<ul><li>1789-1945 </li></ul><ul><li>The Modern Age: from the guillotine to the atomic bomb </li></ul><ul><li>part one </li...
1564  Birth of Galileo Galilei and William Shakespeare, death of Michelangelo 1605  Cervantes publishes  Don Quixote , Sha...
1800  Lord Stanhope’s cast iron press 1830-32  Hokusai, Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji 1804  Napoleon crowned emperor of F...
Tea Serving Automaton Japanese 1700s
<ul><li>Nineteenth Century Inventions  and Discoveries </li></ul><ul><li>anesthesia </li></ul><ul><li>antiseptic surgery <...
<ul><li>Inventions of Military and Political Importance </li></ul><ul><li>camouflage </li></ul><ul><li>concentration camp ...
Modernism, Modern, Modernity: What Do They Mean? Progress Process Form and Function Subjectivity and Relativism Change and...
Friedrich Nietzsche Beyond Good and Evil, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, The Genealogy of Morals, The Will to Power 1.  “ God is ...
Competing Social, Political and Economic Philosophies that Influenced the Arts 1. Socialism 2. Capitalism 3. Communism 4. ...
teleology noun ( pl.  -gies ) Philosophy the explanation of phenomena by the purpose they serve rather than by postulated ...
progress noun forward or onward movement toward a destination :  the darkness did not stop my progress  |  they failed to ...
militarism noun chiefly derogatory the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong ...
social Darwinism noun the theory that individuals, groups, and peoples are subject to the same Darwinian laws of natural s...
Jean-Antoine Watteau 1684-1721
Jacques-Louis David 1748-1825 Antoine-Laurent et Marie-Anne Lavoisier 1788  oil on canvas 259 x 196 cm.
Jacques-Louis David 1748-1825 The Oath of the Horatii 1784  oil on canvas 3,30 x 4,25 m.
Jacques-Louis David 1748-1825 The Death of Marat 1793  oil on canvas
Jacques-Louis David 1748-1825 The Death of Socrate 1787  oil on canvas 129 x 196 cm.
Jacques-Louis David 1748-1825 Napol éon Crossing the Saint Bernard Pass 1800  oil on canvas 260 x 221 cm.
Jacques-Louis David 1748-1825 Madame R écamier 1800  oil on canvas 1,64 x 2,44 m.
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres 1780-1867 M. Philibert Rivi ère 1805 oil on canvas 114 x 90 cm.
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres 1780-1867 Napoléon I 1806 oil on canvas 264 x 160 cm.
Gilbert Stuart 1755-1828 George Washington 1796-1805 oil on canvas 63 x 60 cm.
Rembrandt Peale Thomas Jefferson 1800 oil on canvas
 
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres 1780-1867 Louis-François Bertin Journalist and director of the  Journal des D ébats 1832 oil...
Henry Darby 1829-1897 Henry Clay 1858 (after Clay’sdeath in 1852) oil on canvas 125 x 101 cm.
The Industrial Revolution and Photography  science, steam and a new way of seeing
<ul><li>Jacques de Vaucanson and Joseph Marie Jacquard </li></ul><ul><li>Jacquard Loom </li></ul>
<ul><li>Charles, Third Earl of Stanhope </li></ul><ul><li>All-iron Printing Press </li></ul><ul><li>1800 </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Model 5 Linotype </li></ul><ul><li>Otto Mergenthaler’s invention allowed daily newspapers to expand beyond eight p...
<ul><li>Camera Obscura </li></ul>
<ul><li>Vermeer </li></ul><ul><li>The Girl with the Red Hat </li></ul><ul><li>1665 </li></ul><ul><li>Oil on Panel </li></u...
<ul><li>The Camera Lucida </li></ul><ul><li>Notice sur l’usage de la chambre claire Account on the Use of the Camera Lucid...
<ul><li>Charles Richard Meade </li></ul><ul><li>Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre </li></ul><ul><li>1848 </li></ul>
<ul><li>William Henry Fox Talbott </li></ul><ul><li>The Open Door </li></ul><ul><li>1843 </li></ul><ul><li>Salted paper pr...
<ul><li>Joseph Niepce </li></ul><ul><li>The First Photograph from Nature </li></ul><ul><li>1826 </li></ul><ul><li>Louis Ja...
<ul><li>William Henry Fox Talbot </li></ul><ul><li>Print from the First Photographic Negative </li></ul><ul><li>William He...
