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The kirkpatrick award

  1. 1. December 2009 Heat- Transfer Fluids Page 32 13KirKPatricK award • Heat-transfer fluids • retrieving Plant-design data Page 17 Building A Better Dryer Screeners Target Efficiencyvol. 116 no. 13 december 2009 Facts At Your Focus on Millichannel Retrieving Fingertips: Level Measurement Reactors Plant-Design Data Control Valves And Control •
  2. 2. Performance Fluids from DowFluids thatMove YourWorldIt takes the right fluids to achieve high levels of performance, ™ help maintain winter aviationproductivity and economy. For operating supplies that meet critical safety while contributing to on-time flight departure performance.functional and protection needs in demanding applications, choose www.ucaradf.comperformance fluids from Dow. We supply advanced, proven, andreliable solutions for heat transfer, lubrication, fluid power, freeze We stand behind our fluids with a global support team that canand corrosion protection, and deicing. provide the application, technical, regulatory, sales and customer service assistance you require. For fluids that perform, choose ™ † performance fluids from Dow. increase processing efficiency and economics inhigh temperature processing environments. ™ ™ U.S, Canada, and Mexico: 1-800-447-4369 help prevent system corrosion and freeze Latin America: (+55) 11-5188-9222damage in water-based HVAC, food and beverage, and other Europe: +800-3-694-6367* or (+32) 3-450-2240systems. Asia-Pacific: +800-7776-7776* or (+60) 3-7958-3392 ™ help protect circulatingsystems against corrosion and cavitation erosion damage in gaspipeline compressor engines and other oil and gas ™ reduce wear and extend the life ®TM Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company (“Dow”) or an affiliated company of Dow †SYLTHERM Fluids are manufactured by Dow Corning Corporation and distributed byof industrial, mobile, marine and other equipment while offering The Dow Chemical Companyimportant fire-resistance and economic benefits. *Toll-free service not available in all countries. Circle 01 on p. 62 or go to
  3. 3. Revolutionary design Convey pneumatically to/from multiple discharge/inlet points eliminates 4 bulk bag Flexicon pneumatic con- unloading veying systems transport a broad range of bulk materi- als over short or long dis- problems tances between single or multiple inlet and dis- charge points in small to high capacities. Offered in both positive pressure or vacuum configurations, from single-point “up-and-Cinch spouts concentrically Eliminate dust during in” installations to mobilewith POWER-CINCHER® disconnect and bag collapse units to cross-plant sys-flow control valve* with BAG-VAC® system tems complete with rotary airlock valves, pick-upUnlike opposing bars that The BAG-VAC® system vacuums adapters, filter receivers,pinch the spout of partially displaced air and dust from the cyclone separators, fill/passempty bags from two sides, the receiving vessel and returns clean valves, hand-held pick-up wands, silos, day bins and more.POWER-CINCHER® flow control air to the plant. The vacuum also Available designed, constructed and finished to industrialvalve* cinches the spout concen- causes empty bags to collapse and sanitary standards.trically—on a horizontal axis for dust-free prior to disconnect,easier tie-offs and greater flow eliminating the dust emittedcontrol, and vertically in a tight during manual flattening of Convey free- andzigzag pattern to prevent leaks.In addition, it resists jamming, empty bags. With optional double-wall telescoping non-free-flowing materialsbreaking and leaking, and allows tube, it vacuums any parti- Convey free-flowing andfull-open discharge from bag cles dropped from spout non-free-flowing bulk solidsspouts of all popular diameters. creases during discon- ranging from large pelletsUSDA Dairy Accepted. nect, while eliminating to sub-micron powders— awkward access ports. including materials that can fluidize, degrade, pack, cake, smear, seize or plug in other conveyors—with no separation of blended products. Units convey vertically, horizontally, or at any angle—through small openings in walls or ceil- ings—around, over, or under obstructions. The MEETS 3-A SANITARY STANDARDS Prevent dead spots and pro- only moving part contact-Eliminate dust during mote flow with TELE-TUBE® ing material is a ruggedhook-up/discharge with telescoping tube* flexible screw, increasing reliability and cutting maintenance.SPOUT-LOCK® clamp ring* Enclosed conveyor tube prevents contamination of productThe SPOUT-LOCK® clamp ring* The TELE-TUBE® telescoping and plant environment. Cleans quickly, easily. Individualcreates a high-integrity, sealed Models for hoist and tube* pneumatically raises the conveyors available as well as plant-wide systems with auto-connection between the clean trolley loading (shown) SPOUT-LOCK® clamp ring* (at mated controls.side of the bag spout and the and forklift loading, left) for connection to the bagclean side of the telescoping available with flexible screw conveyor (shown), spout, then allows it to lower, Connect bulk bags quickly,tube. This prevents contamination applying continual downwardof the product, while eliminating pneumatic conveying tension. As a result, the spout is easily, safely at floor level system, outlets to suit anythe plant contamination that process, and integrated kept taut at all times, preventingoccurs when falling material excess spout material from New SWING-DOWN™bulk scale system for bag filler* lowers andrapidly displaces air and dust. loss-of-weight batching bulging outward (creating deadIt also stretches the spout down- directly from bags. spots) or falling inward (creating pivots the fill head, stop-ward in combination with the flow restrictions). Works in uni- ping it in a vertically-orient-TELE-TUBE® telescoping tube* son with FLOW-FLEXER™ bag ed position that places the(at right). activators to promote flow. bag inlet