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  • 1. March 2009 www.che.com 3pressure relief • industrial gases • solar power  Page 18 Wireless News Web 2.0 Tools Industrial Gases Milling & Grinding Pressure Relief Achema Show PreviewVol. 116 No. 3 march 2009 Facts at Your Fingertips: Membranes • 01_CHE_031509_COV.indd 1 2/25/09 8:56:19 AM
  • 2.            mighty powerful With Experion LS even small plants can carry a heavy load. Improve cycle time, quality and compliance with the power of a distributed control system delivered in a compact package. Honeywell provides process manufacturers of all sizes with optimum productivity and profitability. With powerful batch features, Experion LS helps small sites better respond to market changes and increase process uptime without the cumbersome engineering and lifecycle support of traditional PLC-based solutions. Let the process control experts help you transform your business with an agile system designed to reduce lifecycle costs and improve process efficiencies.  To learn more about Experion LS, please call 1-877-466-3993 or visit  Circle 01 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-01 © 2009 Honeywell International, Inc. All rights reserved. Honeywell 3-09.indd 1 2/19/09 11:00:52 AM
  • 3. Centrifuges Filters Dryers Systems -Maffei Krauss fuges Centri ryers D Filters, d an s System I need Meet our latest Innovation: Krauss-Maffei Dynamic Crossflow Filtration. This EMA in at ACH y. technology, using rotating discs, saves up to 80 % in energy. Further infor- Visit us rt, German 3-E16 fu 1 Frank .0, Stand D rward to mation is available on our homepage and at our stand at Achema 2009. Hall 5 looking fo Please stop by and find out more about this new technology! Free-admission We areg you. meetin vouchers for Achema are available at www.kmpt.com/active or per mail to achema@kmpt.com Circle 04 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-04PKPT-08-005_Image_200x273_Button09_eng.indd 4 30.01.2009 11:45:21 UhrKMPT 3-09.indd 1 2/19/09 11:07:35 AM
  • 4. Circle 05 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-05Emerson3-09.indd 1 2/19/09 11:10:09 AM
  • 5. March 2009 In This Issue Volume 116, no. 3 Commentary 5 Editor’s Page  Thank you, from our Publisher Chemical Engineering’s new pub- lisher introduces himself www.che.com and some of our latest offerings Cover story departments 18  over Story Solar’s Second C Coming Construction of CSP Letters..........................6, 8 plants is on the rise, bringing Bookshelf.................10, 11 . jobs and business to equipment Who’s Who. ...................41 . suppliers and chemical produc- Reader ers alike Service page...................62 NEWS Economic 12  Chementator A more efficient Indicators. ................63, 64 . way to extract energy from coal; Multiscale reactors come advertisers of age for making fine chemi- Literature cals; A process to make butadi- Review. ....................28–29 . ene from under-utilized cracker Product Showcase..........56 . C4 fractions; A new feedstock for carbon and graphite elec- Classified trodes: coal; Toxic plant yields a Advertising...............57–61 potential skin protector; Using Advertiser Index..............61 the sun to keep Australians cool; Photo- 48  eature Report Industrial Gas Applica- F catalysts; Eni orders world’s largest reac- tions In the CPI Technical and specialty coming in April tors; Biomass-to-ethanol; and more gases find use in many synthesis processes and a number of unit operations, in analysis Look for: Feature Re- 22  ewsfront If They Build It, N ports on Pumps; and and in plant maintenance Will You Come? Despite emerging Capital Cost Estimates; A wireless standards and heaps of benefits, Solids Processing article the CPI are approaching wireless technol- equipment & services on Bends in Pneumatic ogy with caution 40 -1, 40I-1 Show Preview Achema D Conveying Systems; An  chema 2009 (Frankfurt am Main, Ger- A Engineering Practice Engineering many; May 11–15), the World’s largest article on Understanding 27  Facts At Your Fingertips Membrane assembly of chemical process industry and Using CE’s Plant Cost Configurations This one-page guide professionals is approaching. With Index; An Environmetal provides an introduction to tubular, cap- over 200,000 visitors and more than Manager article on illary, spiral-wound and plate-and-frame 3,500 exhibitors filling the exhibition Controlling Electrostatic membrane configurations, while also grounds of Messe Frankfurt GmbH, this Charges; A Focus on Tem- detailing the tendency for each to expe- exhibition and congress on chemical perature Measurement & rience fouling engineering, environmental protection Control; News articles and biotechnology continues to be on Project Management & 31  ou and Your Job Using Web 2.0 Tools Y the flagship trade fair for the chemical Handover; and Recycling to Increase Your Productivity Web 2.0 process industries. This show preview in the CPI; Facts at Your developments can improve an engineer’s contains a cross-section of the products Fingertips on Energy Effi- productivity at work, as well as his or her and services that will be on display at ciency & Thermodynamics; professional development the show An Achema Show Pre- 42  eature Report Part 1 Combining Rup- F view II; and more 54  ocus Milling & Grinding The pat- F ture Disks with Safety Relief Valves A ented design of this unit improves This month’s cover shows rupture disk serves as a barrier, protecting the grinder efficiency; When spark reduc- workers building Europe’s safety relief valve from process media. This tion is important, use these grinding first parabolic-trough CSP barrier extends the life of the relief valve and discs; Achieve small media milling with plant, Andasol 1, in Gran- prevents leakage to the atmosphere this production mill; Get tight control ada, Spain. The 50-MW 45  eature Report Part 2 Getting the Most F of a process with realtime remote mill facility started operation to- Out of Your Rupture Disc For optimum operation; This unit sizes toxic and cor- wards the end of last year rupture-disc performance, pay attention to rosive chemicals; This roller style grinder Photo: Gollmer/Solar installation, operation and maintenance is designed for the lab and pilot plant Millennium Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 2009 302_CHE_031509_TOC.indd 3 2/23/09 10:14:52 AM
  • 6. Our calibration is worth its weight in gold. Promass F Coriolis mass flow measurement Tested on the world’s finest production calibration rigs, Promass F shines not only on the outside; it also shines thanks to its performance. With its robust design and unparalleled stability in operation, it greatly increases the value of your facilities. Promass F is ideal for virtually all fluids and measures several process parameters directly in the pipeline: Mass and volume flow, density, concentration as well as temperature. This means that expensive raw materials and semi-finished products are measured reliably, strict quality requirements are observed to the letter and maintenance costs are reduced significantly. • High degree of accuracy in practice: resistant to vibration, temperature and pressure changes • Optimum installation flexibility thanks to various process connections from 3/8” to 10” (DN 8 to 250) • High-temperature version up to 662°F (350°C) • National and international approvals for custody transfer • Excellent measuring accuracy: Promass F ±0.05%; calibration rig ±0.015% • Internationally accredited, fully traceable calibration rigs according to ISO/IEC 17025 (SAS, A2LA, CNAS) Endress+Hauser, Inc 2350 Endress Place Greenwood, IN 46143 Sales: 888-ENDRESS inquiry@us.endress.com Service: 800-642-8737 www.us.endress.com Fax: 317-535-8498 Circle 06 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-06Endress2-09.indd 1 2/23/09 7:38:50 AM
  • 7. Winner of Eight Jesse H. Neal Awards for Editorial Excellence Editor’s Page Published since 1902 An Access Intelligence Publication Thank you, from our Publisher I Publisher Art & Design t is with great pride and honor that I announce to our loyal readers and Mike O’Rourke DAVID WHITCHER advertisers that I have been promoted to publisher of Chemical Engi- Publisher Art Director/ neering. As I write this letter a week after the historic inauguration morourke@che.com Editorial Production Manager dwhitcher@che.com of President Obama, our nation has just enacted a change in leadership Editors Production as well. Now, I am not comparing the role of the publisher of Chemical Rebekkah j. Marshall Editor in Chief MICHAEL D. KRAUS Engineering to that of the new president by any stretch. President Obama rmarshall@che.com VP of Production & Manufacturing has many more problems on his plate trying to stabilize the economy, the mkraus@accessintel.com Dorothy Lozowski Steve Olson housing industry, the job market and more. Managing Editor dlozowski@che.com Director of Production & Still, I am taking responsibility of a brand with tremendous history. Manufacturing GERALD ONDREY (Frankfurt) solson@accessintel.com Chemical Engineering has enjoyed a loyal readership for over 106 years. I Senior Editor gondrey@che.com WILLIAM C. GRAHAM would like to thank you, our readers, for consistently turning to us for the kate torzewski Ad Production Manager “how to” information that keeps your chemical processing plants running. bgraham@che.com Assistant Editor Marketing That would not be possible without our dedicated team of editors led by ktorzewski@che.com Holly Rountree Rebekkah Marshall our Editor in Chief. Following longstanding traditions SUZANNE A. SHELLEY Contributing Editor Marketing Manager of editorial quality and integrity, the content these editors provide keeps hrountree@accessintel.com sshelley@che.com you coming back. Audience CORRESPONDENTS Development This year will be an important year for the chemical process industries Charles ButcheR (U.K.) Sylvia sierra (CPI) with two major trade shows impacting the market. Achema ’09, is cbutcher@che.com Senior Vice President, right around the corner in May, and we kick off our coverage of the event in Paul S. Grad (Australia) Corporate Audience Development pgrad@che.com ssierra@accessintel.com this issue with the first of our two preview sections. We will follow that up Tetsuo Satoh (Japan) John Rockwell with our April Achema issue as well as the Official Achema Daily, which Vice President, tsatoh@che.com Audience Development Chemical we publish in a joint venture with Vogel Publishing. Later in the year is Joy LePree (New Jersey) jrockwell@accessintel.com the Chem Show in New York City. Chemical Engineering will be deeply jlepree@che.com Gerald parkinson Laurie Hofmann involved in the Chem Show as well, producing show previews, show issues Audience Marketing Director (California) gparkinson@che.com lhofmann@Accessintel.com and the Chem Show Daily. Editorial Terry Best As you may have noticed, Chemical Engineering continues to evolve Advisory Board Audience Development Manager tbest@accessintel.com into much more than a monthly print publication. We have developed John Carson Jenike & Johanson, Inc. George Severine a top notch Website, www.che.com, which includes an extensive archive David Dickey Fulfillment Manager of our award winning editorial as well as news and information about gseverine@accessintel.com MixTech, Inc. Christie Lamont what is happening in and affecting the CPI. We have also developed a Mukesh Doble List Sales, World Data 561-393-8200 bimonthly eNewsletter and an informative series of Webinars. Our We- IIT Madras, India Henry Kister Conferences binars feature timely information regarding a variety of topics, such as Fluor Corp. Dana D. Carey the Plant of the Future Webinar we hosted in March of 2008. All of our Director, Global Event Sponsorships Trevor Kletz dcarey@chemweek.com Webinars are archived on our Website for viewing at your convenience, Loughborough University, U.K. Peck Sim so please take a look. Gerhard Kreysa DECHEMA e.V. Senior Manager, Conference Programming Meanwhile, one of our newer products is our job board called ChemPloy. Ram Ramachandran psim@chemweek.com If you are looking for a job or looking for help filling a position, check out BOC Beatriz Suarez the ChemPloy section on our Website. You can post a resume, view posi- Director of Conference Operations Information bsuarez@chemweek.com tions and also post job openings. Check back regularly because the job services Robert Paciorek Corporate board is updated on a daily basis. Senior VP & Chief Information Officer Steve Barber Another popular feature on our Website is the Online CE Plant Cost rpaciorek@accessintel.com VP, Financial Planning & Internal Audit sbarber@accessintel.com Index subscription, which provides electronic access to our renowned cap- Charles Sands Senior Developer Brian Nessen ital-cost-estimation tool. Look for us to grow our eMedia offerings as we Web/business Applications Architect Group Publisher continue to serve the needs of our readers wherever you may be located. csands@accessintel.com bnessen@accessintel.com If you do not have access to these electronic products and would like to, Headquarters please take a moment to register on our Website at www.che.com. 110 William Street, 11th Floor, New York, NY 10038, U.S. Tel: 212-621-4900 Fax: 212-621-4694 As we move forward, let us know if you like what you European Editorial offices are seeing from Chemical Engineering. Also please do Zeilweg 44, D-60439 Frankfurt am Main, Germany not hesitate to let us know if don’t like something or Tel: 49-69-2547-2073 Fax: 49-69-5700-2484 if you simply have suggestions for topics you’d like to Circulation Requests: Tel: 847-564-9290 Fax: 847-564-9453 see more often. We are here to serve our loyal readers. Fullfillment Manager; P.O. Box 3588, Please contact me at morourke@che.com if I can be of Northbrook, IL 60065-3588 email: clientservices@che.com any assistance. Here’s to a successful 2009! ■ Advertising Requests: see p. 62 Best Regards, For photocopy or reuse requests: 800-772-3350 or info@copyright.com For reprints: chemicalengineering@theygsgroup.com Mike O’Rourke Publisher Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 2009 503_CHE_031509_ED.indd 5 2/20/09 2:41:47 PM
  • 8. Letters Hydrogen Pinch Analysis I recently read Hydrogen-Pinch Analysis Made Easy Chem. Eng., June 2008, pp. 56–61. The paper presents an automated spreadsheet program to target the mini- mum fresh hydrogen resource for a hydrogen network. While the effort of the authors is appreciated, I do not agree with some claims in the paper, including the fol- lowing: 1.  The authors do not acknowledge an earlier work by El-Halwagi (2003), which is the most important graphical tool for resource conservation networks, including setting targets for a hydrogen network (see Example 4 of the paper). 2.  The authors claim that the gas cascade analysis (GCA) targeting technique by Foo and Manan (Au- thors’ Ref. [6]) has several limitations, which I do not agree with as detailed below (a spreadsheet that illustrates these points is attached to the on- line discussion of this article, which may be found by searching for the article title at www.che.com): a.  he authors claim that GCA by Foo and Manan T [6] does not allow the labeling of individual hy- drogen sources and sinks (pp. 56 and 59). This is a misleading claim, as users can easily add a comment on the cells to label the hydrogen sinks and sources in Microsoft Excel b.  imilar comments were also applied to the claim S found in p. 59 (paragraph just before Multiple Pinch Network), where the authors say that in order to change the flowrate of an individual source, one would have to change the combined source. Note that in MS Excel, one can easily link the cells that contain the limiting data of the sinks and sources with the table where the Circle 07 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-07 GCA calculation is performed. c.  he authors claim that in order to identify the T pinch using GCA, one will have to first assume a fresh hydrogen flowrate, and then go through two iterations. This is a seriously faulty claim. The principle of carrying out a GCA is the same as other algebraic targeting techniques (Linnhoff, others, 1982; Smith, 1995, 2005; El-Halwagi, 1997, 2006). The maximum deficit of fresh hydrogen is first identified, which is always located at the pinch. If one were to identify the fresh hydrogen feed, a second cascade would be needed, with the minimum fresh hydrogen being the absolute of the deficit value identified earlier. These are two sequential steps, not “iterations” as claimed by the authors. Dr. Dominic C. Y. Foo, associate professor University of Nottingham Malaysia. Authors’ reply 1.  p. 57 of our article, we state that our spread- On sheet method extends our work on water-system op- timization [9], which was accepted by this magazine in mid-2002, well before the graphical technique04_CHE_031509_LET.indd 6 2/20/09 8:10:41 AM
  • 9. Circle 08 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-08A Box 4 U 1-09.indd 1 2/19/09 11:12:05 AM
  • 10. Letters by El-Halwagi et al. (Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 42, p. 4319, 2003) was submitted to its journal in April 2003. A thoughtful reader can easily recognize the close similarity between Tables 2A and 2B in [9] for water-pinch analysis and the spreadsheet in Figure 3 in our article for hydrogen-pinch analysis. We do not use a less accurate graphical technique and find no reason to cite the paper by El-Halwagi. 2a.  e state on pp. 56–57 that “it is important to label W each stream with a name, which the GCA technique does not do”; we did not say that “the GCA tech- nique cannot do”. It’s a fact that Dr. Foo did not label each stream with a name in his article. We have made no comment of stream labeling on p. 59 of our article, as falsely claimed by Dr. Foo. 2b.  n developing our method, we have recognized I several limitations of the previous methods based on published information. Dr. Foo could write a let- ter to the editor to inform the reader that he has extended his published work and then post the extensions on a public Website for the interested readers. Significantly, we have already efficiently handled all of Dr. Foo’s latest extensions in our automated spreadsheet; but Dr. Foo has nothing to say about a key limitation of his method in having no effective means to quickly handle the complica- tions of the shift in flow interval ordering when changing the flowrates of hydrogen utilities, as dis- cussed on p. 60 of our article. 2c.  f Dr. Foo insists on calling it “two sequential steps”, I instead of “two iterations”, we have no quarrel with him. Note that he did mention the need for a second cascade in his letter. Contrary to the false claims by Dr. Foo, we have made our automated spreadsheet both user-friendly and practical for the engineers to apply our spreadsheet by: (1) not having to do any coding, and (2) simply fol- lowing the examples and clicking on a few buttons such as “Initialize” and “Analyze”. To find the hydro- gen pinch, the engineers only need to use the “goal seek” function within Excel, which have been taught routinely to senior high school students for years. Since the publication of our article, over 800 read- ers have accessed our Website and downloaded our spreadsheet. Y. A. Liu, Frank C. Vilbrandt Endowed Professor and April Nelson Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Postscripts, corrections January, Cover Story, CSTRs: Bound for Maximum Conversion, pp. 30–34: Equation (2b) has an error. CDf = CB0(1–Xf) should read as follows: CDf = CB0(M–Xf)  (2b) A corrected version of the article can be found by searching for the article title at www.che.com. Circle 09 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-09 8 Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 200904_CHE_031509_LET.indd 8 2/20/09 8:11:54 AM
  • 11. Where others enjoy the blue sky, we see 20 years of experience. Durable and innovative like our alloys: 75 years VDM. See you at: Environmental protection knows no boundaries. We’ve been delivering Achema high-performance alloys for flue gas desulfurization in coal-fired power Hall 3, Stand H34-J41 stations and waste incineration plants for 20 years now. In Europe, Asia, and the USA. High-alloy special stainless steels and nickel-base alloys – for application conditions ranging from demanding to extreme. For instance Nicrofer 5923 hMo-alloy 59 in absorbers exposed to ThyssenKrupp VDM corrosion loads and high temperatures. And we are as unyielding as our materials in our quest for the best. ThyssenKrupp VDM: A high-performance enterprise A company of ThyssenKrupp Stainless vdm@thyssenkrupp.com, www.thyssenkruppvdm.com Circle 10 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-10 TKThyssen 3-09.indd 1 2/19/09 11:14:19 AM
  • 12. Bookshelf Operator’s Guide to Centrifugal Pumps. By Robert X. Perez. Xlibris Corp. 436 Walnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19101. Web: xlibris.com. 2008. 196 pages. $50.99. Reviewed by Heinz P. Bloch, Process Machinery Consulting, West Des Moines, Iowa I t is important for reliability professionals to have easy access to a rather extensive library of technical books. There are certainly more than a dozen different pump books sitting on my shelves, and they all cater to different but overlapping audiences. If, until very recently, I might have had doubts about needing any additional ones, it turns out I would have been wrong. With his Operator’s Guide to Centrifugal Pumps, Robert X. Perez fills a very significant gap. Subtitled “What Every Reliability-Minded Operator Needs To Know,” this book was specifically written for process operators who regularly deal with centrifugal pumps. It optimally addresses the vari- ous variables and factors under the operators’ control and keeps design theory and mathematics to a minimum. I was impressed by the relevance of the topics covered by Robert Perez, an experienced engineer who devoted the better part of his career to interfacing with process opera- tors. His text deals with: •  he importance of equipment reliability and what role T operators play in this mission • Centrifugal pump operating characteristics • Mechanical seals and their related seal flush plans •  hat operators should know about electric motors W • Lubrication basics • Troubleshooting basics • How to start a pump reliability program By the time the reader reaches the end of this 194-page hard-bound text, he or she will have acquired a clear un- derstanding of how to operate and monitor process pumps. Three handy appendices are also contained in the book; they will answer questions that arise in the field. These appendices include: an perator’s Guide to API Flush O Circle 38 on p. 62 or go to Plans; Illustrated Glossary of Centrifugal Pump Terms; adlinks.che.com/23012-38 Glossary of Electric Motor Terms; and Useful Centrifugal Pump Formulas. This multi-faceted book can be used as a self-paced, self- taught short course or as a companion to a “live” prepared short course for both inexperienced and seasoned opera- tors. It can also serve as a handy field guide after comple- tion of the course. The author set out on a mission to add value. He wanted this book to provide the latest generation of opera- tors with a body of knowledge that is relevant, complete and practical in any industrial setting. Perez also wanted the text to be useful for years to come — I firmly believe he has accomplished this goal. Your facility will benefit05_CHE_031509_BKS.indd 10 2/20/09 2:49:18 PM
  • 13. FP4/SH.C.GB from this clear, extremely well-written narrative, the many illustrations, and the various experience-based checklists. Lithium-Ion Batteries: Science and Technologies. By Masaki Yoshio, Ralph J. Brodd, and Akiya Kozawa. Springer, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013. Web: springer.com. 2009. Visit us! 279 pages. $99.00 ACHEMA 2009 Frankfurt am Main, Sittig’s Handbook of Toxic and Haz- Germany ardous Chemicals and Carcinogens. 11 - 15 May 2009 Fifth edition. By Richard Phanish. Wil- Hall 3.0, Stand L20 - L21 liam Andrew Inc., 13 Eaton Ave., Nor- wich, N.Y. 13815. Web: williamandrew. com. 2008. 4,266 pages. $595.00. Molecular Modelling for Beginners. Second edition. By Sandor Fliszar. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 111 River St., MS 8-01, Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774. Web: wiley.com. 2008. 428 pages. $70.00. Industrial Pressure, Level, and Density Measurement. Second edi- tion. By Donald R. Gillum. ISA, 67 Al- exander Drive, Research Triangle Park, N.C. 27709. Web: isa.org. 2008. 624 pages. $99.00. The Performance Paradox: Un- derstanding the Real Drivers that Conveying Palletizing Packaging Critically Affect Outcomes. By Jerry L. Harbour. Productivity Press, 444 Park Ave., South, New York, NY 10016. Web: productivitypress.com. 2008. 192 BEUMER stretch hood® pages. $35. The powerful packaging Tank Linings for Chemical Process solution for the chemical Industries. By V. C. Chandrasekaran. Rapra Publishing, Shawbury, Shrews- industry. bury, Shropshire SY4 4NR U.K. Web: ismithers.net. 2008. 172 pages. $225. Catalysis of Organic Reactions. Twenty-second edition. By Eli Lilly Optimal safety for all palletized loading units. & Company. CRC Press, 6000 Broken Proven reliable in all weather conditions and Sound Parkway, NW, Suite 300, Boca Raton, FL 33487. Web: crcpress.com. keeps its appearance at the same time. The 2008. 568 pages. $169.95. high-capacity packaging machine, BEUMER stretch hood®, efficiently combines the latest Process Systems Analysis and Con- control technology, sophisticated function trol. By Donald R. Coughanowr and modules and secure film handling. See for Steven LeBlanc. McGraw Hill. 1221 yourself. We look forward to your visit! Ave. of the Americas, New York, N.Y. Circle 12 on p. 62 or go to 10020-1095. Web: mhprofessional.com. adlinks.che.com/23012-12 2008. 624 pages. $174.59.  ■ Kate Torzewski www.beumer.com05_CHE_031509_BKS.indd 11 BEU_AZ_99x273,4_SH_Chem_GB_ACHEMA.indd 1 13.01.2009 10:05:05 Uhr 2/23/09 2:03:52 PM
  • 14. Edited by Gerald Ondrey Month 2007 March 2009 Makeup particles A more efficient way to Ash/spent particles extract energy from coal Coal Boiler feed water A process that produces hydrogen from coal with close to 80% energy conver- sion efficiency, plus coproduction of a Fe2O3 CO2 + H2O Hg removal CO2 carbon-dioxide-rich stream for seques- Steam Combustor tration, is being developed at Ohio State Reducer Air O2 University (Columbus, Ohio; www.osu. edu). This compares with around 60% Fe/FeO H2S removal conversion efficiency for traditional coal N2 gasification processes, says Fanxing Li, Fe/FeO H2 a research associate and co-inventor of the process along with chemical engi- H2 Sulfur neering professor Liang-Shih Fan. Fe byproduct In the two-step process (flowsheet), Oxidizer called chemical looping conversion, pul- verized coal, iron oxide pellets (a pat- Steam ented composite of iron and such mate- Air Expander Generator compressor Fe2O4 Hot rials as alumina and silica) and oxygen spent air are fed into a moving-bed reactor (a reduction reactor). The carbon in the coal reacts with the iron oxide at about 850°C and 450 psi to produce iron and the energy intensive step of separating So far, the gasification process is CO2. The Fe passes to the second (oxida- the CO2 from the resultant gas mixture, being tested at a scale of 25 kWth, or tion) reactor, where it reacts with steam says Li. The oxygen requirement is only about 10 lb/h of coal. Li adds that a at around 800°C and 450 psi to yield H2. about 40% that of conventional coal variation of the process can be used for The Fe is reoxidized and recycled to the gasification. Alternatively, the use of O2 “indirect” coal combustion, with CO2 first reactor. can be avoided by burning part of the sequestration. In this configuration, The advantage of the process is that iron oxide feed and using the sensible the Fe is burned with air in the oxida- it produces H2 without the traditional heat from those particles to drive the tion reactor and the hot gases are used water-gas shift reaction and without first reaction. to drive a steam turbine. polyethylene (HDPE) production, which was Takeshi Kamiya originally developed by Amoco and introduced to Furukawa Chemical Industry’s PE business, 1935 – 2009 with a new catalyst system developed by Nippon Oil Co. As a plastics engineer, Kamiya succeeded W ith great sadness, we report that Take- shi Kamiya, former contributing editor of Chemical Engineering, passed away on January in fine tuning polymer characteristics, including polymer processing methods, to meet customer requirements. At the New Business Division of 2, 2009 at the age of 76 after his struggle with Nippon Petrochemicals, Kamiya proposed the cancer. Readers of this department appreciate company’s entry into the high performance en- Takeshi’s contributions, having provided 2–6 stories per gineering plastics business and succeeded in importing month on Japanese technology since March 1996, in addi- Amoco’s XYDAR technology against competition from 46 tion to news and special reports from Japan. Japanese companies. Now, XYDAR has grown to become According to Takeshi’s wishes, the funeral service was a promising business in the Chemical Division of Nippon performed on January 5th, 2009 with his surviving wife, Oil Group. During Kamiya’s years at the department, those Midori and limited family members. with whom he worked, and especially those lucky enough After majoring in applied chemistry at the University to be in his command, found him a tough but fair leader, of Tokyo, Takeshi joined Furukawa Electric in 1955 where capable of earning their deep respect. he worked as a chemical engineer at the Chemical Divi- Takeshi retired from the New Business Dept. of Nippon sion of Furukawa Electric Group and later at the New Petrochemicals in 1993 and established a consulting com- Nippon Oil Group. Kamiya played a very important role pany, InterChem Ltd., where he worked for Kline & Co., in the world’s first challenge of completely replacing the Chandler Chemicals, Inc., Chemical Engineering and the catalyst system of the commercial process for high-density Japanese Office of the German Industry Association. ❏ Note: For more information, circle the 3-digit number 12 Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 2009 on p. 62, or use the website designation.06_CHE_031509_CHM.indd 12 2/24/09 10:07:31 AM
  • 15. Silverson’s high shear Batch mixers don’t just mix; they emulsify, homogenize, solubilize, suspend, disperse and disintegrate solids. Every high shear Batch mixer in our range significantly outperforms conventional mixers by cutting processing times by up to 90% while improving quality, product consistency and process efficiency. Silverson High Shear Batch Mixers will: • Process from 1 to 8000 gallons • Eliminate agglomerates and fish eyes • Create stable emulsions and suspensions • Reduce particle size • Rapidly dissolve solids • Accelerate reactions For more information or a free trial give us a call @ 800.204.6400 Mixing at the speed of silverson.com Circle 13 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-13Silverson4-08.indd 1 2/19/09 11:15:34 AM