<ul><li>“ An ambrotype was a photographic negative whose positive-negative character was reversed by placing black cloth o...
<ul><li>Attributed from Mathew Brady </li></ul><ul><li>Freedmen on the Canal </li></ul><ul><li>1865 </li></ul><ul><li>Phot...
<ul><li>Stephen H. Horgan </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental Photoengraving </li></ul><ul><li>1880 </li></ul><ul><li>“ This fi...
<ul><li>Honoré Daumier </li></ul><ul><li>“ Nadar elevates photography to the level of art,”  from  The Boulevard,  May 25,...
<ul><li>Paul Nadar </li></ul><ul><li>Nadar Interviewing Chevreul </li></ul><ul><li>1886 </li></ul><ul><li>“ The words spok...
<ul><li>Mathew Brady </li></ul><ul><li>Dunker Church and the Dead </li></ul><ul><li>1862 </li></ul><ul><li>Photographed af...
<ul><li>Eadward Muybridge </li></ul><ul><li>“ Plate published in  The Horse in Motion , 1863. Sequence photography proved ...
<ul><li>Thomas Eakins </li></ul><ul><li>John Biglin in a Single Scull </li></ul><ul><li>1873-74 </li></ul><ul><li>Oil on C...
<ul><li>Thomas Eakins </li></ul><ul><li>The Agnew Clinic </li></ul><ul><li>1889 </li></ul><ul><li>Oil on Canvas </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Thomas Eakins </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Eakins and Male Nudes at the Site of “Swimming” </li></ul><ul><li>1884 </li...
<ul><li>Thomas Eakins </li></ul><ul><li>Swimming </li></ul><ul><li>1884-85 </li></ul><ul><li>Oil on Canvas </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Thomas Eakins </li></ul><ul><li>Motion Studies </li></ul><ul><li>1885 </li></ul>
<ul><li>Edgar Degas </li></ul><ul><li>Diego Martelli </li></ul><ul><li>1879 </li></ul><ul><li>Oil on Canvas </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Edgar Degas </li></ul><ul><li>La La at the Cirque Fernando, Paris </li></ul><ul><li>1879 </li></ul><ul><li>Canvas ...
<ul><li>Edgar Degas </li></ul><ul><li>Horses on the Course at Longchamp </li></ul><ul><li>1873-75 </li></ul><ul><li>Canvas...
<ul><li>Auguste Renoir </li></ul><ul><li>Luncheon of the Boating Party </li></ul><ul><li>1881 </li></ul><ul><li>Oil on Can...
Claude Monet Le Pont de l’Europe, Gare St.-Lazare
<ul><li>Louis Ducos du Hauron </li></ul><ul><li>Angoulême, France </li></ul><ul><li>1877 </li></ul><ul><li>Three-color Car...
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1. 1789 1945 2009

  1. 1. <ul><li>1789-1945 </li></ul><ul><li>The Modern Age: from the guillotine to the atomic bomb </li></ul><ul><li>part one </li></ul>
  2. 2. 1564 Birth of Galileo Galilei and William Shakespeare, death of Michelangelo 1605 Cervantes publishes Don Quixote , Shakespeare writes Macbeth 1607 Founding of Jamestown, Virginia 1610 Galileo Galilei publishes Siderius Nuncio ( The Starry Messenger ) and challenges the Ptolemaic geocentric view 1621 Weekly Newes, first English newspaper 1687 Isaac Newton publishes the Principia 1704 Isaac Newton publishes Opticks 1740 Masanobu, linear perspective in Ukiyo-e prints 1765 Harunobu, multicolor Ukiyo-e prints 1769 James Watt Patents the steam engine 1776 American Revolution 1789 French Revolution 1789 U.S. Constitution 1793 Execution of Louis XVI by France’s revolutionary government, end of the Ancien R é gime 1796 Alois Senefelder invents lithography 1799 Napoleon becomes ruler of France
  3. 3. 1800 Lord Stanhope’s cast iron press 1830-32 Hokusai, Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji 1804 Napoleon crowned emperor of France 1822 Joseph Niepce, first photolithographic print 1826 Joseph Niepce, the first photograph from nature 1835 William Fox Talbot, first photographic negative 1839 Daguerre announces his photographic process William Fox Talbot announces his photographic process 1844 Samuel Morse invents the telegraph 1844 William Fox Talbot publishes The Pencil of Nature 1848 Karl Marx publishes the Communist Manifesto 1853 Commodore Perry opens Japan 1859 Charles Darwin publishes the Origin of the Species 1861-65 American Civil War—introduces ironclad ships, revolving gun turrets, naval torpedoes and proto-machine guns among other modern military innovations 1870 Franco-Prussian War, first fully industrialized European war makes extensive use of railroads, breech loading rifles, telegraphy, balloon reconnaissance and steel artillery
  4. 4. Tea Serving Automaton Japanese 1700s
