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  • 1. March Agglomeration 2010 Technology: Mechanisms Page 34 www.che.com 3RegeneRative theRmal OxidizeRs • agglOmeRatiOn Page 26 Counting Purifying Coke-Cooling Facts at Your Fingertips: Greenhouse Gases Wastewater Steam Tracer LinesvOl. 117 nO. 3 maRch 2010 Focus on Independent Single-use Analyzers Control and Safety Equipment and Systems
  • 2. Circle 01 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-01
  • 3. Circle 04 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-04
  • 4. over 5,000 stores… ve  o mana t ge products in “We ha and popular items in stock keep the most and antdsier to manag make sure e our orders are filled on time ea make i low cash f and automate our paper proces a ses dat o act on be able time and in real t e efficiently and Microsoft Dynamics® ERP helps us work mor and provide better customer service.”Microsoft Dynamics® ERP fits your company and business processes, not the other way around.It gives your people easier access to real-time actionable customer information for betterdecision-making and higher ROI.To learn more about the efficiencies Microsoft Dynamics® ERP can create for your business,go to microsoftdynamics.com/manufacturing Circle 05 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-05
  • 5. march 2010 In This Issue Volume 117, no. 3 Commentary www.che.com 5 Editor’s Page  HG Poll of Chemi- G cal Engineers The U.S. has pledged to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 2005 Cover story levels by 2020. But the reduction target 26  over Story Saving Energy In C depends on the en- Regenerative Oxidizers Regen- actment of climate- erative thermal oxidizers (RTOs) change legislation in can be retrofitted with catalyst the U.S. We want to beds to help reduce consumption hear what you think of auxiliary energy during oxida- about the issues sur- tion of VOCs. Energy savings after rounding greenhouse such a retrofit can quickly justify gas emissions. Chemi- the costs of catalysts and installa- cal Engineering has tion. Here’s the how-to set up a brief online news survey to capture your opinions 11  Chementator New catalyst sup- port for energy-efficient steam departments reforming; A flexible energy har- Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 vesting material; Next-generation Bookshelf. . . . . . . . 7, 9 iron-making process; An improved Who’s Who. . . . . . . . 25 method for soil remediation; Nanofiber cartridge filter; A new coating 48  ngineering Practice Would You Use a E Reader Service Safety PLC for Process Control? Ensure page. . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 technology for furnaces; and more unambiguous independence of the con- Economic 17  ewsfront Greenhouse Gases: U.S. N trol and safety layers of protection Indicators. . . . . . 63, 64 Starts Counting On January 1, 2010, nearly 10,000 facilities became subject equipment & services advertisers to EPA rules on collecting data on green- 24D-1 Interphex 2010 Preview Product Showcase. . . 56 house gas emissions. This article looks at (Domestic Edition) . he 31st Interphex T Classified the rules and how they might impact the Conference and Exhibition will be held Advertising. . . . . 57–60 CPI’s demand for mitigation solutions April 20–22, 2010 at the Jacob Javits Advertiser Index . . . . 61 21  ewsfront Disposable Darlings Single- N Convention Center in New York. A sam- coming in April use equipment and systems are growing in pling of products to be displayed is given, popularity among high-purity processors. including: A valve and sensor line for Look for: Feature Re- Here, experts weigh in on the pros and hygienic processes; An ink-jet printer for ports on Mixer Design; cons of disposable components heavy duty applications; A pressure gage and Heat Exchanger for alternate units of measure; A weigher Maintenance; an En- Engineering that improves simplicity and user ergo- gineering Practice nomics; and more article on A Safety-Cen- 24AFacts At Your Fingertips Steam Traps and Tracer Lines This one-page guide 24I-2 New Products & Services tered Approach to Qual- discusses the selection of steam traps for (International Edition) A benchtop FTIR ity of Light; a Solids steam tracer lines for near-infrared analysis; A flowmeter that Processing article on ensures reproducible chromatography; Disc Particle Size Measure- 34  eature Report Agglomeration F valves that can handle abrasive slurries; A ment; an Environmen- Technology: Mechanisms This review machinery protection solution; An air sam- tal Manager article focuses on the mechanisms of agitation pler for bio-aerosols monitoring; Earplugs on Non-chemical Water (wet granulation) and compression (com- with hybrid design; and more Treatment; a Focus on paction) methods Flow Measurement; 52  ocus Analyzers Deposits are not a F News articles on Poly- 40  ngineering Practice Purifying Coke- E problem for this process refractometer; cooling Wastewater A new method for silicon Production and A gas sensor that can be calibrated re- Engineering and Con- treating coke-cooling wastewater in a de- motely; Measure fluoride levels over a layed coking unit struction; Facts at Your wide concentration range; A phosphate Fingertips on Seals and 44  ngineering Practice Water Solubility E analyzer that consumes less reagents; Gaskets; and more in Benzene Derivatives Solubility and Measure hydrocarbons with ppb resolu- Henry’s Law constants for water in ben- tion; A gas analyzer with a two-laser plat- Cover Photo supplied by: zene derivatives form; and more Grigori A. Bunimovich Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 2010 302_CHE_030110_TOC.indd 3 2/25/10 10:47:24 AM
  • 6. (Advertisement) PROCESS INSIGHT Selecting the Best Solvent for Gas TreatingSelecting the best amine/solvent for gas treating is not a trivial task. Tertiary AminesThere are a number of amines available to remove contaminants such A tertiary amine such as MDEA is often used to selectively removeas CO2, H2S and organic sulfur compounds from sour gas streams. H2S, especially for cases with a high CO2 to H2S ratio in the sour gas.The most commonly used amines are methanolamine (MEA), One benefit of selective absorption of H2S is a Claus feed rich in H2S .diethanolamine (DEA), and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA). Other MDEA can remove H2S to 4 ppm while maintaining 2% or less CO2 inamines include diglycolamine® (DGA), diisopropanolamine (DIPA), the treated gas using relatively less energy for regeneration than thatand triethanolamine (TEA). Mixtures of amines can also be used to for DEA. Higher weight percent amine and less CO2 absorbed resultscustomize or optimize the acid gas recovery. Temperature, pressure, in lower circulation rates as well. Typical solution strengths are 40-50sour gas composition, and purity requirements for the treated gas weight % with a maximum rich loading of 0.55 mole/mole. Becausemust all be considered when choosing the most appropriate amine for MDEA is not prone to degradation, corrosion is low and a reclaimera given application. is unnecessary. Operating pressure can range from atmospheric, typical of tail gas treating units, to over 1,000 psia. Mixed Solvents In certain situations, the solvent can be “customized” to optimize the sweetening process. For example, adding a primary or secondary amine to MDEA can increase the rate of CO2 absorption without compromising the advantages of MDEA. Another less obvious application is adding MDEA to an existing DEA unit to increase the effective weight % amine to absorb more acid gas without increasing circulation rate or reboiler duty. Many plants utilize a mixture of amine with physical solvents. SULFINOL is a licensed product from Shell Oil Products that combines an amine with a physical solvent. Advantages of this solvent are increased mercaptan pickup, lower regeneration energy, and selectivity to H2S.Primary Amines Choosing the Best AlternativeThe primary amine MEA removes both CO2 and H2S from sour gas Given the wide variety of gas treatingand is effective at low pressure. Depending on the conditions, MEA options, a process simulator that cancan remove H2S to less than 4 ppmv while removing CO2 to less than accurately predict sweetening results is a100 ppmv. MEA systems generally require a reclaimer to remove necessity when attempting to determinedegraded products from circulation. Typical solution strength ranges the best option. ProMax® has been proven to accurately predict results for numerousfrom 10 to 20 weight % with a maximum rich loading of 0.35 mole process schemes. Additionally, ProMaxacid gas/mole MEA. DGA® is another primary amine that removes can utilize a scenario tool to performCO2, H2S, COS, and mercaptans. Typical solution strengths are 50- feasibility studies. The scenario tool may60 weight %, which result in lower circulation rates and less energy be used to systematically vary selectedrequired for stripping as compared with MEA. DGA also requires parameters in an effort to determine thereclaiming to remove the degradation products. optimum operating conditions and the appropriate solvent. TheseSecondary Amines studies can determine rich loading, reboiler duty, acid gas content ofThe secondary amine DEA removes both CO2 and H2S but generally the sweet gas, amine losses, required circulation rate, type of aminerequires higher pressure than MEA to meet overhead specifications. or physical solvent, weight percent of amine, and other parameters.Because DEA is a weaker amine than MEA, it requires less energy for ProMax can model virtually any flow process or configurationstripping. Typical solution strength ranges from 25 to 35 weight % with including multiple columns, liquid hydrocarbon treating, and split flowa maximum rich loading of 0.35 mole/mole. DIPA is a secondary amine processes. In addition, ProMax can accurately model caustic treatingthat exhibits some selectivity for H2S although it is not as pronounced applications as well as physical solvent sweetening with solvents suchas for tertiary amines. DIPA also removes COS. Solutions are low as Coastal AGR®, methanol, and NMP. For more information aboutin corrosion and require relatively low energy for regeneration. The ProMax and its ability to determine the appropriate solvent for a givenmost common applications for DIPA are in the ADIP® and SULFINOL® set of conditions, contact Bryan Research & Engineering.processes. Bryan Research & Engineering, Inc. P.O. Box 4747 • Bryan, Texas USA • 77805 979-776-5220 • www.bre.com • sales@bre.com Circle 06 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-06
  • 7. Winner of Eight Jesse H. Neal Awards for Editorial Excellence Editor’s Page Published since 1902 An Access Intelligence Publication Opinions on greenhouse gases APublisHEr Art & dEsiGN little over one month ago, the United Nations Framework ConventionMikE O’rOurkE dAvid WHitcHEr on Climate Change (UNFCCC) received national pledges from 55 coun-Publisher Art Director/ tries, to cut and limit greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Included in themorourke@che.com Editorial Production Manager dwhitcher@che.com pledges was a commitment from the U.S. to reduce its GHG emissions in theEditOrs PrOductiON range of 17% from 2005 levels by 2020. The non-binding target came withrEbEkkAH J. MArsHAllEditor in Chief MicHAEl d. krAus a disclaimer, however, that hinges on an uncertainty for the world’s largest VP of Production & Manufacturingrmarshall@che.com mkraus@accessintel.com emitter among developed nations: the enactment of U.S. climate legislation.dOrOtHy lOzOWski stEvE OlsON Several months ago, the prospect for U.S. climate legislation in the nearManaging Editordlozowski@che.com Director of Production & term seemed much more likely than it does at CE press time. But that ManufacturingGErAld ONdrEy (Frankfurt) solson@accessintel.com could change, given the mood swings that seem to have taken this issueSenior Editor JOHN blAylOck-cOOkE hostage. Last month, for instance, researchers at Yale and George Masongondrey@che.com Ad Production Manager jcooke@accessintel.com universities released the results of a national survey in which 62% of re re-scOtt JENkiNsAssociate Editor MArkEtiNG spondents said that the U.S. should make a medium- to large-scale effortsjenkins@che.com HOlly rOuNtrEE to reduce global warming, even if doing so has moderate or large economiccONtributiNG EditOrs Marketing Manager hrountree@accessintel.com costs. Despite a 12-point drop in that measure since the fall of 2008, mostsuzANNE A. sHEllEy AudiENcE respondents — regardless of political affiliation — indicated that they sup sup-sshelley@che.com dEvElOPMENt port the passage of federal climate and energy policies, the survey says.cHArlEs butcHEr (U.K.) sylviA siErrAcbutcher@che.com Senior Vice President, When it comes to climate change, I consider myself to be a pragmatist. IPAul s. GrAd (Australia) Corporate Audience Development certainly don’t have any black-and-white evidence that proves exactly how ssierra@accessintel.compgrad@che.com today’s GHG concentrations or proposed legislation would play out. But heretEtsuO sAtOH (Japan) JOHN rOckWElltsatoh@che.com Vice President, are four points that I think are often either overlooked or misunderstood:JOy lEPrEE (New Jersey) Audience Development Chemical 1. Climate change and global warming are two related, but not identical jrockwell@accessintel.comjlepree@che.com sArAH GArWOOd terms. Climate change refers to major changes in temperature, rainfall,GErAld PArkiNsON Audience Marketing Director snow or wind patterns lasting for decades or longer. Although there are sgarwood@Accessintel.com(California) gparkinson@che.com many natural sources of climate change, it is the influence of human activi activi- tErry bEstEditOriAl Audience Development Manager ties on climate change that is currently under scrutiny. Meanwhile, globalAdvisOry bOArd tbest@accessintel.com warming refers to an average increase in surface temperatures over timeJOHN cArsON GEOrGE sEvEriNEJenike & Johanson, Inc. Fulfillment Manager and can be considered part of climate change along with changes in pre pre-dAvid dickEy gseverine@accessintel.com cipitation, sea level and so on. The point here is that recent snow storms inMixTech, Inc. JEN fElliNG Texas and Virginia do not disprove global warming. If anything, they are aMukEsH dOblE List Sales, Statlistics (203) 778-8700IIT Madras, India j.felling@statlistics.com nod to more extreme-weather patterns indicative of climate change.HENry kistEr cONfErENcEs 2. The idea that CO2 can’t be considered a pollutant, simply because hu-Fluor Corp. dANA d. cArEy mans exhale it or plants consume it, takes oversimplification to an extreme. Director, Global Event SponsorshipstrEvOr klEtz dcarey@chemweek.com Climate change predictions aside, increasing CO2 concentrations can — andLoughborough University, U.K. PEck siM are — contributing to increased acidity of the oceans.GErHArd krEysA (retired)DECHEMA e.V. Senior Manager, 3. Cap-and-trade legislation has already been proven successful in the Conference ProgrammingrAM rAMAcHANdrAN psim@chemweek.com Acid Rain program, brought to pass by the first Bush Administration in theBOC bEAtriz suArEz 1990s. Crafted by an unlikely marriage of free-market conservatives and Director of Conference OperationsiNfOrMAtiON bsuarez@chemweek.com environmentalists, the program was completely successful in terms of SO2sErvicEsrObErt PAciOrEk cOrPOrAtE emissions compliance, despite some critics’ concerns that it would be a waySenior VP & Chief Information Officer stEvE bArbEr for industry to buy its way out of fixing the problem. Meanwhile, other criticsrpaciorek@accessintel.com VP, Financial Planning & Internal Audit sbarber@accessintel.com claimed that the limits on pollution would cause electricity bills to rise, butcHArlEs sANdsSenior Developer briAN NEssEN electricity rates are lower now (in constant dollars) than they were in 1990.Web/business Applications Architect Group Publisher 4. Natural gas, while cleaner burning and less carbon intensive than coal,csands@accessintel.com bnessen@accessintel.com is a key chemical feedstock. Further shifts toward natural gas as an energyHEAdquArtErs source would have economic impacts for industry and consumers alike.110 William Street, 11th Floor, New York, NY 10038, U.S.Tel: 212-621-4900 Fax: 212-621-4694 While these and other nuances are hammered out inEurOPEAN EditOriAl OfficEs the U.S. regulatory system, the combination of mandamanda-Zeilweg 44, D-60439 Frankfurt am Main, Germany tory GHG reporting and increasing scrutiny in the fi fi-Tel: 49-69-9573-8296 Fax: 49-69-5700-2484 nancial sector could have its own influence (see p. 17 forcirculAtiON rEquEsts:Tel: 847-564-9290 Fax: 847-564-9453 more). In the meantime, we want to hear your opinionsFullfillment Manager; P.O. Box 3588, on GHG regulation, climate change and everything inNorthbrook, IL 60065-3588 email: clientservices@che.com between. Please visit our Website (www.che.com) for aAdvErtisiNG rEquEsts: see p. 62 brief online survey that will be open until April 10. ■For photocopy or reuse requests: 800-772-3350 or info@copyright.comFor reprints: chemicalengineering@theygsgroup.com Rebekkah Marshall rmarshall@che.com ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010 5
  • 8. www.altana.com Letters ChemInnovations Call for Papers Chemical Engineering has recently announced the Our business is launch of ChemInnovations 2010 (www.cpievent. Growth com), a new conference and exhibition for the chemi- cal process industries (CPI) to be held October 19–21 at Reliant Park (Houston), in partnership with TradeFair Group (Houston, www.tradefairgroup.com). The event is specifically focused on presenting the in- novative technologies and approaches that are vital to addressing today’s processing challenges, while helping attendees anticipate market and regulatory trends in the CPI. The 2010 ChemInnovations conference is issuing an industries-wide call for papers. Prospective authors are invited to submit a 200–300 word abstract for consider- ation by the advisory committee. Abstracts should focus on innovative, practical and proven approaches to the CPI’s biggest challenges. Abstracts of a how-to orienta- tion will be given preferential consideration. Suggested topics include, but are not limited to, the following: Process intensification and optimization Aging plants: Shuttering, revamping and converting Feedstock flexibility Energy efficiency and flexibility Cost estimation Innovative design, troubleshooting and optimization • Catalyst and reaction engineering • Distillation and separation • Mixing and blending • Heat transfer • Fluid handling • Solids processing Strategically positioned in the dynamic and global markets of the world, ALTANA is a driving force of innovation for its Environmental, health and safety customers. Our comprehensive range of services is the key • Water treatment and reuse to profitable growth, continually opening up new market • Process and plant safety opportunities for our customers. • Air pollution control • Greenhouse gas emissions: Reporting and practical Specialty chemicals are our business. A business we pursue reduction strategies with passion and dedication in more than 100 countries. Software, automation and control Four specialized divisions work together to ensure that • New applications for process simulation ALTANA‘s unrivalled competence and service excellence • Asset management continue to improve and expand. With a clear vision of • Instrumentation and process control improvements what our customers expect of us, it is our ambition at all • Wireless: End user success stories times to develop solutions that turn opportunities into future reality. Submission details • Submit a 200–300 word abstract via email to Kim Arellano, conference director: kima@tradefairgroup.com • Abstract deadline: Friday, March 26, 2010. You will be notified 60 days after the submission deadline on whether or not your abstract was ac- cepted. If your abstract is accepted, you must register for the event within 14 days of notification at the speaker registration rate of $225. ■Circle 7 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-07
  • 9. Bookshelf Citizen Engineer: A Handbook for Socially Responsible Engineering. By David Douglas, Greg Papadopoulos and John Boutelle. Prentice Hall, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Web: www.prenhall.com. 2009. 292 pages. $27.00. Reviewed by Arthur Schwartz, National Society of Professional Engineers, Alexandria, Va.N umerous works about the professional practice of engineering have been written that touch on ethics, law, contracts, intellectual property, risk manage-ment, techology and other important issues relevant to allengineering disciplines. Many of these books have tendedto focus either on engineering private practice (consult-ing, for example) or on a narrow engineering-related field,and have failed to frame the key issues affecting engineersworking in industrial and manufacturing settings. David Douglas and Greg Papadopoulos recently collabo-rated on an impressive and ambitous work that is strik-ingly different than previous books. In “Citizen Engineer,”the authors issue a “clarion call” to engineers, particularlysoftware and chemical engineers. The authors assert thatengineers must understand and embrace a new role as so-ciety’s movers, shakers and leaders. While the basic themeof the book is not new, the authors appear to be calling fora rebirth of engineering as a profession. “The traditional role of engineers has changed,” saythe authors, and engineers need to become the mastersof the post-technical present and future. They write, “…engineering is no longer concerned with finding a simple,elegant way to implement a set of design requirements...we need knowledge of subjects well beyond the scope oftraditional engineering. A successful engineer needs to bepart environmentalist, part intellectual property attorney,part business executive, and part diplomat — not to men-tion an expert in an engineering discipline, a great team-mate and a skilled communicator.” The authors posit that several recent trends are furtherredefining the role of the engineer in society. For instance,the increasing complexity of products leads to greaterdependence upon engineering; yet understanding of en-gineering and its underlying sciences is relatively low.This can lead, the authors note, to poor public policy andmisconceptions that hinder innovation. The authors urgeengineers to take a more proactive role in engaging, com-municating with and leading society. The book mostly explores modern engineering and pro-vides practical guidance on topics of increasing interest andurgency to engineers — particularly environmental consid-erations of product design, intellectual property and contrac-tual issues. The book examines how eco-effective, techno- Circle 8 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-08responsible products and services can translate into new