  • 16. C hementato R From rotary Dosing N2 MMT process evaporator pump pump Multiscale reactors come of age for making fine chemicals μ μ I n the framework of the Impulse project (In- tegrated Multiscale Process Units with Lo- cally Structured Elements; CE, April 2005, p. N2 IMM-μmixer IMM-reactor 19), researchers from the Industrial Chem- istry Group at RWTH Aachen University MMT process pump (Germany; www.itmc.rwth-aachen.de) have developed a continuous production plant ca- pable of producing 20 kg/d of an ionic liquid (IL). Normally, this IL is manufactured by a section sufficiently high to perform the first Waste Product semi-batch process via the solvent-free alky- 80–85% conversion; and the residence time (water quench) lation of an aromatic amine — a highly exo- unit at elevated temperatures to accelerate thermic reaction requiring careful control of the reaction at low residual substrate con- temperature and residence time. The dem- centration. The third unit, based on 1–4-mm Bioethanol onstration plant combines the advantage of annular slits, is designed for long residence Ethanol from plant and for- high heat-and-mass transfer of micro-struc- times (up to several hours), says Minnich. estry waste and dedicated tured components with a macro-structured In close collaboration with its partners energy crops could replace residence-time unit — newly developed at — IMM GmbH (Mainz), Solvent Innovation approximately one-third of RWTH Aachen — into a completely inte- GmbH (Cologne; now part of Merck KGaA, U.S. gasoline requirements grated minifactory, which requires only one Darmstadt) and Siemens AG (Frankfurt) — by 2030 on a sustainable power line, one cooling-water circuit and one the RWTH Aachen group has demonstrated basis, according to a study by Sandia National Labo- inert-gas line, says Clemens Minnich, a doc- the concept, having completed the first 14-d ratories (Livermore, Calif.; toral student at RWTH. period of 24/7 operation at 20 kg/d. The next www.sandia.gov) and The reactive section of the plant (flow- step will be a test-run of the minifactory, General Motors Corp. (De- sheet) consists of a static mixer from IMM, with modified reactor equipment from IMM, troit, Mich.; www.gm.com). a two-temperature-zone microreactor (a mi- for 100 kg/d production and another 25-d The researchers found that cro-structured heat exchanger from IMM) campaign at 20 kg/d. The goal is to demon- 90 billion gal of ethanol and the residence-time unit. The tempera- strate the industrial feasibility for produc- could be produced annu- tures in these three core units are main- ing 1 ton of this IL. Minnich says other fine ally by 2030, enough to tained at three different levels, explains chemicals have been identified for this type replace roughly 60 billion Minnich: the mixing zone cooled to below of plant, and the group plans to extend its of the estimated 180 billion gal/yr of gasoline expected reaction temperature; the heat-exchanger concept to multiphase systems. to be used by 2030. For reference, the U.S. Dept. of Energy (Washington, A process to make butadiene D.C.; doe.gov) has set an ethanol production goal of from under-utilized cracker C4 fractions 60 billion gal of ethanol by 2030. M itsubishi Chemical Corp. (MCC; Tokyo, butadiene content in this C4 fraction is al- The study assumes that Japan; www.m-kagaku.co.jp) has de- most 40%, and after butadiene extraction, 15 billion gal would come veloped a new technology for producing about 30% of the remaining C4 fraction is from corn-based ethanol and 75 billion gal from non- 1,3-butadiene (butadiene) from waste butanes. Up to now, these butenes — about food cellulosic feedstocks. butenes using a self-developed, proprietary 0.5–1-million ton/yr in Asia alone — have The latter include agricul- catalyst. The process has been pilot tested been mainly used as fuel. tural and forest residues, (200-ton/yr capacity) at MCC’s Mizushima MCC has developed a highly active cata- dedicated energy crops site in Japan, and the firm plans to com- lyst to selectively convert the waste butenes (such as switchgrass), plete process design this year with the aim into butadiene by oxidative dehydrogena- and short-rotation woody to commercialize the technology by 2010. tion. The company expects the new process crops, such as willow and Butadiene — a monomer used for the can produce 40,000 ton/yr of butadiene from poplar trees. The study as- production of styrene-butadiene rubber 50,000 ton/yr of n-butene, while creating serts that cellulosic biofu- (SBR) and other polymers — is normally 900,000 ton/yr of butadiene from the waste els could compete without incentives, with oil priced made by dehydrogenation of n-butane, but butenes in Asia. The technology may also be at $90/bbl, assuming a recently, methods have been developed for used to make butadiene from butenes from reduction in total costs as extracting the C4 fractions from naphtha fluid-catalytic cracker (FCC) units at petro- advanced biofuels tech- catalytic cracking units, which account leum refineries, including next-generation nologies mature. for about 11% of the cracker products. The FCC facilities yielding higher olefins. 14 Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 200906_CHE_031509_CHM.indd 14 2/20/09 3:28:46 PM
  • 17. C hementato R Straw power A biogas plant that generates 30% more biogas than its pre- decessors has been developed by researchers from the Fraun- A new feedstock for carbon and graphite electrodes: coal hofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems A less-expensive way of making the raw materials for carbon anodes (for alumi- num smelting) and graphite electrodes (used The process uses coal liquefaction to ob- tain a synthetic binder pitch (Synpitch). Coal is dissolved in a hydrogenated coal tar (IKTS; Dresden, Germany; www.ikts.fraunhofer.de). The pilot plant operates entirely to make steel in electric arc furnaces) has solvent at about 400°C and less than 500 psi, on agricultural waste, such as been developed by West Virginia Univer- versus about 2,000 psi for other liquefaction corn stalks, without requiring sity (UWV; Morgantown, W.Va.; www.wvu. methods. “We can use a lower pressure be- any edible grains. edu). The conventional starting materials cause we aren’t trying to make light crude,” The waste is pretreated for making electrodes are needle-grade coke says Kennel. The slurry is centrifuged to re- and the silage decomposed (fermented) into biogas. IKTS’ (from petroleum) and binder pitch, which move solid residue, then the light ends are pretreatment process is said to comes from petroleum distillation residue distilled to recover the Synpitch. reduce the time needed for the or coal tar (a co-product of metallurgical In a commercial-scale test, the university gas buildup by 50–70% over coke production). UWV’s process substitutes made an 8,000 lb blend of about 20% Syn- conventional processes, to just a binder pitch made from coal for part of the pitch with coal tar binder pitch. The blend 30 days. conventional feed. was solidified, then crushed and shipped to Biogas is then diverted to Coal sells for the oil equivalent of only an electrode manufacturing plant, where the a high-temperature (850°C) about $10/bbl, says Elliot Kennel of UWV’s material was extruded and baked to form fuel cell that has an electri- chemical engineering dept., noting that the electrodes. These were tested in a commercial cal efficiency of 40–55%, U.S. imports the equivalent of more than 10 electric arc furnace, and their performance and a power output of 1.5 kW — enough to supply a family million bbl/yr of petroleum for anode-grade showed no detectable difference from that of home. Heat produced in the coke alone. The technology has been licensed conventional electrodes, says Kennel. Elec- fuel cell can be used directly to Quantex Energy (Toronto, Ont.; www. trodes made from 100% Synpitch have been for heating, or fed into a district quantexenergy.com), which plans to build a tested in the laboratory and didn’t work as heating network. The concept demonstration plant with a capacity of 4,000 well as conventional electrodes, he says, “but will be presented next month at metric tons per year (m.t./yr) of coal. we are confident we can improve on that.” the Hannover Fair (Germany; April 20–24). Toxic plant yields a potential skin protector Bioremediation M ilkweed, a plant that is toxic to farm an- cinamic acid. The reaction takes place at Scientists at CSIRO En- imals and other creatures, may be a fu- below 110°C, using a zinc catalyst, says Rog- tomology (Canberra, Aus- tralia; www.csiro.au/org/ ture source of a base material for sunscreen ers Harry-O’kuru, a research chemist. entomology) have identi- and other skin care products. Milkweed is The liquid compound absorbs harmful UV fied an enzyme that breaks harvested for floss, used as a hypoaller- rays in the range of 200–360 nm at concen- down the herbicide atrazine genic filler for pillows and comforters, and trations of only 1–3%, which is well below [2-chloro-4-(ethylamine)-6- a byproduct of that work is an unsaturated the 5% required by the U.S. Food and Drug (isopropylamine)-s-triazine] oil. A process that converts triglycerides in Admin. (FDA; Washington, D.C.) for the ac- into non-toxic compounds. that oil to ultraviolet- (UV) light-absorbing tive ingredients in commercial sunscreens, Banned in the EU, the herbi- compounds has been patented by the U.S. he says. Also, it contains natural antioxi- cide is still used in other coun- Dept. of Agriculture’s National Center for dants such as tocopherols. Harry-O’kuru tries, where it can end up in Agricultural Utilization Research (Peoria, says the liquid compound could be incorpo- runoff from farms. In field trials, the enzyme Ill.; ars.usda.gov). rated into creams and gels for topical ap- was shown to remove 90% The oil is extracted from the plant by press- plication. Natural Fibers Corp. (Ogallala, of the atrazine contaminating ing or solvent extraction, then is converted Neb.), which supplied the oil, is planning to the runoff from the Burdekin to cinamic acid derivatives by reaction with commercialize such products. sugar-growing region near Ayr, Queensland, after four hours. Using the sun to keep Australians cool The results indicate that the enzyme shows promise for C SIRO Energy Technology (Newcastle, of air, and they are not ideal for providing reducing the contamination in New South Wales, Australia; www.csiro. dehumidification under Australian summer runoff that reaches the Great au) is developing a solar-powered air con- ambient conditions. Barrier Reef, says CSIRO. The enzyme has also been shown ditioning unit for residential use, using a Stephen White, a member of the CSIRO to be effective against other desiccant-evaporative process to provide team, says that using solar heating for cool- triazine-based herbicides, cool and dehumidified air. Thermally driven ing is a new and important research area for and CSIRO is looking for com- ab- or adsorption chillers are commonly Australia. “It addresses a national challenge mercial partners to improve used to provide cooling using heat, but these since air conditioning and space heating are production and application of entail disadvantages: they are expensive, responsible for around 18% of the annual the enzyme. bulky, they produce chilled water instead (Continues on p. 16) Circle XXX or go to www. Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 2009 1506_CHE_031509_CHM.indd 15 2/20/09 3:29:30 PM
  • 18. C hementato R Photocatalysts for decomposing VOCs A photocatalyst that is more active for decomposing volatile organic com- pounds (VOCs) with visible light than exposed to visible light. Similar to an- other photocatalyst being developed by a Hashimoto-led project (CE, November pilot plant at its Toyama site, and has already produced several kilograms of the new catalyst for evaluation by the existing catalysts has been developed 2008, p. 18), this new tungsten oxide project’s participating companies. Pa- by researchers from the New Energy catalyst promises to help alleviate sick nasonic Electric Works Co. has built a and Industrial Technology Develop- house and building syndrome and re- demonstration house at the university’s ment Organization (NEDO; Kawasaki duce malodorous substances in rooms, Komaba Research Campus, where the City, Japan) in a project lead by profes- hospitals and cars. performance of the catalyst is being sor Kazuhito Hashimoto at the Univer- Showa Titanium Corp., a subsidiary verified. By next month, other indus- sity of Tokyo. The catalyst — a copper of the Showa Denko Group (Tokyo), trial participants in the project will ion supported tungsten oxide — has has developed a mass-production pro- have incorporated the new catalyst into been shown to decompose isopropyl cess for the tungsten-oxide catalyst, housing components for testing. The alcohol vapor into CO2 and water 15.8 based on its TiO2 product, and expects next step is to reduce the cost of the times more effectively than traditional production costs to be comparable for catalyst, and improve its resistance to nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide, when both. The company has constructed a alkaline detergents, says NEDO. solar-powered air conditioning humidification performance of a desic- ence in moisture removal between 50°C  (Continued from p. 15) cant wheel (300 mm dia.) made of an and 80°C regeneration temperature iron-alumino-phosphate zeolite with was found to be less than 1-g water/kg residential greenhouse gas emissions in an AFI structure and traded under the dry air, for supply inlet temperatures Australia. Replacing 10% of the existing name of FAM Z-01. Moisture removal between 10°C and 30°C and supply air conditioners in Australia with a low- capacity of the material is 8 g of water inlet relative humidity between 20 and energy consumption, solar-powered sys- per kilogram of dry air with regenera- 50%. Compared with silica gel, the per- tem could result in CO2 emission reduc- tion air at 80°C and 8.25% relative hu- formance of the FAM-Z01 material was tions of up to 1 million ton/yr of CO2.” midity, and an inlet air stream of 30°C best at the low regeneration tempera- The CSIRO team has tested the de- and 93% relative humidity. The differ- tures expected in solar applications. 100 % 24/7/365 Emergency Response With just one call to Aggreko, petrochemical and refining professionals can quickly fulfill their emergency or planned outage needs. With more here for you than 20 years of experience in providing critical 100 utilities, our team can help you manage risk and % avoid downtime. We supply customized rental temporary cooling, power generation, and oil-free compressed air solutions. Aggreko’s 50 North American service of the time. centers provide the largest equipment inventory and local knowledge to deliver service to you in any environment. Call Aggreko for all your critical utility rental needs. 800.348.8370 aggreko.com/northamerica Power generation Temperature control Oil-free compressed air Circle 14 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-14 080005 UAGG Chem Eng.indd 1 6/10/08 2:57:13 PM06_CHE_031509_CHM.indd 16 2/20/09 3:33:16 PM
  • 19. Eni orders world’s Biomass-to-ethanol largest reactors The two-step production of ethanol and methanol from biomass via gasification, fol- lowed by catalytic conversion of the resultant syngas, typically produces a lot of un- wanted methane along with the alcohols. Now, a process that minimizes methane gen- L ast month, GE Oil & Gas (Florence, Italy; www.ge.com/oilandgas) re- ceived a contract to supply Eni S.p.A. eration has been developed at Ames Laboratory (Ames, Iowa; www.ameslab.gov). As in the case of the conventional route, the conversion step starts with a hydro- gen, carbon monoxide mixture in a 2:1 ratio. However, while the conventional process (Rome; www.eni.it) with the largest typically uses a copper or rhodium catalyst on an alumina or silica support, the Ames refinery reactors of their type ever to method employs a transition metal catalyst on a porous carbon material. A key feature be manufactured. GE Oil & Gas’ com- is that the supported catalyst is in the form of nanoparticles, of 150–500 nm, which are mixed with the syngas in a tubular slurry reactor, says Victor Lin, director of the labora- ponents-production facility in Massa, tory’s chemical and biological sciences program. The nanoparticles provide a large Italy, will manufacture the heavy-wall, surface area and allow the syngas to interact with the support, which promotes the slurry reactors — each weighing about conversion to alcohols. 2,000 tons — and then transport them The reaction takes place at 240–260°C and about 450 psi, compared with about to Eni’s Sannazzaro refinery. Delivery 280–300°C and 450 psi for a conventional process, says Lin. The product consists of of the two reactors is scheduled for about 60% ethanol, 30% methanol and about 10% butanol, he says, with “very little 2011, with commercial operation ex- methane,” whereas the conventional route yields 40–60% methane. So far the process pected in 2012. has been tested only in the laboratory, but Lin says several companies have expressed The reactors are the centerpiece of a interest in testing the catalyst at the pilot scale. ❏ a new hydrocracking process, called Eni Slurry Technology (EST), which is said residue (coke or fuel oil), says Eni. The tion for the conversion of “bottom of the to achieve the total conversion of heavy process has been tested in a 1,200-bbl/d, barrel” resources, as well as for the uti- oils, bitumens and asphaltenes into light commercial-demonstration plant, which lization of non-conventional resources, products, such as naphtha, kerosene and has been operating since November 2005 such as ultraheavy crude and tar sands. high-quality diesel. EST is based on a at Eni’s Taranto refinery. The Sannazzaro Such unconventional oil resources are proprietary slurry-phase, catalytic hy- refinery will host the first full-scale EST estimated to be about 4.6 trillion bar- droconversion, and eliminates the pro- plant, with a capacity of 20,000 bbl/d. rels — nearly four times the proven oil duction of both liquid and solid refinery Eni says the EST process offers a solu- reserves of about 1.2 trillion barrels.  ■ Circle 15 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-1506_CHE_031509_CHM.indd 17 2/20/09 3:34:31 PM
  • 20. Abengoa Solar Cover Story Solar’s second coming Figure 1. Constructed by Abengoa Construction of CSP plants is on the rise, bringing Solar, the Solúcar Platform in Sanlúcar la Mayor, Seville, is the largest solar plat- form in Europe. When completed in 2013, jobs and business to equipment suppliers and the site will generate 300 MW of electric power using both parabolic trough and chemical producers alike power-tower technologies N early 30 years ago (May 6, that make electricity with conven- uses mirrors to focus radiation to a 1979), U.S. President Jimmy tional steam turbines. As their name receiver at the top of a tower [Figure Carter made the following pro- implies, these so-called CSP (concen- 1]); Fresnel lens (which concentrates phetic statement at the inaugu- trating solar power) plants concen- light using planar, Fresnel lenses); ration of a solar-thermal water heater trate sunlight in large fields of collec- and dish/Stirling engines (which uses installed on the White House roof: “In tors, and the radiation is absorbed by dish mirrors to focus radiation onto a the year 2000, the solar heater behind a heat-transfer medium that subse- receiver and the thermal energy oper- me will still be here, supplying cheap, quently transfers the thermal energy ates an integrated Stirling engine). efficient energy. A generation from to make steam. now, this solar heater can either be a Although CSP plants made their CSP’s advance curiosity, a museum piece, an example commercial debut nearly 20 years ago Although there’s a need for all four of a road not taken; or it can be just a — and some continue to operate with technologies, parabolic trough designs small part of the greatest and most ex- 98% availability — it wasn’t until re- are the real winner so far, account- citing adventure ever undertaken by cently that a new CSP plant was built ing for about 90% of the installed or the American people.” in the world. Early last year, Acciona planned capacity, says Werner Kol- Carter’s words are prophetic in two Energía (Sarriguren, Spain; www. dehoff, a consultant at Management respects: First, the solar heater was acciona-energia.com) officially inaugu- Consulting (Görisried, Germany) and removed in 1986 during the Reagan rated Nevada Solar One — a 64-MW board member of the BSW German Administration.* More importantly, CSP facility located near Boulder City Solar Industry Assn. (Berlin; www. the solar industry really was born in the Nevada Desert. The facility not bsw-solar.de). Such plants have an then (as the result of two oil embargos only became the largest CSP plant to efficiency of 19% at peak load com- in the 1970s). Between 1985 and 1991, be built in the last 18 years, but made pared to 10–14% for large PV plants a total of nine solar power plants were Acciona the first Spanish company to (c-Si and CdTe modules, which are installed, all in California’s Mojave have a solar-thermal plant in opera- used today), says Koldehoff. However, Desert, with a total capacity of 354 tion using parabolic reflectors. Since in January 2008, Stirling Engine MW. Since then, due to a number then, there has been a big surge in the Systems (SES; Phoenix, Ariz.; www. of factors — plentiful, cheap oil, for number of CSP plants being planned or stirlingenergy.com) and Sandia Na- one — the construction of large solar starting up (Table 1), and Spain is set tional Laboratories (Albuquerque, plants came to a halt. to overtake the U.S. in CSP capacity. N.M.; www.sandia.gov) set a new Today, a second surge is taking place solar-to-grid conversion efficiency in the solar industry, not only in pho- CSP types record by achieving a 31.25% net ef- tovoltaics (PV; CE, February 2008, pp. There are basically four main technol- ficiency with SES’s Series No. 3 solar 17–20), but in large-scale power plants ogies for CSP plants: parabolic trough dish Stirling system at Sandia’s Na- *Since 1992, this solar heater has been operating (which uses parabolic mirrors [see tional Solar Thermal Test Facility, at Unity College in Maine. In a symbolic gesture, cover] to concentrate radiation onto breaking the old record of 29.4% set one of the modules was on display at Google’s Washington, D.C. building for the January 20 in- a receiver tube through which flows in 1984 (Figure 2). nauguration of Barack Obama. the heat-transfer fluid); tower (which Last June, SES filed an application 18 Chemical Engineering www.che.com march 200907_CHE_031509_NF1.indd 18 2/20/09 3:47:59 PM
  • 21. Table 1. A selection of recent CSP announcements Startup Location MW CPS type Project Name Company date Ivanpah, Calif. 100 Luz Power Tower BrightSource Energy 2011 Boulder City, Nev. 64 Parabolic trough Nevada Solar One Acciona Solar Power 2007g Aldeire, Granada 50 Parabolic trough Andasol 1 Solar Millennium 2008 Aldeire, Granada 50 Parabolic trough Andasol 2 Solar Millennium 2009 Aldeire, Granada 50 Parabolic trough Andasol 3 Solar Millennium 2011 Sanlucar la Mayor, Sevilla 50 Parabolic trough Solnova 1* Abengoa Solar * Sanlucar la Mayor, Sevilla 11 Tower PS10 Abengoa Solar 2007 Gila Bend, Ariz. 280 Parabolic trough Abengoa Solar 2011 Mojave Desert, Calif. 553 Parabolic trough Mojave Solar Park 1 Solel Bakersfield, Calif 5 Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector (CLFR) Kimberlina Ausra 2008 Carrizo Plains, Calif 177 CLFR Ausra NA Mojave Desert, Calif. 500 (850)** Solar dish/ Stirling engine Solar One Stirling Engine Systems 2011 Imperial Valley, Calif. 300 (900)** Solar dish/ Stirling engine Solar Two Stirling Engine Systems NA Fuentes de Andalucia, 17 Tower with molten salt storage Gemasolar Torresol Energy 2011 Spain Gotarrendura, Spain 10 Fresnel technology Solar Power Group/Laer NA Indiantown, Fla. 75 Hybrid parabolic trough/combined-cycle Martin Next Generation FPL 2010 natural gas Solar Energy Center Extrmadura, Spain 100 Parabolic trough Extrasol Sener/Cobra * The Solnova 1 is just a part of the Solúcar Platform, the largest solar platform in Europe, which will reach 300 MW of power output capacity by 2013 ** Second number is potential expansion plans; NA = not announced to build the world’s largest solar-en- needed to grow crops over the same transfer fluid and solid ceramic for ergy-generating system in Southern surface area, says Koldehoff. Cutting storage. The concept promises oper- California. The 750-MW facility, called costs and water consumption are the ation at higher temperatures, thus SES Solar Two, will utilize SES solar key areas to address before the tech- lowering costs dish engine technology, called the Sun- nology can compete with traditional •  nfinia Corp. (Kennewick, Wash.) will I Catcher system. The project site is lo- power plants. One way is with thermal demonstrate the practicality of in- cated in the Imperial Valley, Calif. storage, which enables the CSP plant tegrating a thermal energy storage In the first phase of the project, to continue power generation during module with a dish/Stirling engine, 12,000 SunCatcher dishes generating cloudy days and at night, without ad- enabling the system to operate dur- 300 MW will be constructed, followed ditional firing by gas or other fuels. ing cloud transients and to provide by an additional 18,000 solar dishes dispatchable power for 4–6 h after generating 450 MW. Each SunCatcher R&D continues sunset. Infinia will demonstrate the is 38 ft tall, 40 ft wide and generates Last Fall, the U.S. Dept. of Energy concept on 40–50 dish-engine systems 25 kW of power. (DOE; Washington, D.C.) announced at Sandia National Laboratories funding for 15 new projects to develop •  bengoa (Lakewood, Colo.) will ana- A Pros and cons of CSP solar power storage and heat transfer. lyze cost reduction opportunities for By the end of 2008, approximately The 15 projects, for up to $67.6 million, several new concepts using an indi- 1.3 GW of cumulative capacity from will facilitate the development of lower- rect two-tank molten salt design as a CSP systems was in service, and this cost energy storage for CSP technology. baseline for comparison. The goal is is forecast to reach 5.5 GW by 2012, The projects are said to support former to find a concept that will achieve a says Koldehoff. While many could President Bush’s Solar America Initia- 20–25% cost reduction from baseline argue that this is a very small frac- tive, which aimed to make solar energy •  cciona (Henderson, Nev.) will de- A tion of the world’s demand for electri- cost competitive with conventional sign and validate at the prototype cal power, most would agree that the forms of electricity by 2015. level, then demonstrate an 800-MW, experience gained from these masive, DOE’s goal is reducing the cost of 4-h thermal-energy storage system expensive investments will advance CSP electricity from 13–16¢/kWh using phase-change material. The the technology in order to reduce the today with no storage (DOE esti- project will be integrated into Accio- costs for future plants. mates), to 8–11¢/kWh with 6-h of stor- na’s 64-MW trough plant in Boulder Investment for a large CSP plant age by 2015, and to less than 7¢/kWh City, Nev. is about �3,500–6,000/kW, compared with 12–17-h storage by 2020. Among Meanwhile, the EU is already demon- to 1,500/kW for a gas-fired power the 15 projects are the following: strating thermal storage. Solar Mil- plant. But the capital cost is expected •  ymyx (Sunnyvale, Calif.), to use a S lennium’s Andasol 1 (see Table 1) is to come down to �2,500–4,000/kW in high-throughput combinatorial ap- a parabolic trough with an electricity the next 5 years — compable to a new proach to identify advanced heat- capacity of 50 MW. It uses a thermal nuclear power plant, Koldehoff says. transfer fluids, with the objective storage system consisting of 28,000 And the cost of producing electricity is to find eutectic salts that can oper- tons of molten salt (60% NaNO3 and roughly �0.23–0.24/kWh for CSP ver- ate within a temperature range of 40% KNO3), sufficient for 7.5 h at 50 sus �0.26–0.30/kWh for PV, he adds. 80–500°C with a significantly in- MW power output. It started operat- On the down side, water consump- creased heat capacity ing in the fall of 2008 and was devel- tion for a 50-MW CSP system (mainly •  ity University of New York (New C oped by Solar Millennium AG (Erlan- for cooling purposes) is about 600,000 York) will develop a new storage gen, Germany; www.solarmillennium. to 700,000 m3/yr, roughly the same method that utilizes CO2 as the heat de) with the cooperation of ACS/Cobra Chemical Engineering www.che.com march 2009 19 07_CHE_031509_NF1.indd 19 2/20/09 4:07:46 PM
  • 22. Sandia National Laboratories Cover Story Group (Madrid; www.grupocobra.com), Figure 2. The solar-dish/ Spain’s largest contruction and plant Stirling-engine unit shown here holds the world’s record in light- engineering company. Flagsol GmbH, to-grid conversion efficiency. the technology subsidiary of Solar Each unit generated 25 kW with Millennium, provided the engineering 31.25% efficiency. Thousands of for the solar field. these units will be combined to Another project to use molten salt supply up to 900 MW of power to Southern Calif. in the near future technology with thermal storage in a solar-tower design (CE, February, p. Last September, Solel Solar Systems tion corresponds to a power capacity 11) is under development by Sener Ltd. (Bet Shemesh, Israel) opened a of 200 MW, thereby doubling the firm’s Ingenieria y Sistmas (Madrid; www. $9-million facility in Akaa, Finland, receiver production capacity. The com- sener.es). The 17-MW facility is due for the production of parabolic solar pany only began operating its first in- onstream by 2011. reflectors, in cooperation with Glaston dustrial manufacturing plant for solar Corp. (Tampere, Finland; www.kyro. receivers in Mitterteich, Bavaria, in New business fi). The new facility produces 240,000 2006. A third receiver plant in Albu- The rapid growth for CSP plants in parabolic solar reflectors per year, querque, N.M., is under construction Spain and the U.S. is not only creat- enough for a 50-MW power plant. with startup slated for May, and the ing jobs for those working on the proj- Last June, Schott Solar AG (Alzenau, Spanish facility is already planning to ects, but is opening new markets for Germany; www.schott.com) inaugu- double its capacity. both equipment manufacturers and rated a new plant for manufacturing Besides glass and heat exchange chemical producers. The tons of heat- solar receivers in Aznalcóllar, Spain. fluids, CSP plants also require lots transfer fluids required, for example, These absorber tubes are key compo- of pumps, heat exchangers, turbines has caught the attention of compa- nents of CSP parabolic trough plants. and control systems. For example, nies, such as Dow Chemical Co. (CE, Production began at the new plant in last July, Friatec AG (Wiesbaden, August 2008, p. 29). March 2008, and the annual produc- Germany; www.friatec.de) received or- The new RecipCOM delivers The new RecipCOM delivers diagnostics, protection diagnostics, protection and therapy for your and therapy for your reciprocating compressors. reciprocating compressors. Spread the word! Spread the word!recipcom 01 2009 halbseitig Hydro Engin.indd 1 03.02.2009 13:48:49 recipcom 01 20 07_CHE_031509_NF1.indd 20 2/20/09 4:09:03 PM