  5. 5. <ul><li>Nineteenth Century Inventions and Discoveries </li></ul><ul><li>anesthesia </li></ul><ul><li>antiseptic surgery </li></ul><ul><li>aspirin </li></ul><ul><li>atomizer (for spraying mists) </li></ul><ul><li>automobile </li></ul><ul><li>barbed wire </li></ul><ul><li>benzene </li></ul><ul><li>bicycle </li></ul><ul><li>color separations for printing (CMYK) </li></ul><ul><li>commercial extraction of aluminum from bauxite </li></ul><ul><li>diesel </li></ul><ul><li>dirigible and Zeppelin </li></ul><ul><li>dynamite </li></ul><ul><li>electric chair </li></ul><ul><li>electric generator </li></ul><ul><li>electric lighting </li></ul><ul><li>electric motor </li></ul>elevator evolution gasoline genetics germ theory helium (first discovered on the surface of the sun through spectrophotometry in 1868) internal combustion engine (gasoline, diesel and alcohol) kerosene linotype locomotive and train motion pictures nitroglycerine periodic chart of elements phonograph photoengraving photography primitive plastics radio radioactivity refrigeration and principles of air conditioning rotary steam presses screw propeller sewing machine skyscraper spark plug steam turbine (a technology essential to the invention of the jet engine) steamships sterile canning (food preservation) stop motion photography synthetic dyes telegraph telephone typewriter vacuum bottles x-rays
  6. 6. <ul><li>Inventions of Military and Political Importance </li></ul><ul><li>camouflage </li></ul><ul><li>concentration camp </li></ul><ul><li>breech-loading rifles and artillery </li></ul><ul><li>guncotton </li></ul><ul><li>ironclads and steel ships with revolving turrets </li></ul><ul><li>machine gun </li></ul><ul><li>metal cartridges </li></ul><ul><li>observational balloon with telegraph </li></ul><ul><li>operational submarines </li></ul><ul><li>revolvers </li></ul><ul><li>smokeless powder </li></ul><ul><li>torpedoes </li></ul>
  7. 7. Modernism, Modern, Modernity: What Do They Mean? Progress Process Form and Function Subjectivity and Relativism Change and Revolution Charles Darwin The Origin of the Species Through Natural Selection, 1859 Karl Marx The Communist Manifesto, Das Kapital 1. The dictatorship of the proletariat 2. Dialectical Materialism 3. The elimination of private capital 4. The workers must control the means of production 5. The end of history 6. Imperialism as the highest form of capitalism 7. “The opiate of the people”
  8. 8. Friedrich Nietzsche Beyond Good and Evil, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, The Genealogy of Morals, The Will to Power 1. “ God is dead! God remains dead! And we have killed him!” 2. Christianity as a “slave morality” 3. The Übermensch or Overman, also known as the superman 4. “When we hear the ancient bells growling on a Sunday morning we ask ourselves: Is it really possible! This, for a Jew, crucified two thousand years ago, who said he was God's son? The proof of such a claim is lacking. Certainly the Christian religion is an antiquity projected into our times from remote prehistory; and the fact that the claim is believed - whereas one is otherwise so strict in examining pretensions - is perhaps the most ancient piece of this heritage. A god who begets children with a mortal woman; a sage who bids men work no more, have no more courts, but look for the signs of the impending end of the world; a justice that accepts the innocent as a vicarious sacrifice; someone who orders his disciples to drink his blood; prayers for miraculous interventions; sins perpetrated against a god, atoned for by a god; fear of a beyond to which death is the portal; the form of the cross as a symbol in a time that no longer knows the function and ignominy of the cross—how ghoulishly all this touches us, as if from the tomb of a primeval past! Can one believe that such things are still believed?” 5. “Anything which] is a living and not a dying body... will have to be an incarnate will to power, it will strive to grow, spread, seize, become predominant — not from any morality or immorality but because it is living and because life simply is will to power... 'Exploitation'... belongs to the essence of what lives, as a basic organic function; it is a consequence of the will to power, which is after all the will to life.” 6. “There are no facts, only interpretations.” 7. “Convictions are more dangerous enemies of truth than lies.”