  • 10. S C I E N C E . E N G I N E E R I N G . T E C H N O L O G Y. Discover Everything New at INTERPHEX. • Redesigned floor plan so you can easily seek out theINTERPHEX, the industry’s global marketplace, suppliers you need to see.showcases the latest innovations and technological • On-floor attendee lounges and new productive businessadvancements occurring across the global centers to foster networking and best practice sharing.pharmaceutical market. Meet your objectives and • Signature Series–Presenting industry leaders on the highsolve your needs for improved productivity and product interest topics affecting your career and business.quality. Maximize yields and increase efficiency. • Luncheon Presentations offering new perspectivesGain a clear understanding of how to meet regulations. on global opportunities and success models forINTERPHEX is your industry resource. biopharmaceuticals. This year you’ll experience a brand new For 30 years, INTERPHEX has been partnering withINTERPHEX, with a renewed focus on delivering our customers, helping them to solve their most difficultresults for both your business and personal growth needs: and critical challenges. It’s the platform from which the• New exhibitors, new products and services, new industry grows and builds, where new innovations are innovations and new sustainable solutions. introduced and long-term relationships forged.• Keynote address by Chris Matthews, renowned political commentator, author and talk show host, will moderate a panel discussion on “Healthcare Reform and Its Impact on the Biopharmaceutical Industry.” • Sourcing & Services • Manufacturing & Packaging • Facilities & QbD • Automation Systems & Controls A PRIL 20-22, 2010 • J ACOB K. J AVITS C ONVENTION C ENTER • N EW Y ORK , NY Now’s the time to register for INTERPHEX! Visit www.interphex.com now for FREE show admission. Questions? Call 1.888.334.8704.Sponsored by: Media sponsors: Produced and managed by: Circle 09 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-09
  • 11. Bookshelf Liquids to Valueopportunities for businesses and accelerated career pathsfor engineers. It contains excellent advice for students andrecent graduates beginning engineering careers. While the book is highly impressive, its emphasis onthe social responsibilities of engineers precludes mentionof the important role played by engineering licensure inprotecting public health and safety — an oversight. Also,the book could have acknowledged a conversation cur-rently underway in the profession regarding the need formeaningful additional education to support professionalpractice — a point that would have added credibility tothe authors’ central thrust. Overall, the authors have commendably highlighted theneed for engineers to incorporate social responsibility intotheir profession. Giant Molecules: From Nylon to Nanotubes. By Walter Gratzer. Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016. Web: www.oup. com. 2009. 254 pages. $24.95. Computational Techniques for Multiphase Flows. By Guan Heng Yeoh and Jiyuan Tu. Butterworth- Heinemann, 30 Corporate Drive, Suite BL Renewable Resources 400, Burlington, MA 01803. Web: www. elsevier.com. 2009. 664 pages. $130.00. Hit the Road to Recoverable and Recyclable Cata- lysts. Edited by Maurizio Benaglia. John Wiley and Sons Inc., 111 River New Fields of Profit Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030. Web. www. wiley.com. 2009. 500 pages. $160.00. Renewable resources open up many opportunities to recover, process and refine foodstuffs, but also to substitute High Energy Density Lithium Bat- fossil fuels. Sustainable treatment of natural resources is a teries: Materials, Engineering and pressing need of the age we live in. We now offer a platform Applications. Edited by Katerina E. for forward-looking solutions by concentrating our process Aifantis, Stephen A. Hackney and R. know-how for oils and fats, starch, proteins, fermentation Vasant Kumar. John Wiley and Sons products and biofuels in our Business Line Renewable Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ Resources. 07030, Web. www.wiley.com. 2010. 296 pages. price to be determined. The Business Line Renewable Resources remains your market expert for tried-and-tested processes, while at Food Stabilisers, Thickeners and the same time being a centre of competence for innovative Gelling Agents. Edited by Alan Ime- ideas and visions. We support you with the latest process son. John Wiley and Sons Inc., 111 technology, right from laboratory testing through to River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, implementation on an industrial scale. Web. www.wiley.com. 2009. 368 pages. $199.99. Your direct route to 24 / 7 service: www.westfalia-separator.com / service Materials and Design: The Art and Science of Material Selection in Product Design. By Michael F. Ashby and Kara Johnson. Butterworth-Heine- GEA Mechanical Equipment mann, 225 Wildwood Ave., Woburn, MA GEA Westfalia Separator GmbH WSPC-2-30-018 01801. Web: www.elsevier.com. 2009. 344 pages. $59.95. ■ Werner-Habig-Straße 1 · 59302 Oelde (Germany) Scott Jenkins Phone +49 2522 77-0 · Fax +49 2522 77-1794 ws.process@geagroup.com · www.westfalia-separator.com Circle 10 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-10
  • 12. Now, with a Ross Double Planetary Mixeryou can mix materials up to 8 million centipoise. Breaking the viscosity barrier – with our patented HV Blades. A Ross Double Planetary Mixer with HV Blades can handle viscosities far beyond the limits of any ordinary planetary mixer – and often eliminates the need for a costly double-arm mixer. (And save up to 40% off the cost of a double-arm mixer!)From Planetary Mixers to our patented PowerMix Buy now and save.and Kneader Extruders… Learn how to make your high-viscosity mixing processIn sizes from 1⁄2 pint to 500 gallons, Ross offers high- more efficient. Call now to arrange a no-charge test or trialperformance Planetary Mixers, Kneader Extruders, rental in your plant. 1-800-243-ROSS • www.Mixers.comDischarge Systems andportable vessels forvirtually all high-viscosityapplications. Circle 11 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-11
  • 13. Edited by Gerald Ondrey March 2010Slash energy consumption with Traditional ceramic-media delivery method Catacel SSR delivery methodthis steam reformer reactor Temperature, °C H2 + CO + CO2 Temperature, °C H2 + CO + CO2 + CH4 + H2O + CH4 + H2OS Furnace Tube Reaction Furnace Tube Reaction team reforming of methane into hydro- (~50% H2) (~50% H2) New 1,036 918 824 New 983 877 824 gen takes place in catalyst-packed alloy 5 years 1,062 939 837 5 years 998 885 824tubes that are heated in a furnace. Up to Change +26 +21 +13 Change +15 +8 0now, this energy-intensive reaction has usedcatalyst-impregnated ceramic pellets, which Heat Heatare poured into the tubes. However, theseceramic pellets do not provide homogeneous Ceramic pellets Metal finsheat transfer, which compromises reaction coated with coated withefficiency, and they are prone to crushing, nickel catalyst nickel catalystwhich degrades the catalyst and thus neces-sitates change-out every 3–5 yr. Now, an al-ternative catalyst support that provides 2.5 Natural gas Natural gastimes the surface area, 1.3–1.6 times greater + Steam + Steam CH4 + 3H2O CH4 + 3H2Oheat-transfer rates, and lasts at least twotimes longer than ceramic supports hasbeen commercialized by Catacel Corp. (Gar-rettsville, Ohio; www.catacel.com). thereby saving about 10% of the fuel needed Tested in cooperation with the NASA to fire the furnace, says Bill Whittenberger,Glenn Research Center (Cleveland, Ohio; president and founder of Catacel. Alterna-www.nasa.gov/centers/glenn), Catacel’s pat- tively, operating a reformer with SSR atented Stackable Structural Reactor (SSR) the same (higher) temperature as ceramicconsists of metal foil with flow channels media can boost the H2 production capacityformed onto the surface. The catalyst is by 25–35% in the same reformer, he says.bonded to the foil, which is then assembled Test results for SSR were subsequently A new Kraft pulpinto canisters that can be stacked vertically validated with the first commercial demon- Weyerhaeuser Co. (Federalinto reformer tubes. stration of the technology — a 250-m3/h H2 Way, Wash.; www.weyer- SSR’s improved heat-transfer capability plant in Europe that has been in continuous haeuser.com) says it has begunenables the furnace to operate at 40–50°C operation since July 2008. Catacel is now commercial production of alower temperatures than if the reformer negotiating with potential users to imple- new grade of Kraft pulp for the cellulose derivatives market.tubes were packed with ceramic pellets, ment or license the technology. Cellulose derivatives are used in various products, includingA new approach to flexible lacquers, paints, inks and thick- ening agents.energy converting material The new pulp, called Pearl429, “is essentially aA research team at Princeton University (Princeton, N.J.; www.princeton.edu) ledby Michael McAlpine and Yi Qi has devised a from the MgO with an etching process. The ribbons are then transferred onto a polydim- ethylsiloxane (PDMS) rubber substrate by new class of softwood Kraft pulp,” says Don Atkinson, vice- president of marketing andprocess for integrating nanoscale piezoelectric bringing a layer of PDMS into contact with new product development for Weyerhaeuser Cellulose Fi-ribbons into flexible rubbers, enabling develop- the PZT ribbons still on the MgO wafer. The bers. The company declines toment of flexible, energy-harvesting materials. PDMS layer is then peeled back to retrieve give details on the productionEfficient, flexible energy-conversion materials the ribbons, resulting in a “piezo-rubber” process, except to say that itcould be used as wearable energy-harvesting chip that contains an array of the piezoelec- is a continuous Kraft process,systems for mobile electronic devices or im- tric strips. whereas many other specialtyplantable medical devices. Piezoelectric mate- Subsequent studies of the piezo-rubber pulps are made by a batchrials become electrically polarized when sub- chips confirm that the piezoelectric perfor- process. The new method isjected to mechanical stresses. mance of the PZT ribbons is retained after said to generate higher yields The team’s approach involved depositing transferring to the rubber substrates. The than typical dissolving pulp500 nm-thick, micrometer-wide crystalline researchers hope to scale up the process to manufacturing processes, from the same amount of raw materi-ribbons of the piezoelectric material lead zir- produce larger sheets of the material, and to als, with better product unifor-conate titanate (PZT) on magnesium oxide further study the mechanics of piezoelectric mity. Weyerhaeuser adds thatwafers, then separating the PZT material materials on stretchable platforms. (Continues on p. 12)Note: For more information, circle the 3-digit numberon p. 62, or use the website designation. ChemiCAl engineering WWW.Che.Com mArCh 2010 11
  • 14. Flue gas IronC hementato R oxide Reductant (coal) Air Heat recovery Offgas treatment Mixing Agglomeration DryingA next-generation ironmaking process Combustionmakes its commercial debut air Burner Rotary hearth furnace fuelI n January, the world’s first commercial plant to use the ITmk3 process began pro-duction of iron nuggets, which are used in Separation Offgas Burnersteelmaking. The plant, constructed by Kobe Fuel 2CO + O2 ➞ 2CO2 AirSteel, Ltd. (Tokyo; www.kobelcom) and Steel Post combustion Heat SlagDynamics, Inc. (Fort Wayne, Ind.; www. Heatsteeldynamics.com) at Hoyt Lakes, Minne- Iron nuggets Feedersota, is expected to reach its design capacity COof 500,000 metric tons per year (m.t./yr) in Coolingmid 2010. Slag Developed by Kobe Steel, ITmk3 is said Nugget Hearth Discharging Cooling Melting Reduction Preheatingto be the next-generation ironmaking pro- 1,000 – 1,200 1,450 1,200 – 1,400 700 – 1,200cess (CE, January 2002, p. 15), and is totally Temperature, °Cdifferent from the traditional blast furnacemethod. The process evolved from Fastmet nuggets of the same quality as pig iron, with (Continued from p. 11)(CE, March 1995, pp. 37–41), developed by slag as a by-product. Heat is also recoveredMidrex Technologies, Inc. (Charlotte, N.C.; from the offgas to preheat combustion air. Pearl429’s characteristics allowwww.midrex.com) and Kobe Steel (Midrex’s ITmk3 can use lower-cost iron-ore fines it to be used in various applica- tions that use cellulose estersparent company). Both Fastmet and ITmk3 and steaming coal, which are difficult to use and ethers.use a rotary hearth furnace (RHF), a large in blast furnace ironmaking, says Kobe Steel.turntable that rotates within a doughnut- Unlike blast furnace operations, ITmk3 elim-shaped chamber. Feed pellets — agglomer- inates the need for raw material pretreat- Bioacrylic milestoneates made from iron-ore fines and pulver- ment, such as coke ovens, sintering plants Since beginning pilot-scale de-ized coal — are charged into the hearth and pellet plants. ITmk3 iron nuggets can velopment six months ago, oPX Biotechnologies, inc. (Boulder,(1–2 layers deep) and are heated by burners be produced in just 10 min, whereas blast- Col.; www.opxbiotechnologies.firing from above and by the combustion of furnace pig iron can take up to 8 h. For steel- com) has reduced bioacrylicgases released from the reduced pellets. One makers, the high-grade nuggets improve the production cost by 85% towardsrevolution of the hearth takes about 10 min. productivity and energy efficieny of electric the commercial target of 50¢/lb.In Fastmet, the product is direct reduced arc furnaces. The process is also highly suit- The company uses its efficientiron, but in ITmk3, the pellets are melted in able for mining sites and can be profitable Directed genome engineeringthe last zone of the hearth to produce iron even for small mines adds the firm. (edge) technology to develop microbes and processes for making chemicals. a demon-Nanofiber cartridge filters achieve 0.03-mm rating stration plant is planned for 2011, and a full-scale commer-at high flow and low pressure cial plant in 2013.A 1.5-mm-thick layer of a new filter material based on nanoscale aluminahas shown the ability to filter greater “Significant effort led to the success- ful commercialization of an electroposi- tive, fibrous, pleated-depth filter that and a 1.5-mm-thick layer (as in the pleated cartridge) is capable of adsorb- ing >99.9999% of the 25-nm-sized MS2than 99% of 0.03-mm latex spheres or can substitute for the asbestos filters virus, the company says. In recent test-0.025-mm MS2 viruses with sustain- that were phased out years ago,” Argon- ing, the cartridges tolerated high dirtable water velocities of around 1.5 cm/s ide president Fred Tepper explains. “We loads, salt concentrations (200 g/L) andat pressures of 0.7 bar. Developed by have a ‘game-changing’ product here,” alkalinity (pH>9.5).the Argonide Corp. (Sanford, Fla.; www. adds Tepper. Argonide’s cartridges, marketedargonide.com), the alumina nanofibers The nanoscale fibers — principally under the name NanoCeram, will behave a surface area of 350–500 m2/g boehmite (Al-O-OH) — are 2 nm in di- presented at the American Filtrationand form the active component in a ameter and range in length from tens and Separations Society Annual Meet-non-woven filter matrix with a 2-mm to hundreds of nanometers. The nano- ing (San Antonio, Tex.; March 22–25).pore size. The filter medium works on scale alumina is distributed over a mi- NanoCeram filters are now in use forthe principle of electrostatic adsorp- croglass fiber matrix that is modified applications such as filtering potabletion, where the positively charged filter with cellulose to increase the strength water, protecting reverse osmosis mem-media attract and adsorb negatively and flexibility of the matrix. At a nano- branes, for a clean-in-place process andcharged particles, such as pathogens alumina content over 15 wt.%, the fil- for iron and copper removal in chill-and biological macromolecules. ter media are highly electropositive, water systems. 12 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010
  • 15. Conductive fibers Teijin Ltd. (Tokyo and Osaka; www. teijin.co.jp) and the Tokyo Institute of Technology (both Japan; www.titech. ac.jp) have developed a highly crys-Combined membrane separation talline carbon nanotube fiber (CNF) that has a 30% higher electrical con-and electrokinetics speeds soil remediation ductivity than conventional fibers. The highly conductive CNFs are madeT oxic heavy metals can be drawn out explains that, in the new setup, soil is using a conventional melt-spinning process, and no catalyst is required, of soils far more quickly than the treated in suspension, and ion exchange which leads to high-purity fibers 20traditional methods using a process de- membranes separate the soil suspen- µm long and 100–300-nm dia. Teijinveloped by a team from the Technical sion and the processing solutions at the plans to commercialize the new CNFUniversity of Denmark (DTU; Lyngby; electrodes. The addition of ion exchange in 2011, with potential applications inwww.dtu.dk) and the Universidad Téc- membranes ensures the main direction lithium-ion batteries, electrodes andnica Federico Santa María (Valparaíso, for the electromigration within the con- additives for secondary batteries,Chile; www.usm.cl). taminated soil is out of the soil. plastic additives, fuel cells and gas- Conventional electrokinetic methods Laboratory experiments were con- diffusion layers.apply a strong d.c. electric field to cause ducted in cylindrical PMMA (polymethylions of heavy metals, such as cadmium, methacrylate) partitioned into a centralcopper, zinc, lead and chromium, to mi- compartment and two electrode compart- The technique achieved removal ef-grate through the soil. However, this ments. An anion exchange membrane ficiencies of 85–92% for lead ions afterprocess can take months to achieve ad- separates one electrode compartment 2–3 wk operation. However, the removalequate cleanup. from the central compartment, and a cat- efficiency of chromium ions has thus The team combined traditional elec- ion exchange membrane separates the far been below 18%, due to chromium’strokinetic soil remediation with con- central compartment from the other elec- stronger adsorption to soil particles.ventional electrodialysis, resulting in a trode compartment. An overhead stirrer Ottosen believes the hybrid systemfaster and more thorough way of clean- is used to keep contaminated soil in sus- can be further developed as a continu-ing soils contaminated with heavy met- pension, and the pH in the electrode com- ous, ex-situ remediation process, whichals. DTU’s team member Lisbeth Ottosen partment is maintained at around two. can be combined with soil washing. One level of technical support: Superior. Five licenses or 500, you’ll get the same best-in-class support Chemstations offers all CHEMCAD users. No wading through several levels of representatives. Every time you contact us, you’ll get the answers you need, quickly and accurately, from a support representative who is an expert in chemical engineering simulation software. We see our customers’ problems as our problems and consider ourselves part of their team. Let us become part of yours. Make the switch to CHEMCAD today. Try it free* at chemstations.com/switch or call 1.800.CHEMCAD for details. *Certain restrictions apply. Engineering advanced Circle 12 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-12 © 2010 Chemstations, Inc. All rights reserved. | CMS-22-1 02/10
  • 16. C hementato R Metathesis catalysts The Catalyst Business Line of Evonik Industries AG (Essen, Germany; www.evonik.com) has launched three new homo- geneous catalysts that cover Ethanol and other chemicals from biomass a broad range of reactions in cross metathesis, ring-closing T he ethanol yield from biomass has been increased by about 50% over conventional yields in a process developed by ZeaChem ethanol. Hydrogen is obtained by gasify- ing lignin residue from the acid hydrolysis process. This is distinct from conventional metathesis and ring-opening metathesis. Metathesis is a reaction used for develop- Inc. (Lakewood, Colo.; www.zeachem.com). biomass processes, in which ethanol is pro- ing and producing advanced ZeaChem has tested the process (diagram) duced by yeast in the fermentation step. Im- plastics, or active ingredients in a 3,500-gal fermenter and will activate a bler explains that yeast fermentation cre- for pharmaceuticals and demonstration plant to process tree residues ates one molecule of CO2 for every molecule pesticides. The total cost per kilogram of the new catalysts in Boardman, Ore., in late 2010. The plant of ethanol, whereas the acetogenic method — catMETium RF2, RF3 and will produce 250,000-gal/yr of either ethanol produces no CO2. The combination of acetic RF4 — includes the license or ethyl acetate, says Jim Imbler, president. acid and H2 production achieves a net en- fees for the use of intellectual ZeaChem plans to start up a 25-million-gal/ ergy value (NEV) nearly ten times that of property rights (RF = royalty yr commercial plant at the site in 2013 and the conventional route, he says. free), so customers can use ultimately expects to produce ethanol for In a related development, ZeaChem has the catalysts without limitatons, less than $1/gal. produced glacial acetic acid (>99% purity), says the firm. Cellulosic biomass is treated by acid hy- used in a wide range of products. The acid is drolysis and the resultant aqueous solution concentrated by using a commercial solvent Cellulosic biofuels of glucose and xylose is fermented by an to extract it from the fermentation broth, Also launched at the National acetogen, a naturally occurring bacterium then separating and recycling the solvent. Ethanol Conference (see also that converts the sugars to acetic acid. The Solvent extraction uses only about 25% as the story on p. 16) is Accelle- acid is esterified to obtain ethyl acetate, all much energy as the conventional distillation rase DUET, the latest genera- or part of which is hydrogenated to produce method, says Imbler. tion of Genencor’s (Palo Alto, Calif.; www.genencor.com) enzymes used to convert bio- mass into fermentable sugars. With improved overall hemi- cellulase activity, Accellerase DUET builds on the advances in beta-glucosidase and cel- lular activity of its predecessor (Accellerase 1500), enabling Biomass: DUET to achieve higher sugar and biofuel yields — often at a three-fold lower dosing, says the firm. Bio-based adipic acid Verdezyne (Carlsbad, Calif.; www.verdezyne.com) has achieved a proof of concept in Furnace tube coatings reduce carbon formation its development program by and increase efficiency in olefins plants demonstrating production and recovery of adipic acid made by a yeast microorganism from C oating technology that essentially elim- inates carbon buildup on the interior of steam cracker tubes will be commer- lyzed at high temperatures from the nickel and iron in the steel tubes; and amorphous coke that deposits from cracking the gas- an alkane feedstock. This is the company’s first milestone towards demonstrating an en- cialized by Quantiam Technologies Inc. eous hydrocarbon feed. Quantiam’s coating tirely feedstock-flexible (plant (Edmonton, Alta; www. quantiam.com). prevents the former by shutting down the derived sugar, oils or alkanes) Commercial-scale tests in five ethylene coke-forming mechanism. The accumula- fermentation process for mak- crackers indicate that the coating can ex- tion of gas-phase coke deposits is prevented ing adipic acid — an important tend the time between furnace decokings by a catalyst in the coating that converts starting material for making polyamides and polyurethanes. to 1–2 yr for light feedstocks, whereas the coke to CO and CO2. Petrone declines to Verdezyne estimates that its uncoated tubes have to be decoked about give details on the coating or catalyst, ex- route to adipic acid has at least every 30 days, says Steve Petrone, chief cept to say the coating is a composite con- a 20% cost advantage over the executive officer. sisting of a metal matrix with ceramic and traditional petroleum-based Petrone notes that there are two main intermetallic components. route. The company plans to sources of carbon buildup in furnace tubes: Petrone says the coating is stable at tem- partner for scaleup demonstra- filamentous coke, whose formation is cata- (Continues on p. 16) tion in the next year. ❏ 14 Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 201006_CHE_030110_CHM.indd 14 2/26/10 8:16:03 AM