  • 23. ders for six vertical pumps, each with Efrén Fernández, sales manager at livered in 2011, and the 100-MW plant 130–160-m3/h capacity, for pumping Alfa Laval Iberia S.A. (Madrid). will generate electricity in 4Q 2011. molten salt at 550°C. The pumps will In January, GEA Ibérica acquired Siemens has already secured orders be used in the Archimede Project, a Caldemón Ibérica S.A., a leading man- for 45 specially adapted steam tur- 5-MW demonstration plant in Sicily, ufacturer of shell-and-tube exchangers bines for solar thermal plants ranging which is being developed by a consor- and surface condensers that are com- in size from 1.5 to 123 MW. In October, tium consisting of the Italian Energy monly used in CSP plants. The com- CEO Markus Tacke said that solar Corp. (ENEL) and the Italian National pany has already supplied surface con- power is one of the fastest growing R&D Institute for New Technologies, densers to the PS10 and PS20 projects, power plant markets, and solar ac- Energy and Environment (both Rome). as well as to Andasol 1 & 2, Extresol counted for company revenues total- For this relatively small project, 1 & 2 and Ibersol–Puertollano. GEA ing �17 billion in 2007. 8-m tall GVSO pumps will be used, not only anticipates market growth in ABB is also taking part in the CSP says sales engineer Jürgen Weinerth. Mediterranean countries such as Italy, surge, receiving contracts to supply the Friatec is also bidding on the Gemaso- Greece, and Croatia, but also a huge distributed control system for Andasol lar tower project, which would require potential in the U.S. as well as North 1 & 2 plants and more recently, to auto- 16-ft tall pumps with a 260-m head Africa and the Middle East. mate the Extresol 1 & 2 CSP plants in and handle 40-bars pressure, he says. Last December, BrightSource En- southern Spain. For Extresol, the firm’s Both Alfa Laval AB (Lund, Sweden, ergy, Inc. (Oakland, Calif.; www.bright- AC500 PLCs are equipped with an ad- www.alfalaval.com) and GEA Group sourceenergy.com) ordered the world’s vanced solar positioning algorithm (Bochum, Germany; www.geagroup. largest solar-powered steam turbine that was developed by ABB, which en- com) have supplied equipment to from Siemens Energy (Erlangen, Ger- ables the collectors to track the sun to some of the new CSP projects. Alfa many; www.siemens.com/energy). The within 0.03 deg. of error, therby absorb- Laval has, for example, recently closed 123-MW steam turbine will be used ing the maximum amount of energy at three orders for plate heat exchangers in the Ivanapah Solar Complex in the all times, says ABB. ■ for the Solnova 1, 3 and 4 plants, says Mojave Desert. The turbine is to be de- Gerald Ondrey www.hoerbiger.com at the Visit us rankfur t 2009, F Achema y German 4–P37 ers ers , Booth P3 H all 8.0nnrs.rs. For more information please contact compressor-mechatronics@hoerbiger.com Circle 16 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-16 .2009 13:48:49 recipcom 01 2009 halbseitig Hydro Engin.indd 2 03.02.2009 13:48:53 07_CHE_031509_NF1.indd 21 2/20/09 4:21:58 PM
  • 24. Endress+Hauser Newsfront If They Build It, Will You Come? Despite emerging wireless standards Endress+Hauser and heaps of benefits, the CPI are strives to develop wireless technology that easily integrates with the supply approaching wireless technology with caution chain and other plant environments D espite various studies and pro- speed control and monitoring, amount- efit to be had. Previously, if there were cess automation supplier sug- ing to about 25% of the total points. wired devices in the field that weren’t gestions that wireless sensing With each paradigm shift — wire- intelligent, operators had to do rounds technologies cost less and pro- less being the latest — plants realized and collect the data from these devices, vide tighter control than their wired savings and became smarter through explains Gareth Johnston, wireless counterparts, chemical processors are simpler engineering and construction, product manager with ABB Instru- still proceeding with caution when flexible startup, faster deployment mentation (Norwalk, Conn.). “Wireless it comes to implementing wireless and project completion, and chang- versions of these instruments could be instrumentation. Wireless support- ing automation needs. For the use of installed at a low cost, and the addition ers hope the introduction of Wire- Smart Wireless on 25% of points, over- of these instruments would replace op- lessHART and the eventual publica- all plant engineering, construction erator rounds, which could provide fur- tion of ISA 100 will help break down and startup savings were about 10% ther savings via reduced labor costs,” the barriers as previously sketchy of considered costs as compared with he says. Meanwhile, in the current wireless characteristics such as secu- wired HART; for the bus installation, economic climate, where a number of rity and reliability will be improved wireless savings were on par with plants have already been forced to cut thanks to the standards. wired busing. Although not quantified, personnel, these tools can help ease other considerations of flexibility and the burden on the remaining staff. Wireless benefits schedule impact were deemed very Beyond cost savings, there are also Notwithstanding the slow start, wire- important in each approach. production efficiencies to be had via less does provide a plethora of ben- “With wireless technology, we can wireless technologies. “Right now efits. Some can even be seen in black deliver a better plant,” says Roger chemical processors are in a situation and white. For example, Emerson Pro- Hoyum, principal engineer with JDI where they have to become more effi- cess Management (Austin, Texas) has Contracts. He adds that wireless is an cient, and the only way to do that is to unveiled quantified results of an inde- important new tool in capital projects. look more deeply at the process,” says pendent real-world greenfield project “It delivers savings, flexibility and Bob Karschnia, vice president of wire- that recommends wireless infrastruc- speed of implementation.” less for Emerson Process Management. ture be a key component of all new And, wireless perks extend beyond He says the ability to very cost effec- projects. JDI Contracts, Inc. (Cohas- greenfield projects. For new or exist- tively obtain more measurements al- set, Minn.) applied Emerson’s Smart ing projects, one of the biggest benefits lows processors to see and understand Wireless technology to applications in is the hard dollar savings of installing what’s going on at a deeper level, which a new process plant for a major U.S. wireless instrumentation versus run- allows processes to be controlled to chemical manufacturer, where eco- ning wires. The reduction in wiring tighter specifications. “More efficiency, nomics, efficiency and other advan- allows chemical processors to place less waste, better products and tighter tages made the case for wireless. transmitters and sensors in places tolerances will result, and these are all JDI worked with a major EPC and where it was previously prohibitive to things chemical processors can use to end user to study the project impact do so because of the cost of wiring or differentiate themselves in the mar- of wireless. It compared engineering, the remote location of an asset, says ketplace,” explains Karschnia. construction, startup and overhead Cliff Whitehead, manager of business costs for approaches using wired development for Rockwell Automation Standards: the cherry on top HART, wired bus technologies, Wire- (Milwaukee, Wis.). While these benefits exist under any lessHART and combinations of each. But, saving money on installation in proprietary wireless infrastructure, Wireless was used for non-safety, low- such applications is not the only ben- having standards that provide an in- 22 Chemical Engineering www.che.com march 200908_CHE_031509_NF2.indd 22 2/20/09 4:35:37 PM
  • 25. Honeywell less. “Security is the first thing on peo- ple’s mind when it comes to wireless networks,” says Hesh Kagan, direc- tor of wireless programs for Invensys Process Systems (London, England). “Right now there’s a lot of proprietary Wireless instruments systems floating around and the way are becoming more abundant they implement security is variable and can provide benefits, such from one vendor to another. But with as lower costs and tighter control standards, and strong organizations behind those standards, it will verify teroperable platform ups the ante. “Standards give users the ability that security measures of the net- Prior to standardization, end users to know whatever product they are works and instruments will be excel- were faced with proprietary wireless installing — no matter the vendor — lent, provided the end user correctly networks that worked, but were lim- will talk to their system,” says Billy implements them.” ited in terms of expanding the system Jenkins, product marketing manager Though ISA 100 and WirelessHART in the future and guaranteeing ongo- with the Process Instrumentation and standards developers took great pains ing support, says Jeff Becker, director Analytics business unit of Siemens to ensure encryption and authentica- of global wireless business for Honey- Energy & Automation (Alpharetta, tion methods to enhance security of well Process Solutions (Phoenix, Ariz.). Ga.). “There’s no special programming the devices and end users can feel safe Under both WirelessHART and ISA and no special software or updates to that there are no lax points, experts 100, end users will be able to select get the instrument into the network.” say it is still up to the end users to products from vendors that support the Aside from this, end users can relax maintain the security of the systems. network they’ve chosen and know that about security, which was one of the “There is a dark side to wireless,” the instruments will work together. biggest turn offs associated with wire- notes Kagan. “The level of effort as- Circle 17 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-17 Chemical Engineering www.che.com march 2009 2308_CHE_031509_NF2.indd 23 2/20/09 4:36:56 PM
  • 26. Standards: The Big Two W Newsfront hile several standards concerning wireless instrumentation exist in the world of process control, WirlessHART and ISA 100.11a seem to be garnering the most support from equipment manufacturers and end users. Though the two share a similar objective — to create an interoperable communication platform for wireless process instrumentation — sociated with keeping wireless the standards and specifications remain separate entities. However some hope persists that the two networks secure and main- will eventually unite. taining them so they remain WirelessHART basics robust is greater than with a The wireless version of the HART Communication Protocol, WirelessHART, uses a wireless mesh net- wired network.” working multipath topology and is designed specifically for process automation applications. Each WirelessHART network includes three main elements: Enhanced features •  ireless field devices (or wired field devices with wireless adapters) connected to process or plant W Perhaps one of the most over- equipment looked benefits of wireless •  ateways/Access Points that enable communication between wireless field devices and host ap- G standards is reduced costs plications connected via a high-speed backbone or other existing plant communications network for the instrument suppliers, •  Network Manager responsible for configuring the network, scheduling communications, manag- A which can lead to increased in- ing message routes and monitoring network health novation, resulting in enhanced WirelessHART devices use IEEE 802.15.4 compatible radios operating in the 2.4 GHz Industrial, Scientific, and Medical radio band. The radios employ direct-sequence spread spectrum technology product offerings. and channel hopping for communication security and reliability, as well as Time Division Multiple “When dealing with propri- Access for synchronized low latency communications between devices on the network. etary systems, each manu- It should be noted that WirelessHART is already a published specification. facturer had to spend a lot of money to develop and maintain ISA 100 Basics the platform, but when build- Similarly, ISA 100.11a is a multi-protocol capability that also will allow users to deploy a single, inte- ing to a standard, R&D can be grated wireless infrastructure platform in a plant. The standard network will have the ability to simultane- focused on the elements of the system that will enhance or differen- proprietary system, I can spend 10% extra special with more benefits to tiate it from other systems,” explains of my money to buy the standard the customer.” Becker. “Now instead of having to and then spend the rest on adding For instance, Honeywell’s OneWire- Chem_Eng1-2_177x123_M_03.09 15.01.2009 16:41 Uhr make the product spend 50% of my money to make a improvements to Seite 1 less solution, which is ISA 100 ready, Piecing the puzzle together: on pages 2 to 23 a host of individual tasks are combined to give you a cost-effective drum-handling system. Everyone who opts for MÜLLER gets an original. Take a look at our handling technology, designed to andling Müller H make your production lines safe and efficient. From receiving dock to shipping Systems dock – all your wishes and requirements fulfilled. Don’t take any chances: only 2009 a Müller original embodies the expertise CH EMA / Main gained over more than a century. A rt ankfu 5.2009 Ask for our brochure „Müller Handling in Fr - 15. Systems” today. 11.5. 5-B6 from nd B Müller GmbH, Industrieweg 5 , Sta Ha ll 3.1 D-79 618 Rheinfelden, Germany Phone: + 49 (0) 76 23 / 9 69 - 0 Fax: + 49 (0) 76 23 / 9 69 - 69 E-mail: info@mueller-gmbh.com A Company of the Müller Group 1.2 ® ndling Drum Ha Innovation in Stainless Steel g r Handlin Containe Blenders ndling Mobile Ha www.mueller-gmbh.com its ansfer Un Pallet Tr ® Manual Handling Circle 18 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-18 24 Chemical Engineering www.che.com march 200908_CHE_031509_NF2.indd 24 2/20/09 4:39:16 PM
  • 27. ously communicate with many existing application protocols wirelessly buy a system today if they know there’s a roadmap that will bring throughout a plant, including HART, Foundation Fieldbus, Modbus, them to a single unified system in the future.” Profibus, Common Industrial Protocol and more. The ISA 100 network Others aren’t as optimistic about finding common ground. “ABB has will be optimized to send all these protocols wirelessly, preserving ex- long believed that a single fieldbus standard would provide significant isting protocol investments and protecting future protocol needs. benefits to both users and vendors. However, it is a business reality The ISA family of standards is being designed with coexistence that multiple standards are here to stay,” says Josef Guth, head of ABB in mind. The standards will feature technology to ensure the best Instrumentation’s Global Instrumentation Business Unit. performance possible in the presence of other wireless networks. And, with many other vendors feeling the same, WirelessHART Coexistence with other wireless devices anticipated in the industrial seems to be the more-widely embraced standard, simply because workspace is a major goal of this standard, as is interoperability it is the first out of the gate. WirelessHART specifications were pub- with all other ISA 100-based devices. lished about one year ago, while ISA 100.11a is still under review. ISA 100 has yet to be published. And, for many vendors, timing is everything. “One year ago the specification of HART V7 was released, and Working it out? from our point of view, WirelessHART is the most important part Recently, the ISA 100 standards committee on wireless systems for as it is currently the only open industrial standard for wireless automation created a subcommittee to address options for conver- communication at field level in the process industry available gence of the ISA 100.11a and WirelessHART standards. The sub- worldwide,” says Has-Georg Kumpfmuller, division president committee will compare the technologies of the two standards with for Sensors and Communication with Siemens Energy & Process. the ultimate goal of merging the best of both standards into a single, “We believe that WirelessHART will be successful as many cus- subsequent release of the ISA standard. tomers and big automation suppliers brought their experience in Many instrumentation manufacturers are hoping this occurs because wireless technology into the specification. In 2009, we plan to having two separate standards puts ends users into a difficult posi- have WirelessHART products to enable our customers to build tion. “End users are reluctant to choose between the two because they complete solutions.” worry that they aren’t selecting the right technology,” says Jeff Becker, Other process automation suppliers are following suit. ABB, Emer- director of global wireless business for Honeywell Process Solutions. son Process Management, Endress+Hauser and Siemens are among He says it is in the best interest of everyone involved if the two can the vendors already offering or soon to launch WirelessHART-capa- find common ground “This would allow end users to comfortably ble products. ❏ provides a single, plant-wide infrastruc- and mobility solutions that are focused striving to make its’ WirelessHART- ture that can support multiple applica- on improving safety, reliability and ef- enabled product line, Smart Wireless, tions, including field instrumentation, ficiency at the customer’s plant. very broad and easy to use. “Our strat- equipment health monitoring devices Emerson Process Management is egy as a company is that every product Lower operating costs with variable pitch rotary screw vacuum pumps COBRA variable pitch dry screw pumps help optimize vacuum efficiency and reduce operating costs by combining high flow rates with low power consumption and reduced utilities. Contact us today for a free cost analysis for your process application. Circle 19 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-19 Chemical Engineering www.che.com march 2009 2508_CHE_031509_NF2.indd 25 2/20/09 4:41:10 PM
  • 28. Wireless Instrumentation & Network Service Providers Newsfront ABB Instrumentation  www.abb.us Emerson Process Management www.emersonprocess.com Endress+Hauser www.us.endress.com we make will have a wireless op- Honeywell www.honeywell.com tion and those products will all Invensys Process be easy to use,” says Karschnia. Systems www.invensys.com Meanwhile, Endress+Hauser Rockwell is concentrating its efforts on Automation www.rockwellautomation.com superior integration into the Siemens Energy Honeywell & Automation www.siemens.com processing environment. “We Yokogawa www.yokogawa.com want our wireless technology to have the best integration into a supply chain environment, asset be willing to use them? In short, the gain such experience, suggests Kagan, management environment, energy answer is yes, but with caution. is by taking small steps by using some- management and process monitoring The general consensus is that be- thing like Invensys’ Mobile Operator, environment to make sure the infor- cause chemical processors tend to be which allows “untethered” operators to mation becomes practically avail- a conservative bunch regarding new roam the facility with handheld wire- able in the existing system,” says technologies, they will start applying less devices. “That type of technology Craig McIntyre, industry manager wireless technologies in non-critical allows them to get their feet wet and for chemicals with Endress+Hauser environments to measure points that explore wireless technology without a (Greenwood, Mass.). “We are about aren’t currently being measured. huge commitment. With Mobile Op- adaptation into the environment.” “Once they get confident and gain erator, and others like it, they are on some experience, they will slowly start the cusp of joining in on wireless ac- Proceeding with caution to use the technology in more demand- tivity. Maybe they are doing so with a Now that many vendors have devel- ing applications,” notes Frank Hils, raised eyebrow and with caution, but oped wireless instruments with such corporate director of projects and solu- none-the-less, they are jumping on the enhancements, the real question re- tions with Endress+Hauser. wireless bandwagon.” ■ mains, will the chemical processors One way chemical processors will Joy LePree * Circle 20 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-20 26 Chemical Engineering www.che.com march 200908_CHE_031509_NF2.indd 26 2/20/09 4:43:01 PM
  • 29. Membrane Configurations Department Editor: Kate Torzewski M embrane polymers are pack- Choosing A Configuration Tubular aged into a configuration, In selecting a membrane configu- Porous commonly called a device Membrane substrate or an element. The most-common ration, it is important to consider element configurations (figure) are how the packing density and con- Concentrate centration polarization of each Feed tubular, capillary fiber, spiral wound, and plate and frame. configuration affects membrane fouling resistance. Permeate Tubular Packing density. From the perspec- tive of cost and convenience, it is Capillary Made from ceramic, carbon, beneficial to pack as much mem- Permeate stainless steel or a number of flow brane area into as small a volume Hollow fibers thermoplastics, tubular elements as possible. The higher the packing have inside diameters from 1/4 Concentrate density, the greater the membrane Feed in. up to about 1 in. Typically, the area enclosed in a device of a membrane is coated on the inside given volume, and, generally, the of the tube, and the feed solution lower the cost of the membrane flows through the interior (lumen) element. The disadvantage of Spiral wound from one end to the other, with Feed Concentrate membrane elements having the permeate passing through the high packing density is Permeate wall and collected on the outside their greater propensity flow Permeate of the tube. flow for fouling, as outlined in Capillary (Hollow Fiber) the table. Concentration polarization. Membranes These elements are similar to the Concentration polarization is the ac- Feed tubular element in design. They cumulation of rejected particles to an spacer are, however, smaller in diameter extent that transport to the membrane Plate and frame and usually consist of unsupport- surface becomes limited. It reduces Concentrate ed membrane polymers, which re- the permeability of the solvent and quire rigid support on each end. can lead to a limiting flux and a This support is provided by an Cartridge higher fouling tendency. Membranes epoxy “potting” of a bundle of the The type of membrane module used Feed fibers inside a cylinder. The feed in a process affects the influence of Permeate flow is either down the interior of concentration polarization; and it is the fiber or around its outside. difficult to balance high fluxes and low fouling with low investment and Spiral Wound operating costs. Tubular modules can Comparison of Membrane Element Configurations accommodate high cross flow and This type of element is made from large particles, but their capital costs Element Packing Fouling an envelope of sheet membrane, configuration density* resistance** and ratio of relative price to mem- wound around a permeate Capillary filter medium high brane area are considerably higher tube that is perforated to al- than those for spiral-wound modules. Plate and frame low high low collection of the permeate. Spiral-wound modules, on the other Feed water becomes purified by Spiral wound medium moderate hand, enjoy the advantages of lower passing through one layer of the Tubular low high installed costs and easier changeout. membrane and flowing into the * Membrane area per unit volume of element Channel height can be varied by the permeate tube. This is by far the ** Tolerance to suspended solids use of distance keepers, also known most common configuration in as spacers. water-purification applications. References Capillary membrane modules can be 1.  artwright, P., Membranes for Process Water C Plate and Frame backwashed inline during filtration to Reuse, Chem. Eng., June 2004, pp. 38–42. remove particles from the membrane 2. Baird, A., Making High-Purity Water, Chem. This kind of element employs or to add chemicals from the permeate Eng., May 2005, pp. 36–43. sheet membrane, stretched over a side. Like tubular modules, they have 3. Buecker, B., Microfiltration for CPI Wastewater, frame to separate the layers and Chem. Eng., May 2007, pp. 63–65. high investment costs, but their ability to 4. Lipnizki, J., Strategies for Controlling Membrane facilitate collection of the perme- backwash at regular intervals reduces the Fouling, Chem. Eng., September 2007, pp. ate, which goes to a center tube. potential for fouling. 62–64.09_CHE_031509_FACTS.indd 27 2/23/09 1:10:16 PM
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  • 33. You & Your Job Engineering Practice Using Web 2.0 Tools to Increase Your Productivity Web 2.0 developments can improve an engineer’s productivity at work, as well as his or her professional development Adnan Siddiqui Engineered Product Services, LLC S ince it was opened to commer- cial content in the early 1990s, the internet has become a ubiq- uitous repository of knowledge. Its open architecture allows for an almost unlimited number of diverse applications, such as sending and re- ceiving email, sharing video clips, pub- lishing blogs, performing commercial transactions, buying from mail-order stores and so on. While a plethora of in- ternet services are valued for personal use, many can improve your productiv- ity and performance as an engineer. A major recent development in in- services can help a practicing engi- Alert services for search engines ternet content is Web 2.0, which is an neer improve productivity: Search engines have been part of the umbrella term used to describe the •  nhanced search engines with alert E internet since the early 1990s. The next generation of user interfaces and services first search engines were directories technologies that make it easier to use •  logs and new article subscription B of sites organized by category, simi- The Web. While the internet initially services larly to telephone yellow pages. In the required some technical know-how to • Social networks late 1990s, search engines allowed for fully exploit its potential, Web 2.0 en- •  ndustry and trade sites with tech- I keyword-based search for internet in- hancements have refined internet use, nical news and discussion forums formation. Today, search engines have and have reduced if not eliminated the Each of these services can provide en- become the primary entry point for need for this technical knowledge. gineers with an edge. Social networks people looking for new information Web 2.0 technologies include blogs, can expand an engineer’s peer net- on the internet. Google, Yahoo, and Really Simple Syndication (RSS), so- work and contacts for both technical MSN are among the most well-known cial networks, online communities and knowledge and career development. search engines today. other related technologies that make Enhanced search engines with alerts One recent Web 2.0 enhancement it easier for people to communicate can help in finding information about to search engines has been the devel- and find information on the internet. a particular topic, as well as keeping opment of automated, periodic-alert For practicing engineers, Web 2.0 has users up to date on new content posted services, which are powerful tools for created new productivity tools that about the topic. Blogs reveal the latest keeping up with new developments can not only make work easier, but ideas and thinking about engineer- on a particular topic. Users can sign can also enhance professional and ca- ing challenges. Finally, industry sites up for a daily alert via email related reer development. provide technical news, reference in- to any new content added to the in- In this article, we will discuss how formation and easy-to-use discussion ternet about a specific keyword. For the following four important Web 2.0 forums to find technical answers. example, an engineer could subscribe Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 2009 3111_CHE_031509_YYJ.indd 31 2/20/09 5:04:15 PM
  • 34. You & Your Job to a daily email about new internet bloggers should not be discouraged if coworkers due to their larger member content on “distillation.” The daily they initially have few readers; blogs populations, the informal and personal alert email will include the first few tend to have a viral marketing growth nature of these social networks limits lines of the new Web page, as well as cycle, and after the first few subscrip- their use as professional networking a link to it. tions are established, the readership mediums. However, they can be used The alert tool is also useful for gath- usually jumps exponentially. to find friends who can be added to ering competitive intelligence. Setting professional networks. an alert with the name of a competi- Social networks tor’s or competing product or company Of the various new Web 2.0 develop- Industry and trade sites makes it easy to keep up with the lat- ments, social networking has gener- Although not actually a Web 2.0 tech- est information about it. ated the most buzz. Covered exten- nology, another source of professional Since alerts are a recent technology, sively in media, social networks like knowledge is specialized industry keep in mind that most alert services MySpace and Facebook now claim websites with online forums. Such do not identify all new content. They several million members. Social net- sites, which are sponsored by trade are a powerful supplementary tool but works have both professional and per- magazines and industry associations, should not be viewed as 100% compre- sonal uses for engineers in developing provide venues for practicing engi- hensive in their coverage. Also, it may contacts and building relationships in neers to share problems and solutions, take a few tries to find the optimum the industry. resulting in a great wealth of tech- keywords to avoid receiving too many Professional networks. One of the nical knowledge about engineering or too few links. Using more keywords original social networks, LinkedIn, products and design practices. Most will often result in focused, high-value was started in 2003. LinkedIn is a of these sites host easy-to-use forums alerts that are easier for users to scan professional social network for busi- that allow technical questions to be and digest. ness and career development. Mem- posted for other engineers. If you en- bers can post their professional pro- counter a novel problem or are search- Blogs files and add colleagues and friends ing for a product referral, these forums Another recent Web 2.0 development to their network. LinkedIn has pro- are a good starting point for obtaining is the refinement of weblogs, which are fessional and alumni networks to industry knowledge. In addition to commonly referred to as blogs. While connect people with common back- the trade magazines and associations, the origin of blogs can be traced to grounds and interests, while allowing most engineering software vendors personal home pages created by early users to search for other members also have a forum where users can ex- internet adopters, the development of based on company, profession, school change tips. Really Simple Syndication (RSS) has and so on. This network also allows A recent addition to technical web- allowed for better distribution of blog for introductions between members sites has been online specification content. RSS can be viewed as a news- that do not know each other. and book libraries, such as Knovel, wire services for blogs. Using either a An engineer can use LinkedIn to ICIS Online and GlobalSpec. These browser, a dedicated news reader such get in touch with colleagues and class- websites allow for online retrieval as Google Reader or even an email cli- mates. Furthermore, it can be used to and keyword searching of popular ent like Outlook, RSS allows subscrip- stay in touch with professional col- references and specifications. Such tion to the content feed of a particular leagues after leaving a job without resources normally require subscrip- blog. The feed subscription will pro- having to add them to a personal so- tion-based access, but many large cor- vide automatic alerts when new con- cial network. porations have a corporate subscrip- tent is posted. Another benefit of LinkedIn is the tion that permits their employees to Currently, the number of technical newly added Question and Answer use these sites. ■ and engineering blogs available on the feature, which allows users to post Edited by Kate Torzewski internet is limited, but more are cre- questions that can be answered by ated daily. Most search engines allow the network community. Most ques- Author users to search for blogs by keywords, tions are related to information tech- Adnan Siddiqui is the founder and president of Engineered while search engine alert services also nology and business, but general en- Project Services LLC (EPS; cover popular blogs and will notify gineering questions are often posted 5700 Northwest Central Dr., Ste. 301, Houston, TX 77092; users if a keyword is mentioned in a as well. Phone: 832-228-0327; Email: new blog article. Personal networks. Facebook and aasiddiqui@engineeredprojects .com), a provider of software Blogs can be used to keep up with MySpace are leading examples of and project advisory services to developments in the industry, but more personal social networks. Compared the process industries. After 11 years of capital project leader- importantly, the lack of engineering to LinkedIn, members profiles tend ship experience with The Dow Chemical Co., Siddiqui founded EPS in 2008. EPS blogs provides a low-cost opportunity to focus more on personal informa- licenses ConcepSys, which enables rapid concep- for an engineer to build a reputation. tion, such as hobbies, activities and tual design of plant facilities for feasibility studies and cost estimates. He holds B.S. and M.S. degrees A blog can be used to share solutions personal photos. While Facebook and in civil engineering, as well as an MBA from the to a challenging problem or improve- MySpace can be more effective than University of Texas at Austin. Siddiqui’s project management blog can be found on the EPS website ments to an existing design. New LinkedIn for finding classmates and (www.engineeredproducts.com). 32 Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 2009 Circle 33 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-3311_CHE_031509_YYJ.indd 32 2/20/09 5:05:59 PM