  9. 9. Competing Social, Political and Economic Philosophies that Influenced the Arts 1. Socialism 2. Capitalism 3. Communism 4. Positivism 5. Darwinism and its non-Darwinian offshoot, Social Darwinism 6. Militarism 7. Nationalism 8. Imperialism Terms Essential to an Understanding of Modern Art and Society All definitions drawn from the Oxford American Dictionary ideology noun 1 ( pl. -gies ) a system of ideas and ideals, esp. one that forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy : the ideology of republicanism. the ideas and manner of thinking characteristic of a group, social class, or individual : a critique of bourgeois ideology. archaic visionary speculation, esp. of an unrealistic or idealistic nature. 2 archaic the science of ideas; the study of their origin and nature.
  10. 10. teleology noun ( pl. -gies ) Philosophy the explanation of phenomena by the purpose they serve rather than by postulated causes. Theology the doctrine of design and purpose in the material world. dialectic noun Philosophy (also dialectics ) [usu. treated as sing. ] 1 the art of investigating or discussing the truth of opinions. 2 inquiry into metaphysical contradictions and their solutions. the existence or action of opposing social forces, concepts, etc. The ancient Greeks used the term dialectic to refer to various methods of reasoning and discussion in order to discover the truth. More recently, Kant applied the term to the criticism of the contradictions that arise from supposing knowledge of objects beyond the limits of experience, e.g., the soul. Hegel applied the term to the process of thought by which apparent contradictions (which he termed thesis and antithesis) are seen to be part of a higher truth (synthesis).
  11. 11. progress noun forward or onward movement toward a destination : the darkness did not stop my progress | they failed to make any progress up the narrow estuary. advance or development toward a better, more complete, or more modern condition : we are making progress toward equal rights. nationalism noun patriotic feeling, principles, or efforts. an extreme form of this, esp. marked by a feeling of superiority over other countries. advocacy of political independence for a particular country : Palestinian nationalism. Thesaurus nationalism noun their extreme nationalism was frightening patriotism, patriotic sentiment, flag-waving, xenophobia, chauvinism, jingoism. See notes at chauvinism , jingoism . imperialism noun a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force : the struggle against imperialism figurative | French ministers protested at U.S. cultural imperialism. chiefly historical rule by an emperor.
  12. 12. militarism noun chiefly derogatory the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests. positivism noun Philosophy 1 a philosophical system that holds that every rationally justifiable assertion can be scientifically verified or is capable of logical or mathematical proof, and that therefore rejects metaphysics and theism. [ORIGIN: from French positivisme , coined by the French philosopher Auguste Comte .] a humanistic religious system founded on this. another term for logical positivism . 2 the theory that laws are to be understood as social rules, valid because they are enacted by authority or derive logically from existing decisions, and that ideal or moral considerations (e.g., that a rule is unjust) should not limit the scope or operation of the law. 3 the state or quality of being positive : in this age of illogical positivism, no one wants to sound negative.
  13. 13. social Darwinism noun the theory that individuals, groups, and peoples are subject to the same Darwinian laws of natural selection as plants and animals. Now largely discredited, social Darwinism was advocated by Herbert Spencer and others in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and was used to justify political conservatism, imperialism, and racism and to discourage intervention and reform. dialectical materialism noun the Marxist theory (adopted as the official philosophy of the Soviet communists) that political and historical events result from the conflict of social forces and are interpretable as a series of contradictions and their solutions. The conflict is believed to be caused by material needs. ontology noun the branch of metaphysics dealing with the nature of being. phenomenology noun Philosophy the science of phenomena as distinct from that of the nature of being. an approach that concentrates on the study of consciousness and the objects of direct experience.
  14. 14. Jean-Antoine Watteau 1684-1721
  15. 15. Jacques-Louis David 1748-1825 Antoine-Laurent et Marie-Anne Lavoisier 1788 oil on canvas 259 x 196 cm.
  16. 16. Jacques-Louis David 1748-1825 The Oath of the Horatii 1784 oil on canvas 3,30 x 4,25 m.
