IEEE 1547

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IEEE 1547 - National Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Generation with Electrical Power Systems (EPS)

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IEEE 1547

  1. 1. 1547 Series StandardsNational Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Generation with Electrical Power Systems (EPS) Presented byTIJANI, HAFEEZ OLASUNKANMI LECTURER: DR. TAN CHEE WEI FACULTY OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA http://www.facebook.com/thafeezolasunkanmi
  2. 2. OVERVIEW• IEEE 1547 series are standards for interconnecting distribution resources with electric power systems which helps utilities tap surplus electricity from alternative sources.• The standard establishes technical requirements for electric power systems interconnecting with distributed generators such as fuel cells, photovoltaic, micro-turbine, reciprocating engines, wind generators, large turbines, and other local generators. 2
  3. 3. OVERVIEW (2)• These standards was developed under IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 (SCC21) on Fuel Cells, Photovoltaic, Dispersed Generation, and Energy Storage.• The development of 1547 has included arduous debate and scrutiny by hundreds of dedicated and experienced members of IEEE. 3
  4. 4. INTRODUCTIONWHAT IS THE MEANING OF IEEE?Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE).• IEEE – is an international technical professional society• More than 375,000 members from 150 countries• One of the pre-eminent standards bodies• Advances the theory and application of electro-technologies and allied sciences• Produces over 30% of world’s published literatures in electrical engineering, computers, and controls.• IEEE standards are recognized nationally and worldwide. 4
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION:WHAT IS IEEE 1547?. 5
  6. 6. IEEE 1547 INTERCONNECTION TERMS Note: There can be any number of EPSs. 6
  7. 7. IEEE 1547 DEFINITIONS Distributed generator (DG) - An Electric generation facilities connected to an Area EPS through a PCC; a subset of DR. Distributed resources (DR) - sources of electric power that are not directly connected to a bulk power transmission system. DR includes both generator and energy storage technologies. Electric power system (EPS) - facilities that deliver power to a load.  Area EPS - An EPS that serves local EPSs.  Local EPS - An EPS entirely within a single premises or a group of premises. 7
  8. 8. IEEE 1547 DEFINITIONS (2) Interconnection - is the result of the process of adding a DR unit to an area EPS. Interconnection equipment – refers to individual or multiple devices used in an interconnection system. Interconnection system - is the collection of all interconnection equipment, taken as a group, used to interconnect a DR unit(s) to an area EPS. Point of common coupling (PCC) - is the point where a local EPS is connected to the Area EPS. Point of DR connection - refers to the point where a DR unit is electrically connected in an EPS. 8
  9. 9. WHY STANDARD IEEE1547? 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. Functional diagram of an interconnection systemFig. A functional block diagram of interconnection system (including special configuration) 11
  12. 12. IEEE 1547 SERIESThe IEEE 1547 series of existing, published standards are: IEEE Std 1547™(2003), (reaffirmed 2008) - IEEE Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems IEEE Std 1547.1™(2005) - IEEE Standard Conformance Test Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems IEEE Std 1547.2™(2008) - IEEE Application Guide for IEEE Std 1547™, IEEE Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems IEEE Std 1547.3™(2007) - IEEE Guide for Monitoring, Information Exchange, and Control of Distributed Resources Interconnected with Electric Power Systems 12
  13. 13. IEEE 1547 SERIES (CONTD.)The IEEE SCC21 1547 series of standards development projects that arecurrently underway are as follows: IEEE P1547.4™ - Draft Guide for Design, Operation, and Integration of Distributed Resource Island Systems with Electric Power Systems. IEEE P1547.5™ - Draft Technical Guidelines for Interconnection of Electric Power Sources Greater Than 10 MVA to the Power Transmission Grid; IEEE P1547.6™ - Draft Recommended Practice for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems Distribution Secondary Network; IEEE P1547.7™ - Draft Guide to Conducting Distribution Impact Studies for Distributed Resource Interconnection. 13
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. IEEE STANDARD 1547.1• IEEE Std 1547.1 (Standard for Conformance Test Procedures) …-- this standard specifies the type, production, and commissioning tests that shall be performed to demonstrate that interconnection functions and equipment of a distributed resource (DR) conform to IEEE Std 1547.• Interconnection System 15
  16. 16. IEEE STANDARD 1547.2IEEE 1547.2 application guide to 1547 - offers alternate approaches –e.g., practicalapplications guidance, tips, techniques and rules of thumb for applying IEEE 1547to specific interconnection situations on specific utility distribution feeders.Industry identified this as critically important practical companion to 1547. 16
