefore this choice weakens the argument, and is the best
Choice A tends to confirm that the PZ 1000 has a low rate of injuries per accident and so supports the argument,
rather than weakening it. Since the argument is about injury rates rather than overall numbers, whether the PZ
1000 has sold well or poorly (choice B) has no bearing on the argument.
Choice D emphasizes the difference between the PZ 1000and other cars in the same class but makes no
comparison with cars in general, so it neither supports nor weakens the argument. The frequency with which the
safety reports are issued (choice E) has no bearing on the argument presented.
The passage concludes that in a factory the average number of on-the-job accidents per employee is likely to
decline when demand for the factory’s products is high, on the grounds that more money gets spent on safety
measures when demand is high than at other times. You are asked to identify a fact that casts doubt on this
Choice B is the best answer. Factory workers who are newly hired and not properly trained are more likely to
have on-the-job accidents than are trained and experienced factory workers, so the presence of such workers
could very well counteract the benefits of spending more on safety.
That employees ask for higher wages has no direct bearing on how likely they are to have on-the-job accidents,
so choice A is not a correct answer. There is no straightforward connection between factory employees’ job
security and their likelihood of suffering an on-the-job accident so choice C is not correct. Choice D suggests
that at least part of the money spent on safety precautions is spent to reward safe work practices, and so tends
to support rather than cast doubt on the conclusion. Since modern, automated machinery is likely to be safer to
operate than machinery it replaces, choice E casts no doubt on the conclusion.
According to the passage, the death rate among elderly people who practice a religion is higher after an
important religious holiday than before. From this fact researchers have concluded that people can prolong their
lives by willpower, presumably thinking that such people can hold off death long enough to enable them to
experience the holiday. You are asked to find a fact that supports the researchers’ conclusion.
Choice A is the correct answer. The fact that before and during an important religious holiday the death rate is
lower than usual is crucial additional information that helps to support the idea that for the duration of the holiday
people succeed in holding of death, and hence it helps to support the researchers’ conclusion.
Choice B is incorrect since this information applies to all times of the year, not just to holiday times, and so
provides no support for the conclusion. Choice C is irrelevant because the researchers’ conclusion is about what
can affect the precise time of a person’s death, not how long people live overall. Choice D is incorrect; the fact
that there is some difference in motivation gives no particular reason to think that the motivation can have the
effect that the researchers claim. The researchers’ conclusion is based on a striking pattern of death rates over
the range of a few days. Therefore, the general seasonal information provided by choices E lends no support to
The passage presents difficulties the Write Company has in selling pencil leads and making a profit, and then
presents a plan the company has: to produce a pencil that will accept only a special lead of the company’s own.
You are asked to find something that supports the company’s projection that its sales of pencil leads will increase
as a result.
Choice E is he best answer since the evident superiority of the redesigned pencil gives consumers an incentive
to buy it. Once consumers have bought the pencil, sales of the special leads for it will follow, so the company’s
sales of lead are likely to increase.
Choice A provides no support for the company’s projection, since there is no indication that the company’s
redesigned pencil will be very inexpensive. Choice B implies that sales of pencil leads will increase in general,
but gives no indication that the Write Company’s sales will increase, and in particular it gives no indication that
the particular plan that the company has adopted will cause its sales to increase.
The plan as described is to sell the special leads at the same price as current leads, so even if the study
described in choice C proves successful, the most that could be achieved would be an increase in profits, not in
sales. With respect to choice D, the fact that another manufacturer is considering the same strategy does not
help answer the question at issue here-whether this will be a successful strategy for the Write Company-and
thus gives no support to the company’s projection.
According to the passage a limited trial of a plan had favorable results. The question asks you to identify
information that indicates that those favorable results would not be reproduced if the plan were put into effect.
Choice A is the best answer, since if it is true, then the employees who took part in the trial were the ones likely
to do best working at home. So the trial’s results cannot be taken as representative of what would happen if the
plan was extended to other employees.
Although choices B, C and D provide information that might be relevant to assessing the likely success of the
plan, if implemented, none of them specifically casts doubt on the validity of the trial results; thus they are
incorrect choices. Choice E is incorrect; since reduced office-space expenditures, rather than productivity
increases, would be the goal of implementing the plan, the fact that alternative measures might achieve equal
productivity gains is not directly relevant.
Mourdet Winery claims that it will lose customers because Danville Winery has imitated its distinctive bottle.
Danville denies this claim, and points out that the two bottles can be told apart by the difference in their labels.
You are asked to find something that undermines this response.
Choice D is the best answer. According to this choice, at least some of Mourdet’s occasional customers are
likely to overlook the difference in labels and buy Danville’s wine instead of theirs, so Danville’s response to
Mourdet’s complaint is undermined.
Choice A supports, rather than undermines, Danville’s response; the gold color is a common feature of Danville’s
bottles, so a bottle bearing a gold label is more likely to be recognized as a Danville wine. Choice B provides
another respect in which the bottles are different, and does not undermine Danville’s response.
If the Danville label is emphasized in advertising, it is more likely rather than less that the difference in labels will
help prevent customers from buying the wrong wine, so choice C supports rather than undermines Danville’s
response. The fact that some popular wines can be distinguished from Mourdet’s by their bottle shape (choice E)
says nothing about whether the difference in labels is enough to prevent consumers from buying Danville’s wine
instead of Mourdet’s.
The editorial argues that fire alarm boxes remain necessary in the commercial district, because the specific
alternatives to the alarm boxes to which the mayor refers-public and private phones-are not common there. The
question asks you to identify a weakness in the editorial’s argument in favor of keeping alarm boxes in the
Choice B is the best answer. If commercial businesses use a different alternative-alarm systems connected to
the fire department-then the editorial’s conclusion is not well supported.
Neither choice A nor choice C gives any reason to think that the alarm boxes are not necessary, although both
choices prove grounds for deactivating the boxes if they are no longer necessary. Choice D emphasizes the
need to make sure that fires in the commercial district are reported quickly and does not weaken the editorial’s
argument. If public telephones are often out of order (choice E), there is more, rather than less, reason to think
that the alarm boxes are necessary.
The producer wants to make buying an electric vehicle more attractive to commuters and aims to do so by
removing one obstacle: commuters who bought an electric vehicle would not be able to use it for long trips. The
question asks you to identify something that might prevent the plan from succeeding.
Choice B is the best answer because if the plan would add considerably to the price of an electric vehicle, then it
in effect replaces one obstacle to buying an electric vehicle with another. Choices A and E are incorrect because
the producer’s plan is focused on commuters, so the way some electric vehicles are used for commercial
purposes (A) or for running errands (E) is of no relevance to the plan. Choice C poses no threat to the plan.
Choice D presents both an advantage and a disadvantage of using an electric vehicle, but even the
disadvantage does not threaten the plan’s prospects of making electric vehicles more attractive to commuters
than they currently are.
The passage argues that charitable and educational institutions, part of whose income comes from donations,
would be negatively affected if wealthy individuals could not count such donations as deductions from their
income. The question asks you to identify an assumption of the argument-that is, something that has to be true
in order for the evidence presented to establish the conclusion.
Choice A is the best answer, since if this statement is false, all wealthy individuals would, even without the
incentive provided by federal tax laws, donate as much money as they do now. In that case, the evidence used
in the argument provides no support for the conclusion.
Choice B is not assumed: the argument need only assume that many institutions depend heavily, but not
necessarily exclusively, on donations from such individuals. Choice C is incorrect given that the argument is
concerned only with the consequences of the proposed change and makes no assumption about any reasons
for making or not making the change. Choice D is not assumed: as far as the argument is concerned, there can
be many other individuals who donate money to the institutions. Choice E is incorrect since the argument, being
about the consequences of the particular proposed change, does not make any assumption about what
alternative changes to the tax laws ought to be made.
The passage makes a general claim-that major eruptions cause the atmosphere to cool down-on the basis of a
single episode in which an eruption was followed by an unusually severe winter. You are asked to identify a fact
that weakens the arguments.
Choice C is the best answer. It describes an occasion when an eruption was followed by temperatures that were
warmer than usual, not colder, and thus counterbalances the evidence offered in the passage.
Choice A announces that certain eruptions did have a cooling effect, so although an independent warning effect
counteracted the effect, the argument is supported, not weakened. Choice B supports the claim that there is
some connection between eruptions and the climate, but it provides no evidence one way or the other about
whether eruptions specifically produce cooling. Choices D and E both present further evidence suggesting that
eruptions can have a cooling effect: in choice D, the cooling interacts with an independent warming trend, and in
choice E an eruption is followed by a cooling of sea temperatures.
The passage states that the stores through which SuperComp is selling its computers are experiencing
dramatically increased sales. Analyst doubt, however, that SuperComp’s plan for selling its computers for home
use is really working. The question asks you to identify a fact that justifies the analysts’ doubt.
Choice C is the best answer. If consumers who are drawn to a SuperComp dealer find less expensive
alternatives that the dealer has a strong incentive to sell to them, the analyst’ doubt is justifies, since it is likely
that the increase in the dealer’s sales is due not to sales of SuperComp’s computers, but rather to sales of these
Choice A is incorrect; it suggests that there is a market for home computers, so does nothing to justify the
analysts’ doubts. Choice B is incorrect because it provides information about the consumers’ buying inclinations,
but does not provide justification for the analysts’ doubts, given that the dealers were actually selling more
computers than usual. Choice D is incorrect since it suggests that SuperComp chose well-located dealers, and
does nothing to justify the analysts’ doubts. Finally, the beliefs mentioned in choice E, which were formed before
the campaign, cannot justify the analysts’ doubts in the face of the evidence about increased sales.
The manager concluded that the new process produced a cost savings on the basis of a trial run of the process
in which costs were 15 percent lower than they had been previously. You are asked to identify something that
casts doubt on their conclusion.
Choice C is the best answer. If production costs at the factory fell for a similar product that was produced without
using the new process, it is more doubtful that the observed production cost reductions achieved during the trial
run were actually produced by the new process.
Choice A is incorrect; the fact that the managers had hoped for cost reductions of fifty percent does not cast any
doubt on their conclusion that the new process had produced at least some savings. Choice B is incorrect since
finding the source of the cost savings in the trial shows that the savings were no mere accident and so reinforces
the managers’ conclusion. Choice D and E are incorrect since by emphasizing that certain aspects of the
product-its design and raw materials-were the same in the standard process and the new process, these two
answer choices support, rather than cast doubt on, the conclusion that the process itself produced the savings.
The passage introduces a goal: to get the information booth at the industry convention to be more effective at
boosting sales. It also introduces a plan for achieving that goal: to increase attendance at the booth by having
the sales force invite its best customers to visit the booth. The question asks you to identify a reason for thinking
that inviting the customers will help Vitacorp to achieve its goal.
Choice C is the best answer, since it explains how having Vitacrop’s best customers attend the booth might
encourage new customers to attend. Hence there would be a chance to boost sales even if the invited visitors,
who are already good customers of Vitacrop, do not increase their purchase as a result of their visits.
According to choice A, the customers who will be especially invited to attend the booth will not as a result be any
better informed about Vitacrop’s products, so it gives no reason for thinking that sales to these customers will be
stimulated. Choice B is incorrect because successful information booths belonging to Vitacrop’s competitors
might cut into Vitacrop’s sales. Choice D presents a difficulty for the plan-Vitacrop’s best customers also use its
competitors-and provides no way of overcoming this difficulty. Choice E strongly suggests that the booth will be
less effective at boosting sales than normal.
The passage argues that a company should obtain a needed product or service from an outside supplier
whenever a comparison between the price the outside supplier asks and the cost of a company’s making that
product or service for itself shows the outside supplier’s price to be lower. The reason given is that doing so will
lower the company’s cost and so contribute to its profits.
The question asks you to identify the answer choice that weakens this argument. The correct answer, therefore,
will give a reason why using an outside supplier might not help the company’s profitability even though the price
the outside supplier asks is low.
Choice B is the best answer since the possible leakage of sensitive information to the company’s competitors is
a hidden cost of relying on outside suppliers and gives a reason why outsourcing might not, ultimately, enhance
profitability even if it offers an immediate reduction in costs.
Choices A and D are incorrect because they present benefits of outsourcing, not drawbacks-choice A refers to
competition between independent suppliers, and choice D refers to the experienced management ability
available. Information about which tasks are in fact commonly outsourced (choice C) does not affect the
argument, which is about what tasks should be outsourced. Choice E points out a common consequence of
outsourcing, but presents no disadvantage of this consequence to the company.
The spokesperson argues that the state’s road system is not inadequate, since the amount the state spends on
road improvement is more, per mile of road, than any other state spends. The question asks you to find the
answer choice that most seriously undermines this reasoning. This will be the choice that shows how a large
amount of spending on road improvement need not indicate that the road system is good.
Choice E is the best answer. It points out that spending an unusually large amount on road improvements tends
to indicate that the roads being improved must be in unusually poor condition.
Choice A is incorrect since it gives no reason for thinking that spending a large amount of money on road
improvements is a poor indicator of the quality of the road system. Choice B and C are incorrect. Although the
spokesperson’s argument is addressed to businesspeople, it is solely about whether the state’s road system is
adequate. The importance of the road system in attracting business to the state is therefore not relevant to this
argument (choice B). The number of businesses relocating into or out of the state is also therefore not relevant
to the argument (choice C). Choice D is incorrect since the relevance of the statistic that the spokesperson uses
about spending per mile of road is not affected by the information provided here about road systems and state
The argument in the passage concludes that, although Gortland currently produces enough grain and meat for
its own needs, it will soon not do so. This conclusion is based on the continuing increase in per capita
consumption of meat as per capita income increases, and the fact that several pounds of grain must be used to
produce each pound of meat.
The question asks you to identify an assumption on which the argument depends. An assumption is something
that must be true in order for the argument’s conclusion to be established by the evidence the argument gives.
Choice E is the best answer. If the people who increase their consumption of meat at the same time radically
reduce their consumption of grain, the evidence given in the argument cannot establish its conclusion. So for the
conclusion to be established this possibility must be ruled out, which is what this answer choice does.
Choice A is incorrect. The argument does not assume that grain production in Gortland will decline only that
demand for grain will increase. Choice B is not assumed, since the argument would be unaffected even if the
population had been increasing. Choice C is not assumed; no particular assumption about the distribution of
meat consumption across income levels is required, although it is required that meat consumption overall will
continue to increase. Choice D is incorrect. While it is assumed, for example, that the government will not freeze
meat consumption at current levels, it is not assumed that the government has no role in the pricing of meat and
The journalist’s argument offers an explanation for the decline in published articles reporting the results of
experiments involving particle accelerators. The explanation given is that fewer than usual particle accelerators
were available for physicists’ experiments the year before last, and thus that the decline reflects a reduction in
the number of experiments with results to report.
The question asks for the answer choice that undermines the journalist’s argument. The argument can be
undermined either by indications that the explanation offered by the journalist cannot explain the decline or by
evidence that strongly supports an alternative explanation to the one the journalist offers.
Choice E is the best answer. This choice strongly supports an alternative explanation for the decline: that it was
brought about by changes in editorial policy. This possibility undermines the journalist’s argument.
Choice A is incorrect because it implies that there was indeed a decline in the number of articles submitted and
so supports the journalist’s explanation. Choice B is incorrect since the fact that scientists have to wait for
access implies that the accelerators continue to be fully used, thereby lending support to the idea that it is the
reduced number of accelerators that led to a reduced number of articles. Since a decline in the number of
physics journals would be one alternative explanation for the decline in the number of articles published, and
choice C rules out that alternative explanation, it somewhat supports the explanation the journalist offers. Choice
D does not weaken the journalist’s argument: even if accelerators can be used for several experiments, a
reduction in the number of accelerators is likely to lead to a reduction in the number of experiments, and hence
Based on the success of the discount offer over the summer, the manufacturer plans to extend the same offer for
the fall quarter. The question asks you to find the answer choice that identifies a flaw in this plan, that is, a
reason for thinking that, even though the plan was successful in the summer quarter, it will not succeed in the
Choice E is the best answer since it indicates that the increase in sales during the summer quarter has reduced
the number of potential sales during the fall quarter. That makes it unlikely that the discount plan can continue to
boost sales in the same way.
Choice A is incorrect because the discount program is based on a comparison between a distributor’s sales in a
quarter and the sales in the same quarter the previous years, rather than in the previous quarter. Since
advertising helps the distributors sell to their retail customers, choice B provides no reason for thinking the plan
will not succeed in the fall. Choice C is incorrect: although part of the success of the discount incentives in the
summer may have come from distributors’ recovering to more normal sales, that does not provide a reason for
thinking that the same increase in sales cannot occur in the fall quarter. Choice D is also incorrect: distributors’
flexibility in deciding how to take advantage of the discounts give no reason for thinking that the discounts will fail
to increase fall sales.
In the passage, the conclusion advocate argues for a certain position:
….eliminating the state requirement that legal advertisements must specify fees for specific services would
almost certainly increase rather than further reduce consumers’ legal costs.
What follows the statement is preceded by two concessions that, the advocate admits, tend to point in the
opposite direction; what follows the statement of the position are the reasons the advocate has for holding that
position. To answer the question, you must find the choice that correctly describes the roles played by both of
the portions that are in boldface.
Choice C is the correct answer. The first boldface portion does present a pattern of cause and effect, and the
advocate’s prediction is that his time the pattern will be different. In addition, the second boldface portion is one
of the considerations that the advocate uses in support of that prediction.
While the description of the first boldface portion given in choice A is correct, that of the second is not: the
generalization in fact tends to run counter to the prediction made in the second boldface portion. Therefore this
choice is incorrect.
Choice B is incorrect, since although the first boldface portion presents a pattern of cause and effect, the
advocate’s prediction is that in this case that pattern will not hold. Thus the role of the first boldface portion is
incorrectly described. Choice D is incorrect: the advocate odes not use the first boldface portion in support of
any prediction and instead concedes that it runs counter to the advocate’s own prediction.
While the role of the first boldface portion is correctly described in choice E, that of the second is not, since the
position the advocate is defending is not the second boldface portion, but rather the position identified above.
Thus this choice is incorrect.
1. The Wallerstein study indicates that even after a decade young men and women still experience some of
the effects of a divorce occurring when a child.
(A) occurring when a child
(B) occurring when children
(C) that occurred when a child
(D) that occurred when they were children
(E) that has occurred as each was a child
2. Since 1981, when the farm depression began, the number of acres overseen by professional
farm-management companies have grown from 48 million to nearly 59 million, an area that is about
(A) have grown from 48 million to nearly 59 million, an area that is about Colorado's size
(B) have grown from 48 million to nearly 59 million, about the size of Colorado
(C) has grown from 48 million to nearly 59 million, an area about the size of Colorado
(D) has grown from 48 million up to nearly 59 million, an area about the size of Colorado's
(E) has grown from 48 million up to nearly 59 million, about Colorado's size
3. Some bat caves, like honeybee hives, have residents that take on different duties such as defending the
entrance, acting as sentinels and to sound a warning at the approach of danger, and scouting outside the
cave for new food and roosting sites.
(A) acting as sentinels and to sound
(B) acting as sentinels and sounding
(C) to act as sentinels and sound
(D) to act as sentinels and to sound
(E) to act as a sentinel sounding
4. The only way for growers to salvage frozen citrus is to process them quickly into juice concentrate before
they rot when warmer weather returns.
(A) to process them quickly into juice concentrate before they rot when warmer weather returns
(B) if they are quickly processed into juice concentrate before warmer weather returns to rot them
(C) for them to be processed quickly into juice concentrate before the fruit rots when warmer weather
(D) if the fruit is quickly processed into juice concentrate before they rot when warmer weather returns
(E) to have it quickly processed into juice concentrate before warmer weather returns and rots the fruit
5. Carbon-14 dating reveals that the megalithic monuments in Brittany are nearly 2,000 years as old as any of
their supposed Mediterranean predecessors.
(A) as old as any of their supposed
(B) older than any of their supposed
(C) as old as their supposed
(D) older than any of their supposedly
(E) as old as their supposedly
6. In virtually all types of tissue in every animal species, dioxin induces the production of enzymes that are the
organism's trying to metabolize, or render harmless. the chemical that is irritating it.