  • 17. When the rightreaction matters ...Trust BASF Process Catalystsand TechnologiesAt crucial moments, the right reaction matters. When you are lookingfor the right reaction from your process catalyst, turn to BASF. Ourtechnical experts will recommend the right catalyst from our innovativeproduct line that will achieve the desired reaction. The end resultsmay also include greater yield and better end product properties.When the catalyst is right, the reaction will be right. Trust BASF.� Adsorbents � Chemical catalysts � Polyolefin catalysts� Custom catalysts � Refining catalystsFor more information, please visit www.catalysts.basf.com/process Circle 13 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-13
  • 18. C hementato R Furnace Tube coaTings (Continued from p. 14) peratures up to 1,130°C and has tolerated sulfur levels up to 3,000 ppm. By avoiding carbon buildup, the coating can also lower energy costs by 3–10% and increases product throughput by allowing a reduction in steam use, since one function of the steam is to oxidize tube surfaces to protect against coke formation. Quantiam’s pilot plant capacity is about 1 million (inter- nal) in.2/yr, or enough for two commercial furnaces. Aided by an investment of approximately $3 million each from BASF Venture Capital GmbH (Ludwigshafen, Germany) and Ursataur Capital Management L.P. (Toronto, Ont.), the company plans to scale up to 3 million in.2/yr by April 2011. Petrone says the payback time from using the coated tubes will be less than a year. The cost of producing bioethanol takes a nosedive L ast month at the National Ethanol Conference at Orlando, Fla., Novozymes’ A/S (Bagsvaerd, Denmark; www.no- vozymes.com) president and CEO, Steen Riisgaard, launched Cellic CTec2, a new enzyme product enabling the biofuel in- dustry to produce cellulosic ethanol at a price below $2/gal — comparable to the current cost of gasoline and conven- tional ethanol in the U.S. Cellec CTec2 has a higher potency (a factor of two higher than its predecessor) for breaking down agricultural waste (such as corn cobs and stover and sugarcane bagasse) into fermentable sugars. Compared to existing enzymes, CTec2 can reduce enzyme dosing by 50%, thereby reducing the ethanol production costs by 50¢/gal, says Riisgaard. This eliminates the need — and capital ex- pense — for onsite production of the enzyme at large etha- nol plants. Delivery of two truckloads per week is enough for a large-scale ethanol plant, which is comparable to the enzyme-delivery needs at a conventional starch-based etha- nol plant, he says. CTec2 is a mixture of “more than a handful” of different enzymes that work together to break down cellulose into fer- mentable sugars. The enzymes — both cellulases and hemi- cellulases — are extracted from various fungi, and the most efficient then cloned into a microoganism (Tricoderma) and expressed by fermentation. The enzymes are concentrated and purified into a liquid product. Riisgaard says the company is building a new production facility in Blair, Neb. (startup early 2012) to serve the North American market, and already has sufficient production ca-Circle 14 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-14 pacity to serve markets in the EU and China. Currently, the outlet for bioethanol for fuel — regardless if the ethanol is from grains or waste — is limited by the current E10 blend restriction (a limit of 10% ethanol in gasoline) set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA; Washington, D.C.). Nevertheless, Riisgaard says that there is enough agricul- tural waste already generated to supply up to 25% of the world’s gasoline requirements, and this fraction will only in- crease as enzymes are developed to handle other cellulose- containing materials, such as wood chips or weeds that can be grown on fallow land. ■
  • 19. NewsfrontGreenhouse Gases:u.s. starts CountinG Estimated number of U.S. facilities impacted by From emissions estimates to related EPAs mandatory reporting rule financial risks and opportunities, Stationary combustion 3,000 the CPI are going to add it up Landfills Natural gas suppliers 1,502 2,551 Electricity generation 1,108A s 2009 came to a close, the U.S. Figure 1. Pulp and paper 425 crossed a key milestone in the The EPA estimates that 10,000 U.S. Vehicle manufacturers 317 path toward regulating green- facilities will be house gas (GHG) emissions. covered by the Petroleum product suppliers 315Nearly 10,000 facilities (Figures 1 and mandatory report- ing rule that came GHG suppliers 1672) — a significant portion of them in thechemical process industries (CPI) — be- into effect on Petroleum refineries 150 January 1. Thecame subject to the U.S. Environmental category defined Iron and s teel 121Protection Agency’s (EPA; www.epa. as “Other” isgov; Washington D.C.) Final Manda- detailed in Other 636tory Greenhouse Gases Reporting Rule. Figure 2 Source: EPAThe rule requires that applicable facili-ties begin collecting data on January 1, (for more, see p. 5 where we ask you to include HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons),2010 for annual GHG emission reports weigh in with your own opinions). Nev- PFCs (perfluorocarbons) and SF6 (sul-that are due to EPA by March 31, 2011. ertheless, GHG regulation is already a fur hexafluoride). Each facility mustAlthough the rule itself does not limit reality in other parts of the world, and evaluate which part (or parts) of theGHG emissions, the collected data will a clear motivation for GHG reductions rule apply. For example, a large petro-be used to inform future climate-change is emerging through the U.S. financial leum refinery with cogeneration couldpolicies and programs, EPA says. sector. Recent moves to increase trans- conceivably be subject to all three of Whether it is because of the rela- parency into a given company’s GHG the following subparts: stationarytively quick pace that this rule took in risks and opportunities financially combustion, petroleum refining andbeing made official or the extremely could provide the ultimate incentive for petroleum product suppliers.loud noise from broader GHG de- the CPI’s investment into technologies Within each subcategory, reportingbates in the mainstream media, many that help reduce so-called carbon foot- requirements are divided into fourchemical engineers found themselves prints. After all, financial motivation is tiers, which define whether the datain a year-end rush to prepare for the primarily what has been behind most should be calculated or measured byJanuary 1 milestone. Others have re- of the CPI’s GHG reductions thus far. instrumentation and methods for doingquested extensions, which will expire so. “Tier 1 is the easiest to measureat the end of this month. Meanwhile, Key aspects of the rule but the least accurate,” explains Terryfor all facilities that are subject to the In general, EPA’s GHG reporting Moore, principal at Carbon Shrinksrule, the next deadline for preparing a rule (www.epa.gov/climatechange/ LLC (Austin, Tex.; www.carbonshrinks.formal monitoring plan is right around emissions/ghgrulemaking.html) de- com), while “Tier 4 is the most com-the corner on April 1. fines applicability and requirements plex and expensive to measure but the As the U.S. CPI grapple with the spe- for stationary combustion sources, most accurate.” Since tiers are gener-cifics of EPA’s reporting rule, curiosity 20 chemical process categories, and ally aligned according to the size of theis building globally around the extent more (see the box, p. 19). For most unit, Moore says, a single facility couldto which GHG reduction initiatives will sources, the reporting threshold is be directed to use different tiers for dif-be in demand. For now, the future of 25,000 metric tons per year (m.t./yr) ferent combustion or industrial processU.S. climate policy is caught in a storm CO2 equivalent (CO2e). The gases units. Meanwhile, a facility may electof political and social debates, cloud- that must be reported are CO2, CH4, to use the methods of a higher tier thaning the picture at the regulatory level N2O and fluorinated GHGs, which is applicable, but not a lower one. ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010 17
  • 20. Approximate makeup of "Other" facilities Manure 107 Newsfront Cement 107 Lime 89 Petrochemical 80 Measurement methods apply not two applies,” explains Allen Glass 55only to direct measurement of GHG Kugi, application engineeremissions, says Moore, but to other at Fluid Components Inter- Nitric acid 45data that must be reported for a given national (San Marcos, Calif.; Hydrogen 41industrial process and to data that are www.fluidcomponents.com). Ammonia 23required for the calculations. Neces- Possibly the biggest issue Phosphoric acid 14sary data can include fuel used, high or controversy, discussed re-heat value of fuels, organic carbon con- cently at the National Petro- Aluminum 14tent of raw materials and so on. EPA leum Refiners’s Assn. (NPRA; CO2 suppliers 13will verify emissions data as opposed Washington, D.C.; www.npra. Lead 13to involving third parties. org) GHG Conference in Hous- Ferro alloy 9 ton, was a ruling that flowme-Areas of ambiguity ters had to be temperature- Titanium O2 8In assessing how to meet the require- and-pressure compensated Zinc 5ments of the mandatory GHG report- with instruments located at Soda ash 5ing rule, chemical processors have en- the flowmeter, rather than Adipic acid 4countered several areas of ambiguity. from other process areas, saysOne of those areas involves the use Chris Jones, Green Initiative HCFC-22 3of existing O2 monitors in calculat- marketing leader at Honey- Silicon carbide 1ing CO2 emissions. “This is allowed in well Process Solutions. “This Source: EPACalifornia’s GHG rule, for example, but provides an enormous chal- Figure 2. The category defined as “Other” in Fig-not allowed under the EPA rule,” says lenge for most companies, as ure 1 is detailed hereBarney Racine, software development they do not have temperature/manager at Honeywell Process Solu- pressure instrumentation at every flow- sions, EPA says, the plan needs to betions’ (Phoenix; www.honeywell.com/ meter.” At the meeting, the EPA stated in place prior to collecting data to en-ps) Environmental Solutions Group. that it “heard the outcry” and would re- sure consistency and accuracy. EPA Another area of uncertainty is cali- evaluate its decision, Racine says. further emphasizes that the plan doesbration. EPA says that flowmeters and not have to be complex and can relyother monitoring equipment need to Timeline and the next steps on existing corporate documents likebe calibrated to meet 5% accuracy re- In every subpart that identifies spe- standard operating procedures (SOPs)quirements prior to April 1, 2010. In a cific measurement methods that and monitoring plans developed fordocument entitled “Special Provisions require instrumentation, affected compliance with other air programs.for 2010” and issued in January, how- facilities must comply by installing Even facilities that have been grantedever, EPA qualified that requirement or upgrading instrumentation if it an extension to use best availableby saying that initial calibration may doesn’t meet specifications. Timing on methods to estimate GHG emissionsbe postponed after April 1 in two cases. such upgrades differs for two cases, for a period beyond April 1, 2010, areThe first exception describes moni- explains Carbon Shrinks’ Moore: required to have a plan developed fortoring equipment that has already 1. CEMS upgrades: Facilities required the basic procedures that will be usedbeen calibrated according to a method to use Tier 4 have until January 1, to collect data. As a facility’s data col-specified in the applicable subpart of 2011 to get their continuous-emis- lection methods change and evolve,the rule and for which the previous sions-monitoring-systems (CEMS) the monitoring plan must be revisedcalibration is still active. In this case, upgrades installed and certified to reflect the changes.the instrument does not need to be 2. Other instrument upgrades: Facili- EPA says it intends to have the elec-recalibrated until the previous calibra- ties may use “best available mea- tronic reporting system operational intion has elapsed. The second exception surement methods” in lieu of re- January 2011, approximately threeis for units that operate continuously quired instrumentation until March months in advance of the March 31,with infrequent outages and in which 31, 2010. After that date, they must 2011, reporting deadline. EPA intendscalibration would require removing the either use the required instrumen- to make training on the emissions re-device from service, thereby disrupting tation or receive an extension from porting system available in fall 2010process operation. In this case, initial EPA, but the final date to request and continuing into 2011. The elec-calibration may be postponed until the extensions was January 31, 2010 tronic reporting system will include anext scheduled maintenance outage. Beyond that, the next major deadline separate module for registering users Recalibration, itself, has also come is for completion of a monitoring plan, and facilities, scheduled to be opera-under question because the EPA rule which is required to be in place at each tional and ready for training by sum-refers to a minimum recalibration fre- reporting facility by April 1. Since the mer 2010.quency while also alluding to the in- purpose of the monitoring plan is tostrument manufacturer’s specification. document the process and procedures Collateral impact“If the manufacturer’s frequency is for collecting and reviewing the data Even though the expressed intent ofdifferent than EPA’s, the lesser of the needed to estimate annual GHG emis- EPA’s GHG reporting rule is to inform18 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010
  • 21. What is covered? T he U.S. EPA’s Mandatory Greenhouse • Phosphoric acid production (Subpart Z) • Miscellaneous uses of carbonate (Sub- Gas Reporting Rule is divided into 25 • Silicon carbide production (Subpart BB) part U) source categories and 5 types of sup- • Soda ash production (Subpart CC) A number of source categories have been pliers of fuel and industrial GHGs. It is im- • Titanium dioxide production (Subpart EE) postponed. EPA plans to further review portant to recognize that any facility can • Municipal solid waste landfills** (Sub- public comments and other information be subject to multiple source categories. part HH) before deciding on whether or not to in- • Manure management systems** (Sub- clude them in future versions of the rule. “All-in” source categories part JJ) A facility is subject to the relevant subpart Suppliers of the rule for any of the following source Threshold categories All producers of the following are required categories that exist within its boundaries: These categories are aggregated together to report the quantity of each product • Electricity generation (Subpart D) to evaluate the 25,000 m.t. CO2e per year introduced into the economy and GHG • Adipic acid production (Subpart E) reporting threshold: emissions associated with 100% oxidation • Aluminum production (Subpart F) • Stationary fuel combustion (Subpart C) of fuels and 100% release of gases: • Ammonia manufacturing (Subpart G) • Ferroalloy production (Subpart K) • Coal-based liquid fuels (Subpart LL) • Cement production (Subpart H) • Glass production (Subpart N) • Petroleum products (Subpart MM) • HCFC-22 production and HFC-23 de- • Hydrogen production (Subpart P) • Natural gas and natural gas liquids, in- struction* (Subpart O) • Iron and steel production (Subpart Q) cluding all fractionators and local gas • Lime manufacturing (Subpart S) • Lead production (Subpart R) distribution companies (Subpart NN) • Nitric acid production (Subpart V) • Pulp and paper manufacturing (Subpart • Industrial greenhouse gases (Subpart • Petrochemical production (Subpart X) AA) OO) • Petroleum refineries (Subpart Y) • Zinc production (Subpart GG) • Carbon dioxide (Subpart PP) * Processes that are not co-located with a HCFC-22 production facility and that destroy more than 2.14 metric tons of HFC-23 per year **That emit 25,000 m.t. CO2 e or more per yearpublic policy, the results could very paper customers may use that to set a ficient ones, as well as create a neweasily have broader implications. “If procurement policy of y m.t. CO2e per type of business case for investmentEPA publishes, say, industry-average ton of paper as their minimum stan- in reducing GHG emissions for futureGHG-intensity numbers for pulp- dard,” says Carbon Shrinks’ Moore. annual reports to the EPA.”and-paper facilities of x m.t. CO2e per “In general this would reward more Already, one new index aims toton of paper manufactured, some big efficient plants and penalize less ef- achieve a similar result sooner. LastCreating a Sustainable Future . . . One Filter At a Time. “We Take The Dust Out of Industry!”®Take part in creating a cleaner future for generations to Create a sustainable future with uscome by purchasing Midwesco® Filter products. today by scheduling a free baghouse coaching session!We are committed to:• Protecting natural habitats and environments by utilizing innovative baghouse pollution control technology to 800.336.7300 |+1.540.667.8500 eliminate the release of toxic materials. or email us: sales@midwescofilter.com• Providing in-house engineers to work with you to implement a sustainability program to prevent and protect the environment.• Promoting and contributing to further educate and develop new “green” technology through non-profit organizations. Follow our latest news: Circle 15 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-15 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010 19
  • 22. Newsfront month, ECPI, a Milan-based research, bon Equity Index has proven to outper- for investors in strong, non-turbulent ratings and indices company, announced form the market in both bull and bear market conditions.” Carbon-intensive the launch of its Global Carbon Equity markets, even through one of the worst sectors will be selected annually based Index. Developed in partnership with recessions in history,” says Paolo Sardi, on available carbon emissions data. Arthur D. Little, a global management CEO of ECPI Luxembourg. “Regular Akzo Nobel BV, Johnson & Johnson, consulting firm, the new index aims to outperformance will not only provide Eni S.p.A. and VALE SA are some of highlight 40 companies best equipped to investors with financial security but the top performers from the CPI that prosper in a tougher climate-legislation help dispel the myth that sustainable make up the index this year. environment. “The ECPI Global Car- investment issues are only a concern Over the next year, as the U.S. CPI begin to collect GHG emissions data, the connection between carbon inten- sity and financial performance will become more visible for any company Ecopure® Systems: Exhaust that is publicly traded in the U.S. On Gas and Liquid Oxidizers January 27th, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) issued new interpretive guidance on exist- ing SEC requirements to clarify what publicly traded companies need to dis- close to investors in terms of climate- related “material” effects on business operations. The guidance specifically highlights impact of legislation and regulation; impact of international ac- cords; indirect consequences of regula- tion or business trends; and physical impacts of climate change. Increased investor scrutiny and any prospect of GHG regulations would influence how the CPI approach GHG reporting in the future. For now, most reporters “are adopting a wait-and-see attitude, and just meeting the minimum reporting requirements,” says Honey- well’s Racine. In the future, however, reporters that are currently allowed to estimate emissions using default fac- tors from the rule might be motivated Environmental and Energy Systems to install instrumentation to more ac- curately reflect their lower emissions, says Carbon Shrinks’ Moore. Unique Systems for Unique Applications If that is not enough, process im- Determining the most efficient and effective Dürr Ecopure® systems’ feature: provements and, potentially, carbon option to control airborne emissions during chemical process operations presents several VOC, NOx and HAP Removal - 99%+ efficiency capture and storage (CCS) would be unique challenges. As with any add-on control Destruction of Liquid and Gaseous Pollutants required. While CCS is not yet proven system, the goal is to minimize the annualized Highest Thermal and Destruction Efficiency total costs while maintaining proper operation. N2O and NO2 Destruction Capabilities commercially, its implementation has Custom Fuel Train and Burner Systems fewer obstacles in the CPI than it does Dürr Ecopure® systems offer the most options Halogen Tolerant for environmental compliance in the chemical Conformity to API, ASME, and SIL Specs in power generation applications. “One processing industry. Dürr conducts the necessary engineering studies and analyses Catalytic Solutions of the nice things about the CPI is that which result in the right environmental system Contact: Greg Thompson the carbon dioxide is fairly pure,” ex- design for your company’s compliance and Phone: + 1 (734) 254-2314 energy needs. Email: EESsales@durrusa.com plains Mike Arne, assistant director Website: www.durr.com at SRI Consulting (Menlo Park, Calif.; www.sriconsulting.com). “There is a tremendous amount of energy that goes into scrubbing the CO2 from coal power plants. Compressing it and put- Technologies · Systems · Solutions ting it into the ground requires energy, too, but not as much.” ■ Rebekkah Marshall Circle 16 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-16 20 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010Chemical Ad 120109.indd 1 2/2/2010 4:14:16 PM