  • 35. Technical Bulletin March 2009 For over 40 years LIST has been known for high viscosity technology which is “clean” and conserving resources Heinz List, founder of the LIST Company in 1966, had already envisioned the possibilities of running solvent-light Klaus R. List, President and CEO or even solvent-free chemical processes. He was convinced of the LIST Group that operating processes in the liquid phase was both inefcient and uneconomical. But at this time processing in the concentrated phase was thought to be impractical and More than ever before, LIST KneaderReactor Technology challenging as no technology was available to run processes helps our customers running processes efciently and others than in the liquid phase. economically in ways otherwise inconceivable using conventional technology. As reliable partners we support Following the founder’s vision LIST has succeeded on our customers with all the services required, starting at developing and further improving a technology being able the feasibility of an application through project execution, to treat pasty, crust forming and sticky products. The LIST implementation and help through the life cycle of an KneaderReactor Technology was used mainly in drying and installation. mixing processes with viscous phases. This changed in the early 90s when the LIST KneaderReactor Technology was LISTrusted replaces the earlier LISToday. LISTrusted will more often applied to continuous and multiphase processes focus and will report innovative technology developments, in the “concentrated” or “dry” phase especially in the eld advanced process solutions, and the results of LIST’s of bers, polymers and elastomers. proprietary R&D. Still focussing on this revolutionary technology it is the goal of LIST and its “brain trust”, a large group of highly Yours sincerely educated and experienced staff, to be and stay at the forefront of further developing and implementing this innovative “Dry Processing” technology. Klaus R. List i Contents Conventional versus Processing in the Process Intensication New Technologies Concentrated Phase Dry Processing of Elastomers Polymer Chemical Fiber Industries Food Industries Environmental Life Cycle Industries Industries Industries ManagementList page 1.indd 1 2/19/09 10:50:34 AM
  • 36. Conventional versus New Technologies For many years the processing industries have made use of conventional technologies for reaction (synthesis) and nishing (drying, crystallization, steam stripping, etc.) steps for the production of polymers and chemicals. These technologies are considered to be technically Cleaner production environment mature, well engineered and perfected for Energy conservation application in processes utilizing solvents or diluents Minimum emissions and wastes as the carrier phase and also for processes in which Compact and exible installations the product does not go through phase changes. Minimum solvent requirements Recent thinking challenges that convention, especially when there are phase changes occurring To meet these demands the processing industries are during the process. In addition, today’s modern researching new technological opportunities including: manufacturers demand processes that offer: New processes, such as the synthesis in the Cost effectiveness concentrated phase and process intensication Higher operating efciency Innovations perfecting overall process control Optimum use of raw materials New chemical developments allowing new Elimination of toxic materials processes and products Processing in the Concentrated Phase In the chemical process industries a large number of products are processed in stirred tank reactors. Assuming the reactants are liquids or a mixture of solids and liquids, whereby the solids are soluble in the liquids, and while the reaction takes place the reaction mass does not undergo a physical phase change, then the reaction can be realized in a stirred tank. If however phase changes occur during processing and other Elastomers and Plastomers. More recently, the conventional technology requires the use of manufacturers have been looking for technological diluents. For the most part, diluents decrease the solutions that allow synthesis in the concentrated viscosity of the reaction mass enabling better mixing, phase and intensication of the process itself. While enhancing the control of the reaction temperature this thinking is just starting to become popular in through contact heat transfer and through the processing industry, it always was, is and will be evaporative cooling with reux condensation. LIST’s core competence. Well-known examples are production of Xanthates, Hexamethylol Melamine (HMM), Superabsorbent It was Heinz List, a pioneer of modern industrial Polymers (SAP), Synthetic Rubbers (SBR, ESBR, EPDM), processing technology, who in 1966 rst said: “Processes in the concentrated phase “ Processes in the concentrated phase are considerably are considerably more efcient more efcient than processes in the than processes in the diluted phase diluted phase and and therefore also signicantly therefore also more economical.” signicantly more economical”. He recognized that Heinz List (1912 – 1988), founder of LIST AG, in 1966 processing in the concentrated phase, 2 LISTrusted – March 2009List pgs 2 - 3 .indd 2 2/19/09 10:51:57 AM
  • 37. Twin Shaft Continuous LIST KneaderReactor meaning solvent-lean or even solvent-free, can Narrow residence-time distribution maximize process yield per unit volume. In order to Adaptive for a wide range of residence times process in the concentrated phase, in itself a very Closed design for cleaner production complex and challenging task, new technology was environment required that subsequently allowed handling of high Robust design for high viscosity processing viscous, pasty and crust-forming products. He began Compact design maximizing process yield the development of reliable process technology per performance volume and minimizing capable of handling phase changes during processing space requirement in the concentrated phase. Today, LIST KneaderReactor Technology comprises ! the well-known twin shaft AP (1969) and single shaft DISCOTHERM B (1974), the versatile twin shaft ORP Processing in the “Concentrated Phase” (1990), CRP (1990), CKR (2000), the unique single maximizes process yield per unit volume shaft LCD (List Continuous Dissolver, 1992) the new generation single shaft CBP (Continuous Bulk Polymerizer, 2003), single shaft CME (Continuous The new and revolutionary LIST KneaderReactor Main Evaporator, 2002) and TSF (Twin Shaft Finisher, Technology, the core business focus of our company 2002). The LIST KneaderReactor has long practiced ever since, was introduced with the following what today is known as “Process Intensication”, competitive technological characteristics: where multiple processing steps are performed in the Excellent mixing and kneading performance during same unit. Such units are characterized by high yield wet, pasty and viscous phases per performance volume and also have the exibility Large working volume reactors efciently handling to produce different grades and/or products. large product volumes Large heat-exchange surface areas yielding highest possible surface-to-volume ratio Maximum self-cleaning LISTrusted – March 2009 3List pgs 2 - 3 .indd 3 2/19/09 11:35:35 AM
  • 38. Process Intensication in practice using LIST Technology Production of Hexamethylol Melamine In cooperation with a European customer, LIST developed a new nearly stoichiometric process, Hexamethylol melamine (HMM) is produced from whereby the KneaderReactor Technology is applied melamine [C3N3(NH2)3] and Formaldehyde [CH2O]. for the synthesis and the drying process stage The conventional process requires an excess (Fig. 1, Fig. 2 top right and Fig. 3). of 7 – 10 mol formaldehyde per mol of melamine. The reaction product HMM is a paste containing i Unique competitive characteristics 40 – 70 % water by weight and unreacted formaldehyde. Continuous process starting with a solution of melamine and formaldehyde FA NaOH Continuous reaction followed by continuous Melamine vacuum drying Nearly stochiometric reaction Off-Gas Final product at discharge of drying stage: - White crystalline - Powder or ne granular Vacuum - Low formaldehyde and water content LIST CONTI Condensate Reactor - Easy to handle LIST CONTI Dryer Vacuum Bulk Polymerization of MMA to PMMA The conventional bulk free radical polymerization LIST Discharge Lock Product (dry, cold) of methyl methacrylate (MMA) to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is realized in continuous stirred Fig. 1: Process ow diagram for the new HMM tank reactors (CSTR) whereby the conversion lies production process in the 50 – 60 % range and the unconverted MMA acts as solvent. Limitations are attributed to the viscosity The disadvantages of the conventional process increase, to the gel effect and to the inefcient are summarized as: management of the released energy of reaction The pasty HMM tends to harden (exothermic). The application of LIST CBP Poor rheological properties (HMM sticks to KneaderReactor Technology (Fig. 2 top left) for the surfaces) for mixing and further processing bulk free radical (co-) polymerization of MMA without Poor ecological and safety characteristics solvent overcomes the difculty of temperature because of the presence of free formaldehyde control, with a high conversion up to 95 % despite the Because convective dryers are used, drying of increase of the viscosity and the strong Trommsdorff’s HMM is difcult and un-economical. Low effect (gel effect) exhibited from this reaction system. temperature drying is very expensive (HMM is temperature sensitive, polymerizing and The LIST CBP KneaderReactor is well suited to carry degrading simultaneously at 133 °C) by a out the exothermic bulk free radical polymerization diffusion controlled mechanism of MMA because the heat exchange surfaces provided Furthermore, convective drying has adverse in the casing jacket, shaft, and shaft kneading ecological impact due to the release of elements can remove the exothermic heat of reaction formaldehyde and mechanical heat input in order to maintain the proper reaction temperature. Evaporative cooling ! is also utilized to remove this heat by evaporating, condensing and reuxing MMA. LIST KneaderReactors have long practiced “Process Intensication” 4 LISTrusted – March 2009List pgs 4 - 5 .indd 2 2/19/09 10:54:16 AM
  • 39. Fig. 2: Top left, Single Shaft LIST CBP KneaderReactor; Top right: Twin Shaft LIST CONTI KneaderReactor for HMM Synthesis Fig. 3: Single Shaft LIST CONTI KneaderReactor for HMM Drying Additionally, the kneading/cleaning elements of the the reaction time, thereby maximizing the production LIST CBP KneaderReactor provide constant surface capacity per unit time and volume. renewal, which further improves heat transfer by reducing stagnant zones of polymer that may insulate Concluding, the bulk free radical (co-) polymerization against heat transfer. These elements also reduce or of MMA to PMMA reects processing in the eliminate the diffusion and mass transfer limitations concentrated phase and process intensication thus of the reaction by keeping the polymer mass well demonstrating outstanding economic advantages as mixed radially and axially. Minimizing the mass compared to the CSTR processing technology. transfer limitation leads to signicant reduction of LISTrusted – March 2009 5List pgs 4 - 5 .indd 3 2/19/09 10:54:50 AM
  • 40. Dry Processing of Elastomers Typical processes to make synthetic elastomers include emulsion, suspension, or solution polymerizations. For example, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) is made by solution polymerization of styrene and butadiene in a solvent (hexane, cyclohexane, toluene, etc.). The concentration of SBR in the solvent is kept low The principle benet of the wet process is that (10 – 25 %). Once the reaction is complete, the resulting the technology has been used for over 50 years, cement solution of crude product is coagulated and consequently, the equipment and process are well stripped with steam in hot water in order to remove known and understood. There are however the solvent from the rubber. This is the “Wet Process”, signicant disadvantages. A large amount of steam where the so-called “rubber slurry” is subjected to is used for coagulation and stripping. The recovered a series of mechanical dewatering steps to remove solvent must be rened, as it contains signicant the majority of the water. Convective dryers are then amounts of water. As the targeted nal residual typically used to remove the nal residual amount of solvent content decreases, the amount of steam water from the rubber. required increases dramatically. Polymers that stick to the jacket of the stripping vessel or strongly foam cannot be steam stripped. Since the hot air exiting the rubber dryers contains solvent, the exhaust must be treated in an incinerator for environmental reasons. Many pieces of equipment are required for this process, thus requiring more maintenance, a larger plant footprint, and difcult cleaning procedures. When polymers are produced using metallocene catalysts, water coagulation and steam stripping is prohibited. If water coagulation and steam stripping is applied for the separation of the solvent from polymers produced using anionic catalytic systems, the recovery of a pure, water free solvent requires a high recovery effort. Single Shaft LIST CONTI KneaderReactor for Drying Polymer Processing-Devolatilization Solution Vacuum Condensate Main Evaporator Vacuum (Kneader) Condensate Kneader Devolatilizer Solid Polymer Granules Fig. 4: Process Flow Diagram “Dry Process” In order to resolve these drawbacks, a new continuous two-step process for the direct Single Shaft BATCH LIST KneaderReactor for devolatilization of elastomers was developed. heterogeneous reactions This so-called “Dry Process” addresses the 6 LISTrusted – March 2009List pgs 6 - 7 .indd 2 2/19/09 10:57:13 AM
  • 41. disadvantages of wet Processing, which are: polymerization; metallocene catalysts) or the high water and steam consumption, high energy development of polymers that were previously consumption, environmental problems due to high not possible due to water sensitivity or due to level of emissions, solvent purication, and high temperature sensitivity (<100 °C). maintenance and cleaning costs due to amount of equipment required. At the core of this new All-In-One Processing process is the new generation single shaft LIST CME and twin shaft nisher LIST TSF KneaderReactor. The conventional way to operate processes Fig. 4 shows the process ow diagram of the “Dry involving multiple phase changes is to handle Process” technology. those changes in separate distinct process steps. ! ! Dry Processing reduces energy and LIST’s “All-in-One” Processors solvent consumption minimize operating costs The rst step, the primary evaporator concentrates Accordingly, the associated space requirements, cement solution and the recovery of the solvent investment and operating costs are substantial. for direct recycling back to the reactor. The main In contrast, LIST KneaderReactors with large evaporation takes place either at atmospheric working volumes can combine several unit pressure or under vacuum. The type of solvent operations and multi-phase processing in a single present and the temperature sensitivity of the unit. This solution helps manufacturers realize a rubber determine the selection of the operating faster return on their investment, minimize their pressure. The continuous operation takes place operating costs and gives them a competitive edge. entirely in the viscous phase so that a large portion of the required energy is provided by mechanical means. The concentrated cement, roughly 90 – 95 % i Examples of “All-In-One Processing” rubber concentration, is continuously discharged from the LIST CME main evaporator and fed to the The following are examples of “All-In-One Processing” LIST TSF twin shaft nisher. The LIST TSF twin-shaft from the various industrial sectors demonstrating the nisher typically operates under vacuum. The capacities and potentials of the solutions provided function of the nisher is to reduce the residual from the specialized LIST KneaderReactor Technology: solvent concentration down to the required volatile level, normally between 200 - 2000 ppm. The continuous crystallization of sugar alcohols by Depending on the temperature sensitivity of the ash evaporation with subsequent vacuum drying rubber the state of the rubber mass under which The realization of heterogeneous reactions in the operations take place is selected. absence of solvents or in the presence of low solvent concentration such as, Xanthates, CMC, It is estimated that the Dry Process reduces food Phosphates, etc. energy consumption by up to 76 % when compared The evaporative concentration with subsequent to the conventional Wet Process. Further more, dissolving of cellulose, or of poly-phenylene it is also estimated that the consumption of water terephthalamide (PPTA) to a homogeneous spinning is decreased by up to 66 %. solution The evaporative separation of Toluene Diisocyanate Summarizing, the Dry Process shows remarkable (TDI) from distillation residue with subsequent advantages compared to the conventional Wet drying and total recovery of TDI Process and drying process. By not using steam/ water for the separation of solvent and rubber, The above processes are characterized by multiple energy can be saved, emissions reduced, and phase changes, they are heat transfer controlled, but purication of the solvent can be eliminated. also diffusion limited unit operations. The success of Trace amounts of water in the recycled solvent the LIST KneaderReactor Technology has far exceeded will also be eliminated, which may also permit anybody’s expectations. the application of new catalytic systems (anionic LISTrusted – March 2009 7List pgs 6 - 7 .indd 3 2/19/09 10:57:57 AM
  • 42. Polymer Chemical Fiber Industries Industries Industries Food Environmental Life Cycle Industries Industries Management Try dry, forget wet LIST AG Berstelstrasse 24 LIST informs and demonstrates the advantages CH-4422 Arisdorf and benets of DRY PROCESSING. Switzerland Phone +41 61 815 30 00 Fax +41 61 815 30 01 www.list.ch Visit us at ACHEMA 2009, info@list.ch May 11 – 15 in Frankfurt/DE Hall 4.1 Booth F8 – G9 LIST USA INC. 1629 Cross Beam Drive Charlotte, NC 28217 USA Phone +1 704 423 54 78 Fax +1 704 423 02 10 www.list.us info@list.us LIST AG (SINGAPORE BRANCH) 9 Temasek Boulevard Visit us at NPE 2009/ANTEC 2009 #18-01A, Suntec City Tower Two June 22 – 26 in Chicago, IL SGP-038989 Singapore Booth 58072 Phone +65 63 38 78 76 Fax +65 63 38 37 71 www.list.sg info@list.sg IMPRINT No reproduction of publication without approval of LIST AG Issue: March 2009 Print run: 68.000List page 8 .indd 1 2/19/09 10:58:56 AM
  • 43. Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies UWT Show Preview GEKO-Pumpen A chema 2009 (Frankfurt am Main, Germany; May 11–15), the World’s largest assembly of chemical process industry professionals is approaching. With over 200,000 visitors and more than 3,500 exhibitors from 50 countries filling the exhibition grounds of Messe Frankfurt GmbH, this exhibition and congress on chemical engineering, environmental protection and biotechnology contin- GEA ues to be the flagship trade fair for the chemical process industries (CPI). Dechema e.V. (www.dechema.de), Control Company the show organizer, reports that the Achema Congress is now larger than ness Media GmbH. And, as you make with fluid temperatures from –80 to ever, with 925 lectures. The estimated your way through the exhibition halls, 500°F. The unit pumps liquids and 27,000 congress attendees will have be sure to stop by the Chemical Engi- gases and will not he harmed by dry the opportunity to take part in podium neering stand (Hall 9.0, Stand G30; pumping. Hall 5.1, Stand B21–22 — discussions, expert talks and plenary Hall 5.1/6.1, Stand A1) to say hello. Control Co., Friendswood, Tex. lectures that will reflect the diverse www.control3.com areas of process engineering. In ad- Use this non-contaminating pump dition to the Congress, the Industrial for clean applications Tank-bottom valves now Biotechnology Partnering Conference These new compact, variable-flow, bi- available in larger widths will focus specifically on the growing directional, self-priming, peristaltic Vesta Tank Bottom Valves (photo) are significance of industrial biotechnology pumps (photo) offer precise flow de- used to shut off liquid media at ves- in the chemical, pharmaceutical, cos- liveries. They are ideal for use with sels or tanks. Preferably installed at metics, food and textile industries. conductivity flow-thru cells, liquid the lowest point of the tank bottom, Below is a cross-section of the prod- chromatography, collecting fractions, their characteristic feature is shut-off ucts and services that will be on display pH/circulating fluids or buffers in at tank bottom level without any sump. at the show. For more details on the baths, and moving corrosive materi- The pocket-free design enables com- event and developing news about the als. They provide outstanding flow plete draining of the vessel and optimal planned technology announcements control and flexibility for transferring clean-in-place (CIP) and steam-in-place and the congress, please visit www.che. and dosing liquids. The fluid contacts (SIP). Due to the compact design, these com/achema, which we will be updat- only the tubing for contamination- valves are also ideal for confined spaces. ing often. When you arrive at the ex- free pumping. Flowrates are from The new extended range includes the hibition grounds, stay on top of break- 0.005–600 mL/min. Variable-speed following sizes: DN 32, 40, 50, 65 (DIN ing show news with the Achema Daily, flow control and five different tubing pipe standard); ISO 42.4, 48.3 and 60.3 which will be produced by the staffs of sizes provide fine resolution with a (ISO pipe standard); and OD 1.5, 2, 2.5 Chemical Engineering and Vogel Busi- wide flow range. Tubing may be used and 3 in. (OD pipe standard). The ex- Note: For more information, circle the 3-digit number Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 2009 40D-1 on p. 62, or use the website designation.12_CHE_031509_ACHd.indd 1 2/23/09 12:58:57 PM
  • 44. Show Preview tended range of valves is available for membrane elements inert to all sol- manual operation with NC/NO pneu- vents. Hall 4.1, Stand J8–J10 — Veolia matic actuators made from synthetic Water Solutions & Technologies, Saint material or stainless steel. Hall 4.1, Maurice, France Stand D13–G22 — GEA Tuchenhagen www.veoliawaterst.com GmbH, Büchen, Germany www.tuchenhagen.com This heat exchanger holds up to a thousand plates Operate under harsh conditions The new NT 500 plate heat ex- with ceramic membranes changer (photo) sets new perfor- The CeraMem proprietary technol- mance standards with a volume ogy platform (photo, p. 40D-1) provides flow of up to 4,500 m3/h. The steel ceramic membrane performance at frame can hold up to a thousand GEA Ecoflex comparable lifecycle costs to polymeric plates, and the largest version is membranes. The design, which is a com- 4.7-m high and 1.6-m wide. Maximum sure safe process reliability. Hall 4.0, bination of unique materials of construc- operating pressure is 16 bars, and the Stand A13–G22 — GEA Ecoflex GmbH, tion and novel membrane chemistry, firm’s OptiWave technology guarantees Sarstedt, Germany allows the utilization of large-diameter the best flow behavior across the full www.gea-ecoflex.de ceramic monolith microfiltration mem- plate width, says the manufacturer. The branes and ultrafiltration that reduce NT 500 is fitted with glue-less EcoLoc Pump hazardous liquids without the overall footprint of installed equip- gaskets, which can be replaced quickly the risk of corrosion or leaks ment. These features allow operation in and easily. Thanks to the PosLoc sys- Designed for pumping hazardous and harsh environments, including process- tem, the plate heat exchanger has a chemically aggressive liquids, this seal- ing high temperature feed, resistance self-centering plate pack, which guar- less PTFE/PFA-lined chemical pump to chemical and abrasive attacks, and antees a perfect fit of the plates to en- (photo, p. 40D-1) complies with DIN Circle 27 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-27 Please visit us at ACHEMA 2009 Hall 9.1 - Booth K30-N31 Circle 28 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-2812_CHE_031509_ACHd.indd 2 2/23/09 8:27:36 AM
  • 45. Measure distances up to 40m with this level measurement device Nivobob (photo, p. 40D-1) is a re-en- Christ Water Technology gineered model of this firm’s popular AM Technology plumb-bob range of level measure- EN 22858 and Atex. The pump pro- (EDI) module with an integrated mem- ment technology. Among the enhance- vides virtually leak-free operation and brane stage. It is based on proven and ments offered are: increased durabil- unrestricted corrosion resistance, even patented spiral-wound technology and ity via a brushless motor; a new rope at temperatures of 160°C and higher. has an additional membrane stage for system that extends the time between The pump features PTFE impellers removal of particles and bacteria. The servicing; and a larger measurement with shovels, PTFE-lined, carbon-fiber EDI module is available in a cold-wa- distance of up to 40 m (with the tape isolation shells, and delivers maximum ter version and a version that can be version). An additional remote box is flowrates of up to 180 m3/h. Modu- sanitized with hot (>80°C) water. Both available for controlling up to 10 in- lar design permits the use of either a versions are available in various sizes struments. In addition to the 4–20-mA bear-shaft or block-type design, both with outputs of 500 to 3,000 L/h. The output, both Modbus and Profibus DP of which are interchangeable. Pumps combination of this module with a pre- communication is offered for integrat- with mechanical seals are also avail- ceding reverse-osmosis stage makes it ing measured data into existing con- able. Hall 8, Stand J45–J48 — GEKO- possible — without additional ultra- trol systems. Hall 9.2, Stand K35–L36 Pumpen GmbH, Eltville, Germany filtration — to produce highly puri- — UWT GmbH, Betzigau, Germany www.geko-pumpen.de fied water with bacterial counts of www.uwt.de less than 10 calorie forming units per This EDI module also has a 1,200 mL. Hall 4.1, Stand F3–G7 — Handle difficult liquids on a small membrane stage Christ Water Technology Group, Aesch, scale with this flow reactor Septron Bio-Safe (photo) is said to be Switzerland The Coflore ACR (photo) is a new type the world’s first electro-deionization www.christwater.com of flow reactor for use in laboratories Check Valves Built � Easily � 3A Compliant: third party to Your verified. 32Ra, finer finishes Disassembled: also available. spare parts available. Check � No Pooling: eliminates the pooling found in � Retrofit: for use globe-type bodies. List. in new or existing sanitary ferrules and replaces the gasket. � Space Saving: compact; seals on ferrule ID and uses only one clamp. www.checkall.com West Des Moines, Iowa USA Phone: 515-224-2301 US Patent Numbers: 5,033,503; 6,039,073; & 6,152,171 sales@checkall.com Canadian Patent Number: 2,039,991 Since 1958 Circle 29 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-29 Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 2009 40D-312_CHE_031509_ACHd.indd 3 2/23/09 8:28:14 AM
  • 46. Ohkawara Kakohki Show Preview and pilot plants. The use of multiple of hydrochloric acid from silicone ture a heat-resis- reaction cells and dynamic mixing oil, and vice versa. The pressure tant, cloth-made gives the reactor much greater flex- vessels are made of carbon steel drying chamber, ibility and ability to handle problem with an inner, 3-mm-thick PVDF which allows for a fluids. Free-floating agitator elements lining. Unlike pressure vessels of fast heat up of the eliminate the need for mechanical pure PVDF or of glass-reinforced machine, as well seals and rotating shafts. The reactor PVDF, the lined-carbon-steel as a low risk of im- has a flexible throughput (10–5,000 type of vessel can be fabricated purities. BDPs are mL/h) and has a very low pressure according to any user-defined design especially suitable for ceramics of all drop. It is able to handle problem flu- code, design pressure and vessel size. kinds. The drying air and evaporated ids (slurries, high viscosity fluids, slow The coalescer elements and other in- water penetrate the filter bag and reactions). All wetted surfaces can be ternals are also constructed of PVDF are drawn off by an exhaust system, assessed for cleaning, and dismantling with coalescing media of a special, while product powders, as small as and assembly takes less than 10 min- acid-resistant micro-glass fiber with micrometer range, are held back and utes. The ACR is intended for small- an optional PTFE microfiber. Droplets collected at the base point. There is a scale production, process development as small as 1 µm in diameter can be single powder collection point and no and scale up studies. Hall 6.2, Stand separated with this custom-designed aero-cyclone or filters are necessary, F21 — AM Technology, Runcorn, U.K. coalescer. Hall 5.0, Stand H10–H13 resulting in a homogeneous powder www.amtechuk.com — Franken Filtertechnik KG, Huerth, mixture and a very compact design. Germany Water evaporation capacities range Separate droplets as small as www.frankenfilter.com from 5 to 80 kg/h. Hall 4.0 Stand D3 1 micrometer in diameter — Ohkawara Kakohki Co., Ltd., Yoko- Coalescers of type Phase Separator PT These dryers collect powder hama, Japan 800 and PT 500 were developed for an down to the micrometer range www.oc-sd.co.jp ■ application to separate micro droplets Spray Bag Dryers (BDP; photo) fea- Kate Torzewski HIGH ACCURACY FLOW METERS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURES AND HIGH PRESSURES – non-intrusive ultrasonic clamp-on technology – for temperatures up to 750 °F – independent of process pressure www.flexim.com – multi-beam for high accuracy usinfo@flexim.com – wide turn down – installation without process shut down FLEXIM Instruments LLC – no maintenance CA: (510) 420-6995 – no pressure loss NY: (631) 492-2300 – standard volume calculation TX: (281) 635-2423 TYPICAL APPLICATIONS: HEAT TRANSFER OILS | BITUMEN | PITCH/TAR | COKER FEED | CRUDE OILS/SYNTHETIC CRUDE | GAS OILS | REFINED PETROLEUM PRODUCTS | HOT OR TOXIC CHEMICALS Please visit us at ACHEMA 2009, Hall 10.2, Stand D27-E28 Circle 31 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-31 Circle 30 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-3087_Flexim-Anzeige-ChemEngin 1 11.01.2008 11:18:49 Uh12_CHE_031509_ACHd.indd 4 2/23/09 8:28:54 AM