(A) trying to metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical that is irritating it
(B) trying that it metabolize, or render harmless, the . chemical irritant
(C) attempt to try to metabolize, or render harmless, such a chemical irritant
(D) attempt to try and metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical irritating it
(E) attempt to metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical irritant
7. Dr. Hakuta's research among Hispanic children in the United States indicates that the more the children
use both Spanish and English, their intellectual advantage is greater in skills underlying reading ability and
(A) their intellectual advantage is greater in skills underlying reading ability and nonverbal logic
(B) their intellectual advantage is the greater in skills underlaying reading ability and nonverbal logic
(C) the greater their intellectual advantage in skills underlying reading ability and nonverbal logic
(D) in skills that underlay reading ability and nonverbal logic, their intellectual advantage is the greater
(E) in skills underlying reading ability and nonverbal logic, the greater intellectual advantage is theirs
8. Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the amount of energy used by
equipment. such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that used by
unobtrusive equipment, such as water heaters.
(A) equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate that
(B) equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when
(C) equipment, such as lights, that is visible and must be turned on and off and underestimate it when
(D) visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate that
(E) visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate it when
9. Astronomers at the Palomar Observatory have discovered a distant supernova explosion, one that they
believe is a type previously unknown to science.
(A) that they believe is
(B) that they believe it to be
(C) they believe that it is of
(D) they believe that is
(E) they believe to be of
10. However much United States voters may agree that there is waste in government and that the government
as a whole spends beyond its means, it is difficult to find broad support for a movement toward a minimal
(A) However much United States voters may agree that
(B) Despite the agreement among United States voters to the fact
(C) Although United States voters agree
(D) Even though United States voters may agree
(E) There is agreement among United States voters that
11. Based on accounts of various ancient writers, scholars have painted a sketchy picture of the activities of an
all-female cult that, perhaps as early as the sixth century B.C., worshipped a goddess known in Latin as
Bona Dea, "the good goddess."
(A) Based on accounts of various ancient writers
(B) Basing it on various ancient writers' accounts
(C) With accounts of various ancient writers used for a basis
(D) By the accounts of various ancient writers they used
(E) Using accounts of various ancient writers
12. Formulas for cash flow and the ratio of debt to equity do not apply to new small businesses in the same way
as they do to established big businesses, because they are growing and are seldom in equilibrium.
(A) Formulas for cash flow and the ratio of debt to equity do not apply to new small businesses in the same
way as they do to established big businesses, because they are growing and are seldom in equilibrium.
(B) Because they are growing and are seldom in equilibrium, formulas for cash flow and the ratio of debt to
equity do not apply to new small businesses in the same way as they do to established big businesses.
(C) Because they are growing and are seldom in equilibrium, new small businesses are not subject to the
same applicability of formulas for cash flow and the ratio of debt to equity as established big
(D) Because new small businesses are growing and are seldom in equilibrium, formulas for cash flow and
the ratio of debt to equity do not apply to them in the same way as to established big businesses.
(E) New small businesses are not subject to the applicability of formulas for cash flow and the ratio of debt
to equity in the same way as established big businesses, because they are growing and are seldom in
13. State officials report that soaring rates of liability insurance have risen to force cutbacks in the operations
of everything from local governments and school districts to day-care centers and recreational facilities.
(A) rates of liability insurance have risen to force
(B) rates of liability insurance are a force for
(C) rates for liability insurance are forcing
(D) rises in liability insurance rates are forcing
(E) liability insurance rates have risen to force
14. Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone unearthed in Burma and estimated at 40 to
44 million years old provide evidence of a crucial step along the evolutionary path that led to human
(A) at 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of
(B) as being 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of
(C) that it is 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of what was
(D) to be 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of
(E) as 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of what was
15. In his research paper, Dr. Frosh, medical director of the Payne Whitney Clinic, distinguishes mood swings.
which may be violent without their being grounded in mental disease, from genuine manic-depressive
(A) mood swings, which may be violent without their being grounded in mental disease, from genuine
(B) mood swings, perhaps violent without being grounded in mental disease, and genuine
manic-depressive psychosis ,
(C) between mood swings, which may be violent without being grounded in mental disease, and genuine
(D) between mood swings, perhaps violent without being grounded in mental disease, from genuine
(E) genuine manic-depressive psychosis and mood swings, which may be violent without being grounded
in mental disease
16. Unlike a typical automobile loan, which requires a fifteen- to twenty-percent down payment, the lease-loan
buyer is not required to make an initial deposit on the new vehicle.
(A) the lease-loan buyer is not required to make
(B) with lease-loan buying there is no requirement of
(C) lease-loan buyers are not required to make
(D) for the lease-loan buyer there is no requirement of
(E) a lease-loan does not require the buyer to make
17. Native American burial sites dating back 5,000 years indicate that the residents of Maine at that time were
part of a widespread culture of Algonquian-speaking people.
(A) were part of a widespread culture of Algonquian-speaking people
(B) had been part of a widespread culture of people who were Algonquian-speaking
(C) were people who were part of a widespread culture that was Algonquian-speaking
(D) had been people who were part of a widespread culture that was Algonquian-speaking
(E) were a people which had been part of a widespread, Algonquian-speaking culture
18. Each of Hemingway's wives--Hadley Richardson. Pauline Pfeiffer. Martha Gelhom. and Mary Welsh --were
strong and interesting women, very different from the often pallid women who populate his novels.
(A) Each of Hemingway's wives--Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhom, and Mary
Welsh--were strong and interesting women,
(B) Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh--each of them Hemingway's
wives--were strong and, interesting women,
(C) Hemingway's wives--Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhom, and Mary Welsh--were all
strong and interesting women,
(D) Strong and interesting women—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhom, and Mary
Welsh--each a wife of Hemingway, was
(E) Strong and interesting women—Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhom, and Mary
Welsh--every one of Hemingway's wives were
19. In addition to having more protein -than wheat does, the protein in rice is higher quality than that in wheat,
with more of the amino acids essential to the human diet.
(A) the protein in rice is higher quality than that in
(B) rice has protein of higher quality than that in
(C) the protein in rice is higher in quality than it is in
(D) rice protein is higher in quality than it is in
(E) rice has a protein higher in quality than
20. An array of tax incentives has led to a boom in the construction of new office buildings; so abundant has
capital been for commercial real estate that investors regularly scour the country for areas in which to build.
(A) so abundant has capital been for commercial real estate that
(B) capital has been so abundant for commercial real estate, so that
(C) the abundance of capital for commercial real estate has been such,
(D) such has the abundance of capital been for commercial real estate that
(E) such has been an abundance of capital for commercial real estate,
21. Defense attorneys have occasionally argued that their clients' misconduct stemmed from a reaction to
something ingested, but in attributing criminal or delinquent behavior to some food allergy, the perpetrators
are in effect told that they are not responsible for their actions.
(A) in attributing criminal or delinquent behavior to some food allergy
(B) if criminal or delinquent behavior is attributed to an allergy to some food
(C) in attributing behavior that is criminal or delinquent to an allergy to some food
(D) if some food allergy is attributed as the cause of criminal or delinquent behavior
(E) in attributing a food allergy as the cause of criminal or delinquent behavior
22. The voluminous personal papers of Thomas Alva Edison reveal that his inventions typically sprang to life
not in a flash of inspiration but evolved slowly from previous works.
(A) (A) sprang to life not in a flash of inspiration but evolved slowly
(B) sprang to life not in a flash of inspiration but were slowly evolved
(C) did not spring to life in a flash of inspiration but evolved slowly
(D) did not spring to life in a flash of inspiration but had slowly evolved
(E) did not spring to life in a flash of inspiration but they were slowly evolved
23. A Labor Department study states that the numbers of women employed outside the home grew by more
than a thirty-five percent increase in the past decade and accounted for more than sixty-two percent of the
total growth in the civilian work force.
(A) numbers of women employed outside the home grew by more than a thirty-five percent increase
(B) numbers of women employed outside the home grew more than thirty-five percent
(C) numbers of women employed outside the home were raised by more than thirty-five percent
(D) number of women employed outside the home increased by more than thirty-five percent
(E) number of women employed outside the home was raised by more than a thirty-five percent increase
24. The first decision for most tenants living in a building undergoing being converted to cooperative ownership
is if to sign a no-buy pledge with the other tenants.
(A) being converted to cooperative ownership is if to sign
(B) being converted to cooperative ownership is whether they should be signing
(C) being converted to cooperative ownership is whether or not they sign
(D) conversion to cooperative ownership is if to sign
(E) conversion to cooperative ownership is whether to sign
25. The end of the eighteenth century saw the emergence of prize-stock breeding, with individual bulls and
cows receiving awards, fetching unprecedented prices, and excited enormous interest whenever they were
put on show.
(B) it excited
(D) would excite
(E) it had excited
26. Of all the possible disasters that threaten American agriculture, the possibility of an adverse change in
climate is maybe the more difficult for analysis.
(A) is maybe the more difficult for analysis
(B) is probably the most difficult to analyze
(C) is maybe the most difficult for analysis
(D) is probably the more difficult to analyze
(E) is, it may be, the analysis that is most difficult
27. Published in Harlem, the owner and editor of the Messenger were two young journalists. Chandler Owen j
and A. Philip Randolph, who would later make his reputation as a labor leader.
(A) Published in Harlem, the owner and editor of the Messenger were two young journalists. Chandler
Owen and A. Philip Randolph, who would later make his reputation as a labor leader.
(B) Published in Harlem, two young journalists, Chandler Owen and A. Philip Randolph, who would later
make his reputation as a labor leader, were the owner and editor of the Messenger.
(C) Published in Harlem, the Messenger was owned and edited by two young journalists, A. Philip
Randolph, who would later make his reputation as a labor leader, and Chandler Owen.
(D) The Messenger was owned and edited by two young journalists. Chandler Owen and A. Philip
Randolph, who would later make his reputation as a labor leader, and published in Harlem.
(E) The owner and editor being two young journalists, Chandler Owen and A. Philip Randolph, who would
later make his reputation as a labor leader, the Messenger was published in Harlem.
28. The rise in the Commerce Department's index of leading economic indicators suggest that the economy
should continue its expansion into the coming months. but that the mixed performance of the index's indi-
vidual components indicates that economic growth will proceed at a more moderate pace than in the first
quarter of this year.
(A) suggest that the economy should continue its expansion into the coming months, but that
(B) suggest that the economy is to continue expansion in the coming months, but
(C) suggests that the economy will continue its expanding in the coming months, but that
(D) suggests that the economy is continuing to expand into the coming months, but that
(E) suggests that the economy will continue to expand in the coming months, but
29. In three centuries--from 1050 to 1350--several million tons of stone were quarried in France for the building
of eighty cathedrals, five hundred large churches, and some tens of thousands of parish churches.
(A) for the building of eighty cathedrals, five hundred large churches, and some
(B) in order that they might build eighty cathedrals, five hundred large churches, and some
(C) so as they might build eighty cathedrals, five hundred large churches, and some
(D) so that there could be built eighty cathedrals, five hundred large churches, and
(E) such that they could build eighty cathedrals, five hundred large churches, and
30. What was as remarkable as the development of the compact disc has been the use of the new technology to
revitalize, in better sound than was ever before possible, some of the classic recorded performances of the
(A) What was as remarkable as the development of the compact disc
(B) The thing that was as remarkable as developing the compact disc
(C) No less remarkable than the development of the compact disc
(D) Developing the compact disc has been none the less remarkable than
(E) Development of the compact disc has been no less remarkable as
31. Unlike computer skills or other technical skills, there is a disinclination on the part of many people to
recognize the degree to which their analytical skills are weak.
(A) Unlike computer skills or other technical skills, there is a disinclination on the part of many people to
recognize the degree to which their analytical skills are weak.
(B) Unlike computer skills or other technical skills, which they admit they lack, many people are disinclined
to recognize that their analytical skills are weak.
(C) Unlike computer skills or other technical skills, analytical skills bring out a disinclination in many people
to recognize that they are weak to a degree.
(D) Many people, willing to admit that they lack computer skills or other technical skills, are disinclined to
recognize that their analytical skills are weak.
(E) Many people have a disinclination to recognize the weakness of their analytical skills while willing to
admit their lack of computer skills or other technical skills.
32. Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year were constructed in
violation of the city's building code.
(A) Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year were
(B) Some buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake last year had been
(C) Some buildings that the earthquake destroyed and heavily damaged last year have been
(D) Last year the earthquake destroyed or heavily damaged some buildings that have been
(E) Last year some of the buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake had been
33. From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the way in which the Ojibwa society organized its
labor, provided access to its resources, and defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and
consumption of those resources.
(A) and defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and consumption of those resources
(B) defining rights and obligations involved in their distribution and consumption
(C) and defined rights and obligations as they were involved in its distribution and consumption
(D) whose rights and obligations were defined in their distribution and consumption
(E) the distribution and consumption of them defined by rights and obligations
34. A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that much of the
currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes from the incineration of
(A) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes
(B) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed to come
(C) much of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to comes
(D) many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come
(E) many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come
35. In June of 1987, The Bridge of Trinquetaille, Vincent van Gogh's view of an iron bridge over the Rhone sold
for $20.2 million and it was the second highest price ever paid for a painting at auction.
(A) Rhone sold for $20.2 million and it was
(B) Rhone, which sold for $20.2 million, was
(C) Rhone, was sold for $20.2 million,
(D) Rhone was sold for $20.2 million, being
(E) Rhone, sold for $20.2 million, and was
36. Bufo marinus toads, fierce predators that will eat frogs, lizards, and even small birds, are native to South
America but were introduced into Florida during the 1930's in an attempt to control pests in the state's vast
(A) are native to South America but were introduced into Florida during the 1930's in an attempt to control
(B) are native in South America but were introduced into Florida during the 1930's as attempts to control
(C) are natives of South America but were introduced into Florida during the 1930's in an attempt at
(D) had been native to South America but were introduced to Florida during the 1930's as an attempt at
(E) had been natives of South America but were introduced to Florida during the 1930's as attempts at
37. While some academicians believe that business ethics should be integrated into every business course,
others say that students will take ethics seriously only if it would be taught as a separately required course.
(A) only if it would be taught as a separately required course
(B) only if it is taught as a separate, required course
(C) if it is taught only as a course required separately
(D) if it was taught only as a separate and required course
(E) if it would only be taught as a required course, separately
38. Scientists have observed large concentrations of
heavy-metal deposits in the upper twenty centimeters of Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the
growth of industrial activity there.
(A) Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the growth of industrial activity there
(B) Baltic Sea sediments, where the growth of industrial activity is consistent with these findings
(C) Baltic Sea sediments, findings consistent with its growth of industrial activity
(D) sediments from the Baltic Sea, findings consistent with the growth of industrial activity in the area
(E) sediments from the Baltic Sea, consistent with the growth of industrial activity there
39. For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames
were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears.
(A) a method to protect
(B) as a method protecting
(D) as a protection of
(E) to protect
40. In metalwork one advantage of adhesive-bonding over spot-welding is that the contact, and hence the
bonding, is effected continuously over a broad surface instead of a series of regularly spaced points with no
bonding in between.
(A) instead of
(B) as opposed to
(C) in contrast with
(D) rather than at
(E) as against being at
41. Under a provision of the Constitution that was never applied. Congress has been required to call a conven-
tion for considering possible amendments to the document when formally asked to do it by the legislatures
of two-thirds of the states.
(A) was never applied, Congress has been required to call a convention for considering possible
amendments to the document when formally asked to do it
(B) was never applied, there has been a requirement that Congress call a convention for consideration of
possible amendments to the document when asked to do it formally
(C) was never applied, whereby Congress is required to call a convention for considering possible
amendments to the document when asked to do it formally
(D) has never been applied, whereby Congress is required to call a convention to consider possible
amendments to the document when formally asked to do so
(E) has never been applied. Congress is required to call a convention to consider possible amendments to
the document when formally asked to do so
42. The current administration, being worried over some foreign trade barriers being removed and our exports
failing to increase as a result of deep cuts in the value of the dollar, has formed a group to study ways to
sharpen our competitiveness.
(A) being worried over some foreign trade barriers being removed and our exports failing
(B) worrying over some foreign trade barriers being removed, also over the failure of our exports
(C) worried about the removal of some foreign trade barriers and the failure of our exports
(D) in that they were worried about the removal of some foreign trade barriers and also about the failure of
(E) because of its worry concerning the removal of some foreign trade barriers, also concerning the failure
of our exports
43. In the minds of many people living in England, before Australia was Australia, it was the antipodes, the
opposite pole to civilization, an obscure and unimaginable place that was considered the end of the world.
(A) before Australia was Australia, it was the antipodes
(B) before there was Australia, it was the antipodes
(C) it was the antipodes that was Australia
(D) Australia was what was the antipodes
(E) Australia was what had been known as the antipodes
44. Using a Doppler ultrasound device, fetal heartbeats can be detected by the twelfth week of pregnancy.
(A) Using a Doppler ultrasound device, fetal heart-beats can be detected by the twelfth week of pregnancy.
(B) Fetal heartbeats can be detected by the twelfth week of pregnancy, using a Doppler ultrasound device.
(C) Detecting fetal heartbeats by the twelfth week of pregnancy, a physician can use a Doppler ultrasound
(D) By the twelfth week of pregnancy, fetal heartbeats can be detected using a Doppler ultrasound device
by a physician.
(E) Using a Doppler ultrasound device, a physician can detect fetal heartbeats by the twelfth week of
45. Delighted by the reported earnings for the first quarter of the fiscal year, it was decided by the
company manager to give her staff a raise.
(A) it was decided by the company manager to give her staff a raise
(B) the decision of the company manager was to give her staff a raise
(C) the company manager decided to give her staff a raise
(D) the staff was given a raise by the company manager
(E) a raise was given to the staff by the company manager
46. A study commissioned by the Department of Agriculture showed that if calves exercise and associated with
other calves, they will require less medication and gain weight quicker than do those raised in confinement.
(A) associated with other calves, they will require less medication and gain weight quicker than do
(B) associated with other calves, they require less medication and gain weight quicker than
(C) associate with other calves, they required less medication and will gain weight quicker than do
(D) associate with other calves, they have required less medication and will gain weight more quickly than
(E) associate with other calves, they require less medication and gain weight more quickly than
47. Displays of the aurora borealis, or "northern lights," can heat the atmosphere over the arctic enough to
affect the trajectories of ballistic missiles, induce electric currents that can cause blackouts in some areas
and corrosion in north-south pipelines.
(A) to affect the trajectories of ballistic missiles, induce
(B) that the trajectories of ballistic missiles are affected, induce
(C) that it affects the trajectories of ballistic missiles, induces
(D) that the trajectories of ballistic missiles are affected and induces
(E) to affect the trajectories of ballistic missiles and induce
48. The golden crab of the Gulf of Mexico has not been fished commercially in great numbers, primarily on
account of living at great depths-- 2,500 to 3,000 feet down.
(A) on account of living
(B) on account of their living
(C) because it lives
(D) because of living
(E) being they live
49. The cameras of the Voyager II spacecraft detected six small, previously unseen moons circling Uranus,
which doubles to twelve the number of satellites now known as orbiting the distant planet
(A) which doubles to twelve the number of satellites now known as orbiting
(B) doubling to twelve the number of satellites now known to orbit
(C) which doubles to twelve the number of satellites now known in orbit around
(D) doubling to twelve the number of satellites now known as orbiting
(E) which doubles to twelve the number of satellites now known that orbit
50. As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be rated
about 20/500. or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision.
(A) As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be
rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision.
(B) A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated
about 20/500, or legally blind as an adult
(C) As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision would be rated
about 20/500; qualifying it to be legally blind if an adult
(D) A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated
about 20/500; an adult with such vision would be deemed legally blind.
(E) As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision, which would
deemed legally blind for an adult, would be rated about 20/500.
51. While Jackie Robinson was a Brooklyn Dodger, his courage in the face of physical threats and verbal
attacks was not unlike that of Rosa Parks, who refused to move to the back of a bus in Montgomery,
(A) not unlike that of Rosa Parks, who refused
(B) not unlike Rosa Parks, who refused
(C) like (Rosa Parks and her refusal
(D) like that of Rosa Parks for refusing
(E) as that of Rosa Parks, who refused
52. The rising of costs of data-processing operations at many financial institutions has created a growing
opportunity for independent companies to provide these services more efficiently and at lower cost.
(A) The rising of costs
(B) Rising costs
(C) The rising cost
(D) Because the rising cost
(E) Because of rising costs
53. There is no consensus on what role. if any, is played by acid rain in slowing the growth or damaging forests
in the eastern United States.