spout inflatable connection, inflator button, and four bag loop latches Patented advances make other designs obsolete within one arms length ofFlexicon innovations boost the productivity, safety, and Flexicon also offers a wide range of other mechanical an operator standing on thecleanliness of your bulk bag unloading operations far process equipment—as well as weigh batching and plant floor, allowing safe,beyond the limits of other designs. And unlike Flexicon’s blending stations—as individual units or engineered, rapid bag connections.previous unloaders, widely copied by competitors, these automated systems integrated with your new or existing Eliminates danger of step-new generation machines are based on advances that are process—constructed and finished to industrial, food, ping onto and over rollerpatented or patent pending. dairy and pharmaceutical standards. conveyors to access rear bag hooks and spout con- nection collars, standing onFLEXICON CORPORATION UNITED KINGDOM +44 (0)1227 374710 the conveyor with head and arms inserted beneath opera-2400 Emrick Blvd, Bethlehem, PA 18020-8006 USA AUSTRALIA +61 (0)2 9482 4033 tional fill head components, and straining to pull bag spoutsTel: 1 888 FLEXICON • (1 888 353 9426) SOUTH AFRICA +27 (0)41 453 1871 upward over inflatable collars while reaching for bag inflatorTel: 1 610 814 2400 • Fax: 1 610 814 0600 buttons. Available to industrial, food, dairy and pharmaceuti-E-mail: cal standards with numerous performance enhancements. Call for free, new CD ROM *Patent(s) granted and/or pending. ©2005 Flexicon Corporation. V-0765 ® Flexicon Corporation has registrations and pending applications for the trademark FLEXICON throughout the world. Circle 04 on p. 62 or go to
  4. 4. Circle 05 on p. 62 or go to
  5. 5. December 2009 In ThIs Issue Volume 116, no. 13 Commentary 5 Editor’s Page Changing times present different opportunities The economic crises of this past year have accelerated changes in the CPI. LookingCover story forward, chemical17 Cover Story 40th Kirkpatrick Award businesses are fo- Announced Seven companies are hon- cusing on what are ored with the announcement of this years expected to be key Kirkpatrick Award winners. This biennial economic drivers — prize, bestowed since the 1930s, recognizes one of which is in- the most noteworthy chemical engineering novation technology commercialized anywhere in the world during 2007 and 2008 departmentsnews Letters . . . . . . . . . . . 611 Chementator ”All-in-one” fluegas scrub- ber cleans up sulfur and particulate matter; Calendar . . . . . . . . 8, 9 Non-invasive probe measures corrosion Who’s Who . . . . . . . 30 inside boiler water tubes in realtime; Higher yields and lower cost are expected for this Reader Service biomass-to-ethanol process; The commercial page . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 eqUipment & serviCes debut for a process that makes “natural” Economic gas from coal; Onsite incineration of sewage 28D-1 New Products & Services (Domestic Indicators . . . . . 63, 64 sludge to be demonstrated; Using the sun to Edition) Avoid kinking on tight turns with decontaminate wastewater; and more this tubing; Measure oxygen drift-free with this transmitter; A magnet operates on advertisers23 Newsfront Screeners Target Efficiency this rupture-disc sensor; These regulators Screening system manufacturers look to Literature Review . . 54 suppress internal cylinder forces for safety; squeeze more out of their equipment Monitor hydrogen sulfide in water with Classified25 Newsfront Building A Better Dryer Al- these sensors; A purging compound effec- Advertising . . . . .56–60 though they are notorious energy hogs, tive for biodegradeable resins; and more Advertiser Index . . . 61 drying systems can be made more efficient 28D-1 New Products & Servicesengineering (International Edition) Extend level Coming29 Facts At Your Fingertips Control Valves measurement with this flexible probe; Do in JanUary This one-page guide outlines how installed more with this dewpoint transmitter; A new motorized actuator for linear valves; Look for: Feature gain graphs are prepared and used Aggressive media are not a problem for Reports on Capital32 Feature Report Maximizing Heat- this dosing system; Keep flange leaks from Equipment Procure- Transfer Fluid Longevity Proper selec- spraying with this shield; The latest in ment; and Water tion, monitoring and maintenance can shaft-alignment systems is simple to use; Treatment and En- protect fluids from damage due to thermal A new exchange resin for industrial water ergy Conservation; degradation, oxidation and contamination treatment; and more Engineering Prac-40 Feature Report Smooth Your Retrieval tice articles on Pres- 51 Focus Level Measurement sure Relief During of Plant-Design Data Even after con- And Control Accurate struction and startup, plant design data are an External Fire; and level measurement in Recommended Fluid needed for operations, maintenance and steam applications; This revamps. But working with a plethora of Velocities; A Focus pump protection switch can on Weighing; News formats and platforms introduces its own be used in a variety of situa- set of challenges articles on Scrub- tions; An easy way to measure bers; Catalysts; and44 Engineering Practice Millichannel level is introduced; Measure the Personal Achieve- Reactors — A Practical Middle Ground levels in challenging environ- ment Award; Facts for Production Reactors with millimeter- ments; A radar level transmitter at Your Fingertips scale dimensions provide mixing, heat trans- that is economical; Measure sub- on Pressure Measure- fer and other advantages over devices with mersed solids under water; A hand-held ment; and more larger dimensions, while boasting increased device to measure levels in non-metallic robustness compared to microdevices. Here containers; Detect and control interfaces Cover photo: are tips to consider for using them with this switch; and more Lucite International ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com DeCember 2009 3
