Expert Systems Sailendra Sharma Rohan Tamrkar Indira School Of Career Development [email_address]
A computer application that performs a task that would otherwise be performed by a human expert. For example, there are expert systems that can diagnose human illnesses, make financial forecasts, and schedule routes for delivery vehicles.
Some expert systems are designed to take the place of human experts, while others are designed to aid them.
Expert systems are part of a general category of computer applications known as artificial intelligence .
To design an expert system, one needs a knowledge engineer, an individual who studies how human experts make decisions and translates the rules into terms that a computer can understand.
Expert systems are used to aid
Single point decisions. e.g. Planning
Designing. e.g. Design of an irrigation system
Selection. e.g. The most suitable Crop variety or market outlet
Diagnosis or identification. e.g. Of a livestock disorder
Interpretation. e.g. Of a set of financial accounts
Prediction. e.g. of extreme events such as thunderstorms and frost;
A sequence of tactical decisions throughout a production cycle. e.g. plant protection and nutrition decisions, livestock feeding.
Components of an Expert System
– In various forms: associations, models, etc.
– Exhaustive enumeration, on-line, etc.
– Programs, pattern matching, rules, etc.
Particular decision problem
As a stand – alone advisory system for the specific knowledge domain perhaps with monitoring by a human expert
To provide decision – support for a high-level human expert
To allow a high-level expert to be replaced by a subordinate expert aided by the expert system
As a delivery system for extension information
To provide management education for decision makers
For dissemination of up-to-date scientific information in a readily accessible and easily understood form, to agricultural researchers and advisers.
Logic flow of the expert system
The part of the plant where symptoms have been the observed is given by the extension officer
The basic symptoms are given as input;
Considering these symptoms the user is expected to give further information based on other visual symptoms
At this step the disease and pest are identified
The user is then given the option to either stop or further diagnose and other disease / pest or get preventive or curative measures on these.
Have the ability to imitate human thought and reasoning
Make modification of knowledge very convenient
Ability of interpretation and transparency makes interaction more user friendly
With the machine learning technique knowledge can be acquired automatically and directly from experimental data and real time examples
Provide expert level recommendations understandable to users
Have the ability to handle uncertain information
Indian Expert Systems
National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management (MANAGE) has developed an expert system to diagnose pests and diseases for rice crop and suggest preventive/curative measures.
The rice crop doctor illustrates the use of expert-systems broadly in the area of agriculture and more specifically in the area of rice production through development of a prototype, taking into consideration a few major pests and diseases and some deficiency problems limiting rice yield.
The diseases included are rice blast, brown spots, sheath blight, rice tungro virus, false smut fungi, bacterial leaf blight, sheath rot and zinc deficiency disease.
The pests included are stem borers, rice gall midge, brown plant hopper, rice leaf folder, green leaf hopper and Gundhi bug.
The Expert system must be developed in local languages which will help the Farmers to develop their own expertise which in turn will enhance the production and productivity of Agriculture.
These expert systems must be available in village booths which act as information resource center for the farmers in the villages.
Manager should promote the development of expert systems and act as a co-orientating /nodal agency and also motivate and train people to make best use of expert systems.
Manager may play a crucial role in encouraging and promoting extension departments, NGO’s to serve people better by adopting expert systems as critical component of cyber extension.