(A) slowing the growth or damaging
(B) the damage or the slowing of the growth of
(C) the damage to or the slowness of the growth of
(D) damaged or slowed growth of
(E) damaging or slowing the growth of
54. Galileo was convinced that natural phenomena, as manifestations of the laws of physics, would appear the
same to someone on the deck of a ship moving smoothly and uniformly through the water as a person
standing on land.
(A) water as a
(B) water as to a
(C) water; just as it would to a
(D) water, as it would to the
(E) water; just as to the
55. A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather
than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.
(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(B) had elected early retirement instead of facing
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face
56. Architects and stonemasons, huge palace and temple clusters were built by the Maya without benefit of the
wheel or animal transport.
(A) huge palace and temple clusters were built by the Maya without benefit of the wheel or animal
(B) without the benefits of animal transport or the wheel, huge palace and temple clusters were built by the
(C) the Maya built huge palace and temple clusters without the benefit of animal transport or the wheel
(D) there were built, without the benefit of the wheel or animal transport, huge palace and temple clusters
by the Maya
(E) were the Maya who, without the benefit of the wheel or animal transport, built huge palace and temple
57. In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light from a distant galaxy has been shifted
toward the red, or long-wave, end of the light spectrum by the rapid motion of the galaxy away from the
(A) to which light from a distant galaxy has been shifted
(B) to which light from a distant galaxy has shifted
(C) that light from a distant galaxy has been shifted
(D) of light from a distant galaxy shifting
(E) of the shift of light from a distant galaxy
58. William H. Johnson's artistic debt to Scandinavia is evident in paintings that range from sensitive portraits of
citizens in his wife's Danish home, Kerteminde, and awe-inspiring views of fjords and mountain peaks in the
western and northern regions of Norway.
(C) and to
(E) in addition to
59. In 1978 only half the women granted child support by a court received the amount awarded; at least as
much as a million and more others had not any support agreements whatsoever.
(A) at least as much as a million and more others had not any
(B) at least as much as more than a million others had no
(C) more than a million others had not any
(D) more than a million others had no
(E) there was at least a million or more others without any
60. According to a recent poll, owning and living in a freestanding house on its own land is still a goal of a
majority of young adults, like that of earlier generations.
(A) like that of earlier generations
(B) as that for earlier generations
(C) just as earlier generations did
(D) as have earlier generations
(E) as it was of earlier generations
61. The Gorton-Dodd bill requires that a bank disclose to their customers how long they will delay access to
funds from deposited checks.
(A) that a bank disclose to their customers how long they will delay access to funds from deposited checks
(B) a bank to disclose to their customers how long they will delay access to funds from a deposited check
(C) that a bank disclose to its customers how long it will delay access to funds from deposited checks
(D) a bank that it should disclose to its customers how long it will delay access to funds from a deposited
(E) that banks disclose to customers how long access to funds from their deposited check is to be delayed
62. Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include sudden fluctuations in local
seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the Earth's crust, changing the measured strain across a
fault zone, and varying the electrical properties of underground rocks.
(A) changing the measured strain across a fault zone and varying
(B) changing measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and varying
(C) changing the strain as measured across a fault zone, and variations of
(D) changes in the measured strain across a fault zone, and variations in
(E) changes in measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and variations among
63. Health officials estimate that 35 million Africans are in danger of contracting trypanosomiasis, or "African
sleeping sickness," a parasitic disease spread by the bites of tsetse flies.
(A) are in danger of contracting
(B) are in danger to contract
(C) have a danger of contracting
(D) are endangered by contraction
(E) have a danger that they will contract
64. Unlike a funded pension system, in Which contributions are invested to pay future beneficiaries, a
pay-as-you-go approach is the foundation of Social Security.
(A) a pay-as-you-go approach is the foundation of Social Security
(B) the foundation of Social Security is a pay-as-you-go approach
(C) the approach of Social Security is pay-as-you-go
(D) Social Security's approach is pay-as-you-go
(E) Social Security is founded on a pay-as-you-go approach
65. Critics of the trend toward privately operated prisons consider corrections facilities to be an integral part of
the criminal justice system and question if profits should be made from incarceration.
(A) to be an integral part of the criminal justice system and question if
(B) as an integral part of the criminal justice system and they question if
(C) as being an integral part of the criminal justice system and question whether
(D) an integral part of the criminal justice system and question Whether
(E) are an integral part of the criminal justice system, and they question whether
66. The Federal Reserve Board's reduction of interest rates on loans to financial institutions is both an
acknowledgment of past economic trends and an effort to influence their future direction.
(A) reduction of interest rates on loans to financial institutions is both an acknowledgment of past
economic trends and an effort
(B) reduction of interest rates on loans to financial institutions is an acknowledgment both of past
economic trends as well as an effort
(C) reduction of interest rates on loans to financial institutions both acknowledge past economic trends and
(D) reducing interest rates on loans to financial institutions is an acknowledgment both of past economic
trends and an effort
(E) reducing interest rates on loans to financial institutions both acknowledge past economic trends as well
67. Congress is debating a bill requiring certain employers provide workers with unpaid leave so as to care for
sick or newbom children.
(A) provide workers with unpaid leave so as to
(B) to provide workers with unpaid leave so as to
(C) provide workers with unpaid leave in order that they
(D) to provide workers with unpaid leave so that they can
(E) provide workers with unpaid leave and
68. Often visible as smog, ozone is formed in the atmosphere from hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides, two
major pollutants emitted by automobiles, react with sunlight.
(A) ozone is formed in the atmosphere from
(B) ozone is formed in the atmosphere when
(C) ozone is formed in the atmosphere, and when
(D) ozone, formed in the atmosphere when
(E) ozone, formed in the atmosphere from
69. Although she had signed a pledge of abstinence while being an adolescent. Frances Willard was 35 years
old before she chose to become a temperance activist.
(A) while being an adolescent
(B) while in adolescence
(C) at the time of her being adolescent
(D) as being in adolescence
(E) as an adolescent
70. A President entering the final two years of a second term is likely to be at a severe disadvantage and is
often unable to carry out a legislative program.
(A) likely to be at a severe disadvantage and is often unable to
(B) likely severely disadvantaged and often unable to
(C) liable to be severely disadvantaged and cannot often
(D) liable that he or she is at a severe disadvantage and cannot often
(E) at a severe disadvantage, often likely to be unable that he or she can
71. The original building and loan associations were organized as limited life funds, whose members made
monthly payments on their share subscriptions, then taking turns drawing on the funds for home mortgages.
(A) subscriptions, then taking turns drawing
(B) subscriptions, and then taking turns drawing
(C) subscriptions and then took turns drawing
(D) subscriptions and then took turns, they drew
(E) subscriptions and then drew, taking turns
72. The number of undergraduate degrees in engineering awarded by colleges and universities in the United
States increased by more than twice from 1978 to 1985.
(A) increased by more than twice
(B) increased more than two times
(C) more than doubled
(D) was more than doubled
(E) had more than doubled
73. The British Admiralty and the War Office met in March 1892 to consider a possible Russian attempt to seize
Constantinople and how they would have to act militarily to deal with them.
(A) how they would have to act militarily to deal with them
(B) how to deal with them if military action would be necessary
(C) what would be necessary militarily for dealing with such an event
(D) what military action would be necessary in order to deal with such an event
(E) the necessity of what kind of military action in order to take for dealing with it
74. Growing competitive pressures may be encouraging auditors to bend the rules in favor of clients; auditors
may, for instance, allow a questionable loan to remain on the books in order to maintain a bank's profits on
(A) clients; auditors may, for instance, allow
(B) clients, as an instance, to allow
(C) clients, like to allow
(D) clients, such as to be allowing
(E) clients; which might, as an instance, be the allowing of
75. If the proposed expenditures for gathering information abroad are reduced even further, international news
reports have been and will continue to diminish in number and quality.
(A) have been and will continue to diminish
(B) have and will continue to diminish
(C) will continue to diminish, as they already did,
(D) will continue to diminish, as they have already,
(E) will continue to diminish
76. Gall's hypothesis of there being different mental functions localized in different parts of the brain is widely
(A) of there being different mental functions localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today
(B) of different mental functions that are localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today
(C) that different mental functions are localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today
(D) which is that there are different mental functions localized in different parts of the brain is widely
(E) which is widely accepted today is that there are different mental functions localized in different parts of
77. Though the term "graphic design" may suggest laying out corporate brochures and annual reports, they
have come to signify widely ranging work, from package designs and company logotypes to signs, book
jackets, computer graphics, and film titles.
(A) suggest laying out corporate brochures and annual reports, they have come to signify widely ranging
(B) suggest laying out corporate brochures and annual reports, it has come to signify a wide range of
(C) suggest corporate brochure and annual report layout, it has signified widely ranging
(D) have suggested corporate brochure and annual report layout, it has signified a wide range of
(E) have suggested laying out corporate brochures and annual reports, they have come to signify widely
78. The root systems of most flowering perennials either become too crowded, which results in loss in vigor,
and spread too far outward, producing a bare center.
(A) which results in loss in vigor, and spread
(B) resulting in loss in vigor, or spreading
(C) with the result of loss of vigor, or spreading
(D) resulting in loss of vigor, or spread
(E) with a resulting loss of vigor, and spread
79. George Sand (Aurore Lucile Dupin) was one of the first European writers to consider the rural poor to be
legitimate subjects for literature and portray these with sympathy and respect in her novels.
(A) to be legitimate subjects for literature and portray these
(B) should be legitimate subjects for literature: portray these
(C) as being legitimate subjects for literature an portraying them
(D) as if they were legitimate subjects for literal; and portray them
(E) legitimate subjects for literature and to portray them
80. Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro excavation in Pakistan, the site of an
ancient civilization that flourished at the same time as the civilizations in the Nile delta and the river valleys
of the Tigris and Euphrates.
(A) that flourished at the same time as the civilizations
(B) that had flourished at the same time as had the civilizations
(C) that flourished at the same time those had
(D) flourishing at the same time as those did
(E) flourishing at the same time as those were
81. In 1973 mortgage payments represented twenty-one percent of an average thirty-year-old male's income;
and forty-four percent in 1984.
(A) income; and forty-four percent in 1984
(B) income; in 1984 the figure was forty-four percent
(C) income, and in 1984 forty-four percent
(D) income, forty-four percent in 1984 was the figure
(E) income that rose to forty-four percent in 1984
82. In contrast to large steel plants that take iron ore through all the steps needed to produce several different
kinds of steel, processing steel scrap into a specialized group of products has enabled small mills to put
capital into new technology and remain economically viable.
(A) processing steel scrap into a specialized group of products has enabled small mills to put capital into
new technology and remain
(B) processing steel scrap into a specialized group of products has enabled small mills to put capital into
new technology, remaining
(C) the processing of steel scrap into a specialized group of products has enabled small mills to put capital
into new technology, remaining
(D) small mills, by processing steel scrap into a specialized group of products, have been able to put
capital into new technology and remain
(E) small mills, by processing steel scrap into a specialized group of products, have been able to put
capital into new technology and remained
83. Any medical test will sometimes fail to detect a condition when it is present and indicate that there is one
when it is not.
(A) a condition when it is present and indicate that there is one
(B) when a condition is present and indicate that there is one
(C) a condition when it is present and indicate that it is present
(D) when a condition is present and indicate its presence
(E) the presence of a condition when it is there and indicate its presence
84. One legacy of Madison Avenue's recent campaign to appeal to people fifty years old and over is the
realization that as a person ages. their concerns change as well.
(A) the realization that as a person ages, their
(B) the realization that as people age, their
(C) to realize that when a person ages, his or her
(D) to realize that when people age, their
(E) realizing that as people age, their
85. Out of America's fascination with all things antique have grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and
fixtures that are bringing back the chaise lounge, the overstuffed sofa, and the claw-footed bathtub.
(A) things antique have grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and fixtures that are bringing
(B) things antique has grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and fixtures that is bringing
(C) things that are antiques has grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and fixtures that bring
(D) antique things have grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and fixtures that are bringing
(E) antique things has grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and fixtures that bring
86. Having the right hand and arm being crippled by a sniper's bullet during the First World War. Horace Pippin,
a Black American painter, worked by holding the brush in his right hand and guiding its movements with his
(A) Having the right hand and arm being crippled by a sniper's bullet during the First World War
(B) In spite of his right hand and arm being crippled by a sniper's bullet during the First World War
(C) Because there had been a sniper's bullet during the First World War that crippled his right hand and
(D) The right hand and arm being crippled by a sniper's bullet during the First World War
(E) His right hand and arm crippled by a sniper's bullet during the First World War
87. Beyond the immediate cash flow crisis that the museum faces, its survival depends on if it can broaden its
membership and leave its cramped quarters for a site where it can store and exhibit its more than 12,000
(A) if it can broaden its membership and leave
(B) whether it can broaden its membership and leave
(C) whether or not it has the capability to broaden its membership and can leave
(D) its ability for broadening its membership and leaving
(E) the ability for it to broaden its membership and leave
88. The Emperor Augustus, it appears, commissioned an idealized sculpture portrait, the features of which are
so unrealistic as to constitute what one scholar calls an "artificial face."
(A) so unrealistic as to constitute
(B) so unrealistic they constituted
(C) so unrealistic that they have constituted
(D) unrealistic enough so that they constitute
(E) unrealistic enough so as to constitute
89. A recent national study of the public schools shows that there are now one microcomputer for every
thirty-two pupils, four times as many than there were four years ago.
(A) there are now one microcomputer for every thirty-two pupils, four times as many than there were
(B) there is now one microcomputer for every thirty-two pupils, four times as many than there were
(C) there is now one microcomputer for every thirty-two pupils, four times as many as there were
(D) every thirty-two pupils now have one microcomputer, four times as many than there were
(E) every thirty-two pupils now has one microcomputer, four times as many as
90. Since 1986, when the Department of Labor began to allow investment officers' fees to be based on how the
funds they manage perform, several corporations began paying their investment advisers a small basic fee,
with a contract promising higher fees if the managers perform well.
(A) investment officers’ fees to be based on how the funds they manage perform, several corporations
(B) investment officers’ fees to be based on the performance of the funds they manage, several
(C) that fees of investment officers be based on how the funds they manage perform, several corporations
(D) fees of investment officers to be based on the performance of the funds they manage, several
corporations have begun
(E) that investment officers' fees be based on the performance of the funds they manage, several
91. Like many self-taught artists, Perle Hessing did not begin to paint until she was well into middle age.
(B) As have
(C) Just as with
(D) Just like
(E) As did
92. Never before had taxpayers confronted so many changes at once as they had in the Tax Reform Act of
(A) so many changes at once as they had in
(B) at once as many changes as
(C) at once as many changes that there were with
(D) as many changes at once as they confronted in
(E) so many changes at once that confronted them in
93. It is well known in the supermarket industry that how items are placed on shelves and the frequency of
inventory turnovers can be crucial to profits.
(A) the frequency of inventory turnovers can be
(B) the frequency of inventory turnovers is often
(C) the frequency with which the inventory turns over is often
(D) how frequently is the inventory turned over are often
(E) how frequently the inventory turns over can be
94. The psychologist William James believed that facial expressions not only provide a visible sign of an
emotion, actually contributing to the feeling itself.
(A) emotion, actually contributing to the feeling itself
(B) emotion but also actually contributing to the feeling itself
(C) emotion but also actually contribute to the feeling itself
(D) emotion; they also actually contribute to the feeling of it
(E) emotion; the feeling itself is also actually contributed to by them
95. Along with the drop in producer prices announced yesterday, the strong retail sales figures released today
seem like it is indicative that the economy, although growing slowly, is not nearing a recession.
(A) like it is indicative that
(B) as if to indicate
(C) to indicate that
(D) indicative of
(E) like an indication of
96. The National Transportation Safety Board has recommended the use of fail-safe mechanisms on airliner
cargo door latches assuring the doors are properly closed before takeoff and to prevent them from popping
open in flight.
(A) assuring the doors are properly closed
(B) for the assurance of proper closing
(C) assuring proper closure
(D) to assure closing the doors properly
(E) to assure that the doors are properly closed
97. Iguanas have been an important food source in Latin America since prehistoric times, and it is still prized as
a game animal by the campcsinos, who typically cook the meat in a heavily spiced stew.
(A) it is still prized as a game animal
(B) it is still prized as game animals
(C) they are still prized as game animals
(D) they are still prized as being a game animal
(E) being still prized as a game animal
98. The financial crash of October 1987 demonstrated that the world's capital markets are integrated more
closely than never before and events in one part of the global village may be transmitted to the rest of the
(A) integrated more closely than never before and
(B) closely integrated more than ever before so
(C) more closely integrated as never before while
(D) more closely integrated than ever before and that
(E) more than ever before closely integrated as
99. New theories propose that catastrophic impacts of asteroids and comets may have caused reversals in the
Earth's magnetic field, the onset of ice ages, splitting apart continents 80 million years ago, and great
(A) splitting apart continents
(B) the splitting apart of continents
(C) split apart continents
(D) continents split apart
(E) continents that were split apart
100. Wisconsin, Illinois, Florida, and Minnesota have
begun to enforce statewide bans prohibiting landfills to accept leaves, brush, and grass clippings.
(A) prohibiting landfills to accept leaves, brush, and grass clippings
(B) prohibiting that landfills accept leaves, brush, and grass clippings
(C) prohibiting landfills from accepting leaves, brush, and grass clippings
(D) that leaves, brush, and grass clippings cannot be accepted in landfills
(E) that landfills cannot accept leaves, brush, and grass clippings
101. Even though the direct costs of malpractice disputes amounts to a sum lower than one percent of the $541
billion the nation spent on health care last year, doctors say fear of lawsuits plays a major role in
(A) amounts to a sum lower
(B) amounts to less
(C) amounted to less
(D) amounted to lower
(E) amounted to a lower sum
102. Except for a concert performance that the composer himself staged in 1911, Scott Joplin's ragtime opera
Treemonisha was not produced until 1972, sixty-one years after its completion.
(A) Except for a concert performance that the composer himself staged
(B) Except for a concert performance with the composer himself staging it
(C) Besides a concert performance being staged by the composer himself
(D) Excepting a concert performance that the composer himself staged
(E) With the exception of a concert performance with the staging done by the composer himself
103. Students in the metropolitan school district lack math skills to such a large degree as to make it difficult to
absorb them into a city economy becoming ever more dependent on information-based industries.
(A) lack math skills to such a large degree as to make it difficult to absorb them into a city economy
(B) lack math skills to a large enough degree that they will be difficult to absorb into a city's economy that
(C) lack of math skills is so large as to be difficult to absorb them into a city's economy that becomes
(D) are lacking so much in math skills as to be difficult to absorb into a city's economy becoming
(E) are so lacking in math skills that it will be difficult to absorb them into a city economy becoming
104. The diet of the ordinary Greek in classical times was largely vegetarian--vegetables, fresh cheese, oatmeal,
and meal cakes, and meat rarely.
(A) and meat rarely
(B) and meat was rare
(C) with meat as rare
(D) meat a rarity
(E) with meat as a rarity
105. An inventory equal to 90 days sales is as much as even the strongest businesses carry, and then only as a
way to anticipate higher prices or ensure against shortages.
(A) as much as even
(B) so much as even
(C) even so much as
(D) even as much that
(E) even so much that
106. The decision by one of the nation's largest banks to admit to $3 billion in potential losses on foreign loans
could mean less lending by commercial banks to developing countries and increasing the pressure on
multigovernment lenders to supply the funds.
(A) increasing the pressure
(B) the increasing pressure
(C) increased pressure
(D) the pressure increased
(E) the pressure increasing
107. Downzoning, zoning that typically results in the reduction of housing density, allows for more open space in
areas where little water or services exist.
(A) little water or services exist
(B) little water or services exists
(C) few services and little water exists
(D) there is little water or services available
(E) there are few services and little available water
108. Reporting that one of its many problems had been the recent extended sales slump in women's apparel,
the seven-store retailer said it would start a three-month liquidation sale in all of its stores.
(A) its many problems had been the recent
(B) its many problems has been the recently
(C) its many problems is the recently
(D) their many problems is the recent
(E) their many problems had been the recent
109. Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both public and private employers that pay be
the same for jobs historically held by women as for jobs requiring comparable skill that are usually held by
(A) that pay be the same for jobs historically held by women as for jobs requiring comparable skill that are
(B) that pay for jobs historically held by women should be the same as for a job requiring comparable skills
(C) to pay the same in jobs historically held by women as in jobs of comparable skill that are
(D) to pay the same regardless of whether a job was historically held by women or is one demanding
(E) to pay as much for jobs historically held by women as for a job demanding comparable skills
110. It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax
revenues is at least $20 billion a year.