  17. 17. IEEE STANDARD 1547.3IEEE1547.3 - guide to information exchange, monitoring and control for DR:alternate approaches – e.g., guidance for power industrycommunications/specific cases of DR interconnection situations 17
  18. 18. P1547.4 GUIDE FOR DR ISLAND SYSTEMSBACKGROUND: OPERATING CONCEPTS FOR THE DISTRIBUTIONSYSTEM• Radial Distribution System: The most common type of connection between utility and load. Power only flows from utility to load.• Microgrid or Intentional Island: Aggregation of loads and sources capable of operating either in parallel with or to end users. Depending on configuration, power flows only within microgrid or can export power to utility. Independent from a larger electric grid, while providing continuous power.• Networked Distribution System w/ 2-way power flow: Distribution in which the secondaries of the distribution transformers are connected in a grid, typically energized at the customers’ utilization voltage, to serve multiple loads. 18
  19. 19. IEEE 1547 SERIES TITLE SCOPE stated requirements are universally needed for interconnection of distributed resourcesIEEE Std 1547TM (2003) - Standard that include both distributed generators asfor Interconnecting Distributed well as energy storage systems, includingResources with Electric Power Systems synchronous machines, induction machines, or power inverters/converters and will be sufficient for most installations. Specifies the type, production, and commissioning tests that shall be performed to demonstrate that interconnectionIEEE Std 1547.1 (2005) - Standardfor Conformance Test Procedures for functions and equipment of a distributedEquipment Interconnecting Distributed resource (DR) conform to IEEE Std 1547.Resources with Electric Power Systems These test procedures must provide both repeatable results, independent of test location, and flexibility to accommodate a variety of DR technologies. 19
  20. 20. provides tips, techniques, and rules ofP1547.2 TM Draft Application Guidefor IEEE Standard 1547 for thumb, and it addresses topics related toInterconnecting Distributed Resources distributed resource project implementationwith Electric Power Systems to enhance the users understanding of how IEEE Std 1547 may relate to those topics. provides guidelines for monitoring, information exchange, and control forIEEE Std 1547.3 TM (2007) Guide for distributed resources (DR) interconnectedMonitoring, Information Exchange and with electric power systems (EPS). ItControl of Distributed Resources facilitates the interoperability of one or moreInterconnected with Electric Power distributed resources interconnected withSystems electric power systems and describes functionality, parameters and methodologies for monitoring, information exchange and control for the systems. 20
  21. 21. provides alternative approaches and goodIEEE P1547.4 TM Draft Guide for practices for the design, operation, andDesign, Operation, and Integration of integration of DR island systems with EPS,Distributed Resource Island Systems with the ability to separate from andwith Electric Power Systems reconnect to part of the area EPS while providing power to the islanded EPSs. provides guidelines regarding the technicalIEEE P1547.5 Draft Technical requirements, including design,Guidelines for Interconnection of construction, commissioning acceptanceElectric Power Sources Greater Than testing, and, maintenance performance10 MVA to the Power Transmission requirements, for interconnectingGrid dispatchable electric power sources with a capacity of more than 10 MVA to a bulk power transmission grid. 21
  22. 22. recommends criteria, requirements and tests, and provides guidance for interconnection of distribution secondaryIEEE P1547.6 Draft Recommended network system types of area EPS withPractice for Interconnecting distributed resources providing electricDistributed Resources With Electric power generation in local electric powerPower Systems Distribution SecondaryNetworks systems (local EPS). And includes performances, operation, testing, safety considerations, and maintenance of the interconnection. describes criteria, scope, methodology and extent for engineering studies of the impactIEEE P1547.7™, Draft Guide to on area electric power systems of aConducting Distribution Impact Studiesfor Distributed Resource distributed resource or aggregateInterconnection distributed resource interconnected to an area electric power distribution system. 22
  23. 23. INTERCONNECTION TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS AND REQUIREMENTSGeneral requirements Response to Area EPS Abnormal Conditions• Voltage Regulation • Area EPS Faults• Integration with Area EPS Grounding • Frequency• Synchronization • Voltage• DR on Secondary Grid and Spot • Loss of Synchronism Networks • Area EPS Reclosing Coordination• Inadvertent Energizing of the Area • Reconnection to Area EPS EPS• Monitoring Provisions• Isolation Device Power Quality• Interconnect Integrity • Limitation of DC InjectionIslanding • Limitation of Voltage Flicker induced by the Distribution Resources• Unintentional Islanding • Harmonics• Intentional Islanding 23