  • 47. Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies UWT Show Preview GEKO-Pumpen A chema 2009 (Frankfurt am Main, Germany; May 11–15), the World’s largest assembly of chemical process industry professionals is approaching. With over 200,000 visitors and more than 3,500 exhibitors from 50 countries filling the exhibition grounds of Messe Frankfurt GmbH, this exhibition and congress on chemical engineering, environmental protection and biotechnology contin- GEA ues to be the flagship trade fair for the chemical process industries (CPI). Dechema e.V. (www.dechema.de), Control Company the show organizer, reports that the Achema Congress is now larger than ness Media GmbH. And, as you make with fluid temperatures from –80 to ever, with 925 lectures. The estimated your way through the exhibition halls, 500°F. The unit pumps liquids and 27,000 congress attendees will have be sure to stop by the Chemical Engi- gases and will not he harmed by dry the opportunity to take part in podium neering stand (Hall 9.0, Stand G30; pumping. Hall 5.1, Stand B21–22 — discussions, expert talks and plenary Hall 5.1/6.1, Stand A1) to say hello. Control Co., Friendswood, Tex. lectures that will reflect the diverse www.control3.com areas of process engineering. In ad- Use this non-contaminating pump dition to the Congress, the Industrial for clean applications Tank-bottom valves now Biotechnology Partnering Conference These new compact, variable-flow, bi- available in larger widths will focus specifically on the growing directional, self-priming, peristaltic Vesta Tank Bottom Valves (photo) are significance of industrial biotechnology pumps (photo) offer precise flow de- used to shut off liquid media at ves- in the chemical, pharmaceutical, cos- liveries. They are ideal for use with sels or tanks. Preferably installed at metics, food and textile industries. conductivity flow-thru cells, liquid the lowest point of the tank bottom, Below is a cross-section of the prod- chromatography, collecting fractions, their characteristic feature is shut-off ucts and services that will be on display pH/circulating fluids or buffers in at tank bottom level without any sump. at the show. For more details on the baths, and moving corrosive materi- The pocket-free design enables com- event and developing news about the als. They provide outstanding flow plete draining of the vessel and optimal planned technology announcements control and flexibility for transferring clean-in-place (CIP) and steam-in-place and the congress, please visit www.che. and dosing liquids. The fluid contacts (SIP). Due to the compact design, these com/achema, which we will be updat- only the tubing for contamination- valves are also ideal for confined spaces. ing often. When you arrive at the ex- free pumping. Flowrates are from The new extended range includes the hibition grounds, stay on top of break- 0.005–600 mL/min. Variable-speed following sizes: DN 32, 40, 50, 65 (DIN ing show news with the Achema Daily, flow control and five different tubing pipe standard); ISO 42.4, 48.3 and 60.3 which will be produced by the staffs of sizes provide fine resolution with a (ISO pipe standard); and OD 1.5, 2, 2.5 Chemical Engineering and Vogel Busi- wide flow range. Tubing may be used and 3 in. (OD pipe standard). The ex- Note: For more information, circle the 3-digit number Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 2009 40I-1 on p. 62, or use the website designation.13_CHE_031509_ACHi.indd 1 2/24/09 1:40:56 PM
  • 48. Show Preview tended range of valves is available for manual operation with NC/NO pneu- matic actuators made from synthetic material or stainless steel. Hall 4.1, Stand D13–G22 — GEA Tuchenhagen GmbH, Büchen, Germany www.tuchenhagen.com Operate under harsh conditions with ceramic membranes The CeraMem proprietary technology platform (photo, p. 40I-1) provides ceramic membrane performance at comparable lifecycle costs to poly- meric membranes. The design, which is a combination of unique materials of construction and novel membrane chemistry, allows the utilization of large-diameter ceramic monolith microfiltration membranes and ultrafiltration GEA Ecoflex Christ Water Technology that reduce the overall footprint of installed equipment. These features allow operation in harsh environments, m3/h. The steel frame can hold including processing high temperature up to a thousand plates, and the feed, resistance to chemical and abra- largest version is 4.7-m high and sive attacks, and membrane elements 1.6-m wide. The unit is available inert to all solvents. Hall 4.1, Stand in three different plate lengths, J8–J10 — Veolia Water Solutions & and the plates can be supplied Technologies, Saint Maurice, France in three different embossing pat- www.veoliawaterst.com terns. Maximum operating pres- sure is 16 bars, and the firm’s Pump hazardous liquids without OptiWave technology guarantees the risk of corrosion or leaks the best flow behavior across the Designed for pumping hazardous and full plate width, says the manu- AM Technology chemically aggressive liquids, this seal- facturer. The NT 500 is fitted with less PTFE/PFA-lined chemical pump glue-less EcoLoc gaskets, which can be drop. It is able to handle problem flu- (photo, p. 40I-1) complies with DIN EN replaced quickly and easily. Thanks to ids (slurries, high viscosity fluids, slow 22858 and Atex. The pump provides the PosLoc system, the plate heat ex- reactions). All wetted surfaces can be virtually leak-free operation and un- changer has a self-centering plate pack, assessed for cleaning, and dismantling restricted corrosion resistance, even which guarantees a perfect fit of the and assembly takes less than 10 min- at temperatures of 160°C and higher. plates to ensure safe process reliability. utes. The ACR is intended for small- The pump features PTFE impellers Hall 4.0, Stand A13–G22 — GEA Eco- scale production, process development with shovels, PTFE-lined, carbon-fiber flex GmbH, Sarstedt, Germany and scale up studies. Hall 6.2, Stand isolation shells, and delivers maximum www.gea-ecoflex.de F21 — AM Technology, Runcorn, U.K. flowrates of up to 180 m3/h. Modu- www.amtechuk.com lar design permits the use of either a Handle difficult liquids on a small bear-shaft or block-type design, both scale with this flow reactor Measure distances up to 40m with of which are interchangeable. Pumps The Coflore ACR (photo) is a new type this level measurement device with mechanical seals are also avail- of flow reactor for use in laboratories Nivobob (photo, p. 40I-1) is a re-en- able. Hall 8, Stand J45–J48 — GEKO- and pilot plants. The use of multiple gineered model of this firm’s popular Pumpen GmbH, Eltville, Germany reaction cells and dynamic mixing plumb-bob range of level measure- www.geko-pumpen.de gives the reactor much greater flex- ment technology. Among the enhance- ibility and ability to handle problem ments offered are: increased dura- This heat exchanger holds up to fluids. Free-floating agitator elements bility via a brushless motor; a new a thousand plates in its frame eliminate the need for mechanical rope system, which extends the time The new NT 500 plate heat exchanger seals and rotating shafts. The reactor between servicing; and a larger mea- (photo) sets new performance stan- has a flexible throughput (10–5,000 surement distance of up to 40 m (with dards with a volume flow of up to 4,500 mL/h) and has a very low pressure the tape version). For small plants, 40I-2 Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 200913_CHE_031509_ACHi.indd 2 2/23/09 12:49:07 PM
  • 49. We know C-Partnership 1 CBC what makes a GOOD PARTNERSHIP With state-of-the-art powder engineering expertise and drying solutions, GEA Niro has everything it takes to plant the seeds of a healthy partnership. From initial idea to final execution, our know-how can help your business flourish. Our extensive test facilities are equipped with the latest drying technology, and we have the most experienced test engineers and process technologists in the business. This unmatched expertise enables you to move quickly from idea to development and profitable production. We can help you determine the optimum drying solution – designed to match your exact product and plant specifications. GEA Niro’s global project management skills are available in local markets to take your project smoothly all the way to successful commissioning. Our comprehensive after-sales programme ensures a healthy return on investment through- out the lifetime of your plant. When you choose GEA Niro, you get more than advanced technology. You get a partner who can help grow your business – with a plant upgrade or by fine-tuning a process too meet changing market requirements. For more information, please visit www.niro.com. Process Engineering GEA Niro Frankfurt am Main Stand D13 - G22 Gladsaxevej 305, PO Box 45, DK-2860 Soeborg, Denmark May 11-15 2009 Hall 4.0 Tel +45 39 54 54 54 Fax +45 39 54 58 00 E-mail: chemical@niro.dk Website: www.niro.com Circle 32 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-3241265 GEA Niro Chemical Ads [1].indd 1 2/5/09 4:03:10 PM GEA Niro 3-09.indd 1 2/19/09 11:25:09 AM
  • 50. Show Preview an additional remote box is available for controlling up to 10 instruments. In addition to the 4–20-mA output, both Modbus and Profibus DP com- munication is offered for integrating measured data into existing control systems. Hall 9.2, Stand K35–L36 — UWT GmbH, Betzigau, Germany www.uwt.de This EDI module also has a membrane stage Septron Bio-Safe (photo, p. 40I-2) is said to be the world’s first electro-deioniza- tion (EDI) module with an integrated membrane stage. It is based on proven and patented spiral-wound technology and has an additional membrane stage Flexim Ohkawara Kakohki for removal of particles and bacteria. The EDI module is available in a cold- water version and a version that can be sanitized with hot (>80°C) water. Both versions are available in various sizes with outputs of 500 to 3,000 L/h. The combination of this module with a pre- ceding reverse-osmosis stage makes it possible — without additional ultrafil- tration — to produce highly purified water with bacterial counts of less than 10 calorie forming units per 1,200 mL. The module can be retrofitted on existing Osmatron systems. Hall 4.1, Stand F3–G7 — Christ Water Technol- ogy Group, Aesch, Switzerland www.christwater.com These dryers collect powder Franken Filtertechnik down to the micrometer range Spray Bag Dryers (BDP; photo) fea- Separate droplets as small as this custom-designed coalescer. Hall ture a heat-resistant, cloth-made dry- 1 micrometer in diameter 5.0, Stand H10–H13 — Franken Fil- ing chamber, which allows for a fast Coalescers of type Phase Separator tertechnik KG, Huerth, Germany heat up of the machine, as well as a PT 800 and PT 500 (photo) were de- www.frankenfilter.com low risk of impurities. BDPs are es- veloped for an application to separate pecially suitable for ceramics of all micro droplets of hydrochloric acid Measure flow with only two kinds. The drying air and evaporated from silicone oil, and vice versa. The transducer pairs over a diameter water penetrate the filter bag and pressure vessels are made of carbon With the new Fluxus F601 ultrasonic are drawn off by an exhaust system, steel with an inner, 3-mm-thick PVDF flowmeter (photo), a reliable flow while product powders, as small as lining. Unlike pressure vessels of pure measurement can be obtained in a micrometer range, are held back and PVDF or of glass-reinforced PVDF, few minutes. No zeroing procedure is collected at the base point. There is a the lined-carbon-steel type of vessel necessary since calibration data and single powder collection point and no can be fabricated according to any transducer parameters are saved in a aero-cyclone or filters are necessary, user-defined design code, design pres- transducer internal memory and auto- resulting in a homogeneous powder sure and vessel size. The coalescer el- matically sent to the electronics unit mixture and a very compact design. ements and other internals are also upon connection. Only two transducer Water evaporation capacities range constructed of PVDF with coalescing pairs are needed to cover the diame- from 5 to 80 kg/h. Hall 4.0 Stand D3 media of a special, acid-resistant mi- ters most common in industrial appli- — Ohkawara Kakohki Co., Ltd., Yoko- cro-glass fiber with an optional PTFE cations (DN10 to DN2500), and the full hama, Japan microfiber. Droplets as small as 1 µm range covers DN6 to DN6500. Among www.oc-sd.co.jp in diameter can be separated with the flowmeter’s features are the Hy- 40I-4 Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 200913_CHE_031509_ACHi.indd 4 2/23/09 12:49:46 PM
  • 51. E20001-F160-P710-V1-7600 The team that thrives on high pressure jobs. Robust, precise, and user-friendly pressure transmission with SITRANS P transmitters. SITRANS P Relative, absolute, or differential pressure, level, flow, aggressive media, and high temperatures: no two processes are alike, no two sets of ambient conditions the same. The SITRANS P family, part of our process instrumentation portfolio, provides measuring accuracy and durability. Different performance levels, different pressure ranges, and a broad choice of materials – this product family has devices for the various applications in your processes. More information: www.siemens.com/sitransp Setting standards with Totally Integrated Automation. Answers for industry. 99940_Anz_F160_P710_V1_200x273_e.indd 1 05.02.2009 9:42:08 Uhr Siemens3-09.indd 1 2/19/09 11:18:09 AM
  • 52. Show Preview Hitech Instruments Fritsch Fine Care Biosystems bridTrek measuring mode, which en- of other titrations. The sures a high operational safety in case main feature of this of fluids with a high concentration of titrator is that the end- gas or solids. An advanced correction point of the titration algorithm for pipe wall echoes, and is determined auto- transducer positioning, increase the matically, by detecting accuracy in difficult measuring con- maximum change in Progressive Instruments ditions. Hall 10.2, Stand D27–E28 — mV per unit of titrant Flexim GmbH, Berlin, Germany added. A precision dispensing pump Measure oxygen levels remotely www.flexim.de is used to add the titrant accurately, with zirconia sensors eliminating the need for a piston-type This company’s range of zirconia oxy- Ensure accurate measurement syringe pump and non-return valves. gen analyzers measure oxygen, from % with this micropipette The endpoint of the titration is deter- to ppm levels. The accompanying soft- Precision, accuracy, durability and mined by “Maximum Change in mV” ware allows the user to view readings, ergonomics are benefits of Smart, the per unit addition of titrant. Hall 5.1, set output and perform calibration re- fully autoclavable micropipette (photo). Stand B7 — Progressive Instruments, motely via a fully bi-directional RS-232 With a highly sensitive volume display, Mumbai, India port. The Z1030 is a panel mount in- a micropipette with 100–1,000-μL vol- www.veegoindia.com strument with a remote mounted sen- ume range has an increment of 1 μL sor unit. The Z230 (photo) is a robust, instead of the typical 5 μL. Ensuring A centrifuge pump allows users portable instrument for benchtop use precision, design features include a to analyze heavy particles with an integral, long-life sensor. Both counter-lock mechanism that pre- The Analysette 22 MicroTec Plus feature a zirconia sensor, which has vents accidental volume change, as (photo) is the latest generation of this very fast response and short warm- well as a re-calibration knob that is company’s particle measurement tech- up time. The Z1030 and Z230 are both easily accessible, yet prevents any ac- nology. The instrument covers a range supplied complete with inlets, valves, cidental deflection. The pipette can be of 0.08 to 2,000 µm with a resolution flowmeter and sensor. Typical appli- completely disassembled for servicing of up to 108 measuring channels. The cations include nitrogen generators, and maintenance without any special wet dispersion unit is equipped with a purge gas soldering systems, air sep- tool. Hall 6.3, Stand J5 — Fine Care centrifuge pump for the optimal trans- arations and glove boxes. Hall 10.1, Biosystems, India port of process streams with a high Stand A9 — Hitech Instruments Ltd., www.accumaximum.com concentration of heavy particles. The Luton, U.K. measuring cells are located in con- www.hitech-inst.co.uk Titrate automatically based on venient cartridges, which are simply changes in solution voltage exchanged during the switch between This mixer comes in a variety of This company has recently introduced wet to dry measurements. Hall 6.1, sizes, for pilot to industrial scale the Potentiometric titrator (photo), Stand J9–J12 — Fritsch GmbH, Idar- The Helical Dryer series HD (photo, suitable to conduct aqueous/non-aque- Oberstein, Germany p. 40I-8) was designed to meet the re- ous, oxidation-reduction and a range www.fritsch-laser.com quirements of multipurpose produc- 40I-6 Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 200913_CHE_031509_ACHi.indd 6 2/23/09 12:50:27 PM
  • 53. In perfect harmony. Excellent performance! Berndorf Band has always worked closely Visit us at: together with its customers and strives ACHEMA 2009 Frankfurt, May 11 - 15 to meet or exceed the customers‘ steel Hall 4.0, booth B9-C11 belt requirements. Berndorf Band can find the right solution for any application. Due to careful selection of high quality raw materials and new state of the art production facilities, our goal is to ensure Berndorf Band GmbH the customers will receive best results A-2560 Berndorf, Austria Phone (+43)2672-800-0 with process steel belts made by Berndorf Fax (+43)2672-84176 band@berndorf.co.at Band. www.berndorf-band.at Circle 34 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-34Berndorf 3-09.indd 1 2/19/09 11:23:13 AM
  • 54. Show Preview tion, as specified by a study group that included major European pharmaceu- tical manufacturers. The dryer incor- porates an optimized mixing assembly, which features a mechanical seal (without product contact); rug- ged bearings; a small surface area (for reduced product hold-up); a reduced gap to the vessel wall (for enhanced mixing performance); and a 30% reduction in shaft length (so there is no bending moment). An integrated con- tainment filter is included for processing active agents. The overall height of the HD has been KMPT reduced due to a patented bowl de- sign. The dryer is available as a mobile unit, with a usable volume of 15–30 High-throughput characterization L, or a stationary version, with a us- of proteins, peptides & particles able volume of 100–4,000 L. Particle Using dynamic light scattering, the sizes up to 5 mm can be handled. Hall BioDLS (photo) allows automatic par- Brookhaven Instruments 5.0, Stand D13–E16 — KMPT AG, Vi- ticle sizing using industry-standard erkirchen, Germany well plates. The BioDLS measures nanoparticles in a highly efficient, www.kmpt.com proteins, peptides, micelles and other high-throughput manner useful for IMM_AnzeigeRZ_060209 09.02.2009 11:40 Uhr Seite 1 the pharmaceutical industry. Up to 768 samples can be measured without operator intervention. An optional, pre-programmed cooling chamber Shortcut keeps samples and trays at the speci- fied holding temperature. The mea- suring cell has independent tempera- ture control, allowing thermal studies related to stability and aggregation from on individual samples. Hall 5.1, Stand C7 — Brookhaven Instruments Corp., Holtsville, N.Y. www.bic.com lab to Use this viscometer for continuous measurement The new goVisc 500 is a compact, high- production performance precision viscometer with realtime viscosity outputs. It can be used in any laboratory-scale applica- tion for continuous viscosity measure- ment, and it is especially suitable for Please visit our stand at hall 9.1 booth D23-E24 to learn more. automated applications. The hygienic sensor is an all-welded construction that can be used in any orientation, with a smooth, crevice-free surface that resists fouling and facilitates cleaning. The goVisc 500 has excel- lent repeatability and high sensitivity Institut für Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH while being unaffected by flowrate or www.imm-mainz.de the presence of suspended solids or Carl-Zeiss-Straße 18-20 | 55129 Mainz | Germany gases. The associated PC-based Vis- Phone: +49 (0)6131 990-0 | E-Mail: info@imm-mainz.de coLink software has a multi-screen interface incorporating a display of Circle 35 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-35 40I-8 Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 200913_CHE_031509_ACHi.indd 8 2/23/09 12:51:17 PM
  • 55. Alfa Laval live viscosity, current temperature Also on display will be the complete and temperature-corrected viscosity line of BD-range of high-speed separa- as well as options for configuring the tors that have been especially designed system. Hall 10.2, Stand F5–F6 — Hy- for biodiesel processes, and the SG2 dramotion Ltd., North Yorkshire, U.K. 700 decanter for grain-based fuel etha- www.hydramotion.com nol processes. Also to be launched is the Culturefuge 400 (photo), which expands Flange joint software for the portfolio of hermetic, purpose-built calculation and simulation cell culture centrifuges. The expanded For safe operation of a flange joint, it capacity enables applications for mam- is important to consider a number of malian cell cultures and precipitated parameters that have an impact on protein. Hall 4.0, Stand H2–J8 — Alfa the bolts, gasket and flanges. The rela- Laval Lund AB, Lund, Sweden tively large number of mathematical www.alfalaval.com operations and the need for manag- ing a large number of data and spe- This capsule-filling machine can cific knowledge represent a highly run any combination of products demanding task for flange joint de- IN-CAP, an automatic, bench-top cap- signers. The DON 3.0 software offers sule filling machine (photo, p. 40I-10), the possibility to handle this complex is made completely in AISI 304 stain- task in a user-friendly and more reli- less steel with the parts in contact with able way, while providing considerable product made in AISI 316 L stainless savings of time required to perform steel. The unit can operate either in- such a calculation. The calculation of side or outside an isolator transition- flange joints is carried out according ing easily on its carriage with sliding to EN 1591-1. Hall 8, Stand D25–D26 guides. Its design enables operation — Donit Tesnit, Medvode, Slovenia and cleaning without contaminating www.donittesnit.si the working environment. It is fully washable as it has IP 65 protection. Separation solutions that meet Upon request, the unit can be supplied the demands of today’s markets with instrumented pins in order to de- A new modular-based separator will tect pressing force during slug forma- make its debut at Achema 2009. This tion. The output of this unit is 3,000 separator can reduce energy consump- capsules/h, and it can run all possible tion by up to 50%, depending on the combinations of products, such as media and application, says the firm. powder/pellets, powder/tablets, pow- Circle 36 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-3613_CHE_031509_ACHi.indd 9 2/23/09 8:10:20 AM
  • 56. Show Preview Emefcy Sierra Instruments der/liquids, two powders, two pellets a source of energy. The systems pro- Dott and so on. Hall 3.0, Stand S10 — Dott. duce electricity that can be fed into Bonapace & C. Srl, Milan, Italy the grid on a constant baseload basis. taminated soil. Hall 4.2, Stand G23 www.dottbonapace.com Benefits of this technology include: — Emefcy, Caesarea, Israel wastewater treatment as a by-prod- www.emefcy.com Turn wastewater into a source of uct of energy generation; carbon-free low-cost electricity energy generation; reduced sludge; These mass flowmeters The Megawatter platform (photo) is and efficiency even in extreme waste- are multi-gas capable a commercial implementation of Mi- water conditions. Megawatter sys- Max-Trak Model 180 Industrial Mass crobial Fuel Cells (MFC) technology tems have a number of targeted ap- Flowmeters and Controllers (photo) for direct electricity or hydrogen gen- plications, including direct electricity are now available with 316-stainless- eration on a large scale, while using generation, direct hydrogen produc- steel (ANSI or DIN) flange mounting wastewater as fuel by treating the or- tion, de-nitrification of wastewater for gas flowrates up to 1,000 L/min ganic materials dissolved in water as and heavy-metal removal from con- with pipe sizes up to 1 in. The major de- HIGH ACCURACY FLOW METERS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURES AND HIGH PRESSURES – non-intrusive ultrasonic clamp-on technology – for temperatures up to 750 °F – independent of process pressure www.flexim.com – multi-beam for high accuracy usinfo@flexim.com – wide turn down – installation without process shut down FLEXIM Instruments LLC – no maintenance CA: (510) 420-6995 – no pressure loss NY: (631) 492-2300 – standard volume calculation TX: (281) 635-2423 TYPICAL APPLICATIONS: HEAT TRANSFER OILS | BITUMEN | PITCH/TAR | COKER FEED | CRUDE OILS/SYNTHETIC CRUDE | GAS OILS | REFINED PETROLEUM PRODUCTS | HOT OR TOXIC CHEMICALS Please visit us at ACHEMA 2009, Hall 10.2, Stand D27-E28 Please visit us at ACHEMA 2009, Hall 9.1 - Booth K30-N31 Circle 30 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-30 Circle 28 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-2887_Flexim-Anzeige-ChemEngin 1 11.01.2008 11:18:49 Uh13_CHE_031509_ACHi.indd 10 2/23/09 12:51:55 PM
  • 57. A miniature spectrometer These electromechanical pumps offers ultralow stray light transfer high viscosity materials The new Avabench-75-ULS Electromechanical (EM) pumps are optical bench (photo) for the widely used in wastewater and sew- AvaSpeck family of fiber-op- age treatment, chemical and ceramic tic spectrometers has a dual, industries, mining, power plants, ma- internal modestripper along rine and offshore applications. With with multiple compound- RAN EM diaphragm pumps, capaci- parabolic concentrators to ties up to 30 m³/h can be transferred. Avantes further reduce stray-light Body material options are aluminum, sign enhancement of Model 180 is the levels to less than 0.04% The new AISI 304 stainless steel, cast iron and use of this firm’s Dial-A-Gas technol- optical-bench design also features polypropylene. Explosion-proof mo- ogy, which makes Max-Trak the indus- much higher rigidity, resulting in a tors are also available. Although the try’s only multi-gas capable mass flow factor of 20 decrease in strain sen- initial pump price of an EM pump is controller, according to the manufac- sitivity caused by microbending. The higher than that of an air-operated turer. The Model 180 has an accuracy new optical bench is integrated into diaphragm pump, EM pumps have within ±1% and repeatability within the AvaSpec 2046-USL, which is higher energy efficiency, making their ±0.2%. Max-Trak can communicate to available in a variety of slit and grat- life-cycle cost lower. RAN EM series a user workstation via RS-232, RS-485 ing configurations covering wave- pumps are sealless, self priming, dry- or one of four analog signals. Max-Trak lengths from 200 to 1,100 nm, and running, low shear and have versatile is NEMA 6/IP67 rated, conforming to features a 2,048-pixel detector array fluid handling capability. Hall: 9.1, rigorous water-resistant requirements. for high-resolution applications. Hall Stand A20–A21 — Gisan Makine San. Hall 10.1, Stand F20–G21 — Sierra In- 5.1, Stand J17. — Avantes, Eerbeek, Tic. Ltd. Sti., Istanbul, Turkey struments, Inc., Monterey, Calif. Netherlands www.ranpump.com ■ www.sierrainstruments.com www.avantes.com Gerald Ondrey and Kate Torzewski Saving Energy = Saving Money GEA Wiegand evaporation plants with mechanical vapour recompression low specific energy consumption and there- fore low environmental burden gentle evaporation thanks to low temperature load high availability of the GW34e/09 plants excellent partial load behaviour low specific operating costs Interested? Please contact us. We have the right Process Engineering concept for you. GEA Wiegand GmbH ACHEMA, 11-15 May 2009 Einsteinstrasse 9-15, 76275 Ettlingen, Germany in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, Halle 4.0, Stand D13-G22 Telefon: +49 7243 705-0, Telefax: +49 7243 705-330 E-Mail: info.gewi.de@geagroup.com, Internet: www.gea-wiegand.com Circle 37 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-37 14998-az-GW34e09.indd 1 02.02.2009 16:52:39 Uhr Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 2009 40I-1113_CHE_031509_ACHi.indd 11 2/23/09 12:52:35 PM
  • 58. CW Filler 3-09.indd 1 2/19/09 11:28:29 AM
  • 59. People WHO’S WHO Lawal Neethling Schloesser Krisanda Madden Oliver Lawal becomes vice-president Tom Madden is now managing director chairman of The American Council at Aquionics (Erlanger, Ky.). of Blackmer (Grand Rapids, Mich.). of Independent Laboratories (Mel- ville, N.Y.) . Edwards (Crawley, West Sussex, Richard Davis becomes president of U.K.) names Ron Krisanda operations the Society of Fire Protection En- Joseph T.C. Vu is named applica- and technology director. gineers (Bethesda, Md.). tions engineer at Macro Sensors (Pennsauken, N.J.). Bentley Systems (Exton, Pa.) ap- Engineered Software (Lacey, Wash.) points Pieter Neethling to the newly names Michael Blondin as COO, and Continental Disc Corp. (Liberty, created position of solutions execu- Christy Bermensolo as vice-president Mo.) names Tom MacGibbon vice-presi- tive, mining and metals. of engineering. Ray Hardee now oper- dent of sales and marketing. ates solely as chief executive officer. Richard Schloesser becomes CEO InduSoft (Austin, Tex.) names Dave of Toray Plastics America (North John Molloy, president and CEO of Hellyer executive sales manager. ■ Kingstown, R.I.). H2M Labs (Melville, N.Y.), is now Suzanne Shelley YOU’VE BEEN FEATURED! Don’t assume they’ll read your article. Place your press directly in the September 2008 CPI WATER hands of those who matter most— REUSE www.che.com your customers and prospects, Weighing News Crystallization with custom reprints from Pipes & Fittings Chemical Engineering. Measurement Accuracy Algae to Fuels and More Optimize Your Process Plant Predicting Water Content In Compressed Air Show Previews: ISA, Weftec and Powtech integrated publishing solutions 800.290.5460 I chemicalengineering@theYGSgroup.com The YGS Group is the authorized provider of d f custom reprint products from Chemical Engineering. Circle 22 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-22Chem Eng_Quarter Vert.indd 1 10/23/08 4:43:09 PM Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 2009 41 14_CHE_031509_WW.indd 41 2/23/09 8:40:06 AM