(A) the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least $20
billion a year
(B) the annual cost of illiteracy to the United States is at least $20 billion a year because of lost industrial
output and tax revenues
(C) illiteracy costs the United States at least $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues
(D) $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues is the annual cost to the United States of
(E) lost industrial output and tax revenues cost the United States at least $20 billion a year because of
111. Egyptians are credited as having pioneered embalming methods as long ago as 2650 B.C.
(A) as having
(B) with having
(C) to have
(D) as the ones who
(E) for being the ones who
112. Domestic automobile manufacturers have invested millions of dollars into research to develop cars more
gasoline-efficient even than presently on the road.
(A) into research to develop cars more gasoline-efficient even than presently on the road
(B) into research for developing even more gasoline-efficient cars on the road than at present
(C) for research for cars to be developed that are more gasoline-efficient even than presently the road
(D) in research to develop cars even more gasoline-efficient than those at present on the road
(E) in research for developing cars that are even more gasoline-efficient than presently on the road
113. Visitors to the park have often looked up into the leafy canopy and saw monkeys sleeping on the branches.
whose arms and legs hang like socks on a clothesline.
(A) saw monkeys sleeping on the branches, whose arms and legs hang
(B) saw monkeys sleeping on the branches, whose arms and legs were hanging
(C) saw monkeys sleeping on the branches, with arms and legs hanging
(D) seen monkeys sleeping on the branches, with arms and legs hanging
(E) seen monkeys sleeping on the branches, whose arms and legs have hung
114. From the bark of the paper birch tree the Menomini crafted a canoe about twenty feet long and two feet
wide, with small ribs and rails of cedar, which could carry four persons or eight hundred pounds of baggage
so light that a person could easily portage it around impeding rapids.
(A) baggage so light
(B) baggage being so light
(C) baggage, yet being so light
(D) baggage, and so light
(E) baggage yet was so light
115. From the time of its defeat by the Germans in 1940 until its liberation in 1944, France was a bitter and
divided country; a kind of civil war raged in the Vichy government between those who wanted to collaborate
with the Nazis with those who opposed them.
(A) between those who wanted to collaborate with the Nazis with those who opposed
(B) between those who wanted to collaborate with the Nazis and those who opposed
(C) between those wanting to collaborate with the Nazis with those opposing
(D) among those who wanted to collaborate with the Nazis and those who opposed
(E) among those wanting to collaborate with the Nazis with those opposing
116. Those who come to church with a predisposition to religious belief will be happy in an auditorium or even a
storefront, and there is no doubt that religion is sometimes better served by adapted spaces of this kind
instead of by some of the buildings actually designed for it.
(A) adapted spaces of this kind instead of by some of the buildings actually designed for it
(B) adapted spaces like these rather than some of the buildings actually designed for them
(C) these adapted spaces instead of by some of the buildings actually designed for it
(D) such adapted spaces rather than by some of the buildings actually designed for them
(E) such adapted spaces than by some of the buildings actually designed for it
117. A firm that specializes in the analysis of handwriting claims from a one-page writing sample that it can
assess more than three hundred personality traits, including enthusiasm, imagination, and ambition.
(A) from a one-page writing sample that it can assess.
(B) from a one-page writing sample it has the ability of assessing
(C) the ability, from a one-page writing sample, of assessing
(D) to be able, from a one-page writing sample, to assess
(E) being able to assess, from a one-page writing sample,
1l8. The question of whether to divest themselves of stock in companies that do business in South Africa is
particularly troublesome for the nation's 116 private Black colleges because their economic bases are often
more fragile than most predominantly White colleges.
(B) than those of
(C) than is so of
(D) compared to
(E) compared to those of
119. Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers,
significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of
more than $100 billion a year.
(A) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business
(B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business
(C) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, already with business costs of
(D) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costing business
(E) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costs business
120. The Parthenon was a church from 1204 until 1456, when Athens was taken by General Mohammed the
Conqueror, the Turkish sultan, who established a mosque in the building and used the Acropolis as a
(A) who established a mosque in the building and used the Acropolis as
(B) who, establishing a mosque in the building, used the Acropolis like
(C) who, when he had established a mosque in the building, used the Acropolis like
(D) who had established a mosque in the building, using the Acropolis to be
(E) establishing a mosque in the building and using the Acropolis as
121. The concept of the grand jury dates from the twelfth -century, when Henry II of England ordered panels of
common citizens should prepare lists of who were their communities' suspected criminals.
(A) should prepare lists of who were their communities' suspected criminals
(B) would do the preparation of lists of their communities' suspected criminals
(C) preparing lists of suspected criminals in their communities
(D) the preparing of a list of suspected criminals in their communities
(E) to prepare lists of suspected criminals in their communities
122. Chinese, the most ancient of living writing systems, consists of tens of thousands of ideographic characters,
each character miniature calligraphic composition inside its own square frame.
(A) each character a miniature calligraphic composition inside its
(B) all the characters a miniature calligraphic ; composition inside their
(C) all the characters a miniature calligraphic composition inside its
(D) every character a miniature calligraphic composition inside their
(E) each character a miniature calligraphic composition inside their
123. In developing new facilities for the incineration of solid wastes, we must avoid the danger of shifting
environmental problems from landfills polluting the water to polluting the air with incinerators.
(A) landfills polluting the water to polluting the air with incinerators
(B) landfills polluting the water to the air being polluted with incinerators
(C) the pollution of water by landfills to the pollution of air by incinerators
(D) pollution of the water by landfills to incinerators that pollute the air
(E) water that is polluted by landfills to incinerators that pollute the air
124. During Roosevelt's years in office, Black Americans began voting for Democrats rather than Republicans in
national elections, but Black support for Democrats at the state and local levels developed only after when
civil rights legislation was supported by Harry Truman.
(A) developed only after when civil rights legislation was supported by Harry Truman
(B) developed only after when Harry Truman supported civil rights legislation
(C) developed only after Harry Truman's support of civil rights legislation
(D) develops only at the time after the supporting of civil rights legislation by Harry Truman
(E) developed only after there being Harry Truman's support of civil rights legislation
125. The winds that howl across the Great Plains not only blow away valuable topsoil, thereby reducing the
potential crop yield of a tract of land, and also damage or destroy young plants.
(A) and also damage or destroy
(B) as well as damaging or destroying
(C) but they also cause damage or destroy
(D) but also damage or destroy
(E) but also causing damage or destroying
126. More than thirty years ago Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner, reported that genes can
"jump," as pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another.
(A) as pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another
(B) like pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another
(C) as pearls do that move mysteriously from one necklace to others
(D) like pearls do that move mysteriously from one necklace to others
(E) as do pearls that move mysteriously from one necklace to some other one
127. In theory, international civil servants at the United Nations are prohibited from continuing to draw salaries
from their own governments; in practice, however, some governments merely substitute living allowances
for their employees' paychecks. assigned by them to the United Nations.
(A) for their employees' paychecks, assigned by them
(B) for the paychecks of their employees who have been assigned
(C) for the paychecks of their employees, having been assigned
(D) in place of their employees' paychecks, for those of them assigned
(E) in place of the paychecks of their employees to have been assigned by them
128. New hardy varieties of rice show promise of producing high yields without the costly requirements of
irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer by earlier high-yielding varieties.
(A) requirements of irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer by earlier high-yielding varieties
(B) requirements by earlier high-yielding varieties of application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation
(C) requirements for application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation of earlier high-yielding varieties
(D) application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation that was required by earlier high-yielding varieties
(E) irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer that were required by earlier high-yielding varieties
129. In an effort to reduce their inventories, Italian vintners have cut prices; their wines have been priced to sell.
and they are.
(A) have been priced to sell, and they are
(B) are priced to sell, and they have
(C) are priced to sell, and they do
(D) are being priced to sell, and have
(E) had been priced to sell, and they have
130. In a 5-to-4 decision, the Supreme Court ruled that two upstate New York counties owed restitution to three
tribes of Oneida Indians for the unlawful seizure of their ancestral lands in the eighteenth century.
(A) that two upstate New York counties owed restitution to three tribes of Oneida Indians for the unlawful
(B) that two upstate New York counties owed restitution to three tribes of Oneida Indians because of their
unlawful seizure of
(C) two upstate New York counties to owe restitution to three tribes of Oneida Indians for their unlawful
(D) on two upstate New York counties that owed restitution to three tribes of Oneida Indians because they
(E) on the restitution that two upstate New York counties owed to three tribes of Oneida Indians for the
unlawful seizure of
131. The Commerce Department announced that the economy grew during the second quarter at a 7.5
percent annual rate, while inflation eased when it might have been expected for it to rise.
(A) it might have been expected for it to rise
(B) it might have been expected to rise
(C) it might have been expected that it should rise
(D) its rise might have been expected
(E) there might have been an expectation it would rise
132. According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, companies in the
United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, about
equivalent to the enrollment of the nation's four-year colleges and universities.
(A) equivalent to the enrollment of
(B) the equivalent of those enrolled in
(C) equal to those who are enrolled in
(D) as many as the enrollment of
(E) as many as are enrolled in
133. In Holland, a larger percentage of the gross national product is spent on defense of their coasts from rising
seas than is spent on military defense in the United States.
(A) In Holland, a larger percentage of the gross national product is spent on defense of their coasts from
rising seas than is spent on military defense in the United States.
(B) In Holland they spend a larger percentage of their gross national product on defending their coasts
from rising seas than the United States does on military defense.
(C) A larger percentage of Holland's gross national product is spent on defending their coasts from rising
seas than the United States spends on military defense.
(D) Holland spends a larger percentage of its gross national product defending its coasts from rising seas
than the military defense spending of the United States.
(E) Holland spends a larger percentage of its gross national product on defending its coasts from rising
seas than the United States does on military defense.
134. Canadian scientists have calculated that one human being should be struck every nine years by a meteorite,
while each year sixteen buildings can be expected to sustain damage from such objects.
(A) one human being should be struck every nine years by a meteorite
(B) a human being should be struck by a meteorite once in every nine years
(C) a meteorite will strike one human being once in every nine years
(D) every nine years a human being will be struck by a meteorite
(E) every nine years a human being should be struck by a meteorite
135. Intar, the oldest Hispanic theater company in New York, has moved away from the Spanish classics and
now it draws on the works both of contemporary Hispanic authors who live abroad and of those in the
(A) now it draws on the works both of contemporary Hispanic authors who live abroad and of
(B) now draws on the works of contemporary Hispanic authors, both those who live abroad and those who
(C) it draws on the works of contemporary Hispanic authors now, both those living abroad and who live
(D) draws now on the works both of contemporary Hispanic authors living abroad and who are
(E) draws on the works now of both contemporary Hispanic authors living abroad and those
136. Although schistosomiasis is not often fatal, it is so debilitating that it has become an economic drain on
many developing countries.
(A) it is so debilitating that it has become an economic
(B) it is of such debilitation, it has become an economical
(C) so debilitating is it as to become an economic
(D) such is its debilitation, it becomes an economical
(E) there is so much debilitation that it has become an economical
137. In 1982 the median income for married-couple families with a wage-earning wife was $9,000 more than a
family where the husband only was employed.
(A) a family where the husband only
(B) of a family where only the husband
(C) that for families in which only the husband
(D) a family in which only the husband
(E) those of families in which the husband only
138. Senator Lasker has proposed legislation requiring that employers should retain all older workers indefinitely
or show just cause for dismissal.
(A) that employers should retain all older workers
(B) that all older workers be retained by employers
(C) the retaining by employers of all older workers
(D) employers' retention of all older workers
(E) employers to retain all older workers
139. The extraordinary diary of William Lyon Mackenzie King, prime minister of Canada for over twenty years,
revealed that this most bland and circumspect of men was a mystic guided in both public and private life by
omens, messages received at seances, and signs from heaven.
(A) that this most bland and circumspect of men was a mystic guided in both public and
(B) that this most bland and circumspect of men was a mystic and also guided both in public as well as
(C) this most bland and circumspect of men was a mystic and that he was guided in both public and
(D) this most bland and circumspect of men was a mystic and that he was guided in both public as well as
(E) this most bland and circumspect of men to have been a mystic and that he guided himself both in
public as well as
140. Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through
the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.
(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is
(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are
141. Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is the same, all patients receiving
hearts or other organs must take antirejection drugs for the rest of their lives.
(A) Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is the same
(B) Besides transplants involving identical twins with the same genetic endowment
(C) Unless the transplant involves identical twins who have the same genetic endowment
(D) Aside from a transplant between identical twins with the same genetic endowment
(E) Other than transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is the same
142. In one of the most stunning reversals in the history of marketing, the Coca-Cola company in July 1985
yielded to thousands of irate consumers demanding that it should bring back the original Coke formula.
(A) demanding that it should
(B) demanding it to
(C) and their demand to
(D) who demanded that it
(E) who demanded it to
143. Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australian egg-laying mammals of today are a
branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution rather than developing independently from a common
ancestor of mammals more than 220 million years ago.
(A) rather than developing independently from
(B) rather than a type that developed independently from
(C) rather than a type whose development was independent of
(D) instead of developing independently from
(E) instead of a development that was independent of
144. Efforts to equalize the funds available to school districts, a major goal of education reformers and many
states in the 1970's, has not significantly reduced the gaps existing between the richest and poorest
(A) has not significantly reduced the gaps existing
(B) has not been significant in reducing the gap that exists
(C) has not made a significant reduction in the gap that exists
(D) have not significantly reduced the gap that exists
(E) have not been significant in a reduction of the gaps existing
145. Most state constitutions now mandate that the state budget be balanced each year.
(A) mandate that the state budget be balanced
(B) mandate the state budget to be balanced
(C) mandate that the state budget will be balanced
(D) have a mandate for a balanced state budget
(E) have a mandate to balance the state budget
146. A patient accusing a doctor of malpractice will find it difficult to prove damage if there is a lack of some other
doctor to testify about proper medical procedures.
(A) if there is a lack of some other doctor to testify
(B) unless there will be another doctor to testify
(C) without another doctor's testimony
(D) should there be no testimony from some other doctor
(E) lacking another doctor to testify
147. Samuel Sewall viewed marriage, as other seventeenth-century colonists, like a property arrangement rather
than an emotional bond based on romantic love.
(A) Samuel Sewall viewed marriage, as other seventeenth-century colonists, like a property arrangement
(B) As did other seventeenth-century colonists, Samuel Sewall viewed marriage to be a property
arrangement rather than viewing it as
(C) Samuel Sewall viewed marriage to be a property arrangement, like other seventeenth-century
colonists, rather than viewing it as
(D) Marriage to Samuel Sewall, like other seventeenth-century colonists, was viewed as a property
arrangement rather than
(E) Samuel Sewall, like other seventeenth-century colonists, viewed marriage as a property arrangement
148. Under the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Environmental Protection Agency is required either to approve
individual state plans for controlling the discharge of wastes into underground water or that they enforce
their own plan for states without adequate regulations.
(A) that they enforce their
(B) for enforcing their
(C) they should enforce their
(D) it should enforce its
(E) to enforce its
149. Last year, land values in most parts of the pinelands rose almost so fast. and in some parts even faster than
what they did outside the pinelands.
(A) so fast, and in some parts even faster than what they did
(B) so fast, and in some parts even faster than, those
(C) as fast, and in some parts even faster than, those
(D) as fast as, and in some parts even faster than, those
(E) as fast as, and in some parts even faster than what they did
150. In the mid-1960's a newly installed radar warning system mistook the rising of the moon as a massive
missile attack by the Soviets.
(A) rising of the moon as a massive missile attack by the Soviets
(B) rising of the moon for a massive Soviet missile attack
(C) moon rising to a massive missile attack by the Soviets
(D) moon as it was rising for a massive Soviet missile attack
(E) rise of the moon as a massive Soviet missile attack
151. If Dr. Wade was right, any apparent connection of the eating of highly processed foods and excelling at
sports is purely coincidental.
(A) If Dr. Wade was right, any apparent connection of the eating of
(B) Should Dr. Wade be right, any apparent connection of eating
(C) If Dr. Wade is right, any connection that is apparent between eating of
(D) If Dr. Wade is right, any apparent connection between eating
(E) Should Dr. Wade have been right, any connection apparent between eating
152. When the technique known as gene-splicing was invented in the early 1970's, it was feared that scientists
might inadvertently create an "Andromeda strain," a microbe never before seen on Earth that might escape
from the laboratory and it would kill vast numbers of humans who would have no natural defenses against it.
(A) it would kill vast numbers of humans who would have no natural defenses against it
(B) it might kill vast numbers of humans with no natural defenses against it
(C) kill vast numbers of humans who would have no natural defenses against it
(D) kill vast numbers of humans who have no natural defenses against them
(E) kill vast numbers of humans with no natural defenses against them
153. A recording system was so secretly installed and operated in the Kennedy Oval Office that even Theodore
C. Sorensen, the White House counsel, did not know it existed.
(A) A recording system was so secretly installed and operated in the Kennedy Oval Office that
(B) So secret was a recording system installation and operation in the Kennedy Oval Office
(C) It was so secret that a recording system was installed and operated in the Kennedy Oval Office
(D) A recording system that was so secretly installed and operated in the Kennedy Oval Office
(E) Installed and operated so secretly in the Kennedy Oval Office was a recording system that
154. In 1791 Robert Carter III, one of the wealthiest plantation owners in Virginia, stunned his family, friends, and
neighbors by filing a deed of emancipation, setting free the more than 500 slaves who were legally
considered his property.
(A) setting free the more than 500 slaves who were legally considered
(B) setting free more than the 500 slaves legally considered as
(C) and set free more than 500 slaves, who were legally considered as
(D) and set free more than the 500 slaves who were legally considered
(E) and he set free the more than 500 slaves who were legally considered as
155. Federal authorities involved in the investigation have found the local witnesses are difficult to locate, reti-
cent. and are suspicious of strangers.
(A) the local witnesses are difficult to locate, reticent, and are
(B) local witnesses to be difficult to locate, reticent, and are
(C) that local witnesses are difficult to locate, reticent, and
(D) local witnesses are difficult to locate and reticent, and they are
(E) that local witnesses are difficult to locate and reticent, and they are
156. Dirt roads may evoke the bucolic simplicity of another century, but financially strained townships point out
that dirt roads cost twice as much as maintaining paved roads.
(A) dirt roads cost twice as much as maintaining paved roads
(B) dirt roads cost twice as much to maintain as paved roads do
(C) maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as paved roads do
(D) maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as it does for paved roads
(E) to maintain dirt roads costs twice as much as for paved roads
157. A number of linguists contend that all of the thousands of languages spoken by the world's five billion
people can be traced back to a common root language.
(A) that all of the thousands of languages spoken by the world's five billion people can be traced
(B) that the world's five billion people speak thousands of languages of which all can be traced
(C) the world's five billion people speak thousands of languages which are all traceable
(D) all of the thousands of languages spoken by the world's five billion people to be traceable
(E) the ability to trace all of the thousands of languages that are spoken by the world's five billion people
158. With only 5 percent of the world's population, United States citizens consume 28 percent of its
nonrenewable resources, drive more than one-third of its automobiles, and use 21 times more water per
capita than Europeans do.
(D) Despite having
(E) Although accounting for
159. While depressed property values can hurt some large investors, they are potentially devastating for
home-owners. whose equity--in many cases representing a life's savings--can plunge or even disappear.
(A) they are potentially devastating for homeowners, whose
(B) they can potentially devastate homeowners in that their
(C) for homeowners they are potentially devastating, because their
(D) for homeowners, it is potentially devastating in that their
(E) it can potentially devastate homeowners, whose
160. While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by attempting to change
people's attitudes toward pirating, others by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the
incentive for pirating, and still others by calling for the prosecution of those who copy software illegally.
(A) by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
(B) by suggesting the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others call
(C) suggest the reduction of software prices for decreasing the incentive for pirating, and still others call
(D) suggest the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
(E) suggest reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others are calling
161. A wildlife expert predicts that the reintroduction of the caribou into northern Minnesota would tail if the
density of the timber wolf population in that region is more numerous than one wolf for every 39 square
(A) would fail if the density of the timber wolf population in that region is more numerous than
(B) would fail provided the density of the timber wolf population in that region is more than
(C) should fail if the timber wolf density in that region was greater than
(D) will fail if the density of the timber wolf population in that region is greater than
(E) will fail if the timber wolf density in that region were more numerous than
162. Concerned at the increase in accident fatalities,
Tennessee adopted a child-passenger protection law requiring the parents of children under four years of
age to be restrained in a child safety seat.