  6. 6. © 2009 Swagelok Company Contrary to what you may think, we’re much more than a tube fitting company. And we have our obsession with Customer Focus to thank for that. Yes, we’re In addition to tube fittings, known throughout the world for our tube fittings. And yes, we’ve been at it for over 60 years. But when companies are looking harder than ever for greater value, it’s we also make valves, our broad range of products, including orbital welders, modular systems, and a regulators, filters, complete line of hose, that helps us offer more than you expect. See for yourself and happier customers. at Circle 06 on p. 62 or go to
  7. 7. Winner of Eight Jesse H. Neal Awards for Editorial Excellence Editor’s Page Published since 1902 Changing times present different opportunities An Access Intelligence PublicationPublisHEr Art & dEsiGNMikE O’rOurkE dAvid WHitcHEr LPublisher Art Director/ ike it or not, 2009 will go down as a year when massive Editorial Production Manager change began in the chemicals business. We are far from feeling theEditOrs PrOductiON full effects of the upheaval, but there is a sense of revolution in the airrEbEkkAH J. MArsHAllEditor in Chief MicHAEl d. krAus that will cause lasting change for chemical engineers everywhere. VP of Production & Historically, the financial crisis, and the global recession that followed it,dOrOtHy lOzOWski stEvE OlsON will be seen as accelerators of changes that were already waiting to happen.Managing Director of Production & In 2009 the world realized that China and India were in the driver’s seat ManufacturingGErAld ONdrEy (Frankfurt) for determining the rate of future economic growth. It was the year thatSenior Editor JOHN blAylOck-cOOkE the Middle East saw the true dawn of its predominance in Ad Production Manager production based on low-cost feedstock, and South America began to risescOtt JENkiNsAssociate Editor MArkEtiNG in industrial prominence. It was also the year when North Americans HOlly rOuNtrEE Europeans realized that only game-changing innovation — especially in thecONtributiNG EditOrs Marketing Manager fuels and energy sectors — was the route to lasting success for the future.suzANNE A. sHEllEy AudiENcE Hopefully, it was not the year that protectionism started to gain a dEvElOPMENt hold. But there are signs that governments will try to protect their do do-cHArlEs butcHEr (U.K.) sylviA Senior Vice President, mestic industries and their populations by employing covert protection protection-PAul s. GrAd (Australia) Corporate Audience Development ism, dressed up as environmental legislation to manipulate markets. In short, the last 12 months have been full of challenges. So what istEtsuO sAtOH (Japan) JOHN Vice President, the outlook and where are the opportunities? The manufacture of basicJOy lEPrEE (New Jersey) Audience Development Chemical chemicals and plastics will shift eastward to an axis defined by the Mid Mid- lAuriE HOfMANN dle East at one end and China at the other. These regions are going toGErAld PArkiNsON Audience Marketing Director need more practiced and skilled engineers. First opportunity: Go East, young engineer! tErry bEstEditOriAl Audience Development Manager China is going to be the new magnetic consumer market — if its econ-AdvisOry bOArd omy does not overheat in the short term, but certainly in the long termJOHN cArsON GEOrGE sEvEriNEJenike & Johanson, Inc. Fulfillment Manager — replacing the U.S. as the place to sell almost everything and anything.dAvid dickEy However, the Chinese consumer is unlikely to mimic the U.S. consumer —MixTech, Inc. JEN fElliNG it is simply not part of the Chinese culture to over-extend through easy borbor-MukEsH dOblE List Sales, Statlistics (203) 778-8700IIT Madras, India rowing. Second opportunity: Learn about China and its consumers’ needs.HENry kistEr cONfErENcEs A shift to making chemical specialties in North America and EuropeFluor Corp. dANA d. cArEy will happen sooner than previously expected. An export-led petrochemi petrochemi- Director, Global Event SponsorshipstrEvOr klEtz cal recovery on the U.S. Gulf Coast seems unlikely in the face of new Mid Mid-Loughborough University, U.K. PEck siM dle Eastern and Latin American capacities. Specialty markets, especiallyGErHArd krEysADECHEMA e.V. Senior Manager, anything relating to food-and-water supply, and health-and-personal Conference ProgrammingrAM rAMAcHANdrAN care, will be the safe haven for many U.S. chemical companies. Third op op-BOC bEAtriz suArEz portunity: Investigate specialty chemicals. Director of Conference OperationsiNfOrMAtiON The other safe haven is innovation, where companies can obtain thesErvicEsrObErt PAciOrEk cOrPOrAtE funding to back the right projects. In short, North America and EuropeSenior VP & Chief Information Officer stEvE bArbEr will rely on chemical engineers to determine how they can build the VP, Financial Planning & Internal Audit economies of the third millennium. More than anything, that means howcHArlEs sANdsSenior Developer briAN NEssEN we move from a world that depends on fossil fuels to one dependent onWeb/business Applications Architect Group Publisher other technologies, and how we deal with removing greenhouse gases our production processes. That means more biotechnology breakthroughsHEAdquArtErs and more sustainable processes. Fourth opportunity: Go greener.110 William Street, 11th Floor, New York, NY 10038, U.S.Tel: 212-621-4900 Fax: 212-621-4694 For chemical engineers, 2009 brought change —EurOPEAN EditOriAl OfficEs with both great opportunities and much uncertainty.Zeilweg 44, D-60439 Frankfurt am Main, Germany Change can be unsettling, but we should all hang on toTel: 49-69-2547-2073 Fax: 49-69-5700-2484 this guiding principle — that the world’s problems, likecirculAtiON rEquEsts:Tel: 847-564-9290 Fax: 847-564-9453 the housing and feeding of six billion people, issues ofFullfillment Manager; P.O. Box 3588, sustainability and global warming, can only be solvedNorthbrook, IL 60065-3588 email: by communities like the one that reads this magazine.AdvErtisiNG rEquEsts: see p. 62 We hold the solutions to the crises that confront theFor photocopy or reuse requests: 800-772-3350 or info@copyright.comFor reprints: world in the decades ahead. ■ John Pearson, Divisional President ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com deCember 2009 5