  • 60. Feature Report Part 1 Combining Rupture Disks with Safety Relief Valves Geof Brazier BS&B Safety Sytems, LLC A rupture disk serves as a barrier, protecting P rotecting process systems from overpressurization is vital the safety relief valve from process media. throughout the chemical pro- cess industries (CPI). Both This barrier extends the life of the relief valve safety relief valves and rupture disks are commonly used for this purpose. and prevents leakage to the atmosphere Sometimes the combination of a re- lief valve with a rupture disk can conventional safety valves, API Stan- the life of the safety relief valve is a add service life to the relief valve and dard 527 allows for an orifice size of major advantage of using a disk-valve prevent process leakage, which is im- F and smaller to have the maximum combination. The rupture disk acts as portant from safety, conservation and allowable leakage rate of 40 bubbles a solid barrier between the valve and financial standpoints. per minute (approximately 6 ft3 per the process. The disk prevents product This article explores the advantages 24 hours, or 2,190 ft3 per year). Un- buildup from adhering to mechanical of combining the two devices and pro- checked, this leakage seeps into the components of the valve that other- vides suggestions for when to use the environment, loses expensive product wise would affect valve performance combination versus when a rupture every hour of every day eroding profits, and safety of the pressurized system. disk alone might be better. Additional or requires the installation of a means Since the process fluid will not come considerations, such as sizing are also to either recover or handle this leakage in contact with internal surfaces and discussed. More detailed considerations as waste. Rupture disks stop the leak- components of the valve, it will remain for rupture disks alone are discussed in age to protect the environment and to in pristine condition until called upon Part 2 of this feature report (pp. 45–47). protect plant profits. Besides zero pro- to relieve pressure. cess leakage, other advantages of using Longer periods between major Advantages of a disk and valve a rupture disk at the inlet of a safety overhauls. Because the valve inter- Isolating a safety relief valve with a relief valve include the following: nals are not normally exposed to pro- rupture disk prevents process ma- Allows safety relief valve to be cess contamination, they remain in terials from coming in contact with ‘tested in place’. When a rupture disk “like new” condition, allowing longer the safety relief valve under normal is used to isolate a safety relief valve, periods between major overhauls. operating conditions (Figure 1). This the valve can be field tested in place. Less expensive valve material can barrier stops the process from enter- With a suitable, reverse-buckling rup- be used. The large, initial cost of a ing the mechanics of the relief valve, ture disk installed at the valve inlet, safety relief valve can be reduced by which keeps the relief valve from the safety relief valve can be tested on ordering the valve in a less expensive coming into contact with caustic ma- the spot by a single person with a por- metal and isolating it with a suitable terials. The rupture disk also protects table pressure source. To accomplish rupture disk. As an example, if the against highly viscous materials that this without opening up the process process fluid requires that Hastel- risk potentially “gumming up” the piping, itself, air, nitrogen or another loy be the preferred material of con- relief valve. In the case of overpres- acceptable fluid is injected from an out- struction for continuous contact, use a surization when both a rupture disk side source into the chamber between carbon-steel valve with Hastelloy trim and relief valve are used, the rupture the rupture disk and the safety-relief- combined with a Hastelloy rupture- disk will burst followed by a release valve inlet. The test pressure is in- disk device, thereby saving over half from the relief valve (Figure 2). Once creased until a popping action is heard the cost of the valve. the pressure drops to a safe level, the from the valve. The observed test pres- valve reseats itself and continues to sure should be within the set pressure When to use only a rupture disk protect the system. tolerance of the valve. Upon removal of A question is often posed as to when to Under normal operating conditions, the portable pressure source, both the use a rupture disk by itself and when the rupture disk barrier keeps pro- rupture disk and relief valve are ready to use a rupture disk combined with cess fluids from leaking into the atmo- to immediately resume service. a safety relief valve. The benefits of sphere. Consider, for instance, that on V  alve life is extended. Extending using only a rupture disk begin with 42 Chemical Engineering www.che.com march 200915_CHE_031509_DL1.indd 42 2/23/09 8:45:57 AM
  • 61. FIGURE 1. The rupture FIGURE 2. When rupture disks are used FIGURE 3. A rupture-disk and disk is used at the inlet of to isolate safety relief valves, the rupture relief-valve combination will be the the relief valve, acting as a disk is first to open in the event of system unrivaled choice when a leak-tight barrier between the process overpressurization. The vented process fluid seal is needed because the system and the valve then contacts the safety relief valve, which contains a corrosive, hazardous or releases the fluid if the pressure is excessive expensive substance cost. Rupture disks are significantly ized system is needed combined with cation of rupture-disk and relief-valve less expensive than safety relief valves the conservation of product within combinations make for compelling — particularly when constructed of the pressurized system because the best engineering practice with respect exotic materials — and require little system contains a corrosive, hazard- to both safety and economics. to no maintenance. ous or expensive substance (Figure 3). The quick bursting action of a rup- As mentioned earlier, the installation Sizing ture disk makes it a first consideration of a rupture disk upstream serves as When sizing a relief valve, the engineer when the potential for runaway reac- a barrier between the process fluid determines the required fluid-flow tions exists. Safety relief valves, by and the relief valve. The disk pre- capacity while analyzing emergency themselves, will not react fast enough vents product buildup from adher- scenarios, such as fire, loss of process to protect from the pressure of a defla- ing to mechanical components of the cooling and equipment failure. The ca- gration or a detonation. valve. Since the process fluid will not pacity requirements are then entered Also consider that some liquids may come in contact with internal surfaces into a sizing equation to determine the freeze or cause icing under rapid depres- of the valve, the valve will remain in relief valve area. In most cases, engi- surization leading to blockage within pristine condition until called upon to neers can select the calculated relief a safety relief valve, rendering it inef- relieve overpressure. valve area from relief valve manufac- fective. Highly viscous liquids, such as The benefits of rupture disk isolation turer’s data sheets, which present in- polymers, may not relieve fast enough to a relief valve can also be applied to formation derived from ASME-Code- through a safety relief valve and create the downstream discharge connection mandated capacity testing. a danger of plugging the valve. of the valve (Figure 4). For example, When sizing a relief-valve and Individually, a rupture disk is an this technique will prevent poten- rupture-disk combination, the flow excellent choice for overpressure pro- tial contaminants from reaching the capacity of the combination must be tection when process contents are downstream components of all relief confirmed to support the selection of inexpensive, non-hazardous and en- valves connected to a common header. both the valve and the rupture disk. vironmentally safe, or when hazard- For relief valves whose set pressure A combination capacity factor (CCF) is ous material can be released to a safe is influenced by back pressure, down- used in support of this design safety recovery or waste station. With the stream isolation with a rupture disk decision. The CCF is often determined availability of rupture disk technol- will also prevent the momentary back from ASME certified capacity testing, ogy that is capable of a 100% operat- pressure from an active relief device where first the capacity of the stand- ing ratio and superior process control from affecting the performance of the alone safety relief valve is determined technology, the benefits of rupture other valves connected to the header followed by that of the rupture-disk disk devices can be fully realized. system, thereby maintaining the in- and relief-valve combination. The com- tended safety of each of the pressur- bination capacity factor is calculated When to use a combination ized systems connected to the header. as the ratio of the rupture-disk and re- A rupture-disk and relief-valve com- Even when the process fluid is not lief-valve combination capacity to the bination will be the unrivaled choice labeled as corrosive, hazardous or ex- stand-alone relief valve capacity. The when a leak-tight seal of the pressur- pensive, the arguments for the appli- CCF should not be greater than 1. Chemical Engineering www.che.com march 2009 4315_CHE_031509_DL1.indd 43 2/23/09 8:47:16 AM
  • 62. Feature Report indicative of a rupture disk device that provides a clear opening upon activation. HF Inverting Pressure drop Filter Centrifuge What about the pressure drop between a vessel and a rupture disk isolated relief Cutting edge centrifuge technology for valve? The proper function filtration, washing and drying of of a relief valve requires that solid/liquid suspensions the pressure drop between • Increase production the vessel it protects and the • Improve productivity - Thin Cake valve inlet is not more than 3% of its Processing • Eliminate Operator Exposure - Full set pressure. When a relief valve is Containment isolated by a rupture disk device, this • Effective Automated CIP contributes to the piping pressure • Widest Range of Applications - Hardest drop. The certified flow resistance to Easiest Filtering Products value for rupture disks that are ASME • Lowest Possible Moistures - PAC ™ UD marked (KR) is used to accurately Technology • Dry Product Inside the Centrifuge - calculate pressure drop. With many PAC™ Technology rupture disk devices having low flow- FIGURE 4. The benefits of rupture disk resistance values, the pressure drop isolation to a relief valve can also be ap- target is routinely achieved. Conical Vacuum plied to the downstream discharge con- nection of the valve to prevent back pres- Dryer - Mixer Differential pressure sure and potential contaminants from Advanced technology reaching the valve downstream com- Rupture disks respond to differential for simultaneous ponents as occurs when several relief pressure, which must be monitored. multi-function valves are connected to a single header The maintenance of a known pres- drying and mixing sure differential across the rupture CCF = Flow capacity of combination / disk device in a rupture-disk and re- • Full Containment Operation Flow capacity of relief valve lief-valve combination is conveniently • Largest Heat Transfer Surface Area achieved by the use of the “tell-tale” • Automatic CIP Example combination capacity assembly shown in each of Figures • Handles the Widest Range of Materials factor: An example of the CCF is 1–4. The tell-tale assembly combines • Variable Volume Batch Sizes • Gentle Low Shear Drying & Mixing given for Dresser valve types 1900, an excess flow valve to maintain at- • Quick & Trouble Free Product 1900/p, 1900-30, 1900-30p, 1900-35; mospheric pressure in the space be- Discharging disk type RLS. For this example, the tween the rupture disk and the relief CCF is 0.974*. valve with a pressure gage to provide If the safety relief valve has a local confirmation of pressure status. Pennwalt marked capacity of 10,000 scfm, the The tell-tale assembly is a require- Super-D-Canter 10,000 is multiplied by the 0.974 CCF, ment of the ASME Code as it relates Cutting edge continuous which determines the combination to rupture-disk and relief-valve com- centrifuge technology for separation of capacity of 9,740 scfm. The person binations; other monitoring methods, slurries into liquid or implementing this combination device such as a pressure switch that will solid phases. is required by the ASME Code to tag generate a remote electrical signal, • Only (1) drive motor it accordingly (see ASME Section VIII, are permitted. ■ • High Abrasion Points are fitted with Division 1, paragraphs UG119-137). Edited by Dorothy Lozowski replaceable parts If the CCF is unknown, the ASME • Advanced Polymer injection system Author • Most economical cost Code allows for a default CCF value Geof Brazier serves as pres- Ideal for: of 0.9 to be used in place of a tested, ident of Industrial Protection certified value, provided that the rup- Devices, LLC and as the di- • Ethanol Stillage Dewatering rector of product and market • Sludge Thickening & Dewatering ture disk device has a certified flow-re- development for BS&B Safety • Chemical Intermediates & Fine Chemical Systems, LLC (7455 East sistance value (KR) of equal to or less 46th St., Tulsa, OK 74145; • Production of Plastics (PVC Dewatering) than 6. A low flow-resistance value is Phone: 918–622-5950; Email: • Clarification of Liquids gbrazier@bsbsystems.com). • Distillery Stillage Brazier has more than 20 U.S. *BS&B Safety Systems has established certified patents in the areas of pres- CCF values for the combination of many rupture sure relief devices and indus- disk types with the products of the leading man- trial wireless and over 25 years of experience in ufacturers of relief valves. These CCF values are developing new technologies for BS&B. He was published in Flow Coefficient Catalog 77-1006a, educated at the University of Bristol in England which can be found at www.bsbsystems.com as a physicist. Circle 25 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-2515_CHE_031509_DL1.indd 44 2/23/09 8:47:59 AM
  • 63. Feature Report Part 2 Getting the Most Out of Your Rupture Disc For optimum rupture-disc performance, pay attention to installation, operation and maintenance Dean Miller Fike Corp. R upture disc devices provide over- pressure accumulators to pressure protection for a variety absorb the unavoidable pres- of storage and process vessels sure spikes. and equipment. The objective of Common indications that FIGURE 1. This viscous-tee holder design con- the rupture disc is to maintain a leak- you have a water hammer or tinually wipes the disc surface, preventing prod- tight seal and be a passive bystander another pressure spike prob- uct buildup until called upon to relieve excess lem include the following: pressure. While this is generally the •  he rupture disc appears to burst at Piping T case, there are times when rupture a pressure lower than the marked The influence of piping and piping-sup- disc performance can be adversely af- burst pressure port design on the rupture disc is often fected through various installation, •  he rupture disc is only partially overlooked but has been the source T operation and maintenance practices. open of many problems. The most common This article reviews some of these •  uptures are observed during or problem is the transfer of excessive R practices, real-life observed conse- immediately after some non-steady piping loads to the rupture disc. This quences, and corrective or preventative state condition in the process can be caused by very tall discharge measures that can improve rupture pipes; long, horizontal pipe runs; or se- disc performance. Part 1 of this feature Solidifying materials verely misaligned pipe flanges. report (pp. 42–44) discusses situations This is a combination rupture-disc- The most common symptom of a where combinations of rupture discs selection and piping-design problem. piping problem is rupture disc leakage with relief valves should be considered. Many process materials are prone to due to uneven loading of the metal- building up and solidifying on internal to-metal sealing surfaces. This issue Liquid service surfaces. This can create a problem for can usually be resolved with strategic Liquid-full systems create a number of the typical vessel discharge port that placement of piping supports. processing challenges, many of which may become partially or completely Another piping-related source of apply to rupture discs. Pressure spikes blocked, resulting in potentially higher trouble is the failure to vent or account and water hammer generated by rapid than expected rupture-disc burst pres- for drainage of discharge lines. Heavy opening or closing of valves some- sures and restricted discharge flow. corrosion of the rupture disc holder where in the process frequently do af- Common solutions to this problem in- can result (Figure 2). Also, conden- fect the rupture disc. The typical rup- clude the following: sate in the discharge lines can freeze, ture disc begins to respond to pressure •  se of heat tracing or steam jack- and the expansion during the freezing U in excess of the burst pressure in less eting around the vessel nozzle and process can collapse a forward-acting than 1 millisecond. This means that a rupture disc holder rupture disc (Figure 3). short-duration pressure spike that is •  se of a “viscous tee” style holder U not detectable by normal process in- (Figure 1), which continually wipes Flange connections strumentation can and will affect the the disc surface, preventing product Most rupture discs function in con- rupture disc. Ways to avoid pressure buildup junction with a holder that contains spike problems include: avoiding the •  se of a flush-mount-style rupture- key interface features that help con- U use of rupture discs on long, liquid- disc assembly, which eliminates any trol bursting characteristics and effect filled lines, eliminating fast-closing- dead space in the vessel nozzle that a leak-tight seal. The goal of the flange and-opening process valves, and using could accumulate solidified materials connection is to apply the proper Chemical Engineering www.che.com march 2009 4516_CHE_031509_DL2.indd 45 2/23/09 8:53:03 AM
  • 64. Feature Report Maintenance activities Rupture disc devices require periodic maintenance just like any other piece of equipment. Device removal: The entire device (rupture disc and holder) can be re- moved from the flanged connection and inspected. The device may be re-installed if desired as long as the disc hasn’t been removed from the holder. Pre-torque style holders are frequently used in applications where physical inspection and re-use of the rupture disc is desired as the holder maintains load on the disc even after removal from the pipe flanges. Once the disc has been removed from the holder it is rec- ommended that the disc be replaced. Due to the metal-to-metal sealing surfaces, any re-instal- FIGURE 2. This rupture disc holder has lation of a rupture disc is been subjected to heavy corrosion likely to seal less effectively. amount of clamping load for the rup- Also, some rupture disc types ture disc and holder to function cor- may exhibit increased burst pres- rectly. This clamping load is affected FIGURE 3. The sure variability when re-installed. damage on this forward-acting rupture by the torque applied to the studs, the disc is a result of freezing condensate Disc inspection: The value of rup- type of lubrication on the studs, the ture disc inspection is limited to type of flange gaskets used, and the a period of time and after the system signs of damage, corrosion, or product general alignment of the pipe flanges. has come up to operating temperature buildup. No information about the Indications that you have an under to compensate for the normal relax- disc integrity or remaining life can be or unevenly loaded rupture disc in- ation of bolt loads. determined through visual or dimen- clude the following: Lubrication: Thread lubrication can sional inspection. •  eakage between the rupture disc L drastically affect the resultant load Holder inspection: Holder inspec- and holder achieved from an applied torque. Dry tion should include examination of the • Rupture disc slippage unlubricated threads are more prone seating surfaces for damage, corrosion, •  ncreased variation in burst pressure I to corrosion and galling, resulting in or product buildup. A quick way to Indications that you may have an an under-loaded rupture disc that check for holder damage due to over- over-loaded rupture disc include the might exhibit leakage, slippage, or in- torque is to put a straight edge along following: consistent burst pressures. Threads the gasket face and look for signs of •  eakage between the rupture disc L lubricated with high performance significant bending (Figure 5). and holder lubricants, such as PTFE, moly-dis- •  ncreased variation in burst pressure I ulfide or graphite, may result in an Maintenance frequency • Permanent damage to the holder overload condition. While rupture disc manufacturers Torque: All rupture discs have a rec- Gaskets: Flange gaskets have an ef- would like to recommend replacement ommended torque provided by the fect on the applied load as well. Soft of every rupture disc every year, that manufacturer. This information may gaskets, such as PTFE, while great at is not a realistic expectation. As shut- be located on the rupture disc tag or in conforming to imperfect surfaces, are downs for maintenance activities are the installation instructions provided. subject to cold flow. The result is that stretched further and further apart, it This torque value is generally associ- a short period of time after applying is not unusual to expect 3 to 5 years ated with some common thread lubri- the correct load, the gasket will have of service from the rupture disc. Rup- cant. Torquing should always be done further compressed and released most ture disc life is generally tied to the in a criss-cross pattern in increments of the load. Some gaskets may have a stress history (pressure and tempera- of no more that 25% of the final torque higher required load than that of the ture) applied to the disc. Relatively value to ensure evenly developed load- rupture disc. Consult the disc manu- low pressures and static conditions ing (Figure 4). It is generally a good facturer to verify the higher load will will generally result in very long disc practice to re-torque the studs after be acceptable. life, while cyclic conditions approach- 46 Chemical Engineering www.che.com march 200916_CHE_031509_DL2.indd 46 2/23/09 8:53:53 AM
  • 65. improve rupture disc performance, extend maintenance cycles and reduce long-term costs. ■ Edited by Dorothy Lozowski FIGURE 4. Wrinkles on the outer FIGURE 5. This holder shows deformity due Author edge of a rupture disc indicate to excessive torque. Ideally there should be no Dean Miller is the manager slippage from uneven torque gaps between the holder and a straight edge of mechanical engineering with Fike Corp. (704 SW 10th St., Blue Springs, MO 64015; ing the burst pressure will result in •  upture-disc performance history in R Phone: 816–655-4729; Email: dean.miller@fike.com). He shorter disc life. There is no one, right this location has technical responsibility answer regarding replacement fre- •  hotos of rupture disc, holder, in- P for a variety of products in- cluding rupture discs, explo- quency, but common considerations stallation sion vents, and mechanical include the following: •  igns of abnormal operation: for S explosion and fire-protection products. He received a B.S. •  everity: What is the severity of the S example, pin-hole opening, partial degree in mechanical engineering from the Uni- versity of Missouri-Kansas City and an M.B.A. service the rupture disc is subjected opening, slippage and corrosion from Keller Graduate School of Management. to? Consider corrosion, operating products He has 23 years of experience in the pressure relief industry and serves as a member of the pressure, cyclic duty and so on. Rupture discs generally provide highly ASME subcommittee on Safety Valve Require- •  istory: What is the history of the H reliable pressure relief, so in the case ments, ASME committee on Boiler & Pressure Vessel Conformity Assessment, API Task Force rupture disc location? Has it been of problem installations there are on RP520, STD521, and STD2000, and the U.S. prone to premature fatigue type likely actions that can be taken to im- Technical Advisory Group for ISO TC-185. failures? prove rupture disc performance. Part- Editor’s note •  ost: What is the cost of an unex- C nering with your rupture disc supplier Both disk and disc are commonly used spellings pected outage due to premature to investigate and evaluate these situ- of the word in industry. The editors have chosen to use the spelling of the author in each article burst versus the cost of a replace- ations will promote opportunities to of this series. ment rupture disc during planned downtime? •  pgrade: Are there other disc mate- U rials or newer disc technologies that will allow the maintenance interval Ad v a n c e d Pr o c e s s So l u t i on s to extend beyond current limita- LEADING WORLDWIDE IN MIXING TECHNOLOGIES tions? What is the payback on such an upgrade? When a rupture disc bursts unexpect- edly, the user should look for the ob- vious pressure or temperature excur- Hall 5.0, Stand B19-C26 sions in the process that may have initiated the bursting of the disc. If the cause is not apparent, it is time Having advanced to world market leader, the EKATO GROUP has been providing to engage the manufacturer to as- their customers with the technical excellence and experience for more than 75 years. sist in troubleshooting the problem. The companies within the EKATO GROUP offer a broad spectrum of mixing technologies. When rupture disc problems are ex- perienced, it is important to gather as much information as possible to arrive at resolution quickly. The following items form a good starting point for data collection: •  upture disc lot number R From modulary designed industrial agitators to turnkey pruduction plants, •  ate installed D the EKATO GROUP provides a range of engineering services and custom-made •  ate of burst D solutions for the most challenging customer applications. The synergies within the •  ctual normal and maximum oper- A EKATO GROUP ensure reliable and cost-effective solutions that meet the highest ating pressure quality standards for every application. This is supported by a global service network. •  ctual normal and maximum oper- A ating temperature •  acuum conditions: yes or no V •  yclic conditions: If yes, describe C Your contact in Europe Tel.: +49 7622 29-0 GROUP Your contact in the USA Tel.: +1 201 825 4684 •  iquid or vapor L e-mail: info@ekato.com www.ekato.com e-mail: ecorp@ekato.com •  ischarge to atmosphere, pressure D relief valve or header Circle 26 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-26 Chemical Engineering www.che.com march 2009 47 RZ_AnzChemEng2009.indd 1 10.02.2009 8:01:58 Uhr16_CHE_031509_DL2.indd 47 2/23/09 8:54:43 AM
  • 66. Feature Report Industrial Gas Applications Textile chemicals Oil field chemicals Synthetic dyes Water treatment chemicals Discover technical solutions, Active pharmaceutical Cosmetic chemicals Plastics additives hardware and supply options ingredients Catalysts Paper chemicals for a broad range of Pesticides Water-soluble polymers uses in fine and specialty Specialty Specialty surfactants Printing inks chemicals production polymers Electronic Cleaners Food additives chemicals Flavors and fragrances Construction chemicals Advanced ceramic materials Hans-R. Himmen and Hans-Jürgen Reinhardt Figure 1. Fine and speciality chemistry supports a diverse mix of Linde AG, Gas Division product groups [2] T echnical and specialty gases find •  rocesses and apparatuses for treat- P distillation, extraction, crystalliza- use in many synthesis processes ing off-gases by cryocondensation of tion and centrifugation) and a number of unit operations, hydrocarbons with liquid nitrogen • Drying in analysis and in plant mainte- •  rocesses and apparatuses for par- P •  roduct conditioning (pelletizing, P nance. This article outlines applica- ticle size reduction using liquid ni- for instance) tions for gases in fine and specialty trogen (cold milling, prilling) • Storage and packaging chemistry, ranging from synthesis •  ervice procedures for cleaning, in- S A frequently taken approach to ensur- processes and inerting to off-gas treat- erting and drying apparatuses as ing effective capacity utilization and ment and industrial services. well as equipment for cleaning with high flexibility in terms of substances, For each one, processes and the field CO2 particles or CO2 snow technologies and conditions is the of use are briefly explained, and exist- The worldwide market for fine chemi- use of multi-product plants. Figure 2 ing technical solutions are presented cals is estimated at $75 billion [1]. is a block diagram of a batch multi- to illustrate the hardware involved. Major product groups include phar- product facility [4]. Many of the unit Finally, options for gas supply are maceuticals, adhesives, pesticides, operations illustrated are carried out summarized and forecasts are made catalysts and enzymes, dyes and pig- in stirred-tank reactors. for development in this field. ments, chemicals for the electronics While batch operation predomi- industry, flavors and fragrances, food nates in fine and specialty chemistry, Fine and specialty chemistry and feed additives, and special poly- continuous multi-product systems Fine and specialty chemistry is an mers (Figure 1). are also used where high capacity is important segment of the chemical Facilities for manufacturing such needed. These are single-train plants process industries (CPI). Products products have capacities between a and are defined by the synthesis tak- include complex mixtures as well few hundred and 10,000 metric tons ing place and the product classes in- as pure chemical substances. Most per year (m.t./yr). Table 1 describes se- volved. Examples are hydrogenation of these are manufactured in multi- lected products by industry, nature of and chlorination reactions. product plants using stirred-tank reaction, scale of production and type reactors, often with several process of reactor [3]. Synthesis operations steps combined in one reactor. Typi- The following are the main process Synthesis reactions are carried out in cal uses are as follows: steps in the manufacture of fine and batch and continuous stirred tanks, •  ases and gas mixtures for synthe- G specialty chemicals: bubble-column reactors and micro- sis reactions •  torage and conditioning of feed- S reactors, as Table 1 shows in part. •  nstrumentation and controls for in- I stocks (such as size reduction, Stitt [5] has described reactor types erting with nitrogen or CO2 weighing, metering) for the manufacture of fine chemicals •  nert gas locks for vessels or reac- I •  hemical synthesis (hydrogenation, C and listed their advantages and dis- tors for instance) advantages. The most common type, •  rocesses and apparatuses for cool- P •  iotechnological (fermentation, for B the stirred tank reactor, is operated ing reactors with liquid nitrogen as instance) on small and large scales, with homo- well as heating •  eparation and purification (such as S geneous or heterogeneous catalysts, 48 Chemical Engineering www.che.com march 200917_CHE_031509_RM1.indd 48 2/23/09 9:11:46 AM