  17. 17. Jacques-Louis David 1748-1825 The Death of Marat 1793 oil on canvas
  18. 18. Jacques-Louis David 1748-1825 The Death of Socrate 1787 oil on canvas 129 x 196 cm.
  19. 19. Jacques-Louis David 1748-1825 Napol éon Crossing the Saint Bernard Pass 1800 oil on canvas 260 x 221 cm.
  20. 20. Jacques-Louis David 1748-1825 Madame R écamier 1800 oil on canvas 1,64 x 2,44 m.
  21. 21. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres 1780-1867 M. Philibert Rivi ère 1805 oil on canvas 114 x 90 cm.
  22. 22. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres 1780-1867 Napoléon I 1806 oil on canvas 264 x 160 cm.
  23. 23. Gilbert Stuart 1755-1828 George Washington 1796-1805 oil on canvas 63 x 60 cm.
  24. 24. Rembrandt Peale Thomas Jefferson 1800 oil on canvas
  25. 26. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres 1780-1867 Louis-François Bertin Journalist and director of the Journal des D ébats 1832 oil on canvas 114 x 94 cm.
  26. 27. Henry Darby 1829-1897 Henry Clay 1858 (after Clay’sdeath in 1852) oil on canvas 125 x 101 cm.
  27. 28. The Industrial Revolution and Photography science, steam and a new way of seeing
  28. 29. <ul><li>Jacques de Vaucanson and Joseph Marie Jacquard </li></ul><ul><li>Jacquard Loom </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>Charles, Third Earl of Stanhope </li></ul><ul><li>All-iron Printing Press </li></ul><ul><li>1800 </li></ul><ul><li>Required one-tenth the manual force required on a wooden press </li></ul><ul><li>Friedrich Koenig </li></ul><ul><li>First Steam-Powered Printing Press </li></ul><ul><li>1814 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Caused the speed of printing to skyrocket while the price dropped considerably” </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>Model 5 Linotype </li></ul><ul><li>Otto Mergenthaler’s invention allowed daily newspapers to expand beyond eight pages and brought down the cost of books </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>Camera Obscura </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>Vermeer </li></ul><ul><li>The Girl with the Red Hat </li></ul><ul><li>1665 </li></ul><ul><li>Oil on Panel </li></ul><ul><li>9.125” x 7.125” </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>The Camera Lucida </li></ul><ul><li>Notice sur l’usage de la chambre claire Account on the Use of the Camera Lucida </li></ul><ul><li>1834 </li></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>Charles Richard Meade </li></ul><ul><li>Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre </li></ul><ul><li>1848 </li></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>William Henry Fox Talbott </li></ul><ul><li>The Open Door </li></ul><ul><li>1843 </li></ul><ul><li>Salted paper print from a calotype negative </li></ul>
  36. 37. <ul><li>Joseph Niepce </li></ul><ul><li>The First Photograph from Nature </li></ul><ul><li>1826 </li></ul><ul><li>Louis Jacques Daguerre </li></ul><ul><li>Paris Boulevard </li></ul><ul><li>1839 </li></ul><ul><li>First Photograph to Include a Human Being </li></ul><ul><li>William Henry Fox Talbot </li></ul><ul><li>View toward Lecco, Oct. 1833 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Because Talbot could only capture the basic outlines of the landscape in his camera obscura drawings, he began to research photography.” </li></ul><ul><li>William Henry Fox Talbot </li></ul><ul><li>Cameraless Shadow Picture of Flowers </li></ul><ul><li>1839 </li></ul><ul><li>William Henry Fox Talbot </li></ul><ul><li>The First Photographic Negative </li></ul><ul><li>1835 </li></ul><ul><li>Made with light-sensitive paper in a camera obscura </li></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><li>William Henry Fox Talbot </li></ul><ul><li>Print from the First Photographic Negative </li></ul><ul><li>William Henry Fox Talbot </li></ul><ul><li>Pages from The Pencil of Nature </li></ul><ul><li>1844 </li></ul><ul><li>“ This first book to be illustrated entirely with photographs had original prints mounted onto the printed page. Plate VII is a photogram.” </li></ul>