  8. 8. Letters Spontaneous combustion I enjoyed your advisory piece for chemical engineers — old and young: “Don’t wait to react” (CE, October, p. 5). Two weeks ago I gave a presentation on spontaneous combustion at a meeting of mulch facility operators. Of over 100 conference attendees, only one raised his hand when I asked how many operators had never had a problem with spontaneous combustion! I really enjoy the Chementator section of Chemical Engineering. Richard Buggeln, PhD Manager, Environmental Programs, Center for Industrial Services, University of Tennessee Help us support ChE education Striving to continually advance the chemical engineer- ing profession has been a goal for this magazine since its founding more than 107 years ago. To help cultivate new talent, CE established the annual Chopey Scholarship for Chemical Engineering Excellence in memory of Nicholas (Nick) P. Chopey, our former Editor In Chief. Nick carried many torches at CE including those for the Kirkpatrick and Personal Achievement Award competitions that are held in alternating years. To honor and continue Nick’s valuable and lasting con- tributions to the chemical engineering profession, CE will match up to $10,000 of all donations for the 2009 scholar- ship fund that are received prior to June 1, 2010. Donations. Checks should be made out to Scholarship America with “Nicholas P. Chopey Scholarship Program” in the memo area. Please send your donations to the fol- lowing address prior to June 1, 2010: Nicholas P. Chopey Scholarship Fund Nanette Santiago Chemical EngineeringCircle 07 on p. 62 or go to 110 William St., 11th floor New York, NY 10038 Details and qualifications for applicants. The schol- arship is a one-time award for current third-year students who are enrolled in a fulltime undergraduate course of study in chemical engineering at one of the following four- year colleges or universities, which include Mr. Chopey’s alma mater and those of the current editorial staff: University of Virginia University of Kansas SUNY Buffalo Columbia University Polytechnic University The program will utilize standard Scholarship America recipient-selection procedures including the consider- ation of past academic performance and future potential, leadership and participation in school and community activities, work experience, and statement of career and educational aspirations and goals. Applications must be postmarked by April 1. Guidelines are distributed directly to the chemical engineering department of the qualified schools.
  9. 9. Circle 08 on p. 62 or go to
  10. 10. CalendarNORTH AMERICA 202-347-2900; Web: cleaning101.com21st International Organic Process Research & Orlando, Fla. Jan. 26–30Development. Scientific Update Conferences (East Sus-sex, U.K.). Phone: +44 (0) 1435 873062; IMAC 28th Conference & Expo on Structural Dy-Web: namics and Renewable Energy. Society for Experi-San Diego, Calif. Jan. 20–22 mental Mechanics (Bethel, Conn.). Phone: 203-790-6373; Web: sem.orgStem Cells World Congress. Select Biosciences (Shel- Jacksonville, Fla. Feb. 1–4ton, Conn.). Phone: 203-926-1400;Web: 2010 Forum on Energy Efficiency in Agriculture.South San Francisco, Calif. Jan. 20–21 The American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE; Washington, D.C.). Phone: 202-507-4033; Web:Lab Automation 2010. Association for Lab Automation, Ill.). Phone: 888-733-1252; Madison, Wisc. Feb. 7–9Web: labautomation.orgPalm Springs, Calif. Jan. 23–27 2010 Packaging Conference. The Packaging Conference LLC (Holland, Ohio). Phone: 866-509-6001;Safety and Selectivity in the Scale-Up of Chemical Web: thepackagingconference.comReactions. Scientific Update Conferences (East Sussex, Las Vegas, Nev. Feb. 8–10U.K.). Phone: +44 (0) 1435 873062;Web: Informex 2010: The Business of Fine, SpecialtySavannah, Ga. Jan. 25–26 and Custom Chemistry. UBM International Media/In- formex (Princeton, N.J.). Phone: 609-759-4700;2010 SDA Annual Meeting & Industry Conven- Web: informex.comtion. Soap & Detergent Assn. (Washington, D.C.). Phone: San Francisco, Calif. Feb. 16–19 Check Valves Built � Easily � 3A Compliant: third party to Your verified. 32Ra, finer finishes Disassembled: also available. spare parts available. Check � No Pooling: eliminates the pooling found in � Retrofit: for use globe-type bodies. List. in new or existing sanitary ferrules and replaces the gasket. � Space Saving: compact; seals on ferrule ID and uses only one clamp. West Des Moines, Iowa USA Phone: 515-224-2301 US Patent Numbers: 5,033,503; 6,039,073; & 6,152,171 Canadian Patent Number: 2,039,991 Since 1958 Circle 09 on p. 62 or go to ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com DeCember 2009