  • 67. Table 1. Selected fine chemical products [3] No. Product Typical use Catalytic (C) Scale of Type of or non-catalytic operation, reactorb (NC)a ton/yr 1 Vitamin E (via trimethylhydroqui- Vitamin C (Homo; Het) 500 to 1,000 STR none; isophytol) 2 Methyl heptenone Pharmaceutical (pharma); NC and C (Het) 1,000 to 2,000 CR (nozzle) aroma 3 Vitamin A (Wittig reaction) Vitamin NC 1,000 CR (nozzle) 4 Ibuprofen (via isobutylbenzene) Pharma C (Homo; Het) 1,000 to 3,000 STR (nonsteroidal analgesic) 5 Fenvalerate Agrochemical C (PTC) 300 to 500 STR p-Hydroxybenzaldehyde 6 p-Anisic aldehyde Pharma; aroma and flavor; C (Homo; Het) 1,000 to 3,000 STR; EC agrochemical 7 Catechol; hydroquinone Agrochemical; aroma and C (Homo) and 1,000 to 5,000 STR; BCR flavor; photography; additives NC (antioxidants) 8 p-Amino phenol Pharma C (Het) and NC 1,000 to 5,000 STR; EC 9 Isocyanatesc Pharma; agrochemical; rubber NC 300 to 2,000 STR 10 Citral Aroma; pharma C (Het) 1,000 to 3,000 CR (short bed) 11 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol Additives C (Homo) 1,000 to 2,000 STR (antioxidants) 12 Phenylglicine / p-hydroxyphenyl Pharma NC and C (Bio) 1,500 to 2,000 STR; CR glycine 13 p-tert-butylbenzaldehyde; Aroma; pharma C (Homo; Het) 1,000 to 5,000 STR benzaldehyde / benzyl alcohol 14 1,4-dihydroxymethylcyclohexane Polyester C (Het) 5,000 CR 15 Phenylethylalcohol Aroma; pharma C (Homo; Het) 1,000 to 3,000 STR 16 Anthraquinone (AQ) and 2-alkyl Dyes; H2O2; Paper C (Het) 500 to 3,000 STR AQ’s 17 Indigo Dyes C (Het) 300 to 1,000 STR 18 Diphenyl ether; m-phenoxytolu- Aroma; heat transfer fluids; C (Het) 1,000 to 10,000 CR ene agrochemical 19 Benzyl toluenes Heat transfer fluids C (Het) 500 to 2,000 STR 20 o-, m-, and p-phenylenediamines Dyes; agrochemical; aromatic C (Het) 1,000 to 3,000 STR polyamide fibers 21 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinol Additive (light stabilizer) NC & C (Het) 1,000 to 2,000 CR 22 Glyoxalic acid Pharma NC 500 to 2,000 STR; BCR a. Homogenous (Homo); Heterogeneous (Het); Biocatalytic (Bio); Phase transfer catalysis (PTC) b. Stirred tank reactor (STR); bubble column reactor (BCR); continuous reactor (CR); electrochemical (EC) c. Such as n-propyl/n-butyl; cyclohexyl; p-isopropylphenyl isocyanate; isophorone diisocyanate; 1,5-naphthalene diisocyanate often with gas dispersion and with be delivered in liquid form, generated placed in the reactor if it is advanta- complete mixing by a variety of stir- onsite or supplied from a pipeline. geous to meter oxygen directly into the rers. A wide variety of synthesis reac- The instrumentation and control unit reactor and its contents. tions — 45 different ones just in the ensures safe, reliable metering of oxy- Today, acetylene is used chiefly in organic branch [1] — is performed in gen in the various operational states processes of specialty and fine chem- stirred-tank reactors. of the reactor or system. The instru- istry, such as the manufacture of vita- Many syntheses involve gases or mentation and control unit, therefore, mins, vinyl ether, fragrances, plastics gas mixtures, some of which are re- features a “block and bleed” system, additives and special plastics. Mobile ferred to as specialty gases. Table 2 which prevents oxygen getting into acetylene delivery units (16-cylinder lists selected synthesis reactions with the reactor piping in case, for exam- bundles, 8- and 16-bundle trailers) in the gases involved. Purities are also ple, the air is cut off. This system also conjunction with onsite pressure-con- indicated for pure gases. serves as the interface to the process trol and safety equipment make it pos- When gases such as oxygen and instrumentation and control system. sible to supply acetylene quickly and acetylene are used in synthesis opera- The gas injector must be matched to safely to a multi-product plant. tions, specific equipment ensure fast the application in question. It ensures Biotechnological processes are be- and safe gas supply. good mixing of oxygen with air. It is coming increasingly important in fine The principal use of oxygen is to important that mixing takes place and specialty chemistry. Many vita- boost process intensity, for example in over a short distance, that the mixture mins, amino acids, aromas, biopolymers the production of vinyl acetate from be as homogeneous as possible and and acids are already being manufac- ethylene by multi-stage oxidation. that the oxygen not impinge directly tured by this route. Industrial gases An instrumentation and control unit on a pipe wall. are also required for the processes and a gas injector are required along Instead of a gas injector in the pro- involved. Some aerobic fermentations with an oxygen supply. The gas can cess air piping, a gas distributor can be are carried out with oxygen-enriched Chemical Engineering www.che.com march 2009 4917_CHE_031509_RM1.indd 49 2/23/09 9:12:13 AM
  • 68. Feature Report Block diagram of a batch multi-product plant Storage, conditioning Coolant Weighing, metering Pump return Nitrogen Inert Coolant Mixing, emulsifying, dispersing, dissolving gas grid inlet Reactor Tempering, heating, cooling Heat exchanger Reaction: Reaction: Reaction: Batch/ liquid/liquid liquid/solid liquid/gas semi-batch Figure 3. Liquid nitrogen is a good medium for producing temperatures below –40°C because the cooling capacity is Degassing Liquid/liquid Distillation/ highly flexible, and investment costs are lower than those for separation rectification conventional refrigeration systems Table 2. Selected synthesis reactions in fine Crystallization/ Extraction precipitation and specialty chemistry,with gases required Synthesis Gas Available Liquid/solid reaction purities [6] separation Amination Ammonia ≥ 99.98 to 99.9999 Scrubbing Acetylation Acetylene ≥ 99.6 Carbonylation Carbon monoxide ≥ 99 to 99.997 Unit operation Drying Chlorination Chlorine ≥ 99.8 to 99.999 Unit operation Fermentation Oxygen Air, or oxygen- in stirred tank enriched air with up Filling to 80% oxygen Hydrogenation Hydrogen ≥ 99.999 to 99.99999 Figure 2. Batch multi-product plants are very common in fine and specialty chemical production, often employing stirred tank Oxidation Oxygen (or air) ≥ 99.6 to 99.9999 reactors [4] air. Nitrogen is used as a stripping gas, quantity of byproducts formed; tem- transport medium cooled or heated as an inert gas in the processing of perature accuracies of ±1°C are feasi- in heat exchangers; liquid nitrogen flammable solvents and in the product ble. Liquid nitrogen is a good medium is generally employed for cooling quality assurance effort. It also serves for producing low temperatures (below Special systems have been developed for the conveying of liquids and solids –40°C) because the cooling capacity is for cooling. Figure 3 is a schematic in process systems. Liquid nitrogen is, highly flexible, and investment costs diagram of a simple one. furthermore, an effective coolant with are lower than those for conventional Because reactor temperature con- applications that include freeze-drying. refrigeration systems. Maintenance trol requirements are stringent — Carbon dioxide can function as a car- costs are much lower as well. particularly in terms of broad temper- bon source for autotrophic microorgan- Typical low-temperature processes ature range and rate and accuracy of isms and is also used in pH regulation. [7] include the following: temperature adjustment — complete Ammonia gas is a good nitrogen source • Use of organolithium compounds cooling and heating systems [8] have and also figures — frequently in the • Asymmetric syntheses been developed. Figure 4 presents a same pass — as a pH control agent. • Birch-Hückel reduction typical scheme for such a system. The • Grignard syntheses main elements are the heat exchang- Syntheses cooling and heating • Reduction of metal hydrides ers for cooling and heating the heat Multiple synthesis reactions or unit • Wittig reaction transfer medium, one or two pumps to operations are often conducted at dif- •  ow-temperature crystallization L circulate it, an expansion vessel and ferent temperatures in stirred-tank For such processes, a variety of cool- valves that permit rapid, reliable tem- reactors. A procedure specific to fine ing methods are in use, including the perature adjustment. The medium is and specialty chemistry is low-tem- following: cooled against liquid nitrogen and can perature synthesis, which can require •  njecting liquid nitrogen to cool the I be heated with electricity, steam or an- temperatures as low as –110°C. Low reaction mass directly other heat loop. Technical implemen- temperatures improve selectivity and •  njecting liquid nitrogen into an I tation of such a broad temperature lower the costs of isolating the prod- integral heat exchanger or cooling range also calls for a suitable heat ucts. In many cases the specified tem- jacket to cool the reactor contents transfer medium such as methylcyclo- perature must also be maintained very •  ooling and/or heating a reactor via C pentane [9] or a well-defined mixture accurately in order to minimize the a secondary loop carrying a heat/cold of hydrocarbons [10]. 50 Chemical Engineering www.che.com march 200917_CHE_031509_RM1.indd 50 2/23/09 9:14:18 AM
  • 69. L Oxygen concentration, vol% Reactor 1 20 Header TIC tank U Reactor 2 15 Cycle medium Heat source System pressure 10 C S Nitrogen 5 tank Heat B exchanger 0 –20 °C/+130°C 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Fuel concentration, vol% Cycle pump Heat Exhaust Nitrogen At 25.0°C and 1.0 bar for mixture (fuel) Inert gas Nitrogen exchanger Heat supply (L) Lower flammability (S) Min. O2 for flammability 9.2 Fuel mixture vol% exchanger limit 3.3 vol% fuel vol% oxygen (3.7 vol% fuel) Methane 75.0 –10 °C/–100°C Control valve Gas supply (U) Upper flammability (C) Start up = max. 9.5 vol% oxygen Propane 15.0 limit 14.8 vol% fuel (B) Shut down = max. 6.5 vol% fuel Isobutane 10.0 Figure 4. Heating and cooling systems Figure 5. (above) A that employ industrial gases as a heat Change in O2 concentration in vessel versus common use for indus- bulk charge volume with and without active lock transfer medium enable rapid and ac- trial gases is to protect curate temperature adjustment for broad Lock inactive Lock active against an explosive temperature ranges common in reactors 6 atmosphere. Software Increase in oxygen content, vol % for calculating explosion 5 limits, such as illus- Inerting trated here, is gaining in importance [11] Inerting uses an inert gas, usually 4 nitrogen but also carbon dioxide in Figure 6. Inert gas 3 locks make can help cut some cases, to displace atmospheric oxygen, combustible gases and mois- the rise in oxygen level 2 from 2.9–5 vol.% to ture. Inerting is employed for reasons 0.3–0.6 vol.%, as illus- of safety or to protect products. Safety 1 trated by this example concerns include the following: (left), which compares •  afe startup and shutdown of the S 0 oxygen concentration 70 80 90 100 120 130 140 150 with charge volume for process units vessels with and with- •  revention of explosive atmospheres P Bulk charge volume, L out an inert gas lock •  voidance of explosion risks when A handling combustible fluids stirred tanks. In order to ensure safe Cryocondensation Products are protected by suppressing handling of solids and prevent side Cryocondensation means cooling off- oxidation reactions with atmospheric reactions such as oxidation, inert-gas gas streams against liquid nitrogen oxygen and/or blocking the access of locks [12] have been devised to block in heat exchangers until the valuable moisture. the entry of oxygen when solids are or noxious substances contained in The following techniques are used being charged manually into reactors them condense or freeze onto the heat in inerting: and vessels. These fittings also pre- transfer surfaces. In the process, the • Dilution purging vent emissions and protect against liquid nitrogen is vaporized and be- • Displacement purging moisture and electrostatic charge. comes available for further use, such •  ressure-swing purging (pressure P Among the features of inert gas as in inerting. rise, pressure relief or vacuum) locks are the following: The temperature necessary to get • Blanketing •  inimal access of oxygen to the ves- M below the dewpoint or to attain com- A knowledge of the explosion limits is sel during opening and charging pliance with regulatory limits can eas- essential for many processes and op- • Low nitrogen consumption ily be adjusted and controlled through erations in fine and specialty chemis- •  nexpensive integration into charg- I the use of liquid nitrogen (–196°C at 1 try. The explosion limits depend on the ing ports of existing vessels bar) as a cold transfer medium. Cryo- pressure and temperature as well as • Easy day-to-day handling condensation thus brings within reach the composition of the mixture present. •  ariety of designs to fit particular V the temperatures required, which can Along with experimental determina- applications be below –150°C in some cases. tions, software for calculating the ex- Figure 6 is a plot of the oxygen con- The technique is frequently employed plosion limits is gaining in importance centration versus charge volume for a in fine and specialty chemistry. Simple [11]. Figure 5 shows a calculated explo- vessel being charged with and with- technology, high flexibility and increas- sion triangle. Meanwhile, programs are out an inert gas lock. The use of the ingly stringent environmental regula- available to compute in advance the lock makes it possible to cut the rise tions suggest that its use will increase. time and the quantity of nitrogen re- in oxygen level from between 2.9 and Cryocondensation is employed mainly quired for various inerting techniques. 5 vol.% to between 0.3 and 0.6 vol.%. for the following purposes: Inert gas locks. Fine and specialty Locks are thus a simple but effec- •  ompliance with environmental reg- C chemical processes involve not only tive way of ensuring very slight access ulations, such as the TA-Luft, a Ger- liquids and gases but also solids, for of oxygen and moisture to a vessel or man air-quality directive example in reactions carried out in reactor when it is charged with solids. •  ecovery of valuable substances, for R Chemical Engineering www.che.com march 2009 5117_CHE_031509_RM1.indd 51 2/23/09 9:14:46 AM
  • 70. Feature Report Mechanical vibration Membrane example by condensation and recy- cling of expensive hydrocarbons to the reactor Molten product in •  eduction of damage to downstream R Nozzles equipment, such as diminished cor- rosion due to removal of chlorinated Equally sized droplets out hydrocarbons Compared with other techniques for off-gas treatment, cryocondensation Droplet generation in principle offers several advantages: •  t is environmentally safe because I no secondary burdens are gener- Figure 7. Prilling with liquid nitrogen is attractive when spherical particles with a ated as, for example, in scrubbing very narrow size distribution and virtually dust-free environment are necessary or adsorption •  t involves no auxiliary materials as I nomically with such a combination. hence good conveying properties do processes such as absorption Meanwhile, incorporating complete •  rotection against fire and dust ex- P •  t yields low residual emission loads I prefabricated cryocondensation equip- plosions by inert nitrogen • Condensate can be reused directly ment into existing systems is a quick •  nhanced mill capacity E •  itrogen is used twice, for cooling N and easy job. A further option for cooling and inert- and for inerting (in the plant nitro- Another application of cryoconden- ing is direct metering of liquid nitro- gen grid) sation is fractionating condensation gen into the mill. •  aintenance costs are low because M [13], in which different temperatures Prilling is an accepted method for the system has few moving parts levels are realized in each individual generating particles from homoge- •  he process is flexible in terms of T heat exchanger. Test units are avail- neous melts such as waxes ad waxlike the volatile organic compounds able for such processes. substances as well as unsaturated fatty (VOC) load Hydrocarbon recovery from off-gases acids. Prilling with liquid nitrogen is a •  he unit is simple to operate and T has both environmental and economic good choice for many substances when lends itself to full automation benefits. For example, pollution is re- spherical particles having the nar- •  nvestment costs are relatively low I duced by averting the production of rowest possible size distribution and In comparison with the use of refrig- CO and CO2, especially if the off-gases a virtually dust-free environment are eration equipment, liquid nitrogen are burned. At the same time, plant in- required. Many technical approaches makes it possible to achieve the re- vestments for the recovery of valuable are available, depending on the needed quired temperatures economically hydrocarbons by cryocondensation can capacity. A special droplet-forming sys- and without difficulty. In particular, pay for themselves within somewhere tem can be used to break the liquid the condensation power can be ad- between 0.5 and 2 years, depending on melt up into round particles of uniform justed relatively quickly and over a prices and other conditions. shape (Figure 7). broad range by controlling the rate of Also, off-the-shelf cryocondensation The generated particles fall into a injection of liquid nitrogen. units have the advantages of ready solidification pipe where the tempera- Cryocondensation can be used eco- availability and low cost. ture is held very low by injection and nomically for treating off-gas streams vaporization of liquid nitrogen. As a heavily loaded with hydrocarbons and Size reduction result, the particles rapidly cool and for achieving very low residual emis- Many fine and specialty chemicals take on a stable shape, while agglom- sions. It finds successful use with sub- have to meet rigorous standards not eration and deformation are avoided. stances such as dimethyl ether, tolu- just on purity but also on particle form. Particle size varies between 0.5 and 2 ene, tetrahydrofuran, ethyl acetate Accordingly, size-reduction processes mm for the most part. and acetone as well as mixtures such are important along with purification The nitrogen also produces an inert as dimethyl ether-methyl chloride or operations such as crystallization. atmosphere, which can be maintained acetone-methanol-dichloromethane. Some size reduction processes, includ- throughout the unit, thus automati- After cryocondensation, the nitrogen ing cold milling and prilling, require cally preventing oxidation and block- gas can be delivered to the plant nitro- industrial gases. Liquid nitrogen is ing the entry of moisture into the end gen grid, while the recovered hydro- employed as coolant when cold milling product right up to the filling step. carbons are recycled. is performed in impact and centrifugal The ease of combining cryocon- mills. The nitrogen supply system can Industrial services densation with other treatment and be designed very quickly and adapted Services to the fine and specialty chem- recovery processes — adsorption in to a variety of requirements. Several icals industry involve a wide range of particular — permits an expansion of useful effects can be achieved through processes and hardware, some of it the field of application. Throughputs the use of liquid nitrogen in milling: making use of gases. These services of up to 1,500 Nm3/h of off-gas and • Fine grain size help reduce maintenance time and very high purities can be realized eco- •  ree-flowing quality of product, F costs, ensure and enhance workplace 52 Chemical Engineering www.che.com march 200917_CHE_031509_RM1.indd 52 2/23/09 9:16:01 AM
  • 71. Pipeline Customer Production center On-site production broader applications for these pro- cesses will be pushed. New openings for the use of technical and specialty Transport of liquid gas gases in fine and specialty chemistry will appear as a result. ■ Edited by Rebekkah Marshall Filling station References 1. Pollak, P., “Fine Chemicals: The Industry and the Business,” John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2007. 2. Fink, U., others, “Overview of the Specialty Wholesaler Cylinder transport Chemicals Industry,” SRI Consulting, Menlo Park, 2006. 3. Cibulski, A. others, “Fine Chemicals Manu- facture – Technology and Engineering” El- sevier, 2001. 4. Rauch, J., “Mehrproduktanlagen [Multi- product Plants]”, Wiley-VCH, 1998. Figure 8. Depending on the quantity and type of gas needed, there is a variety of 5. Stitt, E. H., Alternative Multiphase Reactors supply and delivery options that ranges from small containers to onsite production for Fine Chemicals – A World Beyond Stirred Tanks? Chem. Eng. J. 90, 47–60 (2002). safety and abate environmental pollu- as well as gas mixtures. Specialty gas 6. “Spezialgasekatalog [Specialty Gases Cata- logue]”, Linde Gas, Munich, 2007. tion. Another important point is that catalogs [6] provide further details. 7. Lesar, J. A., “Constructing a Frigid Process the gases used, such as nitrogen, are What is more, specialized hardware Facility,” Chem. Eng., June 2001, 74–78. nontoxic, incombustible and inert. and delivery platforms aid in safe han- 8. Reinhardt, H.- J. and Dürr, D., Safe Tempera- ture Control – A Cryogenic Temperature Con- The following principal operations dling of gases, facilitating, for instance, trol System for Low-Temperature Processes, are encountered in industrial service: odorants for certain gases. Linde Gas, Facts About Chemistry, 03, 2005. •  urging and drying of plants with P 9. Patent DE 42 40306 C2, Bayer AG, Le- verkusen. nitrogen Outlook 10. Linde Gas, Heat Transfer Fluids, Germany, • Cleaning of units and piping The field of fine and specialty chemi- Patent DE 102007061237.2. •  eak testing with N2/He mixtures L cals is expected to grow on average 11. Safety System / PAM Data Sheet, Linde Gas, In addition, carbon dioxide is increas- by 6% annually in the coming years Munich [work in progress]. ingly used for cleaning [15], where [1]. Demand in biotechnological pro- 12. N2LOCK Data Sheet, Linde Gas, Munich. surfaces to be cleaned are blasted cesses will grow even faster, 10–15% 13. Linde Gas, Germany, Patent DE 102007001658.3. with high-velocity CO2 (dry ice) pel- per year. 14. Linde Gas, LINPRILL Data Sheet, Munich. lets. The process lends itself to clean- Future market development will 15. “Die coolste Reinigungsmethode aller Zeiten” ing not only freely accessible surfaces be marked above all by globaliza- [The Coolest Cleaning Method of All Time], , but also piping. tion: Asia, especially China and India, Linde Gas, Munich. An example of the use of industrial will produce more and more fine and Author gases in cleaning involves a stirrer specialty chemical products. Product Hans-R. Himmen is a aenior used in paint manufacture. The ad- quality and environmental standards project manager at Linde AG (Linde Gas Division, Carl- vantages of the process are that it there will naturally become stricter von-Linde-Str. 25, 85716, Un- requires no solvents, the blasting me- as well. One implication is that more terschleissheim, Germany; Phone: +49-89-31001-5649; dium leaves no residues behind and effort must be put into off-gas and Fax: +49-89-31001-5643; no wastewater is generated. wastewater treatment in order to meet Email: hans-rudolf.himmen@ linde-gas.com). He studied pro- emissions limits. This means greater cess engineering at the Tech- nical University of Braun- Gas supply demand for gases in these countries. schweig and joined the Linde Gas demand in fine and specialty The U.S. and Europe will increas- Group in 1987. He is involved in the development, introduction and improvement of gas applications chemistry varies widely in terms of ingly concentrate on the manufacture for the chemical process industries and for indus- both quantity and gases used. Gases of end products and high-value spe- trial services. His most important fields of work include liquid and gaseous nitrogen applications. can be delivered in small containers, cialty products. In this context special Hans-Jürgen Reinhardt is standard cylinders, cylinder bundles, synthesis operations, such as low-tem- a retired department man- ager from Linde AG’s Gas Di- steel drums, battery vehicles or bulk perature syntheses, may become more vision. He received his Ph.D. tank vehicles, or they can be gener- important in these markets. in process engineering from the Technical University Le- ated onsite (Figure 8). Research and development will play una-Merseburg, and worked The gases most employed are nitro- an increasingly vital part in retain- in the chemical industry for many years before joining gen, oxygen and hydrogen. Along with ing production sites in the leading the Linde Group in 1996. At other industrial gases such as carbon industrialized economies. Accordingly, Linde, he was responsible for development and introduction monoxide, synthesis gas and carbon di- product development — for instance, of processes and hardware for use of gases in re- fineries and in the chemical industry. His most oxide, there is also a need for inorganic in nanoparticles — and an intensi- important fields of work include applications of and organic gases at various purities fied search for new technologies and nitrogen and processes for use of oxygen. Chemical Engineering www.che.com march 2009 5317_CHE_031509_RM1.indd 53 2/23/09 9:16:43 AM
  • 72. CS Unitec Focus Solids Processing Focus on Milling & Grinding The patented design of this unit improves grinder efficiency The Annihilator (photo) is a twin-shaft, solids-reduction unit designed for a va- riety of industrial and municipal instal- lations, including sewage lift stations, head works and sludge processing sys- tems. The unit’s counter-rotating, hex- Malvern Instruments agonal-shaft design coupled with its five-tooth, hardened-steel cutters pro- vide the maximum shredding strength necessary to process from 300 to 4,250 gal/min of influent. It is offered in vari- ous drive, housing, cutter, spacer/cutter and shaft options, and is available with 3 to 5 hp motors. An electronic control panel offers protection from overload. Because of its standard dimensions, the Annihilator can easily retrofit other twin-shaft grinders. — Moyno, Inc., Springfield, Ohio www.moyno.com When spark reduction is impor- tant, use these grinding discs Eco Brazing (EB) diamond grinding discs (photo) reduce sparking to 1% of that produced by resinoid wheels, mak- Moyno ing these discs better for use in hazard- Union Process ous environments. The EB diamond grinding discs are ideal for grinding Achieve small media milling of the mill for easy servicing. Indexed steel, stainless steel and other ma- with this production mill discs provide uniform media distribu- terials. The diamond grit protrudes This new production-sized, small-me- tion, while adjustable product discharge higher off the EB diamond disc than dia mill is designed for the ink, coat- openings accommodate grinding media traditional diamond wheels, providing ings and paint markets. The DMQ-10 from 2 mm to as small as 0.3 mm. — greater durability and longer service (photo) combines the best features of a Union Process, Inc., Akron, Ohio life. Available in grits from 30–80 on traditional horizontal small-media mill www.unionprocess.com disc sizes 4, 4-1/2, 5 and 7 in. in di- with the added benefits of circulation ameter, the disc’s light weight allows grinding. Although the DMQ Series Get tight control of a process with for high-rotation grinding on portable is able to operate in either circulation realtime remote mill operation angle grinders. The EB diamond wheel or continuous mode, using the mill for This firm has developed a real-time wears approximately 1% as much as circulation grinding offers a narrower analysis system (photo), which was a resinoid wheel, therefore increasing particle-size distribution, the ability to recently implemented at the Ferrari the tool life and significantly reducing continuously monitor the slurry and the Granulati plant in Verona, Italy. Fer- the amount of abrasive dust emitted. ability to sample or add ingredients to rari Granulati uses both in- and on- — CS Unitec, Inc., Norwalk, Conn. the premix tank at any time. The unit line particle-size analyzers from this www.csunitec.com features a media separator at the end firm to produce white marble powders 54 Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 200918_CHE_031509_CUS.indd 54 2/23/09 9:19:50 AM
  • 73. Chemical Engineering half 3 3/8 x 10:Inter labmate half page Modern Process Equipment THE WORLD FORUM OF THE PROCESS INDUSTRIES Quadro Engineering for use in the paper, plastics and construction industries. Realtime data allow very tight control of particle-size dis- tribution and full process optimization. An Insitec analyzer, installed online at the plant, instantaneously tracks the im- pact of changes on particle size. The analyzer is installed at the exit of a milling circuit that uses a novel vertical roller mill to reduce average particle size to between three and eight microns. — Malvern Instruments, Malvern, U.K. www.malvern.com This unit sizes toxic and corrosive chemicals An international chemical manufacturer approached this Be part of the company to develop a completely contained processing envi- ronment, requiring a highly toxic and potentially corrosive material to be milled. No ambient air introduction or dust bigger picture... release was permissible. The customer was looking for a size- reduction device capable of producing a lump-free final prod- ... and see innovations of today uct of less than 0.25 in. This firm employed the high-capacity, for the solutions of tomorrow low-dust Underdriven Comil (photo), which successfully con- tained and processed the material to 100% of the required tar- get product size. Ten fully scalable Comil models are available The global appeal of ACHEMA gives you a competitive edge by for a variety of applications, and can range up to 54,500 kg/h. allowing you to see the bigger picture. The unit meets all international safety standards including ACHEMA attracts engineers, chemists and decision makers from around OSHA/CE/ATEX, and is manufactured to cGMP standards. the world to a single venue to showcase solutions, share ideas and — Quadro Engineering Corp., Waterloo, Ontario, Canada interface across technology disciplines. www.quadro.com Be better prepared for the challenges to come – Attend ACHEMA. This roller-style grinder � CHEMICAL ENGINEERING � SAFETY � BIOTECHNOLOGY � ADVANCED MATERIALS is designed for the lab and pilot plant � ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES � ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION This company recently introduced the LPP 6.5 Laboratory/ � FLUID HANDLING � RESEARCH Pilot Gran-U-Lizer (photo). Like all MPE roller-style Gran- � PROCESS AUTOMATION � SPECIAL SHOW: INNOVATIVE CONCEPTS FOR THE � PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY U-Lizers, the LPP grinds material to a narrow particle-size � THERMAL AND MECHANICAL USE OF RESOURCES distribution, with few unwanted fines, while minimizing PROCESSES impact and heat generation during the process. The LPP has independent control over the three important variables 4,000 EXHIBITORS � 180,000 ATTENDEES � 30,000 EXECUTIVES that affect ground product quality. First, the gap between 100 COUNTRIES � 900 LECTURES the grinding rolls can be adjusted to 0.0005-in. accuracy. Ad- ditionally, the LPP includes independent drive control for each roll, allowing independent adjustment of roll speeds and the shear ratio between roll surfaces. Finally, the roll corrugation sizes and shapes are specifically tailored for the application, while the LPP also allows for simple replace- www.achema.de ment of the roll bodies. — Modern Process Equipment Corp., www.dechema.de Chicago, Ill. www.mpechicago.com ■ Kate Torzewski Circle 11 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-11 Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 2009 5518_CHE_031509_CUS.indd 55 2/23/09 9:20:35 AM
  • 74. SEALS/GUARDS 2C AD-07 8/15/07 8:59 AM Page PRODUCT SHOWC ASE Krytox ® METALLIC MAG DRIVE PUMPS Fluorinated Lubricants Protect pressure or vacuum instruments from clogging, corrosion and damage. Compact and Economical, Plast-O-Matic Gauge Guards prevent dangerous leaks and allow dependable instrument readings from full vacuum to 250 psi. • PTFE or FKM Krytox® Fluorinated Greases and Oils diaphragms. are: Chemically Inert. Insoluble in common solvents.Thermally stable.Temperature range • PVC, Polypro or (-103˚F to 800˚F). Nonflammable. Nontoxic. PVDF bodies. Oxygen Compatible - safe for oxygen serv- ice. Low Vapor Pressure. Low Outgassing. No • Available with Migration - no silicones or hydrocarbons. or without Krytox offers Extreme Pressure, Anticorrosion gauges. and Antiwear properties. Mil-spec, Aerospace and Food Grades (H1 and H2) available! • Gauge • Cost effective Shields for Useful in Vacuum Systems. • 2 Year Guarantee harsh environments. We also offer a complete line of inert • Reliable and Safe fluorinated Dry Lubricants and Release • Maintenance Free Agents. For technical information, call 203.743.4447 800.992.2424 (8AM - 4 PM ET). m sales@verder.co.uk +44 (0)113 222 0275 www.verder.co.uk s miller-stephenson chemical company, inc. PLAST-O-MATIC VALVES, INC. A fast solution to California - Illinois - Connecticut - Canada CEDAR GROVE, NJ 07009 (973) 256-3000 • Fax: (973) 256-4745 your pumping problems! e-mail: support@miller-stephenson.com www.miller-stephenson.com www.plastomatic.com • info@plastomatic.com Circle 201 on p. 62 or go to Circle 202 on p. 62 or go to Circle 203 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-201 adlinks.che.com/23012-202 adlinks.che.com/23012-203 global-chem.indd 1 16-2-2009 10:53:23 Advertise in the Classified Interested? For more information on classified advertising, please contact: Helene Hicks Tel: 212.621.4958 Fax: 212.621.4976 email: hhicks@che.com CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING T H AT W O R K S Circle 204 on p. 62 or go to Circle 205 on p. 62 or go to 56 adlinks.che.com/23012-204 adlinks.che.com/23012-20519_CHE_030109_Classified.indd 56 2/19/09 5:48:29 PM