  • 23. NewAge Industries AdvantaPure NewsfrontDisposable Darlings Single-use equipment and systems are a growing trend among high purity processors. Here, the experts weigh in on the pros and cons of these up-and-coming disposable components Figure 1. A single-use system like this one from can help reduce cleaning validation requirements, production downtime, and assembly time and costsN ot long ago, single-use biopro- However, according to a recent sur- rose from 56.1 to 64.7%. And, sensors, cessing equipment, such as vey published by BioProcess Interna- a relative newcomer to single-use tech- disposable bags and tubing, tional and available in detail on the nology, saw about a 7% increase in the appeared on the scene as an Bio-Process Systems Alliance (BPSA) year from 16.2 to 23.5%.alternative to stainless-steel compo- website (www.bpsalliance.org), adop- When asked why they implementednents for high-purity processing ap- tion of single-use technologies has single-use technology, survey respon-plications. Due to a fistful of benefits been significantly increasing in many dents cited cost savings, convenience,— including reduced costs, lower cross- processes beyond this arena. elimination of cleaning and steriliza-contamination risk and increased flex- The survey asked respondents in tion cycles, reduction of contaminationibility — the use of disposables began what processes they have adopted risk and flexibility. And with over 70%to grow into a real trend among high- single-use technology and compared of the respondents reporting savingspurity processors, especially those in the data between 2008 and 2009. A due to these benefits, it’s easy to seethe biopharmaceutical industry. With marked increase can be noted in many why the use of disposables is growingabout 20% of the industry currently segments. For example, use of dis- so quickly.incorporating single-use components posables in upstream processing andinto at least one part of their pro- media preparation jumped from 56.6% Big benefitscesses, more and more processors are in 2008 to 62.9% in 2009. Use in cell As the biopharm industry moves awaylooking into the benefits, as well as culture and fermentation grew by leaps from blockbuster drugs and into thethe disposal drawbacks, and trying to and bounds from 55.1 to 73.3% and in realm of “niche busters,” the inherentdecide whether single-use components cell harvest and clarification from 43.4 flexibility offered by single-use tech-and systems are right for them. to 56.2%, as well as in buffer prepara- nologies will likely enable success and tion and hold from 52 to 63.8%. encourage growth of the industry, saysA growing trend Not surprisingly, implementation of Mani Krishnan, director of MobiusLaboratory and clinical use in the all types of disposable technology has Single-Use Processing Systems withbiotech and biopharmaceutical indus- also seen growth, with even mature Millipore (Billerica, Mass.). “The newtries currently accounts for the largest technologies enjoying significant in- drugs aren’t going to be like the largeuse of disposable technology, accord- creases in use. According to the survey, blockbusters of the past in the senseing to Bryan Downer, solutions expert which asked respondents which single- that the molecules are going to bewith sanitary-system-design firm CSI use products or technologies have been more specific to a smaller population,”(Springfield, Mo.). “Use in these bio- implemented and again compared fig- he says. He explains that this trendtech applications makes a lot of sense ures for 2008 to 2009, bioreactors have is occurring because, as diagnosticsbecause there are a lot of change seen the most growth, up from 31.8 to improve, drug developers are findingouts, and disposables allow this to be 55.9% in just one year. Bags and bio- that current drugs are only effectivedone quickly and efficiently,” notes process containers have also seen a in a fraction of patients. So the newerDowner. Also, he explains, there’s not significant increase from 76.3 to 87.3%, drugs will cater to a smaller patienta lot of cost involved in infrastructure followed closely by mixers, which grew population, but there are likely to bechanges, and a lot of equipment is from 24.2 to 34.3%, and the connec- more variants of the drug that willavailable for that scale. tors-, pipes- and tubing category, which work for the rest of the patients. “A ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010 21
  • 24. Millipore Newsfront Figure 2. The Mobiussmaller group of patients means we’re FlexReady Systemtalking about going from developing family from Millipore includes equipment for buffer-mediadrugs in a 10,000-L bioreactor to a 500 preparation, virus filtration andor 1,000-L unit. In addition to smaller clarification. The company createdbatches, there will be changes in the entire systems to meet the needs ofway drugs will be processed,” he says. high-purity processors who are looking to move beyond single-use bags and tubing and“In the future, biopharm facilities will into the realm of disposable process unitshave to be more nimble so they canmove from one drug product to anothervery fast. This type of batch processing Disposal of single-Use systems Tis where we will see the adoption of he Disposals Subcommittee of the Bio-Process Systems Alliance recently publishedsingle use going up significantly.” the Guide to Disposal of Single Use Bioprocess Systems to address the hot topic of Bill Hartzell, business development disposal. The paper highlights the advantages and disadvantage of various dis- posal options, including the following:manager with resin producer, Arkema • andfill (treated and untreated): Landfill options offer the lowest operating costs, but L(Philadelphia, Pa.), agrees. “There are are often perceived as environmentally unfriendlyhuge benefits for single-use technolo- • rind, autoclave and landfilled: This practice is generally accepted as safe and helps Ggies as biopharm moves toward batch reduce landfill volume. However, there is a significant capital cost and it requires ad-processing. Single use eliminates ditional handlingthe need to clean the stainless-steel • ecycling: While this is environmentally appealing, it is impractical for mixed materi- Requipment between batches because als. Most disposables are made of mixed materialsyou are getting systems that are all • ncineration: This practice is also generally accepted as safe, but it may be legally Ipre-sterilized,” he says. “Also, you can restricted and can be costlyhave multiple products being made in • ogeneration: The most environmentally benign option, it offers some return on in- C vestment, but it may be legally restricted and presents the highest capital cost.the same facility, using the same in- • yrolysis: This practice produces usable pure diesel fuel, which burns cleaner than Pfrastructure. And there are benefits that produced in a petroleum refinery. However, this is a very new technology, so fewduring drug development, as well. options are available. And its efficiency is rated as “subpar“As processors go through the phases The paper, which discusses each option in detail is available for viewing on the organi-of drug development and scale up to zation’s website. ❏larger sizes, they do not have to buildnew infrastructure because single-use tocol in a stainless facility should be Baker reminds, “While you’retechnology allows them to do multiple validated for proper rinse, but maybe spending all that time cleaning stain-products under the same roof.” one batch out of 1,000 could be cross less steel, you’re not making another Another significant attraction to contaminated and if that batch was batch. Turnaround is much quickerdisposables is a reduced risk of cross worth $1 million, well, then you’ve with disposables than with stainlesscontamination, says Jeff Chase, sales just lost a million bucks,” he says. steel, so processors can make moreand marketing manager with Sani- Reduced costs stemming from batches over the same period of time.”Sure (Moorpark, Calif.). He says in a faster cleaning cycles and batch turn-stainless-steel-based facility, contami- arounds are another advantage of dis- The environmental aspectnation can be a factor, occasionally posable technologies. “The industry There’s much deliberation in the in-leading to loss of product. “We are told is starting to realize that single use dustry with regard to the environmen-by customers in stainless-steel facili- has great benefits when it comes to tal impact of disposable technologiesties that they lose between 5 and 9% of reducing cleaning cycles,” says Maik and industry associations are work-their product over the course of a year, Jornitz, group vice president of mar- ing hard to determine the best path tobut when they go to single use, that keting and product management for take when disposing of the products.5–9% is reduced to 1–2%,” says Chase. filtration and fermentation technolo- However, most maintain that despite“And when you’re talking about a mil- gies with Sartorius-Stedim (Bohemia, the amount of plastic that needs to belion dollar drug, a few percent drop in N.Y.). “Many of the drugs are so highly discarded, disposable technologies arelost product is very significant.” potent that it requires a large volume still more environmentally sound than The reason for reduced contamina- of highly acidic cleaners to remove the traditional ones.tion risk is simple, says Ken Baker, residual drug components from stain- “What you see with single-use tech-CEO of NewAge Industries Advanta- less-steel surfaces and then you have nology is a lot more visible waste,”Pure (Southampton, Pa.). If you are to get rid of those cleaning agents,” notes Krishnan. “However, traditionalmaking one product in a stainless-steel he explains. “On average it requires stainless-steel-based facilities gener-vessel that is not dedicated and switch 8–12 h to clean and sterilize a typical ate a lot of waste that you don’t seeto another product, it can lead to cross 100-L tank. But if you use a 100-L dis- because it goes down the drain.”contamination of the first product into posable bag, you just rip the package He and other industry experts saythe second. Further, it is also possible open and have it set up and ready to that when comparing the carbon foot-not to rinse the cleaning agents prop- go in 10, 20 or 30 minutes because it’s print of stainless steel and single-useerly. “Theoretically, the cleaning pro- pre-sterilized.” processes, single-use facilities are22 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010
  • 25. Superheated steam 650 psig Cold condensate Free 925 psig Float Trap Conquer1500 psig Superheat! This thermograph of a 1,000 simple operation ensures psig steam line to vacuum superior reliability. Unlike discharge clearly shows the other designs, there are no outstanding performance levers or linkages—the float delivered by Free Float itself provides sealing, and is steam traps. As you can see, the only moving part. The they not only survive result is exceptional service life1150 psig superheat, they conquer it! under the most demanding Only Free Float traps have conditions. 3-point seating—a patented For maximum reliability and technology that provides energy efficiency, choose from effective sealing even in severe ’s extensive line of high service like no-load superheat. pressure Free Float traps to In addition, the Free Float’s keep superheat under control. 650 psig 13901 South Lakes Drive, Charlotte, NC 28273-6790 Tel: 704-597-9070 Fax: 704-583-1610 www.tlv.com Circle 17 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-17
  • 26. Single USe Technology SaniSure and Service ProviderS: Arkema, Inc. www.arkema-inc.com Figure 3. Single- BioProcess International www.biprocessintl.com use pre-fabricated BPSA www.bpsalliance.org bioreactor assem- CSI www.csidesigns.com bly kits help make Millipore www.millipore.com setup of single-use NewAge Industries bioreactors even AdvantaPure www.newageindustries.com faster, which will SaniSure, Inc. www.sanisure.net further the growth of that segment of Sartorius-Stedim www.sartorius-stedium.com the marketeither equivalent or carbon positive determine if it will, in fact, find these what to do with the waste, but insteadwhen compared with traditional fa- same favorable statistics. “We encour- ought to be in understanding thatcilities. Facilities that use disposables age customers to do their own analysis there is waste in both types of pro-are thought to be greener due to water because the situation can be very dif- cesses,” says Krishnan. “The questionand energy reductions that result ferent in terms of what a facility pays becomes how do you minimize waste?from skipping the typical stainless- for electricity and water use,” notes And there are easy ways to minimizesteel-related cleaning cycle. Krishanan. And on top of that, there’s the amount of plastic if you are smart As a matter of fact, SaniSure’s the aspect of dealing with the “visible” about how you design your single-useChase says that single-use facilities waste generated by the use of dis- systems. Most single-use systems inwill typically see an 85 to 90% water posables. How this waste is handled use today are not designed with theuse reduction over stainless-steel fa- ranges from facility to facility and same amount of thought that goes intocilities. And because the water is not from region to region. According to the the design of stainless-steel systems.being heated for clean-in-place and BioProcess International survey the Optimal and intelligent design cansterilization procedures, says Chase, most common form of disposal is in- significantly optimize the utilizationabout 30% less energy is used to run a cineration, followed by landfill, waste- of single-use technologies, and shoulddisposable-based plant. to-energy and, finally, conversion for be the focus, rather than what to do Impressive sounding as this may alternative purposes. And many users with all the waste that’s sitting in thebe, most industry experts suggest that combine disposal methods. garbage can.” neach facility do its own analysis to “Really, the focus should not be on Joy LePree Check Valves Built � Easily � 3A Compliant: third party to Your verified. 32Ra, finer finishes Disassembled: also available. spare parts available. Check � No Pooling: eliminates the pooling found in � Retrofit: for use globe-type bodies. List. in new or existing sanitary ferrules and replaces the gasket. � Space Saving: compact; seals on ferrule ID and uses only one clamp. www.checkall.com West Des Moines, Iowa USA Phone: 515-224-2301 US Patent Numbers: 5,033,503; 6,039,073; & 6,152,171 sales@checkall.com Canadian Patent Number: 2,039,991 Since 1958 Circle 35 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-3524 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010
  • 27. Steam Tracer Lines Department Editor: Scott Jenkins Temperature differentialS team tracer lines are designed to maintain the fluid in a 150 160 180 200 240 300 400 500 700 900 1050 primary pipe at a designated uniform temperature. In most cases, these tracer lines are used outdoors, which makes 11 11 10 10ambient weather conditions a critical consideration. 9 9 The primary purpose of steam traps on tracer lines is to retain 8 8the steam until its latent heat is fully utilized, and then discharge 7 7the condensate and non-condensable gases. As is true with any 6 6piece of heat transfer equipment, each tracer line should have its Btu/ft2/h/ºF temperature differenceown trap. Even though multiple tracer lines may be installed on 5 5the same primary fluid line, unit trapping is required to prevent 4.5 4.5short-circuiting. In selecting and sizing steam traps, it is important to consider 4.0 4.0their compatibility with the objectives of the system, as traps must 3.5 3.5accomplish the following: 3.3 3.31. Conserve energy by operating reliably over a long time period2. Provide abrupt periodic discharge in order to purge the 3.0 3.0 condensate and air from the line 2.8 2.83. Operate under light load conditions4. Resist damage from freezing if the steam is shut off 2.6 2.6The cost of steam makes wasteful tracer lines an exorbitant 2.5 2.5overhead that no industry can afford. 2.4 2.4Trap selection for steam tracer lines 2.3 2.3The condensate load to be handled on a steam tracer line canbe determined from the heat loss from the product pipe by using 2.2 2.2this formula: 2.15 2.15 L ×U × T × EQ= S×H 2.10Where: Figure 2. (above) The graphQ = Condensate load in lb/h depicts heat loss of an uninsulatedL = Length of product pipe pipe. The temperature differential is between tracer line derived from the process tempera- traps in ft ture minus ambient design (T=75˚F)U = Heat transfer factor in Btu/ft2/°F/h Safety factor∆T = Temperature differential in °F Use a 2:1 safety factor whetherE = One minus the efficiency of insulation exposure to ambient weather (example: 75% efficient insulation or conditions is involved or not. 1 – 0.75 = 0.25 or E = 0.25) Do not oversize steam traps or tracer lines. Select a steam trapS = Linear feet of pipe line per ft2 of surface to conserve energy and to avoidH = Latent heat of steam in Btu/lb plugging with dirt, scale and metallic oxides.ExamplE InstallationThree tracer lines at 100 psig steam pressure are Install distribution or supply linesused on a 20-in.-dia., 100-ft-long insulated pipe at a height above the product linesto maintain a process temperature of 190°F with requiring steam tracing. For thean outdoor design temperature of –10°F. Assume efficient drainage of condensatefurther that the pipe insulation is 75% efficient. and purging of non-condensables,What is the condensate load? pitch tracer lines for gravity drain- Using the formula: age and trap all low spots. This Figure 1. A con- will also help avoid tracer line 100 ft × 2.44 Btu/ft 2 / o F/ h × 200 o F × 0.25 densate manifold freezing (see Figure 1). =72 lb/h 0.191 ft lin /ft 2 × 880 Btu/lb shows multiple tracer To conserve energy, return con- lines and steam traps densate to the boiler. Freeze-pro-Divide by three in order to get the load per tracer line: 24 lb/h. tection drains on trap discharge On most tracer line applications, the flow to the steam trap headers are suggested whereis surprisingly low; therefore, the smallest trap is normally freezing conditions prevail.adequate. Based on its ability to conserve energy by operating Acknowledgementsreliably over a long period of time, handle light loads, resist Material for this month’s “Facts at Your Fingertips” columnfreezing and purge the system, an inverted bucket trap is recom- was supplied by Armstrong International,mended for tracer line service. Three Rivers, Mich. Facts at Your Fingertips was sponsored by
  • 28. Circle 20 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-20
  • 29. T he 2010 Interphex Confer- ence and Exhibition will be held April 20–22 in the Jacob Javits Convention Center inNew York. Billed as North America’slargest event for the biopharmaceuti-cal manufacturing industry, the showis sponsored by the International So-ciety for Pharmaceutical Engineering(ISPE). Its content is organized intofour tracks — pharmaceuticals, bio-technology, generic drugs and contractservices — and will offer various edu-cational seminars. The conference will Ashcroftfeature a keynote address by newsanchor Chris Matthews, host of “Hard-ball,” which airs on MSNBC. Attend-ees are encouraged to visit ChemicalEngineering staff at booth T1800. Thefollowing items are among those to be Burkert Fluid Control Systemsdisplayed in the event’s exhibit hall:This valve and sensor line isdesigned for hygienic processesThe Element line of valves, sensors andcontrollers (photo) is designed to com-bine the properties of engineered poly-mers with those of stainless steel. Theequipment has no coatings, pockets orexternal pneumatic lines to adverselyaffect cleanliness. The valves include Samsonbright visual feedback via signal LEDs can replace solenoid valves and limitor a backlit graphic display. The line switches without having to change thecan handle steam, corrosives and abra- wiring or signal levels. At the samesive fluids. Booth 2537 — Burkert Fluid time, it includes self-tuning and diag-Control Systems, Charlotte, N.C. nostic functions. Booth 3042 — Sam-www.burkert-usa.com son AG, Frankfurt am Main, Germany www.samson.deAn ink-jet printer that is designedfor heavy-duty applications Use this pressure gage for Videojet TechnologiesThis company’s 1610 small-character alternate units of measurecontinuous ink-jet printer (photo) is de- Replace solenoid valves without This series of digital sanitary pres-signed for high-speed, large-output ap- changing wiring or signal levels sure gages (photo) offers an alternativeplications, and can print up to five lines The new Type 3738 self-diagnostic, to conventional mechanical pressureof high-resolution print at speeds up to electronic valve position monitor gages, allowing users the possibility of960 ft/min. The 1610 model features (photo) can be used for on/off valves in obtaining data with alternate units ofa vapor recovery system that reduces all applications. It indicates the end po- measure. The instrument can also gen-solvent consumption and allows lon- sitions and controls the actuators. Be- erate a dampened display value and ager runs between fluid changes. Also, cause of its contactless, magnetoresis- minimum or maximum value. Gages canthe device has a clean-flow printhead tive sensor system and an integrated be equipped with switches or a 4–20-mAdesign that reduces ink buildup. Key microprocessor, the valve position output, allowing the gage to do the workink-system components are designed monitor can be configured at the push of a pressure switch or transmitter, whileto be replaced by customers in 30 min of a button. Said to be the first device providing a local reading on a large dis-without the need for a visit by a trained of its kind, the monitor works for sig- play. It features a stainless-steel, weath-technician. Booth 2310 — Videojet nals that meet the Namur standard erproof housing. Booth 1551 — AshcroftTechnologies Inc., Wood Dale, Ill. and is powered by a two-wire supply. Inc., Stratford, Conn.www.videojet.com As a result, the valve position monitor www.ashcroft.comNote: For more information, circle the 3-digit number ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010 24D-1on p. 62, or use the website designation.