  11. 11. AAAS Annual Meeting. American Association for Chemical Development & Scale-up in the Fine the Advancement of Science (New York, N.Y.). Phone: Chemical and pharmaceutical Industries. 202-326-6400; Web: Scientific Update Conferences (East Sussex, U.K.). San Diego, Calif. Feb. 18–22 Phone:+44 (0) 1435 873062; Web: Biophysical Society Annual Meeting and Biophys- Lisbon, Portugal March 2–4 ics Congress. Biophysical Society (Bethesda, Md.). Phone: 301-634-7114; Web: Advances in Synthetic Biology. Select Biosciences San Francisco, Calif. Feb. 20–24 (Shelton, Conn.). Phone: 203-926-1400; Web: Scaling from Milligrams to 1–2 kg. Scientific London March 4–5 Update Conferences (East Sussex, U.K.). Phone: +44 (0) 1435 873062; Web: ASIA & ELSEwhErE San Francisco, Calif. Feb. 22–23 2nd International Conference on Drug Discovery & Therapy. Higher Colleges of Technology and Eureka Sci- EuropE ence (Sharjah, UAE). Phone: +971 6 5571132; Screening Europe. Select Biosciences (Shelton, Conn.). Web: Phone: 203-926-1400; Web: Dubai, UAE Feb. 1–4 Barcelona, Spain Feb. 11–12 ChemSpec India 2010: The Fine & Specialty Analytica 2010: International Trade Fair for Instru- Chemicals Connection. Quart Business Media (Ux- mental Analysis, Lab, Technology & Biotechnol- bridge, Middlesex, U.K.). Phone: +44 (0) 1737 855 076; ogy. Messe Munchen GmbH (Munich). Phone: +49 (0) 89 Web: 949 20651; Web: Mumbai April 15–16 ■ Munich, Germany March 23–26 Suzanne Shelley Engineering advanced What is your simulation software provider aiming for? At Chemstations, we aim for customer satisfaction. Providing best-in-class support is the foundation of our success. We’ve built our company on integrity and customer service. We are committed to continually providing process simulation software that meets the needs of our customers who face increasingly complex technical and business challenges. Put CHEMCAD to the test and see if we’ve hit the target. CHEMCAD Suite → → Steady State, Dynamic → Continuous, Batch, Visit or call Semi-Batch 800.243.6223 for a free trial → Simulation, Equipment Design/Rating of CHEMCAD. * → Offline, Online Circle 10 on p. 62 or go to*Certain restrictions apply. Visit our Web site or contact us for more details. © 2009 Chemstations, Inc. All rights reserved. | CMS6958 08/09
  12. 12. Save MAACK BUSINESS SERVICES presents the Plastics Technology and Marketingdate! GLOBAL CONFERENCES, STUDIES, PROJECTS 13th Annual World Congress ® DU B A l Dubai, U.A.E., March [21]-22-23-24, 2010 10Middle East Plastics Applications ChainBusiness Reviews, Technology, Catalysts, Additives and Application Developments MAACK BUSINESS SERVICES Maack & Scheidl Partnership Plastics Technology and Marketing CH-8804 Au/near Zürich, Switzerland Tel: +41-44-781 30 40 Fax: +41-44-781 15 69 E-mail: GLOBAL CONFERENCES, STUDIES, PROJECTS Organized by: For more information: MAACK BUSINESS SERVICES Plastics Technology and Marketing GLOBAL CONFERENCES, STUDIES, PROJECTS 110 William Street, 11th Floor New York, NY 10038 Attn: Conference Department Phone: +1 212-621-4978 Fax: +1 212-621-4970 Email: 16538
  13. 13. Edited by Gerald Ondrey December 2009 Cleaned fluegas Mist eliminator to atmosphere Preventing droplet carry over Makeup water‘All-in-one’ fluegas scrubber cleans Causticup sulfur and particulate matter Tray 2 “Flushing” removal of dirty mistA multi-stage wet scrubber that combines the removal of sulfur, hydrogen chloride,sulfuric acid mist (SAM) and particulate Fluegas from boiler True venturi tubes Condensation andmatter (PM) in a single unit has reduced agglomeration of H2SO4, fumes and submicron PMsulfur dioxide emissions by an average of Quench Removal of any remaining SO2 Removal of99.7% in its first large-scale commercial coarse PM (particulateinstallation on a coal/oil-fired swing boiler. matter)PM emissions were reduced to 0.005 grains/ and some SO2 and HCl Tray 1dscf (dry standard cubic feet; 12.5 mg/Nm3), Removal of SO2 & HCl, and all PM>1 micronaccording to Kimmo Peltonen, a productmanager with Andritz, Inc. (Roswell, Ga.; Venturi stage, who spoke at the recent inlet & throat pumpsTAPPI Engineering, Pulping and Environ- Quenchmental Conference in Memphis, Tenn. An- recirculationdritz markets the technology together with Quench tank Tray pumps pumps Venturi stageEnviroCare International (American Can- recirculation tankyon, Calif.; Blow down The installation is on a 420,000-lb/hboiler at a large pulp-and-paper mill. Pre- The power of osmosisviously, smaller systems had been installed in high particulate capture as well as acid last month, Statkraft (oslo,in rotary kilns and municipal sludge incin- absorption, says Peltonen. Final cleanup is norway;, says Peltonen. In the first stage of achieved by a set of dual-orifice mist-elimi- opened what is claimed to bethe process (flowsheet), large particles are nation trays. Most of the water used in the the worlds first osmotic powerremoved from hot fluegas by an atomized- process is recycled to the Venturi stage after plant. although the prototypewater-spray quench. From the quench, the makeup water and caustic have been added. is very small (designed for 10stream enters the lower half of a scrubber- The rest is collected in a sump at the bot- kw), the company believesseparator vessel — a vertical, cylindrical tom of the scrubber-separator and recycled data gained from the pilot study will lead to a commer-unit, where the upflowing gas is scrubbed to the quench section. Dissolved solids con- cial-scale unit by a countercurrent water stream. centration is controlled by blowing down a The plant is located along The gas flows up through a Venturi stage fraction of the recycled water. the coast at Tofte, south ofthat consists of about 40 parallel Venturi Peltonen says the installed cost is ap- oslo. Fresh water flowing intotubes, each preceded by a high-pressure proximately 50% that of a traditional ar- the sea is diverted to a vesselliquid atomizer. The combination of the Ven- rangement of a dry electrostatic precipita- containing a semipermeableturis with finely atomized sprays causes tor (ESP) followed by a wet scrubber or wet membrane (spiral-wound,multiple collisions between the droplets ESP. Chemical costs are minimized by re- cellulose acetate) with brineand fine particles left in the gas, resulting using alkali present in the fly ash. (Continues on p. 12)Non-invasive probe measures corrosion inside boiler water tubes in real timeC hanges in the rate of corrosion in water tubes have been detectedwithin minutes by an externally The monitor operates on the principle of hydrogen effusion. In the corrosion process, two moles of hydrogen atoms The HEP consists of a silver cup that is clamped to the outside of the tube, sil- ver tubing, a pressure transducer and amounted monitor developed by the