  • 75. Intelligen Suite The Market-Leading Engineering Suite for Modeling, Evaluation, Scheduling, and Debottlenecking of Single & Multi-Product Facilities SuperPro SchedulePro R e cipe D B Use SuperPro Designer to model, evaluate, and Switch to SchedulePro to schedule, model, debottleneck batch and continuous processes and debottleneck multi-product facilities Tracking of equipment occupancy Tracking demand for resources Inventory tracking for raw materials, in multi-product facilities (e.g., labor, materials, utilities, etc.) intermediates, products, and wastes SuperPro Designer is a comprehensive process simulator that facilitates modeling, cost analysis, debottlenecking, cycle time reduction, and environmental impact assessment of biochemical, specialty chemical, pharmaceutical (bulk & fine), food, consumer product, mineral processing, water purification, wastewater treatment, and related processes. Its development was initiated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). SuperPro is already in use at more than 400 companies and 500 universities around the world (including 18 of the top 20 pharmaceutical companies and 9 of the top 10 biopharmaceutical companies). SchedulePro is a versatile finite capacity scheduling tool that generates feasible production schedules for multi-product facilities that do not violate constraints related to the limited availability of facilities, equipment, resources and work areas. It can be used in conjunction with SuperPro (by importing its recipes) or independently (by creating recipes directly in SchedulePro). Any industry that manufactures multiple products by sharing production lines and resources can benefit from the use of SchedulePro. Engineering companies use it as a modeling tool to size utilities for batch plants, identify equipment requirements, reduce cycle times, and debottleneck facilities. Circle 240 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-240 Visit our website to download detailed product literature and functional evaluation versions of our tools INTELLIGEN, INC. • 2326 Morse Avenue • Scotch Plains, NJ 07076 • USA Tel: (908) 654-0088 • Fax: (908) 654-3866 Email: info@intelligen.com • Website: www.intelligen.com Intelligen also has offices in Europe and representatives in countries around the world19_CHE_030109_Classified.indd 57 2/19/09 5:49:03 PM
  • 76. Software CA Co PE-O mp PE lian N t! HTRI Xchanger Suite® – an integrated, easy-to-use suite of tools that delivers accurate design calculations for • shell-and-tube heat exchangers • fired heaters • jacketed-pipe heat exchangers • air coolers • hairpin heat exchangers • economizers • plate-and-frame heat exchangers • tube layouts • spiral plate heat exchangers • vibration analysis Interfaces with many process simulator and physical property Circle 246 on p. 62 or go to packages either directly or via CAPE-OPEN. adlinks.che.com/23012-246 Heat Transfer Research, Inc. HTRI@HTRI.net 150 Venture Drive www.HTRI.net College Station, Texas 77845, USA Circle 241 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-241 Engineering e-material, e-solutions, e-courses and e-seminars for energy conversion systems: • Physical Properties • Steam Approximations • Power Cycles • Power Cycle Components/Processes • Compressible Flow ENGINEERING SOFTWARE Phone/FAX: (301) 540-3605 Web Site: http://www.engineering-4e.com Visit the web site to check out free demos etc.! Circle 242 on p. 62 or go to Circle 243 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-242 adlinks.che.com/23012-243 New & Used Equipment HOCKMEYER Equipment Corporation A leader in the grinding and dispersion industries New & Used Equipment Dispersers • Mills • Mixers • Tank & Tote Washers • Particle Size Analysis • Vessels Circle 247 on p. 62 or go to Visit us at www.hockmeyer.com adlinks.che.com/23012-247 or call us at 252-338-4705 Wanted to purchase: Used Dispersers & Mixers GET CONNECTED TODAY Circle 244 on p. 62 or go to Circle 245 on p. 62 or go to www.che.com adlinks.che.com/23012-244 adlinks.che.com/23012-245 58 Chemical Engineering www.che.com MARCH 200919_CHE_030109_Classified.indd 58 2/19/09 5:49:31 PM
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  • 78. New & Used Equipment Wedge-Wire Screen Manufacturer: Process Filtration Equipment Wabash Sells & Rents Boilers filtration screens, resin traps, strainer 20,000 - 400,000 #/Hr. JWI Filter presses with polypro recessed plates baskets, hub and header laterals, media Sizes available: 2, 3, 5, 12, 25, cu. ft. Diesel & Turbine Generators retention nozzels, and custom filtration Sparkler & Niagara horizontal plate filters, 50 - 25,000 KW products manufactured with stainless Gears & Turbines Model 33D17, 18S23, 1824S, 3348S 25 - 4000 HP steel and special alloys. Komline 1 x 12 SS Vac. Belt Filter We stock large inventories of: Contact: Jan or Steve Nutsche filter, 10 gal, 316 SS, 35 psi Air Pre-Heaters • Economizers • Deaerators Pumps • Motors • Fuel Oil Heating and Pump Sets 18102 E. 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I/A SeriesTM As part of our global account management Cost-effective replacement, repair, and repair/exchange of hard-to-find DCS parts. Manufacturing/Industrial team, these positions will take charge of a ONE YEAR WARRANTY Technology Assistant Professor segment or territory of B&P’s product line relating to the plastics, coatings, or chemical We also purchase surplus or Los Medanos College - Pittsburg, California decommissioned DCS equipment. process industry. Independent sales reps are Final Filing Date: also invited to reply. (770)271-9932 www.pmcx.com March 5, 2009 by 4:00 p.m. Please forward your current resume and salary Circle 256 on p. 62 or go to Starting Salary: requirements to: resumes@bpprocess.com or adlinks.che.com/23012-256 $49,560 to $82,128 annually + benefits www.bpprocess.com. TOLL SCREENING Circle 262 on p. 62 or go to by the screening specialists Los Medanos College in Pittsburg, adlinks.che.com/23012-262 • reduced screening costs California is seeking a full-time, tenure • maximized yield and efficiency track Manufacturing/Industrial Technology • from 10 microns to 10 mesh • from 100 to 1,000,000 pounds •  eceive the benefits of high-tech screening r Assistant Professor to begin Fall 2009 (mid- August). This assignment includes: 1) SENIOR ENGINEER, R&D before you buy teaching Process Technology courses; 2) The Dow Chemical Company has an open- Discover how much your product can be ing in its Freeport, TX, office for the following improved using our technologies!! serving as the Process Technology program position: Sr. Engineer R&D. Develop compre- lead. This assignment will include both day hensive process models that link computat. and evening hours. fluid dynamics, kinetic reactor & computat. Requires: an associate degree plus six years of chemistry models for polyurethane processes. 800–AT ELCAN sales@minox-elcan.com PhD or equiv. in Chem. Eng. reqd. www. minox-elcan.com industry experience in the petroleum, chemical or heavy manufacturing industry, OR a bachelor’s Send resumes to: Circle 257 on p. 62 or go to plus two years of industry experience in the Dow Chemical Co, Attn: Workforce Plan- adlinks.che.com/23012-257 petroleum, chemical or heavy manufacturing ning/CS, EDC Bldg/208, Midland, MI industry, OR the equivalent. 48674. Submit resume w/cover ltr refer ad centrifuge GEARBOXES # 820-34336 and Job Title. Parts & Service for: • Bird make a change MAKE A Please visit our website at • Alfa-Laval DIFFERENCE www.4cd.net • Sharples for complete details about the job Energy brokerage firm seeks VP to develop and and application procedure. increase trading activities in Russian speaking Equal Opportunity Employer countries. Must have a Masters or PhD in Metallurgy and min. 5 yrs technical and commercial experience Circle 261 on p. 62 or go to as an executive in the nuclear fuel industry. Must A Revolution in Gear Box Technologies adlinks.che.com/23012-261 have expert knowledge in the nuclear fuel process (515) 266-8225 and uranium mining operation sites. Must speak Fax (515) 266-5676 fluent Russian and English. Headquarters in NYC, heavy travel to Russia, Kazakhstan, Kirghizstan and www.che.com E-mail: sales@revtechlc.com Web Site: www.revtechlc.com Uzbekistan. Send resumes and cover letters NYNCO Trading, Ltd. at np@nynco.com. Circle 258 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-258 60 Chemical Engineering www.che.com MARCH 200919_CHE_030109_Classified.indd 60 2/19/09 5:50:35 PM
  • 79. Professor and Chair, Department of Chemistry The DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY at Washington University in Saint Louis invites applications for the tenured position of Chair of the department. The department is represented by 26 faculty with multiple interests spanning inorganic, physical, materials, organic, analytical, nuclear, and biological chemistry (http://www.chemistry.wustl.edu/). Faculty growth is anticipated in these or other compatible areas, using substantial funds committed for this purpose. The department is home to state of the art research laboratories and support facilities, and it administers a Chemistry Graduate Program that admits 25 new students on an annual basis. The successful candidate will have demonstrated excellence in research, and a strong commitment to undergraduate teaching and postgraduate education, as well as to fostering interdisciplinary interactions between departments and schools. Washington University has a highly interactive research environment with vigorous interdisciplinary research and educational programs. Minority and women scientists are especially encouraged to apply. Applicants should submit their curriculum vitae, selected reprints, a short summary of future research plans and a statement on teaching and interdisciplinary activities, as well as the names of references electronically to chemsrch@wustl.edu or by mail to: CHEMISTRY CHAIR SEARCH Office of the Dean of Arts & Sciences Washington University - St. Louis One Brookings Drive St. Louis, MO 63130 Washington University is an equal opportunity/equal access/affirmative action institution. Women and minorities are encouraged to apply. Circle 263 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/ 23012-263 Advertiser Page number Advertiser Page number Advertisers’ Index Phone number Reader Service # Phone number Reader Service # Advertiser Page number Advertiser Page number Gea Westfalia Separato Larox OY 8 Phone number Reader Service # Phone number Reader Service # Process GmbH 10 adlinks.che.com/23012-09 49 2522 77-0 adlinks.che.com/23012-38 List AG 33-40 A Box 4 U 7 Continental Disc Corporation 26 • Gea Wiegand GmbH 32I-11 41 61 815 30 00 adlinks.che.com/23012-33 877-522-6948 adlinks.che.com/23012-08 816-792-1500 adlinks.che.com/23012-20 49 7243 705-0 adlinks.che.com/23012-37 Load Controls Inc 32D-2 Aggreko, Llc 16 Dechema EV 55 • Haver & Boecker 32I-9 888-600-3247 adlinks.che.com/23012-27 1-800-348-8370 adlinks.che.com/23012-14 adlinks.che.com/23012-11 49 2522 30-271 adlinks.che.com/23012-36 Muller GmbH 24 • Berndorf Band GmbH & Co 32I-7 * Ekato Ruehr-Und Mischtechnik 47 Heinkel USA 44 49 (O) 7623/969-0 adlinks.che.com/23012-18 43 2672-800-0 adlinks.che.com/23012-34 49 7622 29-0 adlinks.che.com/23012-26 856-467-3399 adlinks.che.com/23012-25 Rembe GmbH Safety Beumer Maschinenfabrik Emerson Process Mgmt/Systems 2 + Control 40D-2, 40I-10 adlinks.che.com/23012-05 Hoerbiger Kompressortechnik GmbH & Co KG 11 49 (0) 29 61-74 -5-0 adlinks.che.com/23012-28 Holding 20-21 adlinks.che.com/23012-12 Emerson Process Mgmt 4th COVER adlinks.che.com/23012-03 adlinks.che.com/23012-16 * Samson AG 6 Busch Llc 25 adlinks.che.com/23012-07 1-800-USA-PUMP * Endress + Hauser 4 Honeywell Process 2nd adlinks.che.com/23012-19 888-ENDRESS adlinks.che.com/23012-06 Solutions COVER • Siemens AG 32I-5 Check-All Valve Manufac. Co. 32D-3 Fauske & Associates 41 1-877-466-3993 adlinks.che.com/23012-01 Silverson Machines Inc 13 515-224-2301 adlinks.che.com/23012-29 • Imm Institut Fur Mikrotechnik 800-204-6400 adlinks.che.com/23012-13 877-FAUSKE1 adlinks.che.com/23012-22 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM MARCH 2009 Chemstations Inc 17 Fike Corp 23 Mainz GmbH 32I-8 Sri Consulting 3rd COVER 713-978-7700 adlinks.che.com/23012-15 1-866-758-6004 adlinks.che.com/23012-17 49 (0) 6131 990-0 adlinks.che.com/23012-35 adlinks.che.com/23012-02 * Flexim GmbH 32D-4, 32I-10 International Exposition Co 30 Thyssen-Krupp Vdm 9 • International Section 510-420-6995 adlinks.che.com/23012-30 203-221-9232 adlinks.che.com/23012-21 adlinks.che.com/23012-10 *  dditional information in A • Gea Niro A/S 32I-3 KMPT AG 1 Western States Machine Co 32D-4 2006 Buyers’ Guide 45 39 54 54 54 adlinks.che.com/23012-32 adlinks.che.com/23012-04 513-863-4758 adlinks.che.com/23012-31 Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 2009 6120_CHE_031509_AD_IND_RS.indd 61 2/23/09 11:20:56 AM
  • 80. New Product Information March 2009 JustFAXit! or go to www.che.com/adlinks Fill out the form and circle or write in the number(s) Go on the Web and fill out the ✁ below, cut it out, and fax it to 800-571-7730. online reader service card. Name Title Company Address City State/Province Zip/Postal Code Country Telephone Fax Email | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | FREE PRODUCT INFO 14 Engineering, Design & Construc- 29 10 to 49 Employees 47 Pollution Control Equipment (please answer all the questions) tion Firms 30 50 to 99 Employees & Systems 15 Engineering/Environmental Ser- 31 100 to 249 Employees 48 Pumps YOUR INDUSTRY vices 32 250 to 499 Employees 49 Safety Equipment & Services 01 Food & Beverages 16 Equipment Manufacturer 33 500 to 999 Employees 50 Size Reduction & Agglomeration 02 Wood, Pulp & Paper 17 Energy incl. Co-generation 34 1,000 or more Employees Equipment 03 Inorganic Chemicals 18 Other———————————— YOU RECOMMEND, 51 Solids Handling Equipment 04 Plastics, Synthetic Resins JOB FUNCTION SPECIFY, PURCHASE 52 Tanks, Vessels, Reactors 05 Drugs & Cosmetics (please circle all that apply) 20 Corporate Management 53 Valves 06 Soaps & Detergents 40 Drying Equipment 21 Plant Operations incl. Mainte- 54 Engineering Computers/Soft- 07 Paints & Allied Products 41 Filtration/Separation Equipment nance ware/Peripherals 08 Organic Chemicals 42 Heat Transfer/Energy Conserva- 22 Engineering 55 Water Treatment Chemicals 09 Agricultural Chemicals tion Equipment 23 Research & Development & Equipment 10 Petroleum Refining, 43 Instrumentation & Control Sys- 24 Safety & Environmental 56 Hazardous Waste Management Coal Products tems 26 Other———————————— Systems 11 Rubber & Misc. Plastics 44 Mixing, Blending Equipment 57 Chemicals & Raw Materials 12 Stone, Clay, Glass, Ceramics EMPLOYEE SIZE 45 Motors, Motor Controls 58 Materials of Construction 13 Metallurgical & Metal Products 28 Less than 10 Employees 46 Piping, Tubing, Fittings 59 Compressors 1 16 31 46 61 76 91 106 121 136 151 166 181 196 211 226 241 256 271 286 301 316 331 346 361 376 391 406 421 436 451 466 481 496 511 526 541 556 571 586 2 17 32 47 62 77 92 107 122 137 152 167 182 197 212 227 242 257 272 287 302 317 332 347 362 377 392 407 422 437 452 467 482 497 512 527 542 557 572 587 3 18 33 48 63 78 93 108 123 138 153 168 183 198 213 228 243 258 273 288 303 318 333 348 363 378 393 408 423 438 453 468 483 498 513 528 543 558 573 588 4 19 34 49 64 79 94 109 124 139 154 169 184 199 214 229 244 259 274 289 304 319 334 349 364 379 394 409 424 439 454 469 484 499 514 529 544 559 574 589 5 20 35 50 65 80 95 110 125 140 155 170 185 200 215 230 245 260 275 290 305 320 335 350 365 380 395 410 425 440 455 470 485 500 515 530 545 560 575 590 6 21 36 51 66 81 96 111 126 141 156 171 186 201 216 231 246 261 276 291 306 321 336 351 366 381 396 411 426 441 456 471 486 501 516 531 546 561 576 591 7 22 37 52 67 82 97 112 127 142 157 172 187 202 217 232 247 262 277 292 307 322 337 352 367 382 397 412 427 442 457 472 487 502 517 532 547 562 577 592 8 23 38 53 68 83 98 113 128 143 158 173 188 203 218 233 248 263 278 293 308 323 338 353 368 383 398 413 428 443 458 473 488 503 518 533 548 563 578 593 9 24 39 54 69 84 99 114 129 144 159 174 189 204 219 234 249 264 279 294 309 324 339 354 369 384 399 414 429 444 459 474 489 504 519 534 549 564 579 594 10 25 40 55 70 85 100 115 130 145 160 175 190 205 220 235 250 265 280 295 310 325 340 355 370 385 400 415 430 445 460 475 490 505 520 535 550 565 580 595 11 26 41 56 71 86 101 116 131 146 161 176 191 206 221 236 251 266 281 296 311 326 341 356 371 386 401 416 431 446 461 476 491 506 521 536 551 566 581 596 12 27 42 57 72 87 102 117 132 147 162 177 192 207 222 237 252 267 282 297 312 327 342 357 372 387 402 417 432 447 462 477 492 507 522 537 552 567 582 597 13 28 43 58 73 88 103 118 133 148 163 178 193 208 223 238 253 268 283 298 313 328 343 358 373 388 403 418 433 448 463 478 493 508 523 538 553 568 583 598 14 29 44 59 74 89 104 119 134 149 164 179 194 209 224 239 254 269 284 299 314 329 344 359 374 389 404 419 434 449 464 479 494 509 524 539 554 569 584 599 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 210 225 240 255 270 285 300 315 330 345 360 375 390 405 420 435 450 465 480 495 510 525 540 555 570 585 600 If number(s) do not appear above, please write them here and circle: Fax this page back to 800-571-7730 Advertising Sales Representatives Mike O’Rourke, Publisher North America George Gortz, Helene Hicks, Chemical Engineering Jason Bullock, District Sales Manager Inside Sales Manager 5 Lynbrook Lane, Doylestown, PA 18901 District Sales Manager Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering; Tel: 215-340-1366; Fax: 609-482-4146 Chemical Engineering 2612 Edgerton Road 110 William St., New York, NY 10038-3901 E-mail: morourke@che.com 8325 Broadway, Ste. 202/PMB 261 University Heights, OH 44118 Tel: 212-621-4958; Fax: 212-621-4976; Alabama, Canada, Connecticut, Delaware, Pearland, TX 77581 Tel: 216-932-2700; Fax 216-932-5810 E-mail: hhicks@che.com Florida, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Tel: 281-485-4077; Fax: 281-485-1285 E-mail: ggortz@che.com Product Showcase, Literature Reviews, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York (minus E-mail: jbullock@che.com; Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Classified Display Advertising Western New York), North & South Carolina, Arkansas, Arizona, California, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Western Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Mississippi, Pennsylvania (minus Western Pennsylvania), Colorado, Georgia, Kansas, New York, Western Pennsylvania, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, Louisiana, Missouri, Nevada, Wisconsin North & South Dakota, Oregon, Utah, Washington, D.C., West Virginia, Latin America Oklahoma, Texas Washington, Wyoming International Dipali Dhar Ferruccio Silvera Rudy Teng Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering Petra Trautes 110 William St., New York, NY 10038-3901 Silvera Pubblicita Professional Publication Agency Chemical Engineering Tel: 212-621-4919; Fax: 212-621-4990 Viale Monza, 24 Milano 20127, Italy 6F-3 # 103 Fen Liau St Neihu Zeilweg 44 E-mail: ddhar@chemweek.com Tel: 39-02-284-6716; Fax: Taipei 114 Taiwan D-60439 Frankfurt am Main India 39-02-289-3849 Tel: 886-2-2799-3110 ext 330; Germany E-mail: ferruccio@silvera.it/www. 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  • 81. Economic Indicators Business News of coke.The first two coke oven batteries are military applications. Dynamic Fuels’ Plant Watch due to come onstream in Fall 2010, and the $138-million plant is currently scheduled Dow to close LDPE plant other two will start production a year later. to begin production in 2010, with a total in Freeport,Texas capacity of 75 million gal/yr of fuel. February 12, 2009 — Driven by current Wastewater treatment plant economic conditions and overcapacity to be built in Thailand for low-density polyethylene (LDPE) in Mergers and January 29, 2009 — Siemens (Erlangen, the North American marketplace,The Acquisitions Germany) has been awarded a contract Dow Chemical Co. (Midland, Mich.) has from Advance Agro Ethanol, a subsidiary of Borgo Olona acquires Borealis’ business announced the shutdown of its Poly 2 LDPE Advance Agro Public Co., to provide process and operations in Italy plant in Freeport,Texas.The shutdown is and electrical equipment for a wastewater February 3, 2009 — An agreement has been expected to be completed by the end of treatment plant.The new plant will be reached for the sale of Borealis’ business March 2009.“The Basic Plastics business located in Tha Toom, Prachinburi Province. and operations in Castellanza, Italy to Borgo carefully evaluated several options, but the The equipment, scheduled to be installed Olona, a group of investors well known in supply-demand outlook for LDPE in North in the 4th Q of 2009, will treat the wastewater the region.The new owner has decided to America, combined with the age, cost from ethanol production to meet effluent rename the company Chemisol Italia Srl. position and the relatively old technology standards and to obtain biogas that will be AMI Agrolinz Melamine International Italy, of the Poly 2 plant as well as the need used as an alternative energy source.The an affiliate of Borealis AG, manufactures for additional investment do not make system is sized to treat an average of 5,000 a range of melamine-based resins for continued operation a viable option,” said m3/day of wastewater, up to a maximum of various applications and additives for the Pieter Platteeuw, global business director, 6,000 m3/day. woodwork industry and is being sold as a LDPE. Dow and its affiliates continue to result of Borealis’ intention to focus on its operate 25 polyethylene plants around ABB wins mining order base chemicals portfolio of core products, the world, and remain the world’s largest in Canada namely melamine, plant nutrients, phenol producers of polyethylene. January 27, 2009 — ABB (Zurich, Switzerland) and olefins from its European cracker has won a contract valued over $28 million operations.The Castellanza plant, near New system produces water from Terrane Metals Corp., which includes Milan, has a production capacity of for injection at Leo Pharma the delivery of drive systems for the new approximately 12,000 ton/yr of melamine February 9, 2009 — Veolia Water Solutions Mount Milligan copper-gold mine in resins and 3,000 ton/yr of additives. and Technologies (Saint-Maurice Cedex, northwest Canada.The anticipated annual France) has designed and installed a yield from the mine is about 40,000 m.t. of Sulzer Chemtech system at Leo Pharma that produces, stores copper and 217,000 ounces of gold. Startup acquires Freeze Tec and distributes water for injection (WFI). of the project is scheduled for 2012. January 19, 2009 — Sulzer Chemtech The new purified water system is part of Leo Ltd. (Winterthur, Switzerland) has Pharma’s upgrade of its anti-thrombotic Praxair awarded hydrogen contract announced the acquisition of Freeze facility in Vernouillet, France. Softened water by Dynamic Fuels Tec B.V. (Raamsdonksveer, Netherlands). is purified by reverse osmosis and then January 23, 2009 — Praxair, Inc. (Danbury, Freeze Tec is specialized in the field of melt polished by continuous electrodeionization Conn.) has been awarded a hydrogen suspension crystallization for chemical (CEDI) to produce 4,000 L/h of purified supply contract from Dynamic Fuels, LLC, and food applications. Freeze Tec will be water. WFI is then produced by distillation. a joint venture between Tyson Foods, Inc. transferred to Winterthur in Switzerland The system delivers 2,800 L/h of WFI. and Syntroleum Corp. Dynamic Fuels will and merged with Sulzer Chemtech’s melt use H2 supplied by Praxair to produce crystallization business.This acquisition New coke plant for POSCO renewable fuels from non-food-grade broadens the current product portfolio in South Korea animal fats produced or procured by Tyson of Sulzer Chemtech and allows access February 3, 2009 ­ POSCO Group (Seoul, — Foods, using Syntroleum’s bio-synfining to new applications and markets. South Korea), the world’s fourth biggest technology. By using fats, such as beef Furthermore, it enhances its capabilities in steel producer, has commissioned Uhde tallow, pork lard, chicken fat and used the crystallization business by combining GmbH (Dortmund, Germany) to provide greases, high-quality diesel and jet fuels will the experience and best practices in extensive services for the construction of be produced at Dynamic Fuels’ Geismar, suspension and layer crystallization to offer four new coke-oven batteries to expand La., production facility.These fuels will tailor-made and comprehensive solutions to coke production by more than 2.3-million offer the same benefits of synthetic fuels its clients.  ■ metric tons per year (m.t./yr).The coke plant derived from coal or natural gas while Dorothy Lozowski is to be built at Gwangyang, a port city on providing substantial performance and the south coast, some 300 km southeast of environmental advantages over petroleum- For consideration in this section, the capital, Seoul.Together, the four coke based fuels.These benefits include higher oven batteries will have a coal throughput cetane levels, which are a measure of please send press releases to of approximately 3.8-million m.t./yr and will combustion quality, and superior thermal biznews@che.com produce a total of about 2.3-million m.t./yr stability, which qualify the fuel for advanced For additional news as it develops, please visit www.che.com March 2009; VOL. 116; NO. 3 Chemical Engineering copyright @ 2009 (ISSN 0009-2460) is published monthly, with an additional issue in October, by Access Intelligence, LLC, 4 Choke Cherry Road, 2nd Floor, Rockville, MD, 20850. Chemical Engineering Executive, Editorial, Advertising and Publication Offices: 110 William Street, 11th Floor, New York, NY 10038; Phone: 212-621-4674, Fax: 212-621-4694. Subscription rates: $59.00 U.S. and U.S. possessions, Canada, Mexico; $179 International. $20.00 Back issue & Single copy sales. Periodicals postage paid at Rockville, MD and additional mailing offices. Postmaster: Send address changes to Chemical Engineering, Fulfillment Manager, P.O. Box 3588, Northbrook, IL 60065-3588. Phone: 847-564-9290, Fax: 847-564-9453, email: clientservices@che.com. Change of address, two to eight week notice requested. For information regarding article reprints, please contact Angie Van Gorder at angie.vangorder@theygsgroup.com. Contents may not be reproduced in any form without written permission. Publica- tions Mail Product Sales Agreement No. 40558009. Return undeliverable Canadian Addresses to: P.O. Box 1632, Windsor, ON N9A7C9. For more Economic Indicators, See Next Page Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 2009 6321_CHE_031509_EI.indd 63 2/20/09 9:07:37 AM
  • 82. Economic Indicators 2009 2008 2007 download the cepci two weeks sooner at www.che.com/pci CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLANT COST INDEX (CEPCI) 650 (1957-59 = 100) Dec. 08 Nov. 08 Dec. 07 Prelim. Final Final Annual Index: CE Index 548.4 566.2 525.0 2000 = 394.1 600 Equipment 654.4 681.3 623.3 Heat exchangers & tanks 2001 = 394.3 618.3 655.8 593.6 Process machinery 623.2 641.0 597.9 2002 = 395.6 550 Pipe, valves & fittings 806.1 831.8 727.2 2003 = 402.0 Process instruments 397.0 415.6 414.4 Pumps & compressors 891.3 896.5 840.0 2004 = 444.2 500 Electrical equipment 459.7 461.7 436.3 2005 = 468.2 Structural supports & misc 684.0 718.0 660.8 2006 = 499.6 450 Construction labor 328.3 326.4 317.0 Buildings 503.6 514.0 477.0 2007 = 525.4 Engineering & supervision 349.9 350.6 356.2 400 J F M A M J J A S O N D Starting with the April 2007 Final numbers, several of the data series for labor and compressors have been converted to accommodate series IDs that were discontinued by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics CURRENT BUSINESS INDICATORS LATEST PREVIOUS YEAR AGO CPI output index (2000 = 100) Jan. 09 = 92.7 Dec. 08 = 93.9 Nov. 08 = 98.1 Jan. 08 = 109.2 CPI value of output, $ billions Dec. 08 = 1,430.0 Nov. 08 = 1,535.2 Oct. 08 = 1,744.1 Dec. 07 = 1,846.4 CPI operating rate, % Jan. 09 = 68.1 Dec. 08 = 69.0 Nov. 08 = 72.2 Jan. 08 = 81.4 Construction cost index (1967 = 100) Feb. 09 = 794.4 Jan. 09 = 795.9 Dec. 08 = 796.1 Feb. 08 = 753.5 Producer prices, industrial chemicals (1982 = 100) Jan. 09 = 226.2 Dec. 08 = 225.2 Nov. 08 = 260.6 Jan. 08 = 251.6 Industrial Production in Manufacturing (2002=100)* Jan. 09 = 99.2 Dec. 08 = 101.8 Nov. 08 = 104.8 Jan. 08 = 113.8 Hourly earnings index, chemical & allied products (1992 = 100) Jan. 09 = 144.8 Dec. 08 = 144.2 Nov. 08 = 144.3 Jan. 08 = 141.8 Productivity index, chemicals & allied products (1992 = 100) Jan. 09 = 125.6 Dec. 08 = 125.7 Nov. 08 = 128.1 Jan. 08 = 136.0 115 CPI OUTPUT INDEX (2000 = 100) CPI OUTPUT VALUE ($ Billions) 85 CPI OPERATING RATE (%) 2500 110 2200 81 105 1900 77 100 1600 73 95 1300 69 90 1000 65 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D *Due to discontinuance, the Index of Industrial Activity has been replaced by the Industrial Production in Manufacturing index from the U.S. Federal Reserve Board. Current business indicators provided by Global insight, Inc., Lexington, Mass. MARSHALL & SWIFT EQUIPMENT COST INDEX Current trends (1926 = 100) 4th Q 3rd Q 2nd Q 1st Q 4th Q 1500 The CEPCI continues its de- 2008 2008 2008 2008 2007 1485 cline in the December prelim- M & S Index 1,487.2 1,469.5 1,431.7 1,408.6 1,399.2 inary numbers (top), reflect- Process industries, average 1470 1,561.2 1,538.2 1,491.7 1,463.2 1,452.3 ing a substantial decrease Cement 1,553.4 1,522.2 1,473.5 1,448.1 1,435.3 1455 in copper and steel prices, Chemicals 1,533.7 1,511.5 1,464.8 1,438.5 1,427.9 1440 Clay products 1,524.4 1,495.6 1,453.5 1,429.1 1,415.0 which is caused by an overall Glass 1,448.1 1,432.4 1,385.1 1,359.7 1,348.8 1425 economic slowdown world- Paint 1,564.2 1,543.9 1,494.8 1,467.6 1,457.1 1410 wide. Meanwhile, the drop in Paper 1,462.9 1,443.1 1,400.0 1,377.7 1,369.2 1395 the CPI operating rate (mid- Petroleum products 1,668.9 1,644.4 1,594.4 1,555.8 1,543.7 1380 dle) has not yet leveled. Rubber 1,604.6 1,575.6 1,537.5 1,512.3 1,500.1 1365 Related industries Next month’s issue will Electrical power 1,454.2 1,454.4 1,412.8 1,380.4 1,374.9 1350 feature a helpful article on Mining, milling 1,567.5 1,546.2 1,498.9 1,473.3 1,460.8 1335 cost estimation as well as Refrigeration 1,818.1 1,793.1 1,741.4 1,711.9 1,698.8 1320 one describing the basis for 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Steam power 1,521.9 1,499.3 1,453.2 1,426.8 1,416.4 Quarter the CEPCI. Annual Index: Visit www.che.com/pci for 2001 = 1,093.9 2003 = 1,123.6 2005 = 1,244.5 2007 = 1,373.3 more on the CEPCI. ■ 2002 = 1,104.2 2004 = 1,178.5 2006 = 1,302.3 2008 = 1,449.3 64 Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 200921_CHE_031509_EI.indd 64 2/24/09 2:08:59 PM
  • 83. Circle 02 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-02SRIC 3-09.indd 1 2/19/09 11:02:18 AM
  • 84. Circle 03 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23012-03Emerson 12-07.indd 1 2/19/09 11:04:51 AM