  • 30. OCS Checkweighers Nilfisk Show PreviewThis weigher improves Lower contaminationsimplicity and user ergonomics risk with this vacuumThe HC Avantgarde checkweigher The CFM 3306 pharmaceu- pharmaceuseries (photo) features a modern tical vacuum cleaner (photo)ergonomic design for more user- is designed for fixed instal- instalfriendly operation. Based on technol- lations with drug-processingogy from earlier models, the series is equipment,including milling,intended for pharmaceutical produc- filling, dedusting, polishingtion. A stainless-steel control panel and packaging machines. Itrotates and tilts for simpler use, and collects ultrafine powdersan open “pyramid design” offers easy and debris straight fromcleaning. Booth 755 — OCS Check- the source, which reducesweighers Inc., Snellville, Ga. contamination risk. Thewww.ocs-cw.com 3306 is ideal for cleanrooms down to Class 100. Booth 1565 —Complete 400 plunger-rod assem- tors the torque precisely, thus avoiding Nilfisk CFM, Malvern, Pa.blies per minute with this machine motion by the plunger stopper. The me- www.nilfisk-advance.comType 607 high-speed plunger-rod inser- chanically controlled, plunger-rod inser-tion machines boast an output of 400 as- tion offers repeatability. Additional fea- Capsule filling in continuoussemblies per minute, and are combined tures include a fully integrated vision or intermittent modewith a label dispenser. The Type 607 is system for verification of component The Labby is a modular, compact cap-a continuous rotary-type machine with assembly and a touchscreen user inter- sule filler that is fully automatic and ca-servo-controlled motion of the main face. Booth 2828 — Bausch Advanced pable of operating in either continuousdrive and servo-controlled syringe ro- Technologies Inc., Clinton, Conn. or intermittent mode. The machine cantation. The servo of the rotation moni- www.bausch-group.com fill up to 3,500 capsules per hour and MONITOR VISCOSITY SIMPLY SENSE MIXER MOTOR HORSEPOWER WITH UNIVERSAL POWER CELL EASY INSTALLATION PROFILING A PROCESS VERSATILE 24 POWER DECREASE 22 SHOWS BATCH IS DONE 20 18 POWER 16 SENSOR SENSITIVE 14 12 10 DRY MIX ADD LIQUID HIGH SPEED LOW SPEED MIXER CONVENIENT OUTPUTS 8 MOTOR 6 BEGIN HIGH SPEED MIX 4 2 0 BATCH 1 BATCH 2 BATCH 3 CALL NOW FOR YOUR FREE 30-DAY TRIAL 888-600-3247 WWW.LOADCONTROLS.COM Circle 29 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-2924D-2 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010
  • 31. Busch Liquid Ring Vacuum Solutions for process applications in the chemical industryhandles many powder types. The unitfeatures a micro-weighing control sys-tem that maintains system accuracy towithin 0.1 mg of the net product weight.The Labby has a small footprint thatmakes it ideal for small batch outputs,clinical trials and R&D. Booth 1519 —MG America Inc., Fairfield, N.J.www.mgamerica.comAn inline viscometer basedon fluid pressureThis company’s new viscometer (photo,p. 24D-4) is based on a new measuringprinciple — dynamic fluid pressure At Busch we provide industry leading vacuum solutions that best suit your— which is proportional to viscosity. process requirements. Quality products, technical expertise and unmatched support all combine to provide you with the ideal comprehensive solution.The inline viscometer is designed to You can expect the best when you specify Busch.be immersed in the production liquiddirectly within the pipework or tank.Pressure drops and flowrate decreasesdo not affect results. The instrumentcan accurately determine fluid viscosi-ties from 1 to 10,000 cP. Booth 2761 —Anton Paar USA, Ashland, Va. WSMC-Comi-Condor-Tomoe 1-3 page Black & Blue - Chem Eng (r... https://nymail.accessintel.com/exwww.anton-paar.com Circle 30 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-30Protect against counterfeitswith this systemThis company offers a low-cost, In-ternet-based system for identifyingcounterfeited pharmaceutical prod-ucts using standard flatbed scannersor mobile phone cameras. The systemcaptures an image of a pharmaceuti-cal product and sends it to a serverthat performs pattern-matching andreturns a “genuine or fake” verdict.The system is appropriate for variouslayers of product packaging, includingcarton boxes, aluminum blister packsor the tablets themselves. Booth 725— AlpVision SA, Vevey, Switzerlandwww.alpvision.comThis valve is designed with aneasy user interfaceThis inline radial diaphragm valve is awireless system with an easy user in-terface for applications in the pharma-ceutical and biotechnology industries.It installs rapidly, assembles withouttools and can be oriented anywherewithin 180 deg of rotation. The valveis available with manual or pneumaticactuation, and does not need adjustingor re-tightening. Booth 2001 — AsepcoAdvanced Aseptic Processing, Moun-tain View, Calif.www.asepco.com Circle 31 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-31 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010 24D-3
  • 32. Show Preview Centrifuge & Drying Technologies Anton Paar USA This company’s services Inverting Filter Centrifuge take a proactive approach VigilantPlant services revolve around this company’s plant automation platforms. Vigi- lantPlant aims to enable an ongoing state of operational ex- cellence in which informed and attentive plant personnel op- timize plant and business per- formance. The service concept comprises three service compo-Cutting edge centrifuge technology forfiltration, washing and drying of solid/liquid nents: Opportunity Identifica-suspensions tion; Solution Implementation; Widest range of applications - hardest to and Lifecycle Effectiveness. easiest filtering products can be handled No residual heel for exact repeatable Booth 2844 — Yokogawa Corp. batches and no loss of product of America, Newnan, Ga. propagating through interconnecting PAC® technology allows drying of the product inside of the centrifuge www.yokogawa.com pipes or conveying lines. This explo- Thin cake filtration operation allows for sion-isolation method helps protect improved quality and production rates Produce small batches downstream process equipment and Full containment eliminates operator exposure with this system nearby operating locations from acci- Effective automated CIP A modular system from this company dents. The EIPV consists of a heavy- is designed for smaller batches of duty, cast-valve body with a rugged Kilo-Lab Conical pharmaceuticals, as well as for pro- elastomeric sleeve. In tests, the EIPV Vacuum Dryer-Mixer cess development and clinical studies. blocked explosion pressures of 3 bar, The table-top machine has a modular says the company. It can be mounted design that allows for reproducible fill- either vertically or horizontally and Advanced technology ing and closing of syringes, vials, car- is virtually maintenance-free. Booth for real Kilo size tridges, eyedrop and nasal-spray bot- 1360 — Fike Corp., Blue Springs, Mo. drying research tles. Possible filling systems include www.fike.com rotary piston pumps, disposables, per- and development istaltic pumps and more. Booth 665 — Expanded functionality is a feature Groninger USA LLC, Charlotte, N.C. of this manufacturing software www.groningerusa.com TrakSYS performance management Utilizes interchangeable agitator systems software allows users to manage and either orbiting arm screw or central shaft This pallet positioner has benchmark their manufacturing opera- Flexible small scale volume of 150ml to a self-leveling design tion from material planning to finished- 1500ml Plastic view through vessel available The EZ Loader automatic pallet posi- product tracking. A new version has Designed for real laboratory requirements tioner has a self-leveling design that more user-definable and configurable of size, with full instrument & data keeps pallet loads at a convenient analytics and vendor-independent ap- recording Direct scale up to production or pilot size working height automatically. An in- plication connectivity. Booth 2841 — units tegral rotating platform allows near- Parsec Automation Corp., Brea, Calif. Horizontal & Vertical side loading to eliminate reaching. The www.parsec-corp.com Centrifuges EZ Loader utilizes captive air opera- tion, obviating the need for external This steam-trap valve is designed hydraulics. The product is especially for high-purity processing suited to tough environments in the Designed exclusively for high-purity pharmaceutical and food manufactur- processing, the Opus steam-trap valve ing and packaging industries. Booth is a multifunctional valve that pro- 1068 — Bishamon Industries Corp., vides three states of fluid control, and Size ranges from 200mm to 1800mm Ontario, Canada has an integrated design that elimi- Wide range of standard & custom designs www.bishamon.com nates more complex piping schemes. Laboratory size equipment Opus valves are available in a wide se- Lab Testing Available Prevent the spread of fire lection of sizes, with several different Rental & Lease Machines Available with this pinch valve trap connections and in four materi- A newly introduced, pneumatically als. Booth 2867 — SVF Flow Controls www.heinkelusa.com operated, explosion-isolation pinch Inc., Santa Fe Springs, Calif. valve (EIPV) from this company offers www.svf.net ■ Tel: 856-467-3399 a means to prevent deflagrations from Scott Jenkins Circle 32 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-32 24D-4 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010
  • 33. Thermo Fisher ScientificABB AnalyticalA benchtop FTIRfor near-infrared analysisLaunched last month, the MB36003PH FT3NIR (Fourier transform,near3infrared) spectrometer (photo)is a benchtop analyzer suitable fora broad range of applications, in3cluding quality control analysis, rawmaterial identification and qualifi3cation, R&D and inline process ana3lytics. The instrument combines the Larox Flowsys Oy Emerson Process Managementattributes of a research3grade ana3lyzer — in particular an outstandingsignal3to3noise ratio — while main3 Abrasive slurries are not ery protection3and3prediction solutiontaining a minimal cost of ownership, a problem for this disc valve easily connects to the DeltaV systemsays the manufacturer. Its aluminum Designed for heavy scaling, abrasive in three simple steps that take lesscasting also provides a level of pro3 and corrosive slurries, the LDR Ro3 than 10 min. Asset parameters aretection needed for intensive use in an tory Disc Valve (photo) is suitable for scanned, selected and imported intoindustrial environment. — ABB Ana- applications in mineral processing, DeltaV from AMS Suite predictive3lytical, Québec, Canada power generation, and the gravel3 maintenance software and the CISwww.abb.com/analytical and3sand, pulp3and3paper, chemical 6500 Machinery Health Monitor. After and mining3and3metal industries. The import, the DeltaV alarm banner isA flowmeter that ensures patented design allows the valve to automatically populated and the sys3reproducible chromatography cycle in heavy3scaling slurries without tem is fully configured with functionThe GFM Pro Flowmeter (photo) sticking or leaking and with minimum blocks that can be further used incontinuously measures gas flows in wear. It is available with pressure rat3 control strategies. — Emerson Processrealtime for accurate and reproduc3 ings up to 100 bar. — Larox Flowsys Management, Baar, Switzerlandible chromatography analysis. With Oy, Lappeenranta, Finland www.emersonprocess.euthe capacity to measure both posi3 www.larox.fi/flowsystive and negative vacuum flows from Test wet or dry powders with±0.5 to 500 mL/min, the CE3certified A machinery protection solution this sieve-tower analyzerprobe can measure volumetric flow of that’s fast to setup The Laboratory/Pilot Sieve Towerany gas with an accuracy of ±2%. The Machinery protection and prediction (photo. p. 24I32) tests both wet and dryunit also protects itself against exces3 of critical mechanical equipment has material, analyzing a wide range ofsively high flowrates by deploying an been integrated into the DeltaV digi3 product samples, including ceramics,automatic shutoff when the measured tal automation system (photo). This foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and metalflow exceeds 600 mL/min. — Thermo new capability directly supports users’ and paint powders. Dual drive controlsFisher Scientific Inc., Milford, Mass. goals for improved availability and assure effective “throughout” for up towww.thermofisher.com performance. This integrated machin3 eight full3frame sieves or 16 half3frameNote: For more information, circle the 33digit number ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010 24I-1on p. 58, or use the website designation.
  • 34. Intertec Instrumentation New Productssieves with mesh sizes as small as 20microns (635 mesh). — Cleveland Vi-brator Co., Cleveland, Ohiowww.clevelandvibrator.comKeep instrumentation free ofcondensation with this heaterThis new range of steam heaters(photo) for field-instrumentation-pro- Cleveland Vibratortection applications offers a choice ofvertical, horizontal or panel mountingstyles. With four outputs ranging fromaround 65 to 490 W, users can selectthe appropriate heater for all commonenclosure-scale freeze and condensa-tion protection or temperature-main-tenance applications. The steam ele-ments are identical in size to those ofthe firm’s electrical heating range, butcome with a press-fitted, 12-mm ODstainless-steel tube for connection tothe steam or hot-water service line. —Intertec Instrumentation Ltd., Sarnia,Ont., Canadawww.intertec-inst.comTrack bio-aerosolswith this validated deviceThe new generation of SAS Isolator,stainless-steel air sampler simplifiesbio-aerosol monitoring in isolators and Michael Smith Engineersother controlled environments. Thesystem is composed of two parts: an with throughputs of 0.5–3.0 ton/h to multiple-use earplugs with the supe-aspiration chamber that is positioned 1.2–6.0 ton/h. — Herbold Meckesheim rior comfort of single-use earplugs.within the isolator or near production GmbH, Meckesheim, Germany Pilot inserts easily into the ear withlines; and an external command unit. www.herbold.com a simple fingertip twist of the non-The system is validated according to obtrusive Navigation Stem. Its soft,ISO 14698, and the stainless-steel Larger members pearl-skinned polyurethane foam con-construction is suitable for steriliza- for this family of small pumps struction is resilient and easy to clean.tion by vaporized hydrogen peroxide The established range of HNP positive With NRR 26 rating, Pilot providesand peracetic acid. — International displacement, internal-gear pumps protection in medium-to-low noise en-PBI S.p.A., Milan, Italy has been expanded to include new, vironments (95 dB or less). — Howardwww.internationalpbi.it larger pumps and more drive options. Leight/Sperian Hearing Protection, The 11500 Series (photo) deliver out- LLC, Smithfield, R.I.Shred and granulate plastics and put flows of 0.2–1,150 mL/min and www.howardleight.comwood with one machine differential pressures between 0–60Now it is possible, in one single size- or 0–150 bar, depending on the viscos- Keep explosions from propagat-reduction step, to both shred and ob- ity of the process fluid. Three motor ing with this pinch valvetain small granule sizes with the HB options are available: a.c., d.c. and an The Explosion Isolation Pinch ValveSeries granulator. The design of this ATEX-rated, explosion-proof a.c. ver- (EIPV) is an economical, yet reli-machine combines a feed hopper and a sion for hazardous areas. — Michael- able form of explosion isolation — ahydraulic ram with a granulator. The Smith Engineers Ltd., Woking, U.K. method for preventing deflagrationspecial design of the grinding cham- www.michael-smith-engineers.co.uk propagation through interconnectingber and the high cutting frequency en- pipes or conveyor lines. The EIPV con-ables the machine to transform bales, Hearing protection with sists of a cast valve body containingcut-open film rolls, mingled packs hybrid design an elastomeric sleeve. Upon explosionand extremely large and thick-walled The new Pilot push-in earplug fea- detection, compressed air is releasedpurgings into the finished product in tures a hybrid design that combines at high speed and within milliseconds,one step. Four versions are available, the performance and cost savings of the sleeve is pinched to full closure,24I-2 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010
  • 35. C-GoodPowder 2 CBC We know what makes a GOOD POWDER No one knows more about how to make superior powders than GEA Niro. Which is why the world’s leading manufacturers work with us to make products that are best in class. We specialise in supplying industrial drying systems designed to match your exact product and plant specifications, and we’ve installed more than 10,000 systems worldwide. Our comprehensive product range includes spray dryers, fluid bed systems, spray congealers and the SWIRL FLUIDIZER™. At our extensive test facilities, the most experienced test engineers and process technologists in the business will help you move rapidly from idea to product development and profitable production. All told, no one has more experience with industrial drying and powder engineering than GEA Niro. When you choose GEA Niro you get more than advanced technology - you get the knowledge and expertise it takes to make consistently successful powders. For more information, please visit www.niro.com. GEA Process Engineering GEA Niro Gladsaxevej 305, PO Box 45, DK-2860 Soeborg, Denmark Tel +45 39 54 54 54 Fax +45 39 54 58 00 E-mail: chemical@niro.dk Website: www.niro.com Circle 33 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-33
  • 36. New Products stopping explosion propaga- Through the suction nozzle, gas or liquid is tion beyond the valve. The drawn in and entrained valve has been proven to block Vibra Screw by the motive stream. explosion pressures of 3 bar. — Fike, Blue Springs, Mo. www.fike.com A new globe valve comes in a range of sizes The new 537 manually oper- ated globe valve (photo) uses Here the mixture of motive and the same valve body as the entrained medium company’s 534 and 532 ac- is finally slowed tuator designs. Valve bodies down and the A liquid or in nominal sizes DN 15–50 in velocity is conver- cast-stainless-steel 1.4408 and gaseous ted into pressure. medium flows SG iron GGG 40.3 (EN-GJS- through the 400-18-LT) are available. The motive nozzle from the top maximum operating pressure into the pump is 25 bar for DN 15–40 sizes, at extremely and 16 bar for DN 50. Stan- high velocities. dard versions can handle tem- peratures up to 180°C, and the PTFE gland packing is suit- GJP16e10 able for steam. — GEMÜ Gebr. Müller Apparatebau GmbH & GEMÜ Co. KG, Ingelfingen-Criesbach, Germany flanged and externally reinforced, Jet Vacuum Systems www.gemue.de thereby avoiding horizontal ledges that can obstruct airflow, retain dust Jet pumps form the core of jet vacuum Mix solids as if they were fluids and cause bridging. Cartridges are pumps, steam jet cooling plants, de- with this blender available in a variety of materials and gassing systems, condensation systems The Vibra Blender (photo) uses a surface treatments, with filtration and heating/cooling units. They can be unique combination of a rotating pad- areas of 325 or 245 ft2 per cartridge. used in many different processes for dle and material fluidization to blend — Camcorp Inc., Lenexa, Kan. conveying, recompressing and mixing dry solids with the ease of liquids, ac- www.camcorpinc.com of gases, vapours and liquids and for cording to the manufacturer. Gentle, evacuating of tanks by drawing off controlled vibration of the mixing These burner valves gases, vapours trough fluidizes ingredients on entry now have TÜV approval where a cut-and-fold mixing rotor The Jamesbury series 7000/9000 and solvents. provides agitation. Materials flow flanged ball valve are automated through the Vibra Blender by gravity shutoff valves designed not only to making it completely self-regulating meet EN161 and EN264, as approved to changes of infeed rates. Units are by TÜV Rheinland, but also provide available in capacities up to 1,500 protection against fire and explosive ft3/h. — Vibra Screw, Totowa, N.J. hazards during the operation of gas- www.vibrascrew.com and oil-burning equipment. When the electrical signal is interrupted, or Advanced cartridge filters for when there is a loss of air pressure, collecting dust and fumes these burner valves close within 1 s to GEA Process Engineering The Cam-Airo filter cartridge is en- isolate the gas or oil flow. This action GEA Wiegand GmbH gineered to solve nearly all dry-dust- may be initiated either by safety trip and fume-collection challenges. Un- or normal shutdown sequencing. The Einsteinstrasse 9-15 76275 Ettlingen, Germany like horizontal designs that sacrifice units are also suitable for use in safety Telefon: +49 7243 705-0 nearly 30% of the filter media area loops with SIL compliance according Telefax: +49 7243 705-330 over time, Cam-Airo’s vertical design to ISO 61508. — Metso Automation E-Mail: info.gewi.de@geagroup.com optimizes virtually 100% of the filter- Inc., Helsinki, Finland Internet: www.gea-wiegand.com media area. The cartridge collector is www.metso.com/automation ■ fabricated in welded sub-assemblies, Gerald OndreyCircle 34 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-3424I-4 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010