(A) the parents of children under four years of age to be restrained in a child safety seat
(B) the restraint of parents of children under four years of age in a child safety seat
(C) that parents restrain children under four years of age in a child safety seat
(D) that children be restrained under four years of age in a child safety seat by their parents
(E) children to be restrained under four years of age by their parents in a child safety seat
163. Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep
fifteen hours a day. moving infrequently enough that two species of algae grow on its coat and between its
(A) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep fifteen hours a day, moving infrequently
(B) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs, they sleep fifteen hours a day, and with such infrequent
(C) sloths use their long rubbery limbs to hang from trees, sleep fifteen hours a day, and move so
(D) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeping fifteen hours a day and moving so
(E) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeps fifteen hours a day, and it moves
164. The commission proposed that funding for the park's development, which could be open to the public early
next year. is obtained through a local bond issue.
(A) that funding for the park's development, which could be open to the public early next year, is
(B) that funding for development of the park, which could be open to the public early next year, be
(C) funding for the development of the park, perhaps open to the public early next year, to be
(D) funds for the park's development, perhaps open to the public early next year, be
(E) development funding for the park, which could be open to the public early next year, is to be
165. At Shiprock, New Mexico, a perennially powerful girls' high school basketball team has become a path to
college for some and a source of pride for a community where the household incomes of 49 percent of
them are below the poverty level.
(A) where the household incomes of 49 percent of them are
(B) where they have 49 percent of the household incomes
(C) where 49 percent of the household incomes are
(D) which has 49 percent of the household incomes
(E) in which 49 percent of them have household incomes
166. The prime lending rate is a key rate in the economy: not only are the interest rates on most loans to small
and medium-sized businesses tied to the prime, but also on a growing number of consumer loans,
including home equity loans.
(A) not only are the interest rates on most loans to small and medium-sized businesses tied to the prime,
but also on
(B) tied to the prime are the interest rates not only on most loans to small and medium-sized businesses,
but also on
(C) the interest rates not only on most loans to small and medium-sized businesses are tied to the prime,
(D) not only the interest rates on most loans to small and medium-sized businesses are tied to the prime,
but also on
(E) the interest rates are tied to the prime, not only on most loans to small and medium-sized businesses,
167. Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes and so were probably without language, a
shortcoming that may explain why they were supplanted by our own species.
(A) Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes
(B) Neanderthals had a vocal tract resembling an ape's
(C) The vocal tracts of Neanderthals resembled an ape's
(D) The Neanderthal's vocal tracts resembled the apes’
(E) The vocal tracts of the Neanderthals resembled those of the apes
168. Today, because of improvements in agricultural technology, the same amount of acreage produces double
the apples that it has in 1910.
(A) double the apples that it has
(B) twice as many apples as it did
(C) as much as twice the apples it has
(D) two times as many apples as there were
(E) a doubling of the apples that it did
169. Seismologists studying the earthquake that struck northern California in October 1989 are still investigating
some of its mysteries: the unexpected power of the seismic waves, the upward thrust that threw one man
straight into the air. and the strange electromagnetic signals detected hours before the temblor.
(A) the upward thrust that threw one man straight into the air, and the strange electromagnetic signals
detected hours before the temblor
(B) the upward thrust that threw one man straight into the air, and strange electromagnetic signals were
detected hours before the temblor
(C) the upward thrust threw one man straight into the air, and hours before the temblor strange
electromagnetic signals were detected
(D) one man was thrown straight into the air by the upward thrust, and hours before the temblor strange
electromagnetic signals were detected
(E) one man who was thrown straight into the air by the upward thrust, and strange electromagnetic
signals that were detected hours before the temblor
170. Although early soap operas were first aired on evening radio in the 1920's, they had moved to the
daytime hours of the 1930's when the evening schedule became crowded with comedians and variety
(A) were first aired on evening radio in the 1920's, they had moved to the daytime hours of the 1930's
(B) were first aired on evening radio in the 1920's, they were moved to the daytime hours in the 1930's
(C) were aired first on evening radio in the 1920's, moving to the daytime hours in the 1930's
(D) were aired first in the evening on 1920's radio, they moved to the daytime hours of the 1930's
(E) aired on evening radio first in the 1920's, they were moved to the 1930's in the daytime hours
171. In 1527 King Henry VIII sought to have his marriage to Queen Catherine annulled so as to marry Anne
(A) so as to marry
(B) and so could be married to
(C) to be married to
(D) so that he could marry
(E) in order that he would marry
172. The energy source on Voyager 2 is not a nuclear reactor, in which atoms are actively broken apart; rather a
kind of nuclear battery that uses natural radioactive decay to produce power.
(A) apart; rather
(B) apart, but rather
(C) apart, but rather that of
(D) apart, but that of
(E) apart; it is that of
173. Joan of Arc, a young Frenchwoman who claimed to be divinely inspired, turned the tide of English victories
in her country by liberating the city of Orleans and she persuaded Charles VII of France to claim his throne.
(A) she persuaded Charles VII of France to claim his throne
(B) persuaded Charles VII of France in claiming his throne
(C) persuading that the throne be claimed by Charles VII of France
(D) persuaded Charles VII of France to claim his throne
(E) persuading that Charles VII of France should claim the throne
174. A letter by Mark Twain, written in the same year as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn were published,
reveals that Twain provided financial assistance to one of the first Black students at Yale Law School.
(A) A letter by Mark Twain, written in the same year as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn were
(B) A letter by Mark Twain, written in the same year of publication as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,
(C) A letter by Mark Twain, written in the same year that The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was
(D) Mark Twain wrote a letter in the same year as he published The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn that
(E) Mark Twain wrote a letter in the same year of publication as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn that
175. Two new studies indicate that many people become obese more due to the fact that their bodies burn
calories too slowly than overeating.
(A) due to the fact that their bodies burn calories too slowly than overeating
(B) due to their bodies burning calories too slowly than to eating too much
(C) because their bodies bum calories too slowly than that they are overeaters
(D) because their bodies bum calories too slowly than because they eat too much
(E) because of their bodies burning calories too slowly than because of their eating too much
176. As a result of the ground-breaking work of Barbara McClintock, many scientists now believe that all of the
information encoded in 50.000 to 100.000 of the different genes found in a human cell are contained in
merely three percent of the cell's DNA.
(A) 50,000 to 100,000 of the different genes found in a human cell are contained in merely
(B) 50,000 to 100,000 of the human cell's different genes are contained in a mere
(C) the 50,000 to 100,000 different genes found in human cells are contained in merely
(D) 50,000 to 100,000 of human cells' different genes is contained in merely
(E) the 50,000 to 100,000 different genes found in a human cell is contained in a mere
177. So poorly educated and trained are many young recruits to the United States work force that many business
executives fear this country will lose its economic preeminence.
(A) So poorly educated and trained are many young recruits to the United States work force that
(B) As poorly educated and trained as many young recruits to the United States work force are,
(C) Because of many young recruits to the United States work force who are so poorly educated and
(D) That many young recruits to the United States work force are so poorly educated and trained is why
(E) Many young recruits to the United States work force who are so poorly educated and trained explains
178. In the last few years, the number of convicted criminals given community service sentences. which allow
the criminals to remain unconfined while they perform specific jobs benefiting the public, have risen
(A) sentences, which allow the criminals to remain unconfined while they perform specific jobs benefiting
the public, have
(B) sentences, performing specific jobs that benefit the public while being allowed to remain unconfined,
(C) sentences, performing specific jobs beneficial to the public while they are allowed to remain unconfined,
(D) sentences which allow them to remain unconfined in their performing of specific jobs beneficial to the
(E) sentences allowing them to remain unconfined while performing specific jobs that
179. During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as "wilderness" by the
newcomers, Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land. were a help in the rescuing of
many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even death.
(A) Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of
(B) Native Americans knew the ecology and the land intimately and this enabled them to help in the rescue
(C) Native Americans, with their intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, helped to rescue
(D) having intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land. Native Americans helped the rescue of
(E) knowing intimately the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped to rescue
180. Quasars are so distant that their light has taken billions of years to reach the Earth; consequently, we see
them as they were during the formation of the universe.
(A) we see them as they were during
(B) we see them as they had been during
(C) we see them as if during
(D) they appear to us as they did in
(E) they appear to us as though in
181. Because of the enormous research and
development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid
innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.
(A) to survive
(B) of firms to survive
(C) for surviving
(D) for survival
(E) for firms' survival
182. Consumers may not think of household cleaning products to be hazardous substances, but many of them
can be harmful to health, especially if they are used improperly.
(A) Consumers may not think of household cleaning products to be
(B) Consumers may not think of household cleaning products being
(C) A consumer may not think of their household cleaning products being
(D) A consumer may not think of household cleaning products as
(E) Household cleaning products may not be thought of, by consumers, as
183. Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered chalice, which dates from the eighth century,
was probably buried to keep from being stolen by invaders.
(A) to keep from
(B) to keep it from
(C) to avoid
(D) in order that it would avoid
(E) in order to keep from
184. As measured by the Commerce Department, corporate profits peaked in the fourth quarter of 1988 and
have slipped since then, as many companies have been unable to pass on higher
(A) and have slipped since then, as many companies have been unable to pass on higher costs
(B) and have slipped since then, the reason being because many companies have been unable to pass on
(C) and slipped since then, many companies being unable to pass on higher costs
(D) but, many companies unable to pass on higher costs, they have slipped since then
(E) yet are slipping since then, because many companies were unable to pass on higher costs
185. The recent surge in the number of airplane flights has clogged the nation's air-traffic control system, to lead
to 55 percent more delays at airports, and prompts fears among some officials that safety is being
(A) to lead to 55 percent more delays at airports, and prompts
(B) leading to 55 percent more delay at airports and prompting
(C) to lead to a 55 percent increase in delay at airports and prompt
(D) to lead to an increase of 55 percent in delays at airports, and prompted
(E) leading to a 55-percent increase in delays at airports and prompting
186. Judge Bonham denied a motion to allow members of the jury to go home at the end of each day instead of
to confine them to a hotel.
(A) to allow members of the jury to go home at the end of each day instead of to confine them to
(B) that would have allowed members of the jury to go home at the end of each day instead of confined to
(C) under which members of the jury are allowed to go home at the end of each day instead of confining
(D) that would allow members of the jury to go home at the end of each day rather than confinement in
(E) to allow members of the jury to go home at the end of each day rather than be confined to
187. In one of the bloodiest battles of the Civil War, fought at Sharpsburg, Maryland, on September 17, 1862,
four times as many Americans were killed as would later be killed on the beaches of Normandy during
(A) Americans were killed as
(B) Americans were killed than
(C) Americans were killed than those who
(D) more Americans were killed as there
(E) more Americans were killed as those who
188. As a result of medical advances, many people that might at one time have died as children of such
infections as diphtheria, pneumonia, or rheumatic fever now live well into old age.
(A) that might at one time have died as children
(B) who might once have died in childhood
(C) that as children might once have died
(D) who in childhood might have at one time died
(E) who, when they were children, might at one time have died
189. Proponents of artificial intelligence say they will be able to make computers that can understand English
and other human languages, recognize objects, and reason as an expert does-computers that will be used
to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to authorize a loan, or other purposes such as
(A) as an expert does--computers that will be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether
to authorize a loan, or other purposes such as these
(B) as an expert does, which may be used for purposes such as diagnosing equipment breakdowns or
deciding whether to authorize a loan
(C) like an expert--computers that will be used for such purposes as diagnosing equipment breakdowns or
deciding whether to authorize a loan
(D) like an expert, the use of which would be for purposes like the diagnosis of equipment breakdowns or
the decision whether or not a loan should be authorized
(E) like an expert, to be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to authorize a loan or
not, or the like
190. Manifestations of Islamic political militancy in the first period of religious reformism were the rise of the
Wahhabis in Arabia, the Sanusi in Cyrenaica. the Fulani in Nigeria, the Mahdi in the Sudan, and the
victory of the Usuli "mujtahids" in Shiite Iran and Iraq.
(A) Manifestations of Islamic political militancy in the first period of religious reformism were the rise of the
Wahhabis in Arabia, the Sanusi in Cyrenaica, the Fulani in Nigeria, the Mahdi in the Sudan, and
(B) Manifestations of Islamic political militancy in the first period of religious reformism were shown in the
rise of the Wahhabis in Arabia, the Sanusi in Cyrenaica, the Fulani in Nigeria, the Mahdi in the Sudan,
(C) In the first period of religious reformism, manifestations of Islamic political militancy were the rise of the
Wahhabis in Arabia, of the Sanusi in Cyrenaica, the Fulani in Nigeria, the Mahdi in the Sudan, and
(D) In the first period of religious reformism, manifestations of Islamic political militancy were shown in the
rise of the Wahhabis in Arabia, the Sanusi in Cyrenaica, the Fulani in Nigeria, the Mahdi in the Sudan,
(E) In the first period of religious reformism, Islamic political militancy was manifested in the rise of the
Wahhabis in Arabia, the Sanusi in Cyrenaica, the Fulani in Nigeria, and the Mahdi in the Sudan, and in
191. Lawmakers are examining measures that would require banks to disclose all fees and account
requirements in writing, provide free cashing of government checks, and to create basic savings accounts
to carry minimal fees and require minimal initial deposits.
(A) provide free cashing of government checks, and to create basic savings accounts to carry
(B) provide free cashing of government checks, and creating basic savings accounts carrying
(C) to provide free cashing of government checks, and creating basic savings accounts that carry
(D) to provide free cashing of government checks, creating basic savings accounts to carry
(E) to provide free cashing of government checks, and to create basic savings accounts that carry
192. Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the four thousand Acadians who migrated there in
1755; their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English. Spanish.
and Italian words.
(A) to which has been added English, Spanish, and Italian words
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added
(D) with English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it
(E) and, in addition, English, Spanish, and Italian words are added
193. Unlike the United States, where farmers can usually depend on rain or snow all year long. the rains in most
parts of Sri Lanka are concentrated in the monsoon months, June to September, and the skies are
generally clear for the rest of the year.
(A) Unlike the United States, where farmers can usually depend on rain or snow all year long, the rains in
most parts of Sri Lanka
(B) Unlike the United States farmers who can usually depend on rain or snow all year long, the rains in
most parts of Sri Lanka
(C) Unlike those of the United States, where farmers can usually depend on rain or snow all year long,
most parts of Sri Lanka's rains
(D) In comparison with the United States, whose farmers can usually depend on rain or snow all year long,
the rains in most parts of Sri Lanka
(E) In the United States, farmers can usually depend on rain or snow all year long, but in most parts of Sri
Lanka the rains
194. Presenters at the seminar, one who is blind, will
demonstrate adaptive equipment that allows visually impaired people to use computers.
(A) one who
(B) one of them who
(C) and one of them who
(D) one of whom
(E) one of which
195. Dr. Tonegawa won the Nobel Prize for discovering how the body can constantly change its genes to fashion
a seeming unlimited number of antibodies. each specifically targeted at an invading microbe or foreign
(A) seeming unlimited number of antibodies, each specifically targeted at
(B) seeming unlimited number of antibodies, each targeted specifically to
(C) seeming unlimited number of antibodies, all specifically targeted at
(D) seemingly unlimited number of antibodies, all of them targeted specifically to
(E) seemingly unlimited number of antibodies, each targeted specifically at
196. It is possible that Native Americans originally have migrated to the Western Hemisphere over a bridge of
land that once existed between Siberia and Alaska.
(A) have migrated to the Western Hemisphere over a bridge of land that once existed
(B) were migrating to the Western Hemisphere over a bridge of land that existed once
(C) migrated over a bridge of land to the Western Hemisphere that once existed
(D) migrated to the Western Hemisphere over a bridge of land that once existed
(E) were migrating to the Western Hemisphere over a bridge of land existing once
197. In the fall of 1985, only 10 percent of the women entering college planned to major in education, while 28
percent chose business, making it the most popular major for women as well as for men.
(A) as well as for men
(B) as well as the men
(C) and men too
(D) and men as well
(E) and also men
198. Although Napoleon's army entered Russia with far more supplies than they had in their previous
campaigns, it had provisions for only twenty-four days.
(A) they had in their previous campaigns
(B) their previous campaigns had had
(C) they had for any previous campaign
(D) in their previous campaigns
(E) for any previous campaign
199. Because the Earth's crust is more solid there and thus better able to transmit shock waves, an earthquake
of a given magnitude typically devastates an area 100 times greater in the eastern United States than it
does in the West.
(A) of a given magnitude typically devastates an area 100 times greater in the eastern United States than it
does in the West
(B) of a given magnitude will typically devastate 100 times the area if it occurs in the eastern United States
instead of the West
(C) will typically devastate 100 times the area in the eastern United States than one of comparable
magnitude occurring in the West
(D) in the eastern United States will typically devastate an area 100 times greater than will a quake of
comparable magnitude occurring in the West
(E) that occurs in the eastern United States will typically devastate 100 times more area than if it occurred
with comparable magnitude in the West
200. Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used
repeatedly in the same place: one reason is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations
of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are
free of such chemicals.
(A) Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place; one reason is
suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in
soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals.
(B) If used repeatedly in the same place, one reason that certain pesticides can become ineffective is
suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in
soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals.
(C) If used repeatedly in the same place, one reason certain pesticides can become ineffective is
suggested by the finding that much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes are found in
soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than those that are free of such chemicals.
(D) The finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a
relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals is suggestive of one
reason, if used repeatedly in the same place, certain pesticides can become ineffective.
(E) The finding of much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long
history of pesticide use than in those that are free of such chemicals suggests one reason certain
pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place.
201. One view of the economy contends that a large drop in oil prices should eventually lead to lowering interest
rates, as well as lowering fears about inflation, a rally in stocks and bonds, and a weakening of the dollar.
(A) lowering interest rates, as well as lowering fears about inflation,
(B) a lowering of interest rates and of fears about inflation,
(C) a lowering of interest rates, along with fears about inflation,
(D) interest rates being lowered, along with fears about inflation,
(E) interest rates and fears about inflation being lowered, with
202. After the Civil War, contemporaries of Harriet
Tubman's maintained that she has all of the qualities of a great leader: coolness in the face of danger, an
excellent sense of strategy, and an ability to plan in minute detail.
(A) Tubman's maintained that she has
(B) Tubman's maintain that she had
(C) Tubman's have maintained that she had
(D) Tubman maintained that she had
(E) Tubman had maintained that she has
203. From 1982 to 1987 sales of new small boats increased between five and ten percent annually.
(A) From 1982 to 1987 sales of new small boats increased between five and ten percent annually.
(B) Five to ten percent is the annual increase in sales of new small boats in the years 1982 to 1987.
(C) Sales of new small boats have increased annually five and ten percent in the years 1982 to 1987.
(D) Annually an increase of five to ten percent has occurred between 1982 and 1987 in the sales of new
(E) Occurring from 1982 to 1987 was an annual increase of five and ten percent in the sales of new small
204. In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should
acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.
(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers
205. The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produce ripples in the air flowing over
them; the resulting flow pattern, with crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms
them is moving rapidly, are known as "standing waves."
(A) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are
(B) crests and troughs that remain stationary although they are formed by rapidly moving air, are
(C) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, is
(D) stationary crests and troughs although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are
(E) stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air, is
206. Like Auden. the language of James Merrill is chatty, arch, and conversational--given to complex syntactic
flights as well as to prosaic free-verse strolls.
(A) Like Auden, the language of James Merrill
(B) Like Auden, James Merrill's language
(C) Like Auden's, James Merrill's language
(D) As with Auden, James Merrill's language
(E) As is Auden's the language of James Merrill
207. In the textbook publishing business, the second quarter is historically weak, because revenues are low and
marketing expenses are high as companies prepare for the coming school year.
(A) low and marketing expenses are high as companies prepare
(B) low and their marketing expenses are high as they prepare
(C) low with higher marketing expenses in preparation
(D) low, while marketing expenses are higher to prepare
(E) low, while their marketing expenses are higher in preparation
208. Teratomas are unusual forms of cancer because they are composed of tissues such as tooth and bone not
normally found in the organ in which the tumor appears.