  24. 24. Interconnection Test specifications and requirements Design Test Production Test.• Abnormal voltage and frequency To meet requirements of:• Unintentional Islanding • response to abnormal voltage and frequency• Limitation of DC injection • synchronization• Synchronization • may be performed at the factory or at• Interconnection integrity time of commissioning• Harmonics Commissioning TestInterconnection Installation • Visual InspectionEvaluation • Operability test on the isolation device • Unintentional islanding functionality test • Grounding Integration with area EPS • Cease to energize functionality test • Isolation Device • Monitoring provisions Periodic Interconnection Test • Area EPS faults • All interconnection-related protective • Area EPS reclosing coordination functions and associated batteries 24
  25. 25. IEEE 1547- BENEFITSStandards Development, Validation, and Usefulness of IEEE 1547 􀂾 Accelerates engineering advances & implementation, interoperability, and installation; Assists increased quality and reliability achievement; Simplifies compliance to needs, permitting, & rules; Promotes advanced communications; software platforms interchangeability; Enables enhanced DR systems and grid intelligence; Lower cost and quicker deployment for projects. 25
  26. 26. IEEE 1547- BENEFITS (CONTD.)Safeguards against hazards;Fosters quality design and manufacture;Increases competitiveness in industry and expands markets;Facilitates Trade and Commerce;Assurance is provided when products meet quality standards, thenusers need not be concerned with further testing or evaluation of theproduct. 26
  27. 27. AREA OF APPLICATIONThe following diagrams show seven common types of DR applications that requiresinterconnection systems using IEEE 1547 standard Reciprocating engine/combustion turbine used for emergency/backup power This is the most common type of DR interconnection system and, in case of failure (i.e., of the area EPS), an automatic transfer switch breaks the connection with the area EPS and then makes the connection with the DR. 27
  28. 28. • Reciprocating engine/combustion turbine used for premium powerIn this case, DR is used to provide premium power, which is free of power-qualityproblems such as frequency variations, voltage transients, dips, and surges. Power ofsuch quality is not available directly from the area EPS. Thus, requires auxiliary power-conditioning equipment (including uninterruptible power supplies) and emergency orstandby power. A transfer switch or paralleling switchgear is also required. 28
  29. 29.  Reciprocating engine/combustion turbine used as a dispatchable peakerSome interconnection equipment manufacturers have designed systems in which backupsystems can be converted to allow them to be dispatchable. This system allows the DRowner or the area EPS operator to run the unit on demand. Currently, most dispatchablesystems use a local area EPS remote terminal unit to communicate to the DR. 29
  30. 30.  Microturbine used for prime power, as a peaking unit, or for power export.Most micro-turbines use inverter-based interconnection systems. This unit employs theuse of software algorithms to provide functions such as protective relaying. 30
  31. 31.  Fuel cell with inverterMost fuel cells are used to produce premium power and use inverter-basedinterconnection systems. These units use software algorithms to provide functions suchas protective relaying. 31
  32. 32.  PV system with inverterSmall PV systems use inverter-based interconnection systems, and some state public utilitycommissions require utilities to allow for net-metering systems. 32
  33. 33.  Wind turbine with generatorAlthough, large wind turbines and multiple-wind turbine “wind farms” do not fit thedefinition of DR because they are directly connected to the transmission system via adedicated substation or portion of a transmission substation. They are more like central-station power plants. Smaller wind turbines typically use inverters. Figure shows a windturbine system with net metering. 33
  34. 34. REFERENCES• IEEE Application Guide for IEEE Std 1547™, IEEE Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems• Tom Basso, Dick DeBlasio ; IEEE 1547 Overview, DOE High-Tech Inverter Workshop Codes and Standards Development October 13 –14, 2004• Thomas S. Basso; IEEE 1547 Series of Standards: Interconnection Issues• T. Basso, N.R. Friedman; IEEE 1547 National Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Generation: How Could It Help My Facility?, NREL/JA-560- 34875 November 2003.• Tom Basso and Mike Coddington; 1547 Interconnection Standards, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) South Dakota PUC Staff Workshop March 18-19, 2008• T. Basso and R. DeBlasio; Advancing Smart Grid Interoperability and Implementing NISTs Interoperability Roadmap Conference Paper NREL/CP-550-47000, April 2010 34
  35. 35. IEEE 35

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