are produced for every mole of iron that valve. McKeen points out that silver isCenter for Nuclear Energy Research is dissolved into water, explains Kelly practically impermeable to H2. The sys-(CNER, Fredericton, NB, Canada; www. McKeen, a CNER project manager. The tem is operated under vacuum and The data were obtained in atomic H2 migrates through the wall of valve is automatically opened to allowonline tests over the past 18 months on the steel tube and recombines to form evacuation of the H2 and to restart aa black liquor recovery boiler at a kraft H2 gas, which is captured in CNER’s cycle after a predetermined pressuremill operated by Irving Pulp and Paper hydrogen effusion probe (HEP). The setpoint is reached.Ltd. (Saint John, NB). Details were pre- HEP measures the rate of H2 pressure McKeen says the main advantage ofsented at the recent TAPPI Conference increase and converts it to a corrosion the HEP over conventional methods, such(see story above). rate of millimeters per year. (Continues on p. 12)Note: For more information, circle the 3-digit numberon p. 62, or use the website designation. ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com DeCember 2009 11
  14. 14. Concentrated sulfuric acid Acid reconcentrationC hementato R Water Dilute sulfuric acid Steam Biomass 1st stage hydrolysis Condensate Filter returnHigher yields and lower cost are expected Steamfor this biomass-to-ethanol process Acid/Sugar Pump Solids LigninA process that produces 75–85 gal of ethanol per dry ton of mixed cellulosic waste feedwill be commercialized by BlueFire Ethanol Water Solution Lime Acid recovery Continuous(Irvine, Calif.; Sugar solution fermentation SugarsThe plant, to be built in Lancaster, Calif.,will convert 130 dry ton/d of feed (post-sorted Chromatographicmunicipal solid waste, including green waste) separation Yeast recycle Gypsuminto 4-million gal/yr (about 12,000 gal/d) of Ethanolethanol when it goes into production in the steam and plant power. About Distillation and dehydration beerfall of 2010. It will mark the first commer- 98% of the acid and 100% ofcial use of a process developed by Arkenol, the sugars are recovered in aInc. (also of Irvine), although the process has simulated moving-bed chro- Ethanol productbeen tested in three pilot plants. matographic separator. Acid Process The process uses concentrated sulfuric is recycled and the sugars are water recycleacid as a catalyst to transform cellulose and converted to ethanol by con-hemicellulose feedstocks into glucose and tinuous fermentation, using yeast (conver- (Continued from p. 12)xylose (C6 and C5) sugars. The yield is 1.5–3 sion is 100% for C6 sugars and 20% for C5s).times those of processes that use a combina- The sugars may also be converted to higher- on the other side. water fromtion of dilute sulfuric acid and enzymes for value products, using heterotrophic algae, the fresh side passes throughhydrolysis, says John Cuzens, senior vice- bacteria or fungi. the membrane due to the con-president of BlueFire and a former principal Cuzens says the key elements of the pro- centration difference, therebywith Arkenol. cess are the use of concentrated acid and of increasing the pressure on the Coarsely ground feed is dried to less than chromatographic separation, which recovers brine side. This osmotic pres- sure — equivalent to a 120-m10% moisture, contacted with 75% concen- the acid rather than neutralizing it and dis- column of water (about 12 bar)trated acid, and cooked at about 85°C and posing of the waste. The Lancaster plant will — is then used to drive a tur-ambient pressure for under 30 min. The have an operating cost of $1.50–2/gal (not in- bine for making electricity.hydrolyzed C6 and C5 sugars and acid are cluding a $1.01/gal tax credit), he says, and a The company estimates thethen separated from lignin and other sol- full-scale plant of 50-million gal/yr will have global potential of osmoticids, which are used as boiler fuel for process an operating cost of below 80¢/gal. power at 1,600 to 1,700 Twh/ yr — equivalent to 50% of the eU’s total power production.corrosion inside boiler water tubes 250°C for other H2 probes. The system’s (Continued from p. 15) rapid reaction to an increased corrosion rateas weight-loss coupons, ultrasonic measure- was proved during a boiler shutdown, when Efficient Cl2 productionment and other types of H2 probes is that the tubes were drained and cleaned with The oxygen-depolarizedit provides a realtime, online response. Also, inhibited hydrochloric acid. McKeen says cathode (oDC) of bayerit can be operated at temperatures above CNER is now negotiating with a petroleum materialScience (bmS; le-350°C, compared with a maximum of about company to do a test in a refinery. (Continues on p. 14)The commercial debut for a process that makes ‘natural’ gas from coalH aldor Topsøe A/S (Lyngby, Denmark; has signed a designcontract with an undisclosed client in February 2007, p. 11) uses coal-derived syngas (H2-to-CO ratio of slightly above 3), which has been passed through a The reaction is performed in a reactor with a very large DT and at the same time with a technology preventing theChina for a new plant that will produce sulfur-tolerant shift and acid-gas re- formation of nickel carbonyl. The DTsubstitute natural gas (SNG). When moval unit for removing H2S and excess ensures that heat can efficiently be re-the plant comes on stream in 2011, it carbon (as CO2). In order to protect the covered from the exothermic reactionwill produce close to 180,000 Nm3/h of methanation catalyst — Topsøe’s nickel- and used for generating superheated,SNG using Topsøe’s methanation pro- based MCR — from poisoning, the feed high-pressure steam. The cooled gascess, called TREMP. The plant will be is first passed through a sulfur guard then passes through two or three meth-the first large-scale order for TREMP bed to remove traces of sulfur compo- anation reactors in series for completetechnology, says general manager Jens nents. Desulfurized feed is then mixed conversion. Products leaving the last re-Perregaard, New Technologies, Tech- with recycle gas to control the maxi- actor are cooled and compressed to meetnology Division. mum temperature rise and passed to pipeline specifications. The SNG is typi- The Topsøe high-temperature metha- the first methanation reactor, where H2 cally 94–96 mol.% CH4, with a heatingnation process (for flowsheet, see CE, reacts with CO and CO2 to form CH4. value of 950–978 Btu/scf. 12 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com DeCember 2009