(A) because they are composed of tissues such as tooth and bone
(B) because they are composed of tissues like tooth and bone that are
(C) because they are composed of tissues, like tooth and bone, tissues
(D) in that their composition, tissues such as tooth and bone, is
(E) in that they are composed of tissues such as tooth and bone, tissues
209. The Senate approved immigration legislation that would grant permanent residency to millions of aliens
currently residing here and if employers hired illegal aliens they would be penalized.
(A) if employers hired illegal aliens they would be penalized
(B) hiring illegal aliens would be a penalty for employers
(C) penalize employers who hire illegal aliens
(D) penalizing employers hiring illegal aliens
(E) employers to be penalized for hiring illegal aliens
210. Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant
fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized
spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.
(D) it extended
(E) is extending
211. The period when the great painted caves at Lascaux and Altamira were occupied by Upper Paleolithic
people has been established by carbon-14 dating, but what is much more difficult to determine are the
reason for their decoration, the use to which primitive people put the caves, and the meaning of the
magnificently depicted animals.
(A) has been established by carbon-14 dating, but what is much more difficult to determine are
(B) has been established by carbon-14 dating, but what is much more difficult to determine is
(C) have been established by carbon-14 dating, but what is much more difficult to determine is
(D) have been established by carbon-14 dating, but what is much more difficult to determine are
(E) are established by carbon-14 dating, but that which is much more difficult to determine is
212. The Baldrick Manufacturing Company has for
several years followed a policy aimed at decreasing operating costs and improving the efficiency of its
(A) aimed at decreasing operating costs and improving
(B) aimed at the decreasing of operating costs and to improve
(C) aiming at the decreasing of operating costs and improving
(D) the aim of which is the decreasing of operating costs and improving
(E) with the aim to decrease operating costs and to improve
213. The Federalist papers, a strong defense of the United States Constitution and important as a body of work
in political science as well represents the handiwork of three different authors.
(A) and important as a body of work in political science as well, represents
(B) as well as an important body of work in political science, represent
(C) and also a body of work of importance in political science is representing
(D) an important body of work in political science and has been representative of
(E) and as political science an important body of work too, represent
214. Although the term "psychopath" is popularly applied to an especially brutal criminal, in psychology it is
someone who is apparently incapable of feeling compassion or the pangs of conscience.
(A) it is someone who is
(B) it is a person
(C) they are people who are
(D) it refers to someone who is
(E) it is in reference to people
215. Parliament did not accord full refugee benefits to twelve of the recent immigrants because it believed that to
do it rewards them for entering the country illegally.
(A) to do it rewards
(B) doing it rewards
(C) to do this would reward
(D) doing so would reward
(E) to do it would reward
216. Many policy experts say that shifting a portion of health-benefit costs back to the workers helps to control
the employer's costs, but also helps to limit medical spending by making patients more careful consumers.
(A) helps to control the employer's costs, but also helps
(B) helps the control of the employer's costs, and also
(C) not only helps to control the employer's costs, but also helps
(D) helps to control not only the employer's costs, but
(E) not only helps to control the employer's costs, and also helps
217. The plot of The Bostonians centers on the rivalry between Olive Chancellor, an active feminist, with her
charming and cynical cousin. Basil Ransom, when they find themselves drawn to the same radiant young
woman whose talent for public speaking has won her an ardent following.
(A) rivalry between Olive Chancellor, an active feminist, with her charming and cynical cousin, Basil
(B) rivals Olive Chancellor, an active feminist, against her charming and cynical cousin, Basil Ransom
(C) rivalry that develops between Olive Chancellor, an active feminist, and Basil Ransom, her charming
and cynical cousin
(D) developing rivalry between Olive Chancellor, an active feminist, with Basil Ransom, her charming and
(E) active feminist. Olive Chancellor, and the rivalry with her charming and cynical cousin Basil Ransom
218. Despite protests from some waste-disposal companies, state health officials have ordered the levels of
bacteria in seawater at popular beaches to be measured and that the results be published.
(A) the levels of bacteria in seawater at popular beaches to be measured and that the results be
(B) that seawater at popular beaches should be measured for their levels of bacteria, with the results being
(C) the measure of levels of bacteria in seawater at popular beaches and the results to be
(D) seawater measured at popular beaches for levels of bacteria, with their results
(E) that the levels of bacteria in seawater at popular beaches be measured and the results
219. While larger banks can afford to maintain their own data-processing operations, many smaller regional and
community banks are finding that the cost associated with upgrading data-processing equipment and with
the development and maintenance of new products and technical staff are prohibitive.
(A) cost associated with
(B) costs associated with
(C) costs arising from
(D) cost of
(E) costs of
220. For almost a hundred years after having its beginning in 1788, England exiled some 160,000 criminals to
(A) For almost a hundred years after having its beginning in 1788,
(B) Beginning in 1788 for a period of a hundred years,
(C) Beginning a period of almost a hundred years, in 1788
(D) During a hundred years, a period beginning in 1788,
(E) Over a period of a hundred years beginning in 1788,
221. Eating saltwater fish may significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks and also aid for sufferers of
rheumatoid arthritis and asthma, according to three research studies published in the New England Journal
(A) significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks and also aid for
(B) be significant in reducing the risk of heart attacks and aid for
(C) significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks and aid
(D) cause a significant reduction in the risk of heart attacks and aid to
(E) significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks as well as aiding
222. By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligence Agency broad discretionary
powers enabling it to withhold from the public the identities of its sources of intelligence information.
(A) enabling it to withhold from the public
(B) for it to withhold from the public
(C) for withholding disclosure to the public of
(D) that enable them to withhold from public disclosure
(E) that they can withhold public disclosure of
223. As business grows more complex, students majoring in specialized areas like those of finance and
marketing have been becoming increasingly successful in the job market.
(A) majoring in specialized areas like those of finance and marketing have been becoming increasingly
(B) who major in such specialized areas as finance and marketing are becoming more and more
(C) who majored in specialized areas such as those of finance and marketing are being increasingly
(D) who major in specialized areas like those of finance and marketing have been becoming more and
(E) having majored in such specialized areas as finance and marketing are being increasingly
224. Inuits of the Bering Sea were in isolation from
contact with Europeans longer than Aleuts or Inuits of the North Pacific and northern Alaska.
(A) in isolation from contact with Europeans longer than
(B) isolated from contact with Europeans longer than
(C) in isolation from contact with Europeans longer than were
(D) isolated from contact with Europeans longer than were
(E) in isolation and without contacts with Europeans longer than
225. Minnesota is the only one of the contiguous forty-eight states that still has a sizable wolf population. and
where this predator remains the archenemy of cattle and sheep.
(A) that still has a sizable wolf population, and where
(B) that still has a sizable wolf population, where
(C) that still has a sizable population of wolves, and where
(D) where the population of wolves is still sizable;
(E) where there is still a sizable population of wolves and where
226. Pablo Picasso, the late Spanish painter, credited African art with having had a strong influence on his work.
(A) with having had
(B) for its having
(C) to have had
(D) for having
(E) in that it had
227. Judicial rules in many states require that the identities of all prosecution witnesses are made known to
defendants so they can attempt to rebut the testimony, but the Constitution explicitly requires only that the
defendant have the opportunity to confront an accuser in court.
(A) that the identities of all prosecution witnesses are made known to defendants so they can attempt to
(B) that the identities of all prosecution witnesses be made known to defendants so that they can attempt
(C) that the defendants should know the identities of all prosecution witnesses so they can attempt a
(D) the identities of all prosecution witnesses should be made known to defendants so they can attempt
(E) making known to defendants the identities of all prosecution witnesses so that they can attempt to
228. Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most distant observable objects in the universe, believed to
be the cores of galaxies in an early stage of development.
(A) believed to be
(B) are believed to be
(C) some believe them to be
(D) some believe they are
(E) it is believed that they are
229. The colorization of black-and-white films by computers is defended by those who own the film rights, for the
process can mean increased revenues for them; many others in the film industry, however, contend that the
technique degrades major works of art, which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue.
(A) which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue
(B) which they liken to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it
(C) which they liken to lipstick put on a Greek statue
(D) likening it to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it
(E) likening it to putting lipstick on a Greek statue
230. In reference to the current hostility toward smoking. smokers frequently expressed anxiety that their
prospects for being hired and promoted are being stunted by their habit.
(A) In reference to the current hostility toward smoking, smokers frequently expressed anxiety that
(B) Referring to the current hostility toward smoking, smokers frequently expressed anxiety about
(C) When referring to the current hostility toward smoking, smokers frequently express anxiety about
(D) With reference to the current hostility toward smoking, smokers frequently expressed anxiety about
(E) Referring to the current hostility toward smoking, smokers frequently express anxiety that
231. Ms. Chambers is among the forecasters who predict that the rate of addition to arable lands will drop while
those of loss rise.
(A) those of loss rise
(B) it rises for loss
(C) those of losses rise
(D) the rate of loss rises
(E) there are rises for the rate of loss
232. Unlike auto insurance, the frequency of claims does not affect the premiums for personal property coverage,
but if the insurance company is able to prove excessive loss due to owner negligence, it may decline to
renew the policy.
(A) Unlike auto insurance, the frequency of claims does not affect the premiums for personal property
(B) Unlike with auto insurance, the frequency of claims do not affect the premiums for personal property
(C) Unlike the frequency of claims for auto insurance, the premiums for personal property coverage are not
affected by the frequency of claims
(D) Unlike the premiums for auto insurance, the premiums for personal property coverage are not affected
by the frequency of claims
(E) Unlike with the premiums for auto insurance, the premiums for personal property coverage is not
affected by the frequency of claims
233. Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced
sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various
(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised
(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising
(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising
234. The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of wavelengths up to 0.0005 millimeters;
infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength--0.1 millimeters--is too long to be registered
by the eye.
(A) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength--0.1 millimeters--is too long to be
registered by the eye
(B) however, the wavelength of infrared radiation--0.1 millimeters--is top long to be registered by the eye
making it invisible
(C) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength--0.1 millimeters--is too long for the eye
to register it
(D) however, because the wavelength of infrared radiation is 0.1 millimeters, it is too long for the eye to
register and thus invisible
(E) however, infrared radiation has a wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for the eye to register,
thus making it invisible
235. Spanning more than fifty years, Friedrich Miiller began his career in an unpromising apprenticeship as a
Sanskrit scholar and culminated in virtually every honor that European governments and learned societies
(A) Miiller began his career in an unpromising apprenticeship as
(B) Miiller's career began in an unpromising apprenticeship as
(C) Miiller's career began with the unpromising apprenticeship of being
(D) Miiller had begun his career with the unpromising apprenticeship of being
(E) the career of Miiller has begun with an unpromising apprenticeship of
236. The Coast Guard is conducting tests to see whether pigeons can be trained to help find survivors of wrecks
(A) to see whether pigeons can be trained to help find
(B) to see whether pigeons can be trained as help to find
(C) to see if pigeons can be trained for helping to find
(D) that see if pigeons are able to be trained in helping to find
(E) that see whether pigeons are able to be trained for help in finding
237. It seems likely that a number of astronomical phenomena, such as the formation of planetary nebulas, may
be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other at close range.
(A) may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other
(B) may be caused by the interaction between two stars that each orbit the other
(C) are because of the interaction between two stars that orbit each other
(D) are caused by the interaction of two stars where each is orbiting the other
(E) are caused by the interaction of two stars orbiting each other
238. According to a recent study by Rutgers University, the number of women in state legislatures has grown in
every election since 1968.
(A) the number of women in state legislatures has grown
(B) the number of women who are in state legislatures have grown
(C) there has been growth in the number of women in state legislatures
(D) a growing number of women have been in state legislatures
(E) women have been growing in number in state legislatures
239. Organized in 1966 by the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Breeding Bird Survey uses annual roadside counts
along established routes for monitoring of population changes of as many as. or of more than 250 bird
species, including 180 songbirds.
(A) for monitoring of population changes of as many as, or of
(B) to monitor population changes of as many, or
(C) to monitor changes in the populations of
(D) that monitors population changes of
(E) that monitors changes in populations of as many as, or
240. What brought the automobile company back from the verge of bankruptcy shortly after the Second World
War was a special, governmentally sanctioned price increase allowed during a period of wage and price
(A) What brought
(B) The thing that brought
(C) That which brought
(E) What has brought
241. As well as heat and light, the Sun is the source of a continuous stream of atomic particles known as the
(A) As well as heat and light, the Sun is the source of a continuous stream
(B) Besides heat and light, also the Sun is the source of a continuous stream
(C) Besides heat and light, the Sun is also the source of a continuous streaming
(D) The Sun is the source not only of heat and light, but also of a continuous stream
(E) The Sun is the source of not only heat and light but, as well, of a continuous streaming
242. Even their most ardent champions concede that no less than a technical or scientific breakthrough is
necessary before solar cells can meet the goal of providing one percent of the nation's energy needs.
(A) that no less than a technical or scientific breakthrough is necessary
(B) that nothing other than a technical or scientific breakthrough is needed
(C) that a technical or scientific breakthrough is necessary
(D) the necessity for an occurrence of a technical or scientific breakthrough
(E) the necessity for a technical or scientific breakthrough occurring
243. Some scientists have been critical of the laboratory tests conducted by the Federal Drug Administration on
the grounds that the amounts of suspected carcinogens fed to animals far exceeds those that humans
(A) far exceeds those that humans could consume
(B) exceeds by far those humans can consume
(C) far exceeds those humans are able to consume
(D) exceed by far those able to be consumed by humans
(E) far exceed those that humans could consume
244. Like their male counterparts, women scientists are above average in terms of intelligence and creativity, but
unlike men of science, their female counterparts have had to work against the grain of occupational
stereotyping to enter a "man's world."
(A) their female counterparts have had to work
(B) their problem is working
(C) one thing they have had to do is work
(D) the handicap women of science have had is to work
(E) women of science have had to work
245. Unlike Schoenberg's twelve-tone system that dominated the music of the postwar period, Bartok founded
no school and left behind only a handful of disciples.
(A) Schoenberg's twelve-tone system that dominated
(B) Schoenberg and his twelve-tone system which dominated
(C) Schoenberg, whose twelve-tone system dominated
(D) the twelve-tone system of Schoenberg that has dominated
(E) Schoenberg and the twelve-tone system, dominating
246. Joachim Raff and Giacomo Meyerbeer are examples of the kind of composer who receives popular
acclaim while living, often goes into decline after death, and never regains popularity again.
(A) often goes into decline after death, and never regains popularity again
(B) whose reputation declines after death and never regains its status again
(C) but whose reputation declines after death and never regains its former status
(D) who declines in reputation after death and who never regained popularity again
(E) then has declined in reputation after death and never regained popularity
247. Faced with an estimated $2 billion budget gap, the city's mayor proposed a nearly 17 percent reduction in
the amount allocated the previous year to maintain the city's major cultural institutions and to subsidize
hundreds of local arts groups.
(A) proposed a nearly 17 percent reduction in the amount allocated the previous year to maintain the city's
major cultural institutions and to subsidize
(B) proposed a reduction from the previous year of nearly 17 percent in the amount it was allocating to
maintain the city's major cultural institutions and for subsidizing
(C) proposed to reduce, by nearly 17 percent, the amount from the previous year that was allocated for the
maintenance of the city's major cultural institutions and to subsidize
(D) has proposed a reduction from the previous year of nearly 17 percent of the amount it was allocating
for maintaining the city's major cultural institutions, and to subsidize
(E) was proposing that the amount they were allocating be reduced by nearly 17 percent from the previous
year for maintaining the city's major cultural institutions and for the subsidization
248. By offering lower prices and a menu of personal communications options, such as caller identification and
voice mail, the new telecommunications company has not only captured customers from other phone
companies but also forced them to offer competitive prices.
(A) has not only captured customers from other phone companies but also forced them
(B) has not only captured customers from other phone companies, but it also forced them
(C) has not only captured customers from other phone companies but also forced these companies
(D) not only has captured customers from other phone companies but also these companies have been
(E) not only captured customers from other phone companies, but it also has forced them
249. Bluegrass musician Bill Monroe, whose repertory, views on musical collaboration, and vocal style were
influential on generations of bluegrass artists. was also an inspiration to many musicians, that included Elvis
Presley and Jerry Garcia. whose music differed significantly from his own.
(A) were influential on generations of bluegrass artists, was also an inspiration to many musicians, that
included Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia, whose music differed significantly from
(B) influenced generations of bluegrass artists, also inspired many musicians, including Elvis Presley and
Jerry Garcia, whose music differed significantly from
(C) was influential to generations of bluegrass artists, was also inspirational to many musicians, that
included Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia, whose music was different significantly in comparison to
(D) was influential to generations of bluegrass artists, also inspired many musicians, who included Elvis
Presley and Jerry Garcia, the music of whom differed significantly when compared to
(E) were an influence on generations of bluegrass artists, was also an inspiration to many musicians,
including Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia, whose music was significantly different from that of
250. The company announced that its profits declined much less in the second quarter than analysts had
expected it to and its business will improve in the second half of the year.
(A) had expected it to and its business will improve
(B) had expected and that its business would improve
(C) expected it would and that it will improve its business
(D) expected them to and its business would improve
(E) expected and that it will have improved its business
251. The gyrfalcon, an Arctic bird of prey, has survived a close brush with extinction; its numbers are now five
times greater than when the use of DDT was sharply restricted in the early 1970's. .
(A) extinction; its numbers are now five times greater than
(B) extinction; its numbers are now five times more than
(C) extinction, their numbers now fivefold what they were
(D) extinction, now with fivefold the numbers they had
(E) extinction, now with numbers five times greater than
252. Three out of every four automobile owners in the United States also own a bicycle.
(A) Three out of every four automobile owners in the United States also own a bicycle.
(B) Out of every four, three automobile owners in the United States also owns a bicycle.
(C) Bicycles are owned by three out of every four owners of automobiles in the United States.
(D) In the United States, three out of every four automobile owners owns bicycles.
(E) Out of every four owners of automobiles in the United States, bicycles are also owned by three.
253. Analysts blamed May's sluggish retail sales on unexciting merchandise as well as the weather, colder and
wetter than was usual in some regions. which slowed sales of barbecue grills and lawn furniture.
(A) colder and wetter than was usual in some regions, which slowed
(B) which was colder and wetter than usual in some regions, slowing
(C) since it was colder and wetter than usually in some regions, which slowed
(D) being colder and wetter than usually in some regions, slowing
(E) having been colder and wetter than was usual in some regions and slowed
254. Balding is much more common among White males than males of other races.
(B) than among
(C) than is so of
(D) compared to
(E) in comparison with
255. The bank holds $3 billion in loans that are seriously delinquent or in such trouble that they do not expect
payments when due.
(A) they do not expect payments when
(B) it does not expect payments when it is
(C) it does not expect payments to be made when they are
(D) payments are not to be expected to be paid when
(E) payments are not expected to be paid when they will be
256. The nephew of Pliny the Elder wrote the only eyewitness account of the great eruption of Vesuvius in
two letters to the historian Tacitus.
(A) The nephew of Pliny the Elder wrote the only eyewitness account of the great eruption of Vesuvius in
two letters to the historian Tacitus.
(B) To the historian Tacitus, the nephew of Pliny the Elder wrote two letters, being the only eyewitness
accounts of the great eruption of Vesuvius.
(C) The only eyewitness account is in two letters by the nephew of Pliny the Elder writing to the historian
Tacitus an account of the great eruption of Vesuvius.
(D) Writing the only eyewitness account, Pliny the Elder's nephew accounted for the great eruption of
Vesuvius in two letters to the historian Tacitus.
(E) In two letters to the historian Tacitus, the nephew of Pliny the Elder wrote the only eyewitness
account of the great eruption of Vesuvius.
257. The direction in which the Earth and the other solid planets --Mercury, Venus, and Mars -- spins were
determined from collisions with giant celestial bodies in the early history of the Solar System.
(A) spins were determined from
(B) spins were determined because of
(C) spins was determined through
(D) spin was determined by
(E) spin was determined as a result of
258. The British sociologist and activist Barbara Wootton once noted as a humorous example of income
maldistribution that the elephant that gave rides to children at the Whipsnade Zoo was earning annually
exactly what she then earned as director of adult education for London.
(A) that the elephant that gave rides to children at the Whipsnade Zoo was earning
(B) that the elephant, giving rides to children at the Whipsnade Zoo, had been earning
(C) that there was an elephant giving rides to children at the Whipsnade Zoo, and it earned
(D) the elephant that gave rides to children at the Whipsnade Zoo and was earning
(E) the elephant giving rides to children at the Whipsnade Zoo and that it earned
259. Five fledgling sea eagles left their nests in western Scotland this summer, bringing to 34 the number of wild
birds successfully raised since transplants from Norway began in 1975.