  • 37. PeopleWHO’S WHO Vanhove Haws Corbin Wareheim SalinasAndre Vanhove is promoted to global Braun technical director and Ralf (Stafford, Tex.) name Steven BreidHPI product applications leader for Borcherding commercial director vice-president, sales and marketing.GE Water (Herentals, Belgium). with responsibility for global sales. Groth also appoints Mitchell Anderson director of operations.Lawrence Sloan becomes president NanoGram Corp. (Milpitas, Calif.)and CEO of the Society of names Dave Corbin CEO. Luis Miguel Salinas becomes vice-Chemical Manufacturers and Af- president, principal in charge offiliates (SOCMA; Washington, D.C.). Dave Wareheim becomes bioprocess the environmental department for subject matter expert at Integrated engineering-design firm Paulus,Haws Corp. (Sparks, Nev.) promotes Project Services (Lafayette Hill, Sokolowski & Sartor (Warren, N.J.).Sallie Haws to chairman of the board Pa.), a full-service engineering,and Thomas White to president. construction and commissioning firm. Jason Rainbird is named general manager of RO UltraTec (Europe)Jacob Söhne GmbH (Porta Continential Disk Corp. (Liberty, Ltd. (Kent, U.K.). ■Westalica, Germany) names Uwe Mo.) and subsidiary Groth Corp. Suzanne Shelley Celebrating 35 Years of Bringing You the Latest in Processing Solutions! Featuring: th A n n i versary CONFERENCE & EXPOSITION MAY 4–6, 2010 Donald E. Stephens Convention Center Rosemont, IL (adjacent to O’Hare Airport) Log on for FREE expo hall admission: ProcessTechExpo.com Please use Promo Code: AB 14150_CH_PTXi10 Produced and managed by: CANON COMMUNICATIONS LLC Circle 21 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-21 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010 25
  • 38. Natural gas Combustion air Combustion chamber Cover Story Feature Report BurnerSaving Energy Ceramic Ceramic Fuel media media injectionIn Regenerative Inlet Switching Switching Outlet gas valves valves gas Natural gas Combustion airOxidizers Fuel Catalyst beds Ceramic media Burner Ceramic media Catalysts can reduce use of auxiliary fuel injection in regenerative oxidizers Inlet gas Switching valves Switching Outlet valves gasGrigori A. Bunimovich and Yurii Sh. Matros Figure 1. Regenerative thermal oxidizers (top)Matros Technologies and regenerative catalytic oxidizers (bottom) have similar designsO xidation of volatile organic com- nance, deactivation and regeneration. reflects energy addition due to burner pounds (VOCs) in regenerative The retrofit of RTO to RCO is exempli- firing. Temperature fluctuations dur- thermal oxidizers (RTOs) is the fied for various industries. ing the cycle are small because of the most common process in the ceramic media’s high heat capacity.chemical process industries (CPI) for re- Design and operation Conversion of VOCs occurs mostly inmoving diluted emissions of VOCs and The simplest RTO arrangement (Fig- the combustion chamber, where the de-carbon monoxide from stationary air- ure 1, top) comprises a horizontal com- struction and removal efficiency (DRE)pollution sources. Thousands of RTOs bustion chamber connecting two ver- increases and achieves completion.operate in automobile, engineered wood, tical heat-exchange canisters loaded The system can operate fuel-free ifchemical and other industries. with refractory material, such as ce- the energy released during the exo- RTOs combine gas-phase thermal ramic Intalox saddle- or honeycomb- thermic VOC oxidation exceeds over-oxidation of VOCs with regenera- monolith blocks. A burner installed in all heat removal with exhaust gas andtive heat exchange. Heat energy of the middle of the combustion chamber heat losses to the environment. Whenexhaust gas is efficiently reused for provides heat for the oxidizer startup. the concentration of VOCs is low, theheating the inlet gas. Typical process Fuel combustion products and process system requires energy addition.temperatures are between 1,400 and gas are well mixed within the combus- Most existing RTOs built from the1,800 ºF. Despite the high degree of tion chamber. The bed downstream 1980s through the 2000s are burner-energy recuperation, many large from the chamber collects a fraction of fired. That is, they use continuouslyRTOs require substantial consump- the heat energy through heat exchange fired startup burners for maintainingtion of auxiliary fuel. with the process gas. Fast-actuating combustion of low concentrations of An alternative to thermal oxida- valves reverse flow direction in the sys- VOCs. The burner operates as an au-tion is catalytic oxidation of VOCs, tem every 1–3 min. The bed that col- tonomous combustion unit, consum-which runs at much lower tempera- lects heat during the previous cycle re- ing oxygen from ambient air that istures — about 500–900 ºF. A regenera- turns it to the process gas entering the pushed by a separate fan. The energytive catalytic oxidizer (RCO) uses the oxidizer. Another bed collects the heat for heating the combustion air andsame operating principle as RTO, but from the outlet gas. Because of periodic fuel mix in the combustion chamber isconsumes substantially less auxiliary flow reversals, the combustion energy not recuperated, which contributes tofuel. The authors have found that in is effectively trapped in the beds and overall fuel consumption.many situations, RTOs can be retrofit- the system temperature gradually Many recently built RTOs are fuel-in-ted to RCOs. Energy savings after such rises. The burner firing is reduced upon jected, which means they operate witha retrofit can quickly justify the costs reaching the required temperature. direct injection of natural gas into thefor the catalysts and installation. According to temperature profiles cal- inlet duct. The natural gas is oxidized This article discusses basic RTO and culated for an RTO (Figure 2, left), the together with VOCs, consuming oxygenRCO technology with an emphasis on periodic flow reversal results in a nearly in the process stream without separatethermal efficiency and energy balance. linear temperature distribution along feeding of combustion air. The burnerA method for quickly estimating aux- the length of gas passage in packed beds. is still required for oxidizer startup be-iliary fuel consumption is suggested. The temperature increases in the inlet cause fuel injection is activated uponThe requirements of VOC oxidation bed and symmetrically decreases in the achieving the temperature necessarycatalysts are reviewed, along with the outlet. Stepwise temperature rise in for the combustion of natural gas. Theissues of catalyst performance mainte- the middle of the combustion chamber process typically requires higher oper-26 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010
  • 39. NOMENCLATURE Delta T definitions: RCO thermal efficiency estimation: MVIOCi qVOCi DEi qfuel kH ,CAT aCAT LCAT kHL A TBC 1 kHT TVOC i THL CCM 1 kSC kAE RCO kHT FPG CPG FPG CPG 1 kHT at kH ,CER aCER LCER a Specific surface area of heat ex- kSC Molar air/fuel ratio for stoichio- η Thermal efficiency of fuel-injected change material, ft2/ft3 metric combustion regenerative oxidizer A Oxidizer external surface area, ft2 L Depth of bed, ft ηBF Thermal efficiency of burner-fired c Specific heat capacity, Btu/(lbºF) MVOCi Flowrate (loading) for VOC regenerative oxidizer C = cρ0 Specific heat capacity per unit indexed i, lb/h ρ0 Gas density at standard conditions, of standard gas volume, Btu/(ft3ºF) qfuel Lower heating value for combus- lb/ft3 DEi Destruction and removal efficiency tion of one standard cubic foot of for i-th VOC gaseous fuel, Btu/ft3 Subscripts: CM Combustion F Gas flowrate at standard condi- qVOCi Lower heating value for air/fuel di- tions, scf/h oxidation of i-th VOC, Btu/ft3 AF Auxiliary rected to the kAE Air excess ratio Q Component of heat balance, Btu/h fuel burner kH Coefficient of heat transfer, Btu/ft2h Tin Inlet temperature, ºF BF Burner fired HL Heat losses kHL Heat loss factor, Btu/ft2h Tmax Maximum temperature in the oxidizer to the environ- kHT Ratio between number of thermal oxidizer, ºF CAT Catalyst ment units for catalyst and ceramic beds Tout Outlet temperature, ºF CER Ceramics PG Process gas 1,600 1,600 Figure 2. Tem- 0 min 0 min perature and de- 1,400 0.5 min 0.5 min 1 min 1,400 1 min struction and re- 1,200 DRE DRE moval efficiency 1,200 (DRE) profiles areTemperature, °F Temperature, °F 1,000 1,000 calculated using 800 a mathematical DRE, % 800 DRE, % model. At left is 600 100 600 100 the profile for a 80 80 regenerative ther- 400 60 400 60 mal oxidizer, and 200 40 40 the right is that 200 Bed depth, ft 20 20 for a regenerative Bed depth, ft 0 0 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 catalytic oxidizer Ceramic Combustion Ceramic Ceramic Combustion Ceramic media chamber media media chamber media Catalystating temperatures than burner-fired ate the negative effect of VOC displace- fluids during hot and cold periods, andRTOs, but the fuel consumption is still ment. The most popular technique Tout is the average outlet temperaturelower because no preheating of com- involves the addition of a so-called odd during the hot period. Further anal-bustion air is required. canister. The overall cycle includes can- ogy with heat exchangers implies that The RTO retrofit to RCO is straight- ister purge prior to its operation in out- the efficiency should be independent offorward [1–3]. In most applications, a let mode. During the purge, the canis- the other parameters, which do not af-bed of catalyst is placed over the bed ter is washed by a fraction of gas taken fect the heat transfer in packed beds.of existing ceramic material in each from the oxidizer exhaust or the com- This means, for example, that the RTORTO canister (Figure 1, bottom). If bustion chamber. The displaced VOCs should adjust itself and achieve thenecessary, the top fraction of the ce- are directed to the combustion cham- same thermal efficiency at any inletramic media can be removed to make ber or recycled to the oxidizer inlet. temperature, combustion-chamber set-space for the catalyst. point and VOC concentration. At high The process profiles in an RCO (Fig- Fuel consumption temperatures sufficient for achievingure 2, right) are similar to an RTO Fuel consumption in an RTO is usu- complete combustion of VOCs and in-(Figure 2, left), except that VOC con- ally linked to thermal efficiency, which jected fuel, fuel-injected RTOs oper-version occurs in catalyst beds, and at is often defined as: ate this way. The measure of thermalmuch lower temperatures (800 ºF in- Tmax Tout efficiency by Equation (1) can be ap-stead of 1,500 ºF in this example). The (1) plied for odd-chamber RTOs or RCOs Tmax Tinoutlet temperature in an RCO is lower typically operating at a low flowrate ofthan in an RTO, which decreases en- Where Tmax is the maximum process purge gas. It cannot be used for burner-ergy losses with exhaust gas. temperature, equivalent to the temper- fired RTOs or RCOs where the outlet In a simple, two-canister RTO, ature setpoint in a combustion cham- temperature depends significantly onthe overall conversion of VOCs is ef- ber, and Tin and Tout are inlet and outlet the flowrate of combustion air.fectively reduced due to periodic dis- temperatures of process gas. Equation Fuel injected oxidizers The heat bal-placement of a cold, non-reacted gas (1) was transferred from the theory and ance for the fuel-injected oxidizer is:collected under the inlet bed every practice of regenerative heat exchang- QPG QHL QVOC QAF 0cycle. Many units apply various modi- ers [4], where Tmax and Tin are readfications of the simple design to allevi- as inlet temperatures of heat transfer (2) ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010 27
  • 40. 100 Temperature rise due to fuel combustion (∆TAF), °F 110 Cover Story 100 Burner-fired RTO Fuel-injected RTO 90 Burner-fired RCO Fuel-injected RCO 80 70Where QPG and QHL are energies spent combustion mixture from Tin,CM 60for the rising temperatures of process to Tmax is the only contribution 50gas and compensating heat losses to for fuel consumption increase in 40the environment, and QVOC and QAF burner-fired RTOs compared to 30are energies generated by the com- fuel-injected ones. 20bustion of VOCs and auxiliary fuel. It is important that the ther- 10At constant process-gas heat capacity, mal efficiency η in Equation (5) 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120the energy terms in the heat balance is determined for fuel-injected Temperature rise due to VOC oxidation (∆T ), °F VOCgiven by Equation (2) can be converted oxidizers. Actual or experimen- Figure 3. Normalized fuel consumption isto temperature differences (“delta Ts”) tal efficiency for burner-fired plotted against VOC oxidation temperature riseusing the following replacement: oxidizers (ηBF) calculated using Q Equation (1) is less than the same for losses are assumed to be equivalent T (3) fuel-injected ones. The generic thermal to the process gas temperature reduc- FPG CPG efficiency (η) applied in Equation (5) tion ∆THL= 6 ºF. The RCO is assumedwhere FPG and CPG are the process gas can be recovered from the experimen- to operate at a combustion-chamberflowrate and average volumetric spe- tal efficiency in a burner-fired unit temperature of 750 ºF and a thermalcific-heat capacity calculated between (ηBF) using the following estimation: efficiency of 95.7%. These values arethe inlet and outlet temperatures. common for a number of RTOs that The temperature difference be- 1 Tout Tin TVOC THL BF (1 ) have been converted to RCOs usingtween outlet and inlet gas in the TBC Tout Tin,CM commercial base-metal catalysts. 1fuel-injected RTO can be expressed TBC According to Figure 3, fuel consump-through the difference between maxi- (6) tion decreases linearly with an increasemum and inlet temperatures using Equations (4) and (5) also can be used in VOC concentration. Crossing the cal-Equation (1). Then Equation (2) can for estimating the fuel consumption culated lines with the horizontal axisbe rewritten as: in an RCO, provided that the thermal reflects the transition to fuel-free opera- QAF efficiency accounts for the heat trans- tions, when the necessary temperature TAF fer properties in the catalyst bed. The can be supported by the exothermic FPG CPG nomenclature includes a formula for reaction of VOC oxidation without aux- (4) (Tmax Tin )(1 ) THL TVOC calculating the thermal efficiency for iliary fuel consumption. The RCO pro- a retrofitted, fuel-injected RTO, ac- vides self-sustaining operations at VOCwhere ∆TAF and ∆TVOC are the temper- counting for a ratio between depths, concentrations twice as low as an RTO.ature rise of process gas due to com- specific surface areas, and coefficients Figure 3 also shows that using thebustion of auxiliary fuel and VOCs, of heat transfer in ceramic and cata- fuel-injected RTO reduces energy con-and ∆THL is the temperature drop due lyst beds. sumption by about 30% over the burner-to heat losses from the oxidizer walls. How fuel consumption varies Fig- fired RTO at very low (close to zero) VOCFormulas for calculating delta-Ts are ure 3 illustrates fuel consumption in concentration. Fuel injection efficiencyprovided in nomenclature. burner-fired and fuel-injected RTOs decreases at higher VOC concentration.Burner-fired oxidizers Compared and RCOs determined from Equations From another result in Figure 3, theto Equation (2), the heat balance for a (4) and (5). Temperature rise due to difference between fuel consumption inburner-fired oxidizer also includes the VOC oxidation (∆TVOC) is considered burner-fired and fuel-injected RCOs isenergy spent heating the combustion variable, while other parameters are much smaller than in RTOs.air and fuel. Still, the temperature taken as constant. ∆TVOC is directly Using the catalyst in the burner-rise associated with auxiliary fuel con- proportional to the overall VOC con- fired RTO reduces fuel consumptionsumption can be estimated using the centration and is substituted for this by 63% at low VOC concentrations.following equation: parameter in further discussion. Relative fuel savings increase with an The example in Figure 3 comprises increase in VOC concentration, and (Tmax Tin )(1 ) THL TVOC a typical state-of-the-art RTO with a achieve 100% at VOC concentrations TAF , BF (Tmax Tin,CM ) thermal efficiency of 95%. The pro- between the self-sustaining limits for 1 (5) TBC cess gas, fuel and combustion air RCOs and RTOs. have the same inlet temperature: 70 It may be too expensive to realize theIn Equation (5), Tin,CM is the tempera- ºF. The temperature set-point in the catalytic process in a fuel-injected RTOture of combustion air and fuel directed combustion chamber (Tmax) is taken to because methane has a relatively lowto the burner. The temperature differ- be 1,500ºF for both fuel-injected and oxidation rate over commercial cata-ence ∆TBC represents the quotient of burner-fired RTOs, even though the lysts. A feasible RTO retrofit scenarioauxiliary fuel consumption and com- fuel-injected RTOs typically require can involve fuel injection shutoff withbustion-mixture heat-capacity rate higher temperatures. For burner-fired subsequent operation at a continuouslycalculated between Tin,CM and Tmax. RTOs, ∆TBC is estimated at 4,785 ºF, fired start-up burner. According to Fig-Equation (5) is obtained assuming assuming a methane combustion at 0% ure 3, the burner-fired RCO consumesthat the energy spent for heating the excess combustion air. The unit heat half the fuel of a fuel-injected RTO.28 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010
  • 41. 40 Return during project lifetime, monetary units 35 30 25 Fuel cost, $/MMBtu 10 20 5 The base-metal catalysts are actu- 15 ally oxides of transition elements. Manganese, chromium, copper, cobalt, 10 iron and nickel oxides are the most 5 active in oxidation reactions. The oxox- ides are dispersed over a high-surface 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Figure 5. alumina or other support. One of the Time between catalyst replacements, years Manganese oxide advantages of base-metal catalysts is catalyst Z-2 can be used for retrofits preferable formation of diatomic ni-Figure 4. Economic impact of retrofit-ting: expensive fuel justifies more fre- strength and cost. For VOC control in re- trogen rather than oxides of nitrogenquent catalyst replacement generative oxidizers, the catalyst should (NOx) during oxidation of nitrogen- satisfy the following requirements: containing organic compounds. TheElectricity consumption • igh activity in oxidation of specific H large variety of possible base-metalUsing a catalyst can reduce electricity VOCs present in the treated gas compositions and preparation tech-consumption in addition to auxiliary • ong lifetime in the presence of L niques results in distinctly differentfuel. RTOs typically include fans for catalytic poisons, such as alkali and catalysts, and often in misconceptionstransporting the process gas through alkaline-earth metals in compos- about their performance in differentthe system. The fan power (kWfan) is ite-board, silicon-organics in semi- conditions. For example, manganeseproportional to flowrate (F) and total conductors, sulfur in fuel-ethanol oxide catalysts can take multiplesystem pressure drop (Δp): production, and metals in paint pig- forms. Manganese dioxide (MnO2) sup-kWfan F p ments for the automobile industry ported over alumina and sometimes (7) • ow pressure drop, permitting the L promoted by copper oxide additives isCeramic beds in retrofitted RTOs op- addition of catalyst without an in- very active, but has poor thermal re-erate at lower temperatures and have crease in power consumption sistance and quickly deactivates in thereduced pressure drops as compared to • igh thermal stability, allowing pe- H presence of small amounts of chlorine,the original unit. If temperature is ex- riodic burnouts of organic deposits sulfur and other poisons. However, pressed in Fahrenheit, the approximate collected in RTO beds and ducts or when MnO2 is mixed with aluminaratio between the ceramic bed pressure withstanding uncontrolled tempera- and calcined at a very high tempera-drops in RCOs and RTOs is: ture increase caused by fluctuations ture, it converts to lower-valence man- in VOC concentration ganese oxides and aluminates, forming n Δpcer RCO ⎛T RCO + Tin + 919⎛ • igh mechanical strength H a composition that shows excellent ac- ≈ ⎜ max ⎜ The noble metal catalysts used in in- tivity in VOC oxidation combined with Δpcer ⎝Tmax + Tin + 919⎝ RTO RTO dustry for decades typically comprise resistance to chlorine, phosphorus andwhere the power coefficient (n) de- active metals incorporated within a extreme heat. Commercial base-metalpends on the type of ceramic media. thin layer of porous alumina washcoat catalysts are typically produced as cy-For random packing, such as Intalox deposited over a solid ceramic carrier. lindrical or ring-shaped extrudates orsaddles, n≈1; for straight channel The carrier can be made as a ceramic tablets. The diameter of catalyst pel-monolith, n≈1.7. The total pressure saddle or monolith and often has the lets varies widely from 2–3-mm beadsdrop reduction can reach 15–35% de- same shape and size as RTO ceramic or cylinders to 25-mm Raschig rings.pending on process temperature and media. Most noble metal catalysts Availability of various sizes makes ittype of ceramic media. This may com- contain platinum, which provides possible to customize the parameterspensate for the pressure drop increase high resistance to poisoning by sulfur of the catalyst bed according to the re-after catalyst addition. and other contaminants. Platinum is quirements of each application. There is an additional component of expensive, however and even a smallenergy savings for systems that use in- percentage raises catalyst price. Recy- Deactivation and regenerationduced-draft fans installed in the RTO cling metals from used catalysts can A critical parameter for RTO retrofitoutlet — the fan flowrate (F) decreases reduce ownership costs somewhat. In technology is catalyst lifetime, whichat low outlet temperature in the RCO, small units (up to 1,000 scfm), the cat- depends largely on poisoning and mask-which results in a corresponding de- alyst cost represents a relatively small ing of active catalyst sites by volatilecrease in electricity consumption. portion of the total price, which makes compounds of sulfur, halogens, silicon, Generally, the retrofit requires care- noble metal catalysts beneficial due phosphorus and heavy metals. Poison-ful analysis of pressure drop and ex- to their low bed volume and availabil- ing relates to selective deactivationisting fan capacity. As a rule of thumb, ity in monolithic form. However, such through the reaction of active metalsthe catalyst size should be comparable catalysts may be less competitive as or metal oxides with the poison. Mask-with the size of the ceramic media. flowrate increases. In large capacity ing occurs when the products of poisonCatalyst general requirements oxidizers, the catalyst contributes a reactions block active centers and foulCatalyst design and selection should larger portion to the total cost of the catalyst pores, limiting mass transferstrike an optimal balance among ac- system, so economics favors less ex- within the catalyst pellet. Other pos-tivity, selectivity, lifetime, mechanical pensive base-metal catalysts. sible reasons for catalyst deterioration ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010 29