  15. 15. expanded solutions Honeywell’s field solution portfolio keeps getting bigger and bigger. Reliable and cost-effective, we offer a constantly expanding portfolio of field solutions to satisfy a broad range of your process needs. From analytical sensors and transmitters, to pressure and temperature transmitters, to flow and tank gauging solutions, Honeywell offers many solutions. Honeywell’s collection of field solutions let you tackle any job with ease to improve business performance. To learn more about Honeywell field solutions, please call 1-877-466-3993 or visit © 2008 Honeywell International, Inc. All rights reserved. Circle 11 on p. 62 or go to
  16. 16. C hementato R Sewage sludge 4% DMOnsite incineration of sewage Dewatering Flue gas Fluesludge to be demonstrated Filtrate Residue cleaning gas StackI ncineration is becoming the only via- ble method for sewage sludge disposalas landfilling or spreading sludge onto Sludge Off gas Flue gas 25% DMfarmland is no longer permitted in some Heatcountries. Today, sludge is commonly in- recoverycinerated in large, centralized incinera- Buffer Combustion Dryer Sludge Fluetors or as an additive in coal-fired power storage 90% DM gasplants or cement kilns. An alternative tothese costly and inconvenient options — Air Future Preheatedsmall, localized incinerators — has been Ash combustion airdeveloped by Huber SE (Berching, Ger- phosphate T Hot air Gmany;, in cooperation Heat for dryingwith partners in a three-year projectsupported under the European Commis- Airsion’s Life program. conveyed to a small furnace. The hot flu- reduction. Acid gases (such as SO2 and The new incinerators are based on egas from the furnace passes through a HCl) are neutralized by lime addition,Huber’s sludge2energy process (flow- heat recuperator that transfers the heat and remaining organic components aresheet). Sludge is first pre-dried in a belt to compressed ambient air, which drives adsorbed by activated carbon.dryer to a solids concentration of up to a micro gas turbine and electricity gen- Huber is designing the first sludge2en-90% by blowing hot (90°C) air through erator. Even small systems can produce ergy demonstration plant for the Bavar-the belts. The cooled air is reheated enough electricity and supply sufficient ian city of Straubing. This first plantwith heat recovered from the incinera- heat to run the entire process nearly au- will have a capacity to incinerate 2,200tor and recirculated through the dryer. tothermally, says the firm. metric tons per year (m.t./yr) of driedA slight underpressure is maintained in Formation of oxides of nitrogen are solids and will generate approximatelythe dryer to prevent the release of air, prevented by staged combustion, fluegas 100 kW of electric power. Startup for thevapors and odors. Dried sludge is then recirculation and selective, non-catalytic plant is planned for the end of 2010.Using the sun to decontaminate wastewater (Continued from p. 12)L ast month, a photocatalytic water-clean- ing system that removes organic andinorganic contaminants that are difficult L of industrial wastewater, removing of all oxidizable contamination in 2 h (given suit- able weather conditions). The demonstration verkusen, germany; www. will be used to produce chlorine onto breakdown from wastewater was inau- unit is able to completely clean the cooling an industrial scale. bmS is ingurated at the German Aerospace Center water from the engine test facilities at the negotiations with Uhde gmbh(DLR; Stuttgart; facility in DLR Institute of Space Propulsion, which (Dortmund, germany; www.Lampildshausem. The so-called RayWOx is contaminated with rocket fuels and their to build an oDCsystem features a new type of solar receiver combustion products, such as hydrazine and plant scheduled to start upconsisting of glass pipes. Wastewater mixed its derivatives, and nitrite. in 2011. The oCD technology (see CE, February 2001, pp.with an iron salt — the iron ion serving as The hydrazine derivatives are slow to de- 31–35) enables electrolysisphotocatalyst — and hydrogen peroxide grade with previously applied ultraviolet to be performed at a lowerflows through the tubes until the absorbed (UV) oxidation technology, notes Christian voltage, thereby generatingsolar radiation has decomposed the contam- Jung, a scientist at the DLR’s Institute for energy savings of up to 30%.inants. In pilot trials, the RayWOx process Technical Thermodynamics. The UV reac- bmS has been using this tech-has been shown to be effective for decon- tors consume large amounts of electrical nology to recover Cl2 from hCl,taminating water containing pharmaceuti- energy — for powering lamps, and for fast and has been operating thecal agents; X-ray contrast media and hor- pumping to dissipate waste heat — and UV largest hCl electrolysis plant atmones as well as chlorinated hydrocarbons oxidation typically needs 2–3 times more its site in Shanghai since 2008from contaminated groundwater; harmful oxidant (H2O2 and caroate), he adds. In con- (CE, october 2006, p. 16).substances in exhaust-air scrubbing solu- trast, the oxidant requirement of the iron-tions from textile manufacturing; and toxic catalyzed RayWOx process is close to the Direct polymerizationmaterials in municipal wastewater. theoretical demand, which saves 50–80% of last month, construction on The system operating at Lampildshausem, the H2O2 required, he says. a production plant for thermo-developed in collaboration with Hirschmann Modular construction of the RayWOx plastic methacrylate resin wasLaborgeräte GmbH (Eberstadt) and KACO technology makes is easy to install and well completed in Shanghai. The facility will mark the commer-new energy GmbH (Neckarsulm; www.kaco- suited to building systems of any desired size. cial debut for the, has a solar reactor 49-m long KACO new energy has commercialized theand 470-cm wide and can clean about 4,500 technology under the RayWOx tradename. (Continues on p. 16) 14 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com DeCember 2009