  38. 39. <ul><li>“ An ambrotype was a photographic negative whose positive-negative character was reversed by placing black cloth or paper behind it to make the clear areas of the negative black, while the emulsion’s opaque surface reflected light to take on the quality of a dull, positive print.” </li></ul><ul><li>Advertisement for Dry Plates </li></ul><ul><li>c. 1884 </li></ul><ul><li>Advertisement for the Kodak Camera </li></ul><ul><li>c. 1889 </li></ul><ul><li>“ George Eastman’s camera, simple enough for anyone ‘who can wind a watch,’ played a major role in making photography every person’s art form.” </li></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><li>Attributed from Mathew Brady </li></ul><ul><li>Freedmen on the Canal </li></ul><ul><li>1865 </li></ul><ul><li>Photograph </li></ul><ul><li>John Macdonald </li></ul><ul><li>Wood Engraving from Freedmen on the Canal </li></ul>
  40. 41. <ul><li>Stephen H. Horgan </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental Photoengraving </li></ul><ul><li>1880 </li></ul><ul><li>“ This first halftone printing plate to reproduce a photograph in a newspaper heralded the potential of photography in visual communications.” </li></ul>
  41. 42. <ul><li>Honoré Daumier </li></ul><ul><li>“ Nadar elevates photography to the level of art,” from The Boulevard, May 25, 1862 </li></ul>
  42. 43. <ul><li>Paul Nadar </li></ul><ul><li>Nadar Interviewing Chevreul </li></ul><ul><li>1886 </li></ul><ul><li>“ The words spoken by the one-hundred-year-old chemist were recorded below each photograph to produce a visual-verbal record of the interview.” </li></ul>
  43. 44. <ul><li>Mathew Brady </li></ul><ul><li>Dunker Church and the Dead </li></ul><ul><li>1862 </li></ul><ul><li>Photographed after the Battle of Antietam, “the bloodiest battle of the Civil War” </li></ul>
  44. 45. <ul><li>Eadward Muybridge </li></ul><ul><li>“ Plate published in The Horse in Motion , 1863. Sequence photography proved </li></ul><ul><li>the ability of graphic images to record time-and-space relationships. Moving </li></ul><ul><li>images became a possibility.” </li></ul>
  45. 46. <ul><li>Thomas Eakins </li></ul><ul><li>John Biglin in a Single Scull </li></ul><ul><li>1873-74 </li></ul><ul><li>Oil on Canvas </li></ul><ul><li>24” x 16” </li></ul>
  46. 47. <ul><li>Thomas Eakins </li></ul><ul><li>The Agnew Clinic </li></ul><ul><li>1889 </li></ul><ul><li>Oil on Canvas </li></ul><ul><li>84” x 118” </li></ul>
  47. 48. <ul><li>Thomas Eakins </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Eakins and Male Nudes at the Site of “Swimming” </li></ul><ul><li>1884 </li></ul><ul><li>Platinum Print </li></ul>
  48. 49. <ul><li>Thomas Eakins </li></ul><ul><li>Swimming </li></ul><ul><li>1884-85 </li></ul><ul><li>Oil on Canvas </li></ul><ul><li>27” x 36” </li></ul>
  49. 50. <ul><li>Thomas Eakins </li></ul><ul><li>Motion Studies </li></ul><ul><li>1885 </li></ul>
  50. 51. <ul><li>Edgar Degas </li></ul><ul><li>Diego Martelli </li></ul><ul><li>1879 </li></ul><ul><li>Oil on Canvas </li></ul><ul><li>42” x 39.37” </li></ul>
  51. 52. <ul><li>Edgar Degas </li></ul><ul><li>La La at the Cirque Fernando, Paris </li></ul><ul><li>1879 </li></ul><ul><li>Canvas </li></ul><ul><li>46” x 30.5” </li></ul>
  52. 53. <ul><li>Edgar Degas </li></ul><ul><li>Horses on the Course at Longchamp </li></ul><ul><li>1873-75 </li></ul><ul><li>Canvas </li></ul><ul><li>12” x 15.75” </li></ul>
  53. 54. <ul><li>Auguste Renoir </li></ul><ul><li>Luncheon of the Boating Party </li></ul><ul><li>1881 </li></ul><ul><li>Oil on Canvas </li></ul><ul><li>4’ 3” x 5’ 8” </li></ul>
  54. 55. Claude Monet Le Pont de l’Europe, Gare St.-Lazare
  55. 56. <ul><li>Louis Ducos du Hauron </li></ul><ul><li>Angoulême, France </li></ul><ul><li>1877 </li></ul><ul><li>Three-color Carbon Print </li></ul>

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