(B) and brings
(C) and it brings
(D) and it brought
(E) and brought
260. According to some economists, the July decrease in unemployment so that it was the lowest in two years
suggests that the gradual improvement in the job market is continuing.
(A) so that it was the lowest in two years
(B) so that it was the lowest two-year rate
(C) to what would be the lowest in two years
(D) to a two-year low level
(E) to the lowest level in two years
261. Being a United States citizen since 1988 and born in Calcutta in 1940, author Bharati Mukherjee has lived in
England and Canada, and first came to the United States in 1961 to study at the Iowa Writers' Workshop.
(A) Being a United States citizen since 1988 and born in Calcutta in 1940, author Bharati Mukherjee has
(B) Having been a United States citizen since 1988, she was born in Calcutta in 1940; author Bharati
(C) Born in Calcutta in 1940, author Bharati Mukherjee became a United States citizen in 1988; she has
(D) Being born in Calcutta in 1940 and having been a United States citizen since 1988, author Bharati
(E) Having been born in Calcutta in 1940 and being a United States citizen since 1988, author Bharati
262. Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992. Project SETI
pledged a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.
(A) Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992, Project SETI
pledged a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.
(B) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, a $100
million investment in the search for -extraterrestrial intelligence was pledged by Project SETI.
(C) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, Project SETI
pledged a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.
(D) Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, the . initiation of
Project SETI five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992.
(E) Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence five centuries after
Europeans arrived in the New World, on Columbus Day 1992, the initiation of Project SETI took place.
263. In A.D. 391. resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria, later
generations lost all but the lliad and Odyssey among Greek epics, most of the poetry of Pindar and Sappho,
and dozens of plays by Aeschylus and Euripides.
(A) resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria,
(B) the destroying of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria resulted and
(C) because of the result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
(D) as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
(E) Alexandria's largest library of the ancient world was destroyed, and the result was
264. Scientists believe that unlike the males of most species of moth, the male whistling moths of Nambung,
Australia, call female moths to them by the use of acoustical signals, but not olfactory ones, and they
attract their mates during the day, rather than at night.
(A) by the use of acoustical signals, but not olfactory ones, and they attract
(B) by the use of acoustical signals instead of using olfactory ones, and attracting
(C) by using acoustical signals, not using olfactory ones, and by attracting
(D) using acoustical signals, rather than olfactory ones, and attract
(E) using acoustical signals, but not olfactory ones, and attracting
265. Thomas Eakins' powerful style and his choices of subject--the advances in modern surgery, the discipline
of sport, the strains of individuals in tension with society or even with themselves--was as disturbing to his
own time as it is compelling for ours.
(A) was as disturbing to his own time as it is
(B) were as disturbing to his own time as they are
(C) has been as disturbing in his own time as they are
(D) had been as disturbing in his own time as it was
(E) have been as disturbing in his own time as
266. In a recent poll, 86 percent of the public favored a Clean Air Act as strong or stronger than the present act.
(A) a Clean Air Act as strong or stronger than
(B) a Clean Air Act that is stronger, or at least so strong as,
(C) at least as strong a Clean Air Act as is
(D) a Clean Air Act as strong or stronger than is
(E) a Clean Air Act at least as strong as
267. Like Rousseau. Tolstoi rebelled against the unnatural complexity of human relations in modern society.
(A) Like Rousseau, Tolstoi rebelled
(B) Like Rousseau, Tolstoi's rebellion was
(C) As Rousseau, Tolstoi rebelled
(D) As did Rousseau, Tolstoi's rebellion was
(E) Tolstoi's rebellion, as Rousseau's, was
268. Ranked as one of the most important of Europe's young playwrights, Franz Xaver Kroetz has written forty
plays; his works--translated into over thirty languages--are produced more often than any contemporary
(A) than any
(B) than any other
(C) than are any
(D) than those of any other
(E) as are those of any
Answer to Question 1
Choice D is best. The phrasing a divorce that occurred when they were children correctly uses the relative
clause that occurred to modify a divorce and includes a pronoun and verb (they were) that refer
unambiguously to their antecedent, men and women. Choice A incorrectly introduces the when... phrase with
occurring, thus illogically making divorce the grammatical referent of when a child; furthermore, the singular
child does not agree with the plural men and women. B replaces child with children but otherwise fails to
correct A's errors of structure and logic, and C corrects only the error created by occurring. Choice E includes
an incorrect verb tense (has occurred) and wrongly replaces when with as. Also, each was does not properly
refer to men and women.
Answer to Question 2
In choice C, the best answer, an area about the size of Colorado clearly describes a rough equivalence
between the area of Colorado and the area overseen by the companies. In A and B, the plural verb have does
not agree with the singular subject number. Choice A is also wordy, since that is can be deleted without loss of
clarity. The absence of an area in B and E impairs clarity: the phrase beginning with about must modify a noun
such as area that is logically equivalent to the number of acres given. In D and E up to is unidiomatic; the
correct expression is from x to y. In D, the size of Colorado's is unidiomatic, since of Colorado forms a
Answer to Question 3
Because the verb phrases used to describe the bats' duties are governed by the phrase different duties such
as, they should each be expressed in the present participial (or "-ing") form to parallel defending and scouting.
Choices A, C, D, and E all violate parallelism by employing infinitives (to...) in place of participial phrases. In E
the singular sentinel is not consistent with residents, and the omission of and distorts the meaning of the
original. Only B, the best answer, preserves the sense of the original, uses the correct idiom, and observes the
parallelism required among and within the three main verb phrases.
Answer to Question 4
For parallelism, the linking verb is should link two infinitives: The only way to salvage ... is to process. Choice
A begins with an infinitive, but the plural pronouns them and they do not agree with the singular noun citrus.
Choices B, C, and D do not begin with an infinitive, and all present pronoun errors: the plural pronouns cannot
grammatically refer to citrus or fruit, nor can they refer to farmers without absurdity. The best choice, E, has
parallel infinitives and uses fruit to refer unambiguously to citrus. E also expresses the cause-and-effect
relationship between the return of warmer weather and the rotting of the fruit; A, C, and D merely describe these
events as contemporaneous.
Answer to Question 5
Choices A, C, and E do not state the comparison logically. The expression as old as indicates equality of age,
but the sentence indicates that the Brittany monuments predate the Mediterranean monuments by 2,000 years.
In B, the best choice, older than makes this point of comparison clear. B also correctly uses the adjective
supposed, rather than the adverb supposedly used in D and E, to modify the noun phrase Mediterranean
Answer to Question 6
Although an "-ing" verb such as trying can sometimes be used as a noun, the phrase the organism's trying to
metabolize in A is unidiomatic because trying is used as the object of organism's. In B, trying that it
metabolize is ungrammatical. The noun attempt could follow organism's; also, it would parallel the noun
enzymes, and parallelism is needed here because the sentence uses the linking verb are to equate enzymes
and attempt. In C and D, however, attempt to try is redundant. Choice E, which says attempt to metabolize, is
best. The phrase the chemical irritant is also the most concise and precise conclusion for the sentence
because it clearly refers to the dioxin mentioned earlier.
Answer to Question 7
The best choice is C. The phrase the more the children should be completed by a parallel phrase that begins
with a comparative adjective and a noun phrase, as in the greater their... advantage. Only C correctly
completes the structure with a parallel phrase. Choices A. B, D, and E present structures that are unwieldy and
awkward in addition to being nonparallel, and that state the relationship between language use and skills
development less clearly than C does. Also, underlaying in B and underlay in D are incorrect; the meaning of
this sentence requires the present participle of "underlie," underlying, as a modifier of skills.
Answer to Question 8
Choices A and B incorrectly use the plural verb are with the singular noun equipment. In B, C, and E, when
used by does not parallel amount... used by and nonsensically suggests that the people are used by the
equipment. D, the best choice, correctly parallels the amount... used by with that used by, in which that is the
pronoun substitute for amount. Moreover, D solves the agreement problem of A and B by omitting the to be verb
used with visible and placing visible before equipment', the phrase visible equipment is also parallel with
Answer to Question 9
Choice E is best. The pronoun that in A and B should be deleted, since the pronoun one is sufficient to introduce
the modifier and the sentence is more fluid without that. In B and C, it and that it are intrusive and
ungrammatical: the idiom is "believe x to be y." In the context of this sentence, the infinitive to be is more
appropriate than the limited present-tense is in referring to an event that occurred long ago but has been
discovered only recently. Finally, A, B, and D lack o/and so illogically equate this particular explosion with the
whole class of explosions to which it belongs: it is not a type but possibly one of a type.
Answer to Question 10
A is the best choice. Choices B, C, and D incorrectly omit that after agree; that is needed to create the parallel
construction agree that there is waste . . . and that the government... spends. Choice E, though it retains
that, is grammatically incorrect: because E starts with an independent rather than a subordinate clause and
separates its two independent clauses with a comma, it creates a run-on sentence with no logical connection
established between the halves. In B, the agreement ... to the fact is unidiomatic, and B, C, and E alter the
sense of the original sentence by saying that voters agree rather than that they may agree.
Answer to Question 11
In choice A, the introductory clause beginning Based on modifies scholars, the noun that immediately follows it:
in other words, A says that scholars were based on the accounts of various ancient writers. Choice B is
awkward and imprecise in that the referent for the pronoun it is not immediately clear. C and D are also wordy
and awkward, and in D By the accounts... they used is an unidiomatic and roundabout way of saying that
scholars used me accounts. E, the best choice, is clear and concise; it correctly uses a present participle (or
"-ing" verb) to introduce the modifier describing how the scholars worked.
Answer to Question 12
In A, the they after because is ambiguous; it seems illogically to refer to Formulas because they and Formulas
are each the grammatical subject of a clause and because the previous they refers to Formulas. In A and B, do
not apply to... in the same way as they do to is wordy and awkward. D, the best choice, says more concisely
in the same way as to. Also in B, because they refers to formulas, the introductory clause states confusedly
that the formulas are growing. In C and E, subject to the [same] applicability of... is wordy, awkward, and
imprecise; furthermore, are is preferable either before or after established big businesses to complete the
comparison. Finally, the referent of they is not immediately clear in E.
Answer to Question 13
In choices A and B, rates of is incorrect; when rates means "prices charged," it should be followed by for. Also
in B, are a force for does not accurately convey the meaning that the soaring rates are actually forcing cutbacks
in the present. In A and E, it is redundant to say that soaring rates have risen. Similarly, the word rises makes D
redundant. C, the best choice, is idiomatic and concise, and it correctly uses the progressive verb form are
forcing to indicate an ongoing situation.
Answer to Question 14
D, the best choice, correctly follows estimated with to be. The other choices present structures that are not
idiomatic when used in conjunction with estimated. Choices B, C, and E all mismatch the singular verb
provides with its plural subject, fragments, and in choices C and E, what was is unnecessary and wordy. In
choice C, the use of the verb phrase estimated that it is produces an ungrammatical sentence.
Answer to Question 15
The best choice is C because it uses the idiomatically correct expression distinguishes between x and y and
because it provides a structure in which the relative clause beginning which may be violent clearly modifies
mood swings. The other choices use distinguishes in unidiomatic constructions. Additionally, their in A is
intrusive and unnecessary, and the modifier of mood swings in B and D (perhaps violent) is awkward and less
clear than the more developed clause which may be violent.
Answer to Question 16
Choice E, the best answer, correctly uses a parallel construction to draw a logical comparison: Unlike a typical
automobile loan,... a lease-loan.... Choice A illogically compares an automobile loan, an inanimate thing, with
a lease-loan buyer, a person. In choice C, buyers makes the comparison inconsistent in number as well as
illogical. Choices B and D are syntactically and logically flawed because each attempts to compare the noun
loan and a prepositional phrase: with lease-loan buying in B and/or the lease-loan buyer in D. Choices B and
D are also imprecise and awkward. Finally, choice E is the only option that supplies an active verb form, does
not require, to parallel requires.
Answer to Question 17
Choice A is best because it correctly uses the simple past tense, the residents... at that time were, and
because it is the most concise. In B and D, the replacement of were with the past perfect had been needlessly
changes the original meaning by suggesting that the Native Americans had previously ceased to be part of the
widespread culture. All of the choices but A are wordy, and in C, D, and E the word people redundantly
describes the residents rather than the larger group to which the residents belonged. These choices are also
imprecise because they state that the culture, rather than people, spoke the Algonquian language. Choice E
displays inconsistent tenses and an error of pronoun reference, people which.
Answer to Question 18
Each choice but C contains errors of agreement. In both A and E, the singular subject (each in A, every one in E)
does not agree with the plural verb were, while in D, the plural subject women is mismatched with the singular
verb was. In B, the subject and verb agree, but the descriptive phrase placed between them creates an illogical
statement because each cannot be wives; each can be one of the wives, or a wife. The pronoun constructions
in A, B, D, and E are wordy; also, B, D, and E are very awkwardly structured and do not convey the point about
Hemingway's wives clearly. Choice C correctly links wives with were, eliminates the unnecessary pronouns,
and provides a clearer structure.
Answer to Question 19
In this sentence, the initial clause modifies the nearest noun, identifying it as the thing being compared with
wheat. By making protein the noun modified, choices A, C, and D illogically compare wheat with protein and
claim that the protein in rice has more protein than wheat does. In C and D, the comparative structure higher in
quality than it is in wheat absurdly suggests that rice protein contains wheat. B, the best choice, logically
compares wheat to rice by placing the noun rice immediately after the initial clause. B also uses that to refer to
protein in making the comparison between the proteins of rice and wheat. Choice E needs either that in or
does after wheat to make a complete and logical comparison.
Answer to Question 20
Choice A is best. The construction so abundant has capital been... that correctly and clearly expresses the
relationship between the abundance and the investors' response. In choice B, the repetition of so is illogical and
unidiomatic. Choices C, D, and E alter somewhat the intended meaning of the sentence; because of its position
in these statements, such functions to mean "of a kind" rather than to intensify abundant. Choice D awkwardly
separates has and been, and the omission of that from C and E makes those choices ungrammatical.
Answer to Question 21
In choices A, C, and E, in attributing ... behavior modifies the perpetrators, producing the illogical statement
that the perpetrators rather than the defense attorneys are attributing behavior to food allergies. Choice C is also
wordy, and attributing ... as is unidiomatic in E. In the correct form of the expression, one attributes x, an effect,
to y, a cause; or, if a passive construction is used, x is attributed to y. D avoids the initial modification error by
using a passive construction (in which the attributors are not identified), but attributed x as the cause of y is
unidiomatic. Choice B is best.
Answer to Question 22
C, the best choice, places not and but in such a way that the distinction between springing to life in a flash of
inspiration and evolving slowly is logically and idiomatically expressed. A and B are faulty because, for
grammatical parallelism, not in a flash... must be followed by but in..., not by a conjugated form of the verb.
Moreover, were slowly evolved is incorrect in B because evolve, in this sense of the word, cannot be made
passive. Choices C, D, and E all correctly place not before spring. D, however, contains inconsistent verb
tenses; E contains the faulty passive and an intrusive they.
Answer to Question 23
Because a count of women employed outside the home at any given time will be expressed by a single number,
the use of the plural noun numbers in choices A, B, and C is illogical. In A, the phrase grew by more than a
thirty-five percent increase is redundant and wordy, since the sense of increase is implicit in the verb grew. In
C and E, the passive verb forms were raised and was raised are inappropriate because there is no identifiable
agent responsible for the raising of the number of women employed. In choice E, was raised by ... increase is
redundant. Choice D, which presents the comparison logically and idiomatically, is the best answer.
Answer to Question 24
In A, B, and C, the phrase being converted is awkward and redundant, since the sense of process indicated by
being has already been conveyed by undergoing. A and D can be faulted for saying if rather than whether,
since the sentence poses alternative possibilities, to sign or not to sign. Only E, the best choice, idiomatically
completes whether with an infinitive, to sign, that functions as a noun equivalent of decision. Choice E also
uses the noun conversion, which grammatically completes the phrase begun by undergoing.
Answer to Question 25
Choice C is best. The third verb phrase in the series describing bulls and cows should have the same
grammatical form as the first two. Only choice C has a present participle (or "-ing" form) that is parallel with the
two preceding verbs, receiving and fetching. Instead of the present participle, choices A and B use the past
tense (excited), choice D uses an auxiliary verb (would excite), and choice E uses the past perfect tense (had
excited). Additionally, the incorrect verb tenses in B and E are introduced by a pronoun, it, that lacks a logical
Answer to Question 26
Choice B is the best answer. The sentence compares one thing, an adverse change in climate, to all other
things in its class-- that is, to all the possible disasters that threaten American agriculture, therefore, the
sentence requires the superlative form of the adjective, most difficult, rather than the comparative form, more
difficult, which appears in choices A and D. In A and C, the use of maybe is unidiomatic, and difficult should be
completed by the infinitive to analyze. Choice E is awkwardly phrased and, when inserted into the sentence,
produces an illogical structure: the possibility ... is... the analysis that.
Answer to Question 27
Choices A and B present dangling modifiers that illogically suggest that Owen and Randolph, rather than the
Messenger, were published in Harlem. In D, the phrase and published in Harlem is too remote from the
Messenger to modify it effectively. In E, being produces an awkward construction, and the placement of the
main clause at the end of the sentence is confusing. Only in C, the best answer, is Published in Harlem
followed immediately by the Messenger. Also, C makes it clear that the clause beginning who refers to
Answer to Question 28
In choices A and B, the verb suggest does not agree with its singular subject, rise. In context, the phrase into
the coming months in A and D is not idiomatic; in the coming months is preferable. In A, C, and D, the that
appearing after but creates a subordinate clause where an independent clause is needed for the new subject,
mixed performance. Choice E includes the correct verb form, suggests, eliminates that, and properly employs
the future tense, will continue to expand. That this tense is called for is indicated both by the future time to
which the coming months refers and by the parallel verb form will proceed in the nonunderlined part of the
sentence. Choice E is best.
Answer to Question 29
Choice A is best. The other choices are unidiomatic or unnecessarily wordy, and the pronoun they, which
appears in B, C, and E, has no grammatical referent.
Answer to Question 30
Besides being wordy, the clauses beginning What was in A and The thing that was in B cause inconsistencies
in verb tense: the use of the new technology cannot logically be described by both the present perfect has
been and the past was. In B and D, developing the compact disc is not parallel to the use of new
technology to revitalize ... performances; in C, the best answer, the noun development is parallel to use.
The phrases none the less ... than in D and no less... as in E are unidiomatic; the correct form of expression,
no less ... than, appears in C, the best choice.
Answer to Question 31
Choice D is best. Choice A illogically compares skills to a disinclination; choice B compares skills to many
people. Choice C makes the comparison logical by casting analytical skills as the subject of the sentence, but
it is awkward and unidiomatic to say skills bring out a disinclination. Also in C, the referent of they is unclear,
and weak to a degree changes the meaning of the original statement. In E, have a disinclination... while
willing is grammatically incomplete, and admit their lack should be admit to their lack. By making people the
subject of the sentence, D best expresses the intended contrast, which pertains not so much to skills as to
people's willingness to recognize different areas of weakness.
Answer to Question 32
Choice B is best. Choices A and C illogically state that some buildings were both destroyed and damaged; or is
needed to indicate that each of the buildings suffered either one fate or the other. In using only one verb tense,
were, A fails to indicate that the buildings were constructed before the earthquake occurred. Choices C and D
use the present perfect tense incorrectly, saying in effect that the buildings have been constructed after they
were destroyed last year. Choice E suggests that the construction of the buildings, rather than the earthquake,
occurred last year, thus making the sequence of events unclear. Only B uses verb tenses correctly to indicate
that construction of the buildings was completed prior to the earthquake.
Answer to Question 33
Choice A is best. The activities listed are presented as parallel ideas and should thus be expressed in
grammatically parallel structures. Choice A correctly uses the simple past tense defined to parallel organized
and provided. Choice A also correctly joins the last two parallel phrases with and and clearly expresses the
relationship of rights and obligations to
resources. Choice C preserves parallelism but is wordy, and its has no logical referent. Choices B, D, and E
each replace the verb phrase with a subordinate modifier, violating parallelism and making the statements
ungrammatical. Furthermore, it is unclear what defining ... consumption in B is intended to modify; in D,
whose incorrectly attributes rights and obligations to resources', and E presents rights and obligations as
defining, rather than as being defined.