  17. 17. er ution of ov nd distrib k of sales a “We K YHquWRtkgelopbally… Des of e ipmen e trac c 18,000 pie DQG parts, to the right place, get the right at the right time DQG QGeasierparonvdedchReOaIpe r automate more processes Dtomize or im cus ns f solutio DQG cadus ce timcteifspyentroon service re ll to re er rs tions ommunica improve cdealers DQG with our vy load for our staff Microsoft Dynamics CRM lifted a heaefficiently.” DQG by managing our relation ships moreMicrosoft Dynamics® CRM integrates information from different sources and puts it in one place,at one time, so everyone in your company sees the information needed to make better decisionsfaster. It’s simple for your sales and support people to use, and it’s ready to fit your company rightaway. So you can spend less time on service calls and more time building stronger relationships.To learn more about the efficiencies Microsoft Dynamics CRM can create for your business,go to Circle 12 on p. 62 or go to
  18. 18. C hementato RA bioleaching process movescloser to commercializationI n February 2009, Talvivaara Mining Company Plc. (Espoo, Finland; delivered its first in aseries of commercial shipments of met-als to Norilsk Nickel Harjavalta refin-ery in Finland. Talvivaara expandedthe crushing circuit and has restartedthe metals precipitation process inSeptember of 2009. Talvivaara expectsto continue its production ramp-uptargeted at eventually achieving up to50,000 m.t./yr in nickel production in2012 at the multi-metals ore deposit inSotkamo, Finland. The operations —consisting of mining, crushing, leach-ing and metals recovery — utilize abioleaching process developed in col-laboration with several companiesand research institutions, includingTampere University of Technology. Bi-oleaching is said to be more environ-mentally friendly for extracting met-als than traditional smelting because (Continued from p. 14)it generates no gaseous emissions andrequires less energy. bient conditions are at –20°C. After the met- Direct Polymerization (CDP) process of Evonik Industries AG In the process (diagram), the crushed als are leached from the ore — which takes (Essen, Germany; www.evonik.ore is piled on a pad into 8-m-high stacks. about 1.5 yr — the metals can be recovered com), and will make productsPiping at the bottom of the heap supplies from the pregnant leaching solution by pre- used primarily as binders in theaeration to the stacked ore. A leach solution, cipitation and filtration. coatings industry.containing mesophilic and thermophilic bac- Pilot-scale leaching trials were conductedteria indigenous to the region, is circulated with 110 m.t. of ore in 2005, followed by a Preventing biofimsthrough the stack from the top. As the bacte- 17,000-m.t. demonstration trial carried out At last month’s Watec Confer-ria oxidize large quantities of pyrrhotite and from 2005–2008. The commercial opera- ence (Tel Aviv, Israel), Yissumpyrite, the exothermic reaction elevates the tion will process approximately 15-million Research Development Co.temperature to over 50°C — even when am- m.t./yr of ore. of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem Ltd. (Israel; www.A Japanese push for bio-ETBE over bioethanol introduced an envi- ronmentally friendly method forL ast month, Nippon Oil Corp. (Tokyo, lion L/yr. The facility uses 40-million L/yr preventing biofilm. The patented Japan; started produc- of bioethanol — produced at Hokkaido and method, which was developedtion bio-ETBE (ethyl tertiary butyl ether), imported from Brazil — and 70-million L/yr at Hebrew University, uses het- erocyclic compounds that disruptwhich will be blended into gasoline as an of FCC-based iso-butene. cell-to-cell communication (quo-alternative to ethanol as an oxygenate. The benefits of blending ETBE instead of rum sensing), thereby interferingNippon Petroleum Refining Co., a subsid- ethanol outweigh the increased complexity with the formation of biofilms.iary of Nippon Oil, inaugurated the facil- of ETBE production, says Nippon Oil. For The compounds can be ap-ity at its Negishi Oil Factory at Kanagawa example, gasoline with more than 3% etha- plied as non-leaching polymerPrefecture, Japan, on October 26. Nippon nol is corrosive and leads to a higher vapor coatings on pipes, filters, mem-Oil is planning to mix bio-ETBE with regu- pressure. Also, ethanol must be blended at branes, air-conditioning ductslar gasoline, which will be sold at 1,000 of the point of distribution to prevent water and other surfaces, and areits service stations in Tokyo. contamination and phase separation. ETBE effective against both fungal Bio-ETBE is made by the catalytic reac- does not have these problems. and bacterial biofilms. Potential applications include municipaltion of bioethanol with iso-butene derived The Japanese petroleum-refining industry and industrial water pipes, ir-from the company’s fluid catalytic cracking aims to market 840-million L/yr of gasoline rigation pipelines, paper making(FCC) unit. Nippon Oil modified its exist- with bio-ETBE (corresponding to 360-mil- machines, and desalination anding production facility for ETBE, and es- lion L/yr of bioethanol) starting with the fis- water-recycling processes. ❏tablished a production capacity of 100-mil- cal year April 2010. ■ 16 CHEmICAL EnGInEERInG WWW.CHE.Com DECEmbER 2009