  • 42. Table 1. Case sTudy examplesexample 1 2 3 4Industry Composite Expandable Fiberglass Automotive part board polystyrene insulation paintingsource of emission Medium-density Continuous processes Fiberglass cur- E-coat, powder/sealer and main- fiberboard dryers and batch reactors in ing ovens color ovens, basecoat dehydra- and press EPS production tion and clearcoat flash zonesVOCs Formaldehyde, Pentanes, styrene Formaldehyde, Toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, methanol, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone and other terpenes phenol paint solventsGas flowrate, scfm 90,000–105,000 22,000–30,000 31,500–36,000 90,000–100,000adiabatic temperature rise of ~10 50–300 0.5–5 15–30VOC oxidation (∆TVOC), ºFNumber of canisters 5 3 3 6Catalyst contaminants Alkali and alka- Less than 1 ppm hydro- Sulfur dioxide, Inorganic compounds contained line earth metals, chloric acid, small con- phosphorus, in paint pigments (tin, phospho- sulfur dioxide centrations of silicon silicon rus, silicon)Inlet temperature in ºF 145–155 Ambient 200–250 240–300maximum temperature, ºF RTO 1,600 1,530 1,500 1,450 RCO 880 860 800 800Outlet-inlet temperaturedifference, ºF RTO 136 290 120 76 RCO 56 105 40 28RTO thermal efficiency (𝛈) 93.9% 84.2% 93.7% 95.1%estimated using equation (6)Fuel savings, million btu/hr 9.2 5.7 3.3 5.6VOC destruct. & removal eff. 98% 99% 95% 95%Catalyst service time, years > 7 (actual) 10 (expected) 7 (actual) 6 (actual) include the following: store its activity after an applicable re- alyst load, or replace the catalyst and • ouling the pores and plugging the F generation procedure, such as heating return fuel costs to much lower levels. catalyst bed by particulate matter or washing. Further, it should withstand Figure 4 presents annualized cost re- • oss of active internal surface due L repeated cycles of regeneration without turn calculated at different catalyst re- to sintering caused by overheating substantial deterioration in activity placement times for an RTO operating • echanical destruction caused by M and mechanical strength. Regeneration in an automobile painting operation. thermal stress through thermal treatment is easily ac- The optimum service time for this ap- • olatilization of active component or V cessible in the retrofitted RTOs. plication was found to be between four support after the reaction with poison The regeneration procedure depends and six years. The optimum replace- Rates of masking or poisoning can be on catalyst operation time. Initially, ment period depends on the fuel price. vastly different depending on the par- poisons or masking agents form weak More expensive fuel justifies more fre- ticular catalyst. bonds with the catalyst and can be re- quent replacement. Base-metal catalysts often show moved relatively easily, for example higher poison resistance than noble by applying a moderate temperature Case examples metals. For example, a study involv- increase. Upon longer operation, mol- The following examples (Table 1) relate ing several catalysts exposed to 50 ecules of catalyst poisons bond more to RTO retrofit using ring-shaped man- ppm of tetramethyl silane at 750ºF strongly with the catalyst surface; ganese oxide catalyst (Figure 5). This showed that platinum catalysts lose the bulk chemical or phase catalyst catalyst is made by extrusion from a their activity more quickly compared composition can change after the reac- pretreated raw-material mix followed to base metals. The difference between tions with poisons, and regeneration by calcination at high temperature. the two base-metal catalysts, a man- can require higher temperatures and The size of the catalyst pellets allows a ganese oxide and copper-chromium, longer durations. good balance between activity, pressure correlates with the difference in the Sometimes, the operation should in- drop and oxidizer volume utilization for internal surface area. The copper- clude gradual temperature increases in many commercial RTOs operating at chromium catalyst has a reaction area order to compensate for catalyst activity linear velocities in packed beds lower about six times as large, which re- reduction. As the catalyst activity even- than 200–250 ft/min (1–1.3 Nm/sec). quires more silicon for deactivation. tually approaches zero, the tempera- Platinum catalysts have rather good ture will rise to about 1,450 ºF, when Engineered wood industry U.S. tolerance of sulfur dioxide. Recently VOC destruction is achieved through plywood, fiberboard and veneer plants developed chromium and cobalt-chro- thermal oxidation. Fuel savings, ac- commonly use large RTOs for meeting mium formulations represent sulfur- cordingly, drops to zero compared to MACT (maximum achievable control resistant base-metal catalysts. the original oxidizer. At some point, technology) standards on methanol, One of the important qualities of the plant faces a dilemma: spend an formaldehyde and other hazardous air commercial VOC oxidation catalysts is ever-increasing amount to continue pollutants. In Example 1, a medium- “regenerability.” The catalyst should re- operation with less and less active cat- density fiberboard mill applies a five- 30 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010
  • 43. Air HE Natural gas cyclones Baghouses Dryer exhaust Press vent RTO PurgeFigure 6. This flow diagram shows emission control equipment applied in a com-posite board systemcanister regenerative oxidizer after the fuel consumption decreased bya direct natural-gas-fired wood-fiber two-thirds. Natural gas savings reachdryer and hot press. Prior to the oxi- about 10,000 ft3/h. Expenditures fordizer the particulate material emis- the retrofit, including catalyst costsions are removed in high-efficiency and installation, were justified in less(HE) cyclones and baghouses (Figure than one year.6). The RTO operating cycle includescanister purge by outlet gas to remove Expandable polystyrene A chemi-spikes of non-oxidized VOCs collected cal plant produces expandable poly-under the bed. The inlet gas flowrate styrene (EPS) beads using pentanesto the RTO is between 90,000 and as a blowing agent. A three-canister105,000 scfm. RTO takes about 30,000-scfm of vent Before retrofit, the original RTO air with about 400 ppm of pentanes. Inwas operated at 1,600 ºF with the addition, there is a periodic 100–500 Generation .2difference between the outlet and scfm, high-VOC stream with 3–6% ofinlet temperatures 136 ºF. Thermal pentane, directed to the RTO combus- New well-proven actuatorsefficiency (η) estimated using Equa- tion chamber.tion (6) is 93.9%. For the retrofitted The original oxidizer was designed What seems to be a contradiction at first isunit, the temperature difference was to rather small thermal efficiency the result of continuous optimisation of aestimated at 56ºF at maximum tem- (η~84.2%). Estimates in Table 1 showperature 880 ºF. Accounting for a VOC possible reduction of fuel consumption well-proven design principle. For identicaloxidation temperature rise of about in the RCO by 70–100%. sizing, you will receive unrivalled perfor-10 ºF, the fuel consumption would be The manganese oxide catalyst (Fig- mance including:reduced by a factor of 2.7. ure 5) was selected because it could The retrofitted RTO has operated for withstand very high temperatures dur- � Improved handling and operationmore than eight years with no change ing inflows of the high-VOC stream. � Intelligent diagnostic functions andin temperature setpoint. Initial per- Currently, the catalyst has served informance testing demonstrated a VOC the oxidizer for more than three years. sensor systemremoval efficiency of more than 97.5%, Annual testing of catalyst samples � Optimised modulating behaviour andwhich was confirmed in further an- shows no decrease in catalyst activity. extended output speed rangenual tests. Analyses on formaldehyde Expected catalyst lifetime is about tenand methanol performed after 6.5 years. Payback time for the catalyst � Longer lifetimeyears of catalyst service have shown was about five months. � Flexible valve connectionremoval efficiencies for these compo- � Compatible with previous modelsnents at more than 95%. Fiberglass insulation An insulation Annual catalyst tests showed that manufacturing plant uses a three-can- AUMA automates valvesthe catalyst activity decreased to some ister RTO for removing VOCs after adegree during the first two to three fiberglass curing oven. The RTO ther-years of operation, but it remained un- mal efficiency determined from actualchanged during the following five years. data using Equation (6) is about 93.7%. AUMA Riester GmbH & Co. KG | P.O. Box 1362The tests also showed that activity can Using the catalyst saves about 67% of 79373 Muellheim, Germany | www.auma.combe substantially improved after thermal auxiliary fuel. AUMA Actuators, Inc. | Canonsburg, pa 15317,regeneration. The regeneration was ac- Manganese oxide catalyst was se- mailbox@auma-usa.com | www.auma-usa.comcomplished in the actual oxidizer after lected because of its high activity in6.5 years of operation through a gradual oxidation of alcohols and aldehydes.increase in burner firing and maintain- Sulfur dioxide in the emissions gradu-ing 1,400ºF in the RTO combustion ally reduces catalyst activity throughchamber over 1.5 days. Field tests con- the formation of inactive manganesefirmed the efficiency of regeneration. and aluminum sulfates. Tests showed The original and retrofitted systems that the sulfated catalyst can be re-have approximately the same electric generated at high temperatures. Theconsumption. Confirming estimates, retrofitted RTO system uses a pro- Circle 22 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-22 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010 31 generation_2_anzeige_drittel_seite_ohne_beschnitt.indd 2 02.11.2009 15:5
  • 44. Cover Story grammed temperature increase to rings offers the opportunity for RTOs 1,600–1,650 ºF every four months for to operate at linear velocities less than catalyst regeneration. Currently, the 300 ft/min (1.5 Nm/sec). The catalyst unit uses a second catalyst charge lifetime can be 10 years or longer. with the first charge serving seven Catalyst performance can be moni- years. The payback time after catalyst tored by testing catalyst samples installation was less than ten months. taken from the operating oxidizer every one or two years. Based on the Automotive paint booths Solvent test results, the catalyst vendor or in- emissions after various stages of au- dependent consultant can recommend tomotive body paintings are directed procedures for catalyst regeneration. to a six-canister regenerative oxidizer. Gradual temperature increase may be The operations do not include a can- necessary for compensating catalyst ister purge cycle, and, as a result, the activity reduction, a technique that oxidizer has relatively high thermal extends catalyst lifetime and provides efficiency, η = 95.1%. Loading the cat- additional operating cost savings. ■ alyst provided energy savings of about Edited by Scott Jenkins 5.6 million Btu/h. which equated to more than 60% of energy used prior to References the retrofit. In this unit, the manga- 1. Matros, Y. Sh. and Bunimovich, G. A., Control of volatile organic compounds by the cata- nese oxide catalyst served more than lytic reverse process. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., six years. 34, pp. 1,630–1,640, 1995. 2. Matros, Y., Sh. Bunimovich, G. A., Patterson, S. E., and Mayer, S. F., Is it economically fea- Conclusions sible to use heterogeneous catalysis for VOC control in regenerative oxidizers? Catalysis Adding a catalyst over heat-exchange Today, 27, pp. 307–313, 1996. ceramic beds is a straightforward op- 3. Matros, Y. Sh., Bunimovich, G. A., Strots, V. tion for energy savings in regenerative O., et al., “Conversion of regenerative oxidizer into catalytic unit.” In Emerging Solutions to thermal oxidizers. General estimates VOC & Air Toxics Control, February 26–28, show that at low VOC concentrations, San Diego, Calif., Proceedings of A&WMA Annual Conference, pp. 3–14, 1997. energy consumption can be reduced 4. Jacob, M. “Heat Transfer,” Vol. 2, John Wiley in the retrofitted RTOs by 50%–65%. and Sons, New York, 1957. In most situations, the retrofit can be accomplished easily without any Authors changes in RTO’s mechanical design Grigori A. Bunimovich is a key technical specialist in- and automatic control system. Ad- volved with VOC oxidation ditional benefits include: lower NOx catalysts and reactors, as well as other catalytic tech- and CO2 emissions and less equip- nologies at Matros Technolo- ment wear-and-tear due to lower op- gies Inc. (14963 Green Circle Dr., Chesterfield, MO 63017; erating temperature. Website: www.matrostech. com; Phone: 314-439-9921; Despite its simplicity, the retrofit op- Email: grigorii@matrostech. tion should be thoroughly examined for com). After graduating from the Tomsk Polytechnic University (Tomsk, Rus- each application. The most important sia), Bunimovich obtained his Ph.D. in chemi- factors affecting the decision include: cal engineering from the Boreskov Institute of Catalysis (Novosibirsk, Russia). Since 1993, he catalyst stability to the presence of has worked for Matros Technologies, where he is trace quantities of sulfur, halogens and director of catalyst applications. Yurii Sh. Matros is the pres- other contaminants; possibility for cat- ident of Matros Technologies, alyst regeneration and bed burnouts Inc. (Phone: 314-439-9699; Email: yurii@matrostech.com). without oxidizer shutdown; catalyst He has been engaged in lifetime; bed pressure drop; and cata- chemical reaction engineer- ing for more than 40 years. lyst material and installation cost ver- A graduate of Odessa Poly- sus longterm operating savings. technic University, Ukraine, Matros served as a professor Transition metal oxides are applied and department head at the Boreskov Institute of Cataly- as catalysts in many retrofitted RTOs. sis. In 1993, he established Matros Technologies The case studies exemplify using Inc., a consulting and engineering company in the area of heterogeneous catalytic processes and Mn2O3/Al2O3 catalyst, which features catalysts and processes for air pollution control. extreme thermal stability along with Matros has worked on nonsteady-state-operated catalytic reactors for oxidation of SO2 in sulfuric good tolerance to halogens, phospho- acid production, oxidation of VOCs, reduction of rus and other catalyst poisons. Shap- NOx, new base-metal catalysts for VOC control, regenerative catalytic oxidizers and technology for ing the catalysts as large-size Raschig retrofitting thermal oxidizers to catalytic units.Circle 23 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-2332 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010
  • 45. Circle 24 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-24
  • 46. Feature Report Growth WettingAgglomeration Granule properties (such as size, bulk density, attrition, dispersion, flowability) Figure 1. The rate mecha- f (size, voidage) nisms of agitation agglomeration, orTechnology: f (operating variables + material variables) granulation include f (process design + formulation design) powder wetting, granule growth, granule consolida-Mechanisms tion and granule Breakage attrition [1] ConsolidationBryan J. EnnisE&G Associates, Inc. This review of agglomeration technology focuses on the mechanisms of agitation (wet granulation) andP owder agglomeration is used in a wide variety of the chemical process industries (CPI), and a compression (compaction) methods virtually endless number of pro-cess options are available. Selection forms generally range from spherical create free-flowing, non-segregating,requires engineers to make a substan- agglomerated or layered granules, to uniform blends of key ingredients, withtial number of design decisions, such coated carrier cores. agglomerates of controlled strengthas the choice between wet or dry pro- In the second approach of agglomer- that can be reproducibly metered incessing, the intensity of mixing and ation by compression, or compaction, subsequent operations. The desiredshear rates, continuous versus batch a powder blend is fed to a compres- attributes of the agglomerate clearlyoperation, cross contamination of sion device that promotes agglomera- depend on the application at hand.products and ease of cleaning. These tion due to large, applied compaction Still, it is important to appreciate thechoices must be made in light of desir- pressures. Continuous sheets of solid generic impact of agglomerate size dis-able agglomerate end-use properties. material are produced, as in roll press- tribution and porosity, both of whichKey agglomeration mechanisms and ing, or some solid form is made, such impact final product appearance. Ag-their impact on agglomeration pro- as a briquette or tablet. Continuous glomeration is used to achieve numer-cessing are reviewed in this article. sheets or strands may either break ous benefits*. For example, a properThe impact on process selection is down in subsequent handling to form size distribution of granules improvesalso touched upon within the context a granulated material, or the mate- solids flow, deaeration and compactionof mechanisms. rial may be further processed through behavior, but minimizes segregation. a variety of chopping, spheronizing Granule porosity controls strength, at-Agglomeration processes or forced screening methods. Carrier trition resistance and dissolution rate,Agglomeration processes can be fluids may be added or induced by impacts capsule and tablet behavior,loosely broken down into agitation and melting, in which case the product is and controls surface-to-volume ratioscompression methods. Agglomeration wet extruded. Compaction processes of catalyst applications. The genericby agitation will be referred to as wet range from confined compression de- agglomeration mechanisms of granu-granulation. Processes include fluid- vices, such as tabletting, briquetting lation and compaction are addressedbed, disc, drum, and mixer granula- machines and ram extrusion to uncon- in the following sections.tors, as well as many hybrid designs. fined devices, such as roll presses andHere, a particulate feed is introduced a variety of pellet mills. Wet granulationto a process vessel and is agglomer- In a CPI plant, an agglomeration Granulation processes produce gran-ated, either batch-wise or continuously, process involves several peripheral ules of low to medium, and in someto form a granulated product. The unit operations, such as milling, blend- cases, high density. Ranked from low-feed typically consists of a mixture of ing, drying or cooling and classification, est to highest levels of shear, thesesolid ingredients, referred to as a for- referred to generically as an agglom- processes include fluid-bed, tumbling,mulation, which includes a key active eration circuit. In addition, more than and mixer granulators. Four key rateproduct ingredient (API), binders, di- one agglomeration step may be present mechanisms contribute to all granula-luents, flow aids, surfactants, wetting as in the case of pharmaceutical or de- tion methods, as outlined by Ennis [1].agents, lubricants, fillers and end-use tergent processes. In troubleshooting The reader is referred elsewhere for aaids (such as sintering aids, colors and process upsets or product quality de- more complete treatment [1–7]. Thetaste modifiers). Agglomeration can be viations, it is important to consider the key rate mechanisms include wettinginduced by a solvent or slurry atomized high degree of interaction between all and nucleation, coalescence or growth,onto the bed of particles, or by the con- unit operations involved in solids pro-trolled sintering or partial melting of a cessing facilities. * For more information, see box titled “Objec- tives of size enlargement” in the online versionbinder component of the feed. Product Agglomeration is typically used to of this article at www.che.com34 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010