Answer to Question 34
Choices A, B, and C are flawed because the countable noun dioxins should be modified by many rather than
much, which is used with uncountable nouns such as "work" and "happiness." In addition, both A and C
incorrectly use the singular verb comes with the plural noun dioxins. Choices C and D are needlessly wordy,
and D requires that before North Americans, to be grammatically complete. Choice E, the best answer, is both
grammatically correct and concise.
Answer to Question 35
A comma is needed after Rhone in choices A and D to set off the modifying phrase that begins Vincent...;
without the comma, the phrase appears to be part of the main clause, and it is thus unclear what noun should
govern the verb sold. Furthermore, it in A has no logical referent, and being in D is not idiomatic. Choices B and
E produce the illogical statement that the painting was the second highest price. Choice C, the best answer,
avoids this problem by using a noun phrase in which price clearly refers to $20.2 million. And by using a
comma after Rhone to set off the phrase that modifies The Bridge of Trinquetaille, C makes the painting the
subject of was sold.
Answer to Question 36
Choice A is best. The phrasing are native to correctly suggests that the toad species is indigenous to, and still
exists in, South America. In B, native in is unidiomatic; in C and E, natives of illogically suggests that each toad
now in Florida hails from South America. In D and E, had been inaccurately implies that the toads are no longer
native, or indigenous, to South America, and introduced to Florida is unidiomatic. Both as attempts in B and E
and as an attempt in D are wrong because the attempt consists not of the toads themselves, but of their
introduction into the environment. The correct phrase, in an attempt, should be completed by an infinitive (here,
to control), as in A.
Answer to Question 37
Choice B is best: in sentences expressing a conditional result (x will happen ify happens), the verb of the main
clause should be in the future tense and the verb of the if clause should be in the present indicative. Thus, is
taught (in B) is consistent with will take, whereas would be taught (in A and E) and was taught (in D) are not.
For clarity, only in C, D, and E should immediately precede the entire;/clause that it is meant to modify. Also, the
intended meaning is distorted when the adverb separately is used to modify required, as in A and C, or taught,
as in E; B correctly uses the adjective separate to modify course.
Answer to Question 38
All of the choices but D contain ambiguities. In A and B the words which and where appear to refer to
sediments, and in E it is not clear what consistent describes. In A, C, and E, there is no logical place to which
there or its could refer. In D, the best choice, the phrase sediments from the Baltic Sea tells where the
sediments originate, findings provides a noun for consistent to modify, and in the area clearly identifies where
the industrial activity is growing.
Answer to Question 39
Choice C is best because the participle protecting begins a phrase that explains what the shields did. Choices A
and B awkwardly use the singular word method to refer to items of military equipment rather than to the use
of such items. Also, a method of protecting would be more idiomatic than a method to protect in A or a
method protecting in B. In B and D, as is incorrect; also, a protection in D has no noun for which it can
logically substitute. Choice E is incomplete; used to protect would have been acceptable.
Answer to Question 40
The corrected sentence must contrast an effect of spot-welding with an effect of adhesive-bonding. To do so
logically and grammatically, it must describe the effects in parallel terms. When inserted into the sentence, D
produces the parallel construction over a broad surface rather than at a series. Having no word such as over
or at indicate location, choices A, B, and C fail to complete the parallel and so illogically draw a contrast between
surface and series. In E, as against being is a wordy and unidiomatic way to establish the intended contrast.
Choice D is best.
Answer to Question 41
Choices A, B, C, and D contain tense errors (the use of was never applied with has been required in A, for
example), unidiomatic expressions (call... for considering), and uses of a pronoun (it) with no noun referent.
By introducing the subordinating conjunction whereby, C and D produce sentence fragments. Only E, the best
choice, corrects all of these problems. The predicate has never been applied refers to a span of time, from the
writing of the Constitution to the present, rather than to a past event (as was does), and the phrase is required
indicates that the provision still applies. The phrase call... to consider is idiomatic, and to do so can substitute
grammatically for it.
Answer to Question 42
Choice C is best because its phrasing is parallel and concise. A, D, and E begin with unnecessarily wordy
phrases. Choice C also uses the idiomatic expression worried about rather than worried over (as in A) or
worrying over (as in B); worried about is preferable when describing a condition rather than an action.
Whereas C uses compact and parallel noun phrases such as the removal... and the failure ... , the other
choices employ phrases that are wordy, awkward, or nonparallel. D is also flawed in that the plural pronoun they
does not agree with the singular noun administration.
Answer to Question 43
Choice A is best, for A alone makes clear that the land now known as Australia was considered the antipodes
before it was developed. In B, it has no logical referent, because the previous clause describes a time when
there was no Australia. Nor does it have a referent in C: substituting Australia for it produces a nonsensical
statement. D is wordy, with the unnecessary what was, and imprecise in suggesting that Australia was
considered the antipodes after it became Australia. E similarly distorts the original meaning, and the past perfect
had been is inconsistent with the past tense used to establish a time frame for the rest of the sentence.
Answer to Question 44
Choice A presents a dangling modifier. The phrase beginning the sentence has no noun that it can logically
modify and hence cannot fit anywhere in the sentence and make sense. Coming first, it modifies heartbeats, the
nearest free noun in the main clause; that is, choice A says that the heartbeats are using the Doppler ultrasound
device. Choice B contains the same main clause and dangling modifier, now at the end. Contrary to intent, the
wording in choice C suggests that physicians can use a Doppler ultrasound device after they detect fetal
heartbeats. In choice D the phrase using ... device should follow physician, the noun it modifies. Choice E is
Answer to Question 45
Grammatically, the participial phrase beginning delighted must modify the subject of the main clause. Because
it is the manager who was delighted, choice C, in which the company manager appears as the subject, is the
best answer. Choices A, B, D, and E create illogical statements by using it, the decision, the staff, and a raise,
respectively, as the sentence subject. Use of the passive voice in A, D, and E produces unnecessary wordiness,
as does the construction the decision of the company manager was to in B.
Answer to Question 46
Choice E, the best answer, uses the adverbial phrase more quickly than to modify the verb phrase gain weight.
In A, B, and C, quicker than is incorrect because an adjective should not be used to modify a verb phrase. E is
also the only choice with consistent verb tenses. The first verb in the clauses introduced by showed that is
exercise. A and B incorrectly compound that present tense verb with a past tense verb, associated. C and D
correctly use associate, but C follows with the past tense required and D with the present perfect have
required. Both C and D incorrectly conclude with the future tense will gain.
Answer to Question 47
The use of the phrasing can heat... enough to affect in A and E is more idiomatic than the use of the
subordinate clause beginning with that in B, C, and D. Also, B produces an illogical and ungrammatical
statement by making induce parallel with the verb heat rather than with the appropriate form of the verb affect;
C lacks agreement in using the singular pronoun it to refer to the plural noun displays; and D is faulty because
induces cannot fit grammatically with any noun in the sentence. Choice A incorrectly separates the two
infinitives to affect and [to] induce with a comma when it should compound them with and, as does E, the best
Answer to Question 48
As used in choices A, B, and D, the phrases on account of and because of are unidiomatic; because, which
appears in C and E, is preferable here since because can introduce a complete subordinate clause explaining
the reason why the golden crab has not been fished extensively. B and E also produce agreement errors by
using the plural pronouns their and they to refer to the singular noun crab. Choice D, like A, fails to provide a
noun or pronoun to perform the action of living, but even with its the phrases would be more awkward and less
clear than it lives. C, which uses because and it as the singular subject of a clause, is the best choice.
Answer to Question 49
The pronoun which should be used to refer to a previously mentioned noun, not to the idea expressed in an entire
clause. In A, C, and E, which seems to refer to a vague concept involving the detection of moons, but there is no
specific noun, such as detection, to which it can refer. Also in E, the use of the phrasing the number... now known that
orbit is ungrammatical and unclear. B and D use the correct participial form, doubling, to modify the preceding
clause, but D, like A, uses known as orbiting rather than known to orbit, a phrase that is more idiomatic in context. B,
therefore, is the best answer.
Answer to Question 50
In choice A, it, the subject of the main clause, seems to refer to baby, the subject of the subordinate clause; thus, A
seems to state that the newbom baby, rather than its sense of vision, would be rated 20/500. Similarly, choices B and
E use awkward and ambiguous phrasing that suggests that the sense of vision, rather than an adult with 20/500 vision,
would be considered legally blind. C incorrectly uses the semicolon, which should separate independent clauses, to
set off a verb phrase. The phrase if an adult in C is also illogical, since it states that a baby could also be an adult. D
is the best choice.
Answer to Question 51
Choices B and C present faulty comparisons: in B, Jackie Robinson's courage is compared to Rosa Parks herself, not
to her courage, and in C it is compared to both Rosa Parks and her refusal. Choice D does not make clear whether it
was Jackie Robinson or Rosa Parks who showed courage in refusing to move to the back of the bus; in fact, saying
for refusing rather than who refused makes it sound as if courage moved to the back of the bus. Choice E incorrectly
uses as rather than like to compare two noun phrases. Choice A is best.
Answer to Question 52
C is the best choice. In choice A, The rising of costs is unidiomatic, and in B costs... has lacks subject-verb
agreement. Choices D and E produce sentence fragments since Because makes the clause subordinate rather than
Answer to Question 53
The corrected sentence must make clear that both damaging and slowing the growth of refer to forests. E is the only
choice that does so without introducing errors. In choice A, o/is required after growth. In choices B and C, the use of
the damage instead of damaging produces awkward and wordy constructions, and without to after damage, B is
grammatically incomplete. In C, the slowness o/does not convey the original sense that the rate of growth has been
slowed by acid rain. Choice D also changes the meaning of the sentence by making both damaged and slowed refer
Answer to Question 54
B, the best choice, uses the idiomatic and grammatically parallel form the same to X as to Y. Because A lacks the
preposition to, it seems to compare the appearance of natural phenomena to that of a person standing on land. C and
D unnecessarily repeat would and wrongly use the singular it to refer to the plural phenomena. C and E each contain
a faulty semicolon and produce errors in idiom, the same to X just as [it would] to. D and E use the definite article
the where the indefinite article a is needed to refer to an unspecified person.
Answer to Question 55
Because the sentence describes a situation that continues into the present, choices A and B are incorrect in using the
past perfect had elected, which denotes an action completed at a specific time in the past. Also, alternatives presented
in the expressions x rather than y and x Instead ofy should be parallel in form, but A and B mismatch the noun
retirement with the verb forms/ace and facing. C is faulty because have elected, which is correct in tense, cannot
idiomatically be followed by a participle such as retiring. D correctly follows have elected with an infinitive, to
retire, but, like A and B, fails to maintain parallelism. Only E, the best choice, uses the correct tense, observes
parallelism, and is idiomatic.
Answer to Question 56
A, B, and D illogically suggest that the palace and temple clusters were architects and stonemasons. For the
modification to be logical. Architects and stonemasons must immediately precede the Maya, the noun phrase it is
meant to modify. A, B, and D also use the passive verb form were built, which produces unnecessary awkwardness
and wordiness. E is awkwardly phrased and produces a sentence fragment, because the appositive noun phrase
Architects and stonemasons cannot serve as the subject of were the Maya. C, the best answer, places the Maya
immediately after its modifier and uses the active verb form built.
Answer to Question 57
Choice A is best because it is idiomatic and because its passive verb construction, has been shifted, clearly indicates
that the light has been acted upon by the rapid motion. In B, the active verb has shifted suggests that the light, not the
motion, is the agency of action, but such a construction leaves the phrase by the rapid motion of the galaxy away
from the Earth without any logical or grammatical function. In C, the construction the extent that light is
ungrammatical; denotes the extent must be completed by to which. D incorrectly employs an active verb, shifting,
and extent of light is imprecise and awkward. E is faulty because it contains no verb to express the action performed
by the rapid motion.
Answer to Question 58
The construction range from x must be completed by to y, as in choice B, the best answer: Johnson's paintings range
from... portraits ... to... views. Each of the other choices produces an unidiomatic construction.
Answer to Question 59
D, the best choice, is idiomatic, clear, and concise. Both A and B incorrectly use much rather than many to describe
the countable noun others; much should be used with uncountable nouns such as "joy" and "labor." Even if this error
corrected, though, A and B would still be wrong. Because man than x necessarily includes the sense of at least as
many as x. it is redundant and confusing to use elements of both expressions to refer to the same number of women.
In A and C, not any support agreements is wordy and awkward. Like A and B, E redundantly uses both at least and
more, and it incorrectly links the singular verb was with the plural subject others.
Answer to Question 60
The intended comparison should be completed by a clause beginning with as and containing a subject and verb that
correspond to the subject and verb of the main clause. In E, the best choice, it refers unambiguously to the phrasal
subject owning ... land, the verb was corresponds to is, and today's young adults are appropriately compared to
earlier generations. Choices A and B lack a verb corresponding to is and a clear referent for that. Choices C and D
are confusing and illogical because their verbs, did and have, cannot substitute for is in the main clause.
Answer to Question 61
Choice C is best. In A and B, the plural pronouns their and they do not agree with the singular noun bank. B, like
D and E, illogically shifts from the plural customers and funds to the singular check, as if the customers were
jointly depositing only one check. In D, requires a bank that it should is ungrammatical; requires that a bank is
the appropriate idiom. In E, the use of the passive construction is to be delayed is less informative than the
active voice because the passive does not explicitly identify the bank as the agent responsible for the delay.
Answer to Question 62
D, the best choice, describes the warning signs in parallel phrases. Despite surface appearances, the nouns changes
and variations are parallel with tilting, but the verbal forms changing and varying in A, B, and C are not: tilting, one
of the deformations of the Earth's crust, is used here as a noun that is parallel to fluctuations, whereas changing and
varying are used as verbs indicating some action undertaken. Moreover, these verbs are used incorrectly because the
sentence mentions no subject that is performing these actions. B and E illogically state that it is not the strain but the
measurements that portend danger, and among in E wrongly suggests a comparison of different electrical properties
rather than of different behaviors of the same properties.
Answer to Question 63
Choice A, which is both idiomatic and concise, is best. In choice B, to contract is wrong because the phrase are in
danger must be followed by of, not by an infinitive. The phrase have a danger is unidiomatic in C. In D, the phrase
by contraction trypanosomiasis requires of after contraction; even if this correction were made, though, the passive
construction in D would be unnecessarily wordy and also imprecise, because it is the disease more than the act of
contracting it that poses the danger. In E, have a danger is again unidiomatic, and the to that clause following the
phrase is, within the structure of the sentence, ungrammatical and awkward.
Answer to Question 64
In this sentence, the first noun of the main clause grammatically identifies what is being compared with a funded
pens ion system; to be logical, the comparison must be made between comparable things. Only E, the best choice,
compares one kind of system of providing for retirees, the funded pension system, with another such system. Social
Security. Choices A, C, and D all illogically compare the pension system with the approach taken by Social Security
itself. In B, the comparison of pension system with foundation is similarly flawed.
Answer to Question 65
When consider means "regard as," as it does in this sentence, its object should be followed immediately by the
phrase that identifies or describes that object. Thus, to be in A, as in B, and as being in C produce unidiomatic
constructions in the context of the sentence. Also, although (/and whether can be used interchangeably after some
verbs, question if, which appears in A and B, is unidiomatic, and they in B is unnecessary. E also contains the
unnecessary they, and it uses the ungrammatical construction consider... facilities are. Grammatically and
idiomatically, sound D is the best choice.
Answer to Question 66
Choice A is best. In B, both must come before acknowledgment if it is to link acknowledgment and effort; as
misplaced here, it creates the unfulfilled expectation that the reduction of interest rates will be an acknowledgment
of two different things. Moreover, both... as well as ... is redundant: the correct idiom is both x and y. In C, the plural
verbs acknowledge and attempt do not agree with their singular subject, reduction; also, it is imprecise to
characterize a reduction as performing actions such as acknowledging or attempting. In both D and E, the use of the
participle reducing rather than the noun reduction is awkward. Like B, D misplaces both, while E repeats both the
redundancy of B and the agreement error of C.
Answer to Question 67
Choices A, C, and E are ungrammatical because, in this context, requiring ... employers must be followed by an
infinitive. These options display additional faults: in A, so as to fails to specify that the workers receiving the leave
will be the people caring for the infants and children; in order that they, as used in C, is imprecise and unidiomatic;
and E says that the bill being debated would require the employers themselves to care for the children. Choice B
offers the correct infinitive, to provide, but contains the faulty so as to. Choice D is best.
Answer to Question 68
In choice A, the construction from hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides ... react is ungrammatical. In B, the best choice,
the conjunction when replaces the preposition/row, producing a grammatical and logical statement. In choice C, the
use of the conjunction and results in the illogical assertion that the formation of ozone in the atmosphere happens in
addition to, rather than as a result of, its formation when hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide react with sunlight. Choice
D omits the main verb, is, leaving a sentence fragment. E compounds the error of D with that of A.
Answer to Question 69
Choices A, B, and D are unidiomatic. Choice C is awkward and wordy; furthermore, the phrase at the time of her
being adolescent suggests that Willard's adolescence lasted only for a brief, finite moment rather than for an
extended period of time. Choice E, idiomatic and precise, is the best answer.
Answer to Question 70
Choice A is best. Choice B lacks the necessary infinitive after likely. In B and C, disadvantaged, which often means
"hampered by substandard economic and social conditions," is less precise than at a disadvantage. In C and D,
cannot often carry out suggests that a President with limited time suffers only from an inability to achieve legislative
goals frequently, not from a frequent inability to achieve them at all. In C, liable, followed by an infinitive, can
legitimately be used to express probability with a bad outcome, but C is otherwise flawed as noted. D's liable and E's
unable should be followed by an infinitive rather than by a relative clause beginning with that.
Answer to Question 71
The sentence speaks of a sequence of actions in the past:
shareholders made their monthly payments and subsequently took turns drawing on the funds. Choice C, the best
answer, uses parallel past-tense verb forms to express this sequence. Choices A and B violate parallelism by using
taking where took is required. The wording in D results in a run-on sentence and does not specify what the members
took turns doing. Similarly, E does not specify what the members drew, and taking turns produces nonsense when
combined with the rest of the sentence.
Answer to Question 72
Choice A is faulty because an adverb such as twice cannot function as an object of the preposition by. B distorts
the sentence's meaning, stating that the number of engineering degrees conferred increased on more than two
distinct occasions. D's passive verb was ... doubled suggests without warrant that some unnamed agent
increased the number of engineering degrees. The past perfect tense in E, had... doubled, is inappropriate
unless the increase in engineering degrees is specifically being viewed as having occurred further back in the
past than some subsequent event. Choice C is best.
Answer to Question 73
In choices A and B, the pronoun them has no antecedent; furthermore, the (/clause in B must take should rather
than would. In C, necessary militarily is awkward and vague. E is wordy and garbles the meaning with
incorrect word order. Choice D is best: its phrasing is clear, grammatical, and idiomatic. Moreover, D is the
choice that most closely parallels the construction of the nonunderlined portion of the sentence. The sentence
states that the Admiralty and the War Office met to consider x and y, where x is the noun phrase a possible
Russian attempt. D provides a noun phrase, military action, that matches the structure of x more closely than
do the corresponding noun elements in the other choices.
Answer to Question 74
The first independent clause of the sentence describes a general situation; in A, the best choice, a second
independent clause clearly and grammatically presents an example of this circumstance. Choice B uses as an
instance ungrammatically: as an instance requires o/to form such idiomatic constructions as "She cited x as an
instance of y." Also, this construction cannot link infinitives such as to bend and to allow. The infinitive is again
incorrect in C and D. C misuses like, a comparative preposition, to introduce an example. D requires by in place
of to be. E, aside from being wordy and imprecise, uses the pronoun which to refer vaguely to the whole
preceding clause rather than to a specific noun referent.
Answer to Question 75
Choices A and B fail because the logic of the sentence demands that the verb in the main clause be wholly in the
future tense: if x happens, y will happen. To compound the problem, the auxiliary verbs have been in A and
have in B cannot properly be completed by to diminish. C, D, and E supply the correct verb form, but C and D
conclude with faulty as clauses that are awkward and unnecessary, because will continue describes an action
begun in the past. E is the best choice.
Answer to Question 76
Choices A and B are faulty because a relative clause beginning with that is needed to state Gall's hypothesis.