  • 47. 10 Mechanical dispersion regime Shifts with increasing Voidage moisture No changes in nuclei Granule porosity or voidage, %vol t c eff Reff cos μ size distribution Average granular size x, m Dc, µm High shear mixers possible V 2/3 = 1.35 d 2 1.0 High binder viscosity Poor wetting powder Binder pooling and caking Transitional Shifts with increasing tp tc regime moisture and primary Drop penetration time, T = 0.1 feed particle size Narrower nuclei Fluidized bed size distribution Size Wettable powder Fast drop wet-in Drop controlled (a) Nucleation and Transition (b) Balling and regime random growth preferential growth 0.01 0.1 1.0 10 d 3 ( dV dt ) Increasing granulation contact time Relative spray flux, = = s 2 s ddFIGure 2. This regime map for wetting and nucleation FIGure 3. Typical regimes of granule growth and consolidationrelates spray flux, solids mixing (solids flux and circula- are shown [7]. Increases in growth and consolidation rate aretion time) and formulation properties [3.6] indicated for increasing moisture and feed particle sizeconsolidation, and attrition or break- gime, independent of drop distribution. gresses through rapid, exponentialage (Figure 1). Wetting of the initial Drop overlap and coalescence occur to a growth in an initial nucleation stage,feed promotes nucleation of fine pow- varying extent in a transitional regime, followed by a transition stage, finish-ders, or a coating for particle sizes in with an increasingly wider nucleation ing with very slow growth in a finalexcess of drop size. In the coalescence distribution being formed for increas- balling stage [7]. In the nucleationor growth stage, partially wetted pri- ing spray flux and decreasing wet-in stage, growth rate is random or inde-mary particles and previously formed time. Spray flux is strongly influenced pendent of granule size, whereas innuclei coalesce to form granules com- by process and nozzle design, whereas the balling stage, growth rate is pref-posed of several particles. As granules penetration times are a strong function erentially dependent on size. Whilegrow, they are compacted by the forces of the binder-powder formulation. growth is occurring, granule internalarising from bed agitation. This con- In Example 1 (see box, p. 36), the porosity decreases with time as thesolidation stage strongly influences spray flux is close to the limit necessary granules are compacted. This connec-internal granule voidage (or porosity), to remain in a droplet-controlled regime tion between growth and densificationand therefore end-use properties, such of wetting, which forms discrete nuclei. is a dominant theme in wet granula-as granule strength, hardness and To lower the spray flux by a factor of tion. Additional modes of granule sizedissolution. Formed granules may be two, as a safety for droplet-controlled change include layering of raw mate-particularly susceptible to attrition if nucleation, either two nozzles spread rial onto previously formed nuclei orthey are inherently weak or if flaws well apart, twice the solids velocity, or granules, breakdown of wet clumpsdevelop during drying. half the spray rate would be needed (or, or wall buildup into stable nuclei, andWetting. The mechanism of nucleation doubling the spray cycle time). Alterna- rupture and attrition of wet or dryand wetting may be determined from a tively, if five times the spray rate were granules, respectively.wetting regime map (Figure 2), and is required, wetting would occur in the The degree of granule deformationcontrolled by two key parameters [3–6]. mechanical dispersion regime, dimin- taking place during granule collisionsOne is the time required for a drop to ishing the need for spray nozzles. defines growth mechanisms (Figurewet-in to the moving powder bed (tp) in For a 100-fold increase in viscosity, 4). If little deformation takes place,comparison to process circulation time representative of a typical binding so- the system is referred to as a low-(tc). This defines a dimensionless, drop lution and twice the drop size, the pen- deformability, low-shear process. Thispenetration time, or T = tp/tc. The sec- etration time would increase to 0.4 sec- generally includes fluid-bed, drum andond parameter is the actual spray flux onds. This time is short when compared disc granulators. Growth is largelyof drops (ψd) in comparison to solids to the circulation times of high shear controlled by the extent of any surface-flux moving through the spray zones systems, suggesting a move toward fluid layer and surface deformability,(ψs). This defines a dimensionless, rela- mechanical dispersion. Drop penetra- which acts to dissipate collisional ki-tive spray flux of Ψ= ψd/ψs, which is a tion time decreases with the powder netic energy and allow permanent co-measure of the density of drops falling material variables of increasing pore alescence. Growth generally occurs aton the powder surface. If wet-in is rapid radius, decreasing binder viscosity and a faster time scale than overall granuleand spray fluxes are low (T<0.1, Ψ<0.1), increasing adhesion tension, and the deformation and consolidation. Thisindividual drops will form discrete nu- operating process variables of decreas- is depicted in Figure 4, where smallerclei in a droplet-controlled regime. At ing drop size and increasing process cir- granules can still be distinguished asthe other extreme, if drop penetration culation time (tc). Circulation time is a part of a larger granule structure. Asis slow and spray flux is large (T>0.5, function of mixing and bed weight, and granules are compacted, they becomeΨ>0.5), drop overlap, coalescence and can change significantly with scaleup. smoother over time due to the longerpooling of binder material will occur. Granule growth. There are strong in- time-scale process of consolidation.Shear forces due to solids mixing then teractions between the granule growth This separation in time scale and inter-control the breakdown of wet mass and consolidation (Figure 3). For fine- action makes low-deformability, low-clumps in a mechanical-dispersion re- powder feed, granule size often pro- shear systems (such as fluid-beds and ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010 35
  • 48. ExamplE 1. WEtting rEgimE To illustrate wetting regime determination, consider a powder bed of width (B) equal to Feature Report 0.10 m, moving past a flat spray with volumetric spray rate (dV/dt ) equal to 100 mL/min at a solids velocity (w) equal to 2.5 m/s. For a given spray rate, the number of drops is determined by a drop volume or diameter (dd ) of 100 µm, which in turn defines the drop area (ad) per unit time that will be covered by the spray, giving a spray flux (ψd) of:drums) easiest to scale-up and controlfor systems without high recycle. For high shear rates, large granuledeformation occurs during collisions, (1) Where Vd is the drop volume.and granule growth and consolidation As droplets contact the powder bed at a certain rate, the powder moves through theare intimately linked and occur on the spray zone at its own velocity, or at the solids flux (ψs). The solids flux and the dimension-same time scale. Such a system is re- less, relative spray flux (Ψ) are then given for this simple example by:ferred to as a deformable-high-shearprocess, and includes continuous pinand plow shear mixers, as well as batch (2)high-shear pharmaceutical mixers. Inthese cases, kinetic energy is dissi- (3)pated through deformation of the wet Where A is the spray area, B is the spray width, w is the solids surface velocity, and ψd andmass composing the granule. Rather ψs are the drop and solids fluxes respectively.than the sticking-together mechanism For a lactose powder of surface-to-volume average diameter of d32 = 20 µm, and looseof low deformability processes such as packing and tapped packing voidage of ε = 0.60 and εtap = 0.40, the effective voidagea fluid-bed, granules are smashed or and pore radius are given by:kneaded together, and smaller gran-ules are not distinguishable within (4)the granule structure. High-shear, (5)high-deformable processes generallyproduce denser granules than theirlow deformability counterpart. In ad- Where ε is the loose effective packing voidage; εtap is the tapped packing voidage; εeffdition, the combined and competing is the effective voidage; d32 is the average diameter; φ is the particle sphericity; and Reffeffects of granule coalescence and con- is the effective pore radius.solidation make high shear processes For droplet-controlled growth, a short drop wet-in or penetration time is required, and(such as mixers) difficult to scale-up should be no more than 10% of the circulation time (tc). For water with a viscosity of 1 cPwith wet-mass rheology controlling (0.001 Pa-s), and an adhesion tension of .033 N/m, we obtain a penetration time of: ( )granule properties, though this is still 3 2/3poorly understood. Vd2 / 3  µ  ( π 100 × 10−6 ) 6  0.001  t p = 1.35 2   = 1.35  = .0009 s Two key dimensionless groups con- ε eff  Reff γ cosθ    0.32 2  2.8 × 10 −6 × .033   (6)trol growth. As originally defined byEnnis [1, 8] and Tardos [9], these are Where μ is the binder viscosity; γ is the binder surface tension; θ is the contact angle;the viscous and deformation Stokes γcosθ is the adhesion tension; and tp is the drop wet-in penetration time. ❏numbers given respectively by: Note that granule collisional velocities crease initial growth rate. The width of (7) require judicious estimation. the granule size distribution typically Examples of growth behavior are increases in proportion to average size illustrated with the help of Figure (Figure 5, inset a). An exception would 5. In the limit of low deformability be disc granulation, which possesses (8) (Stdef = 0), growth is controlled by Stv self-granule size classification. Both numbers represent a normal- and bed moisture. This includes flu- Later in the (b) balling/preferentialized granule kinetic energy. The vis- idized beds, discs and drums. For low growth stage (Figure 5, Points 4 and 5,cous Stokes number is the ratio of Stv, less than some critical value, ini- black curve), granules will reach somekinetic energy to viscous work due to tial growth rate becomes a function of limiting size. Here, the granule sizebinding fluid occurring during gran- moisture and mixing only as illustrated distribution will narrow and continueule-particle collisions. Low Stv or low for the (a) nucleation-random growth to grow only by layering of powdergranule energy represents increased stage (Points 1 to 3, black curve). To a and smaller granules onto granuleslikelihood of granule growth, and this first approximation, the initial growth in excess of the limiting size (Figureoccurs for small granule or particle behavior is actually independent of 5, inset b). This final limit increasessize (d), low relative collision velocity Stv, granule inertia and binder viscos- with decreasing Stv (shown in dashed(uo) or granule density (ρ), and high ity. This growth curve may vary from blue), or increases with increasingbinder phase viscosity (μ). Note d is linear at small spray rates, as in fluid binder viscosity, and decreasing gran-the harmonic average of granule di- beds, to exponential growth in drums ule inertia (see Example 2 on p. 38).ameter. The deformation Stokes num- or at high moisture levels. Increases Granule attrition will also contributeber (Stdef) represents the amount of in spray rate (or more generally spray to the final growth curve.granule deformation taking place dur- flux), bed moisture, and mixing (such as For deformable, high shear pro-ing collisions, and is a ratio of kinetic drum rotation rate, or fluid-bed excess- cesses, namely high shear mixers,energy to wet-mass yield stress (σy). gas velocity when ignoring attrition) in- initial growth rate increases with36 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010
  • 49. ( A) (a) Nucleation and (b) Balling and (A) Low deformability, Rebound random growth preferential growth q3(x), %/µm q3(x), %/µm low shear 5 Coalescence 1 4 Increasing average granule size, x, µm (A) 2 3 3 Two colliding granules x, µm Dc, µm x, µm Dc, µm Deformation + at contact Growth limit Stv ( B) Dc, µm Rebound High 4 5 deformability Shifts with Stdef Low deformability, Stdef = 0 Coalescence (B) High deformability, (B) 3 Shifts with Stv high shear 2FIGure 4. Granule structures resulting from (A) low and (B) high 1deformability systems are typical for fluid-bed and high-shear mixer Induction periodgranulators, respectively [4] (a) Nucleation and Trans- (b) Balling and random growth ition preferential growthincreasing deformation Stokes num- sequent processing andber (Stdef), as illustrated in Figure 5 handling [1–4, 10]. At- Increasing granulation contact time(shown in red), representing an in- trition is controlled by acreased kneading together of gran- combination of granule FIGure 5. Typical granule-growth profiles for low and high deformability mechanisms are shown. The insetsules in the process. This occurs for voidage and inherent illustrate the corresponding evolution of size distribu-increasing impeller speed, granule bond strength, which tion, above and below the growth limit Dc [4]density, and decreasing formulation may be assessed by mea-yield stress (σy). Yield stress gener- surements of fracture toughness and low deformability processes allows aally decreases with increasing bed hardness on prepared bar composites wide manipulation in granule proper-moisture (or saturation), increasing of the formulation. In addition, direct ties, as well as ease of scaleup.particle size or pore radius, decreasing indentation measurements of hard- At the other extreme are high shearbinder viscosity, and decreasing sur- ness of granules and particles are mixer granulators, where mechani-face tension. As granules densify in a possible in some cases. Granule or cal blades and choppers induce binderhigh shear process, their yield stress agglomerate voidage is controlled by distribution and growth, producingrises and they become less deformable the mechanism of consolidation, with medium to dense, sometimes irregular— which works to lower coalescence denser granules giving less attrition granules. Mixers generally operate asin the later stages of growth — and a and requiring greater work for re-dis- a deformable growth process, where inlimit of growth will again be achieved persion in solution. most cases it is difficult to control gran-as with Stv. Often this limiting size ule density independent of size. Mixerswill vary inversely with the initially Granulation processes have an advantage in that they canobserved growth rate. The granulation mechanisms de- process plastic, sticky or poorly wetting Lastly, it should be noted that the scribed above can occur simultane- materials, and can spread viscous bind-process or formulation itself cannot ously in all wet granulation processes, ers while operating in a mechanicaluniquely define whether it falls into and they determine the final granule dispersion regime of nucleation. How-a low or high deformability category. size distribution, voidage and the ever, associated with this flexibility inA very stiff formulation with low de- final product quality. However, cer- processing a wide variety of materials,formability may behave as a high tain mechanisms may dominate in a high shear mixers can be very difficultdeformability system in a high shear particular process. It is vital to keep to scale-up due to large shifts in themixer, or a very pliable formulation in mind the high degree of interaction competition between growth and den-may act as a low deformability system between formulation properties and sification, wetting regimes, and powderin a fluid-bed granulator. process equipment in making a selec- mixing with vessel scale.Consolidation. Granule consolida- tion of process equipment. Tumbling granulators producetion or densification is also controlled With small shear rates and si- spherical granules of low to mediumby Stokes numbers and peak bed mois- multaneous drying, batch fluid-bed density, and lie between fluid-bed andture. Consolidation typically increases granulators can produce some of the mixer granulators in terms of shearfor all processes with increasing resi- lowest density granules, and are an rate and granule density. They havedence time, shear levels, bed height, example of low deformable growth. the highest throughput of all granula-bed moisture or granule saturation, Growth rate is controlled primar- tion processes. In the case of drums,particle feed size or pore radius, sur- ily by the wetting process, spray rate processes often operate with highface tension, and decreasing binding- and current bed moisture. Low spray recycle ratios, whereas preferentialfluid viscosity. The roles of moisture, fluxes and fast drop penetration are segregation in disc granulators canfeed particle size and processing time required to prevent binder pooling produce very tight size distributionsare illustrated in Figure 3. Simultane- and defluidization. Poorly wetting of uniform spherical granules.ous drying or reaction usually acts to powders or binders of initially higharrest granule densification. viscosity are precluded. Consolidation Compaction and extrusionAttrition. Breakage and attrition of granules can be increased indepen- Compressive techniques of agglomera-play critical roles in defining a final dent of growth through increasing bed tion range from completely confinedagglomerated product quality as well height, bed moisture or process resi- compaction processes, as in case ofas final strength attributes for sub- dence time. The inherent stability of tabletting, to unconfined as in the case ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010 37
  • 50. ExamplE 2. Drum granulation ExamplE 3. StrESS tranSmiSSion For the drum granulation of ground iron ore feed (d = 5 µm, ρ = 3 g/cm3) and water (µ = 0.01 P) at a rotation rate (N) of 10 rpm, By way of example for an aspect ratio z/D equal to one the initial starting collisional velocity (uo) by relative shear and the for a cylindrical compact, with an effective powder friction viscous Stokes number are given by: δ equal to 40 deg and wall friction φ’ at 15 deg, let us de- termine the percentage of stress transmitted from an applied load using Janssen’s relation: (9) (12) (10) (13) (14) Where ω or N is the rotation rate; d is the average granule or particle di- ameter; ρ is the granule or particle density; and μ is the binder viscosity. For such a low value of Stv<<1, all the iron ore particles will adhere Where K is the lateral Janssen constant; μw is the wall fric- to one another provided local binding water is present. As granula- tion coefficient; D is the die diameter; z is the axial distance tion continues, diameter will increase along the growth curve given in from the applied load; and σz/σo is the ratio of axial to Figure 7, with the rate controlled by moisture level and rotation rate applied stress. (or solids residence time). This occurs until a transition limit of size is We obtain a ratio of top-applied punch stress to bottom reached where Stv approaches one. In this example, the limit is about punch stress of 79% when pressing from one side. Twenty 1 mm, after which growth of these granules continues by balling. In percent of this stress is lost to die wall friction, which could the presence of binder such as bentonite clay, larger diameters are result is large density variations (Figure 7) and delamination possible, as this will raise the effective viscosity of the binding solu- during unloading. In this case, a decrease in wall friction tion. Alternately, lowering drum speed will give a larger limit, but will (φ’) to 3 deg due to lubricants gives an approved stress ratio decrease the initial rate of growth. ❏ of 96%. ❏of roll pressing [2–4]. Due to the impor- mass feedrate can decrease substan- mission results in poor compact uni-tance of powder friction and compres- tially with increasing powder and wall formity, unnecessarily large compres-sion, we also include here wet extrusion friction, increasing powder cohesion, sion loads to compact weak zones, andtechniques, such as screw extrusion decreasing bulk-powder permeability, large residual radial stresses afterand pellet-type mills. The success of and decreasing opening size (small stress unloading, giving rise to flawsthese unit operations is determined by compacts). Reproducible powder feed- and delamination as well as large diethe ability of powders to freely flow, uni- ing is crucial to the smooth operation ejection forces.formly transmit stress, readily deaer- of compaction techniques. High pow- For a local zone of applied stress,ate, easily compact forming permanent der cohesion and low permeability can particles deform at their point con-interparticle bonding, and maintain lead to wide feed fluctuations and in tacts, including plastic deformation forbonding and strength during stress un- the worst case, can entirely arrest the forces in excess of the particle surfaceloading (Figure 6). These mechanisms flow. In fact, permeability plays a large hardness. This allows intimate con-are controlled in turn by the geometry role in determining maximum produc- tact at surface point contacts, allow-of the confined space, the nature of the tion rate in compaction processes. ing cohesion and adhesion to developapplied loads and the physical proper- Following the filling of a compres- between particles, and therefore inter-ties of the particulate material and of sion zone, stresses are applied to the facial bonding, which is a function ofthe confining walls. powder with the aim of forming inter- their interfacial surface energy. Both Powder filling and compact weight particle bonds. However, the frictional particle size and bond strength con-variability are strongly impacted properties of powders prevent a uni- trol final compact strength for a givenby bulk density control and powder form stress transmission. For a given compact density or voidage. Whileflowability, as well as any segregation applied load, wide distributions in local brittle fragmentation may also helptendencies of the feed [11–12]. In the pressure and the resulting density can increase compact density and pointscase of unassisted flow of free-flowing exist throughout the compact [13] as of interparticle bonding as well, in thecoarse material through an orifice of illustrated in Figure 7. The axial (σz) end some degree of plastic deformationdiameter B, the mass discharge rate is and radial (σr) stresses decrease expo- and interlocking is required to achievegiven by the Beverloo relation: nentially with axial distance, z, from some minimum compact strength. the applied load, σo. Successful compaction requires that a The ratio σz/σo may be taken as a minimum critical yield pressure be ex- (11) measure of stress uniformity, which ceeded to obtain significant strength.Here, ρb is bulk density, k equals 1.5 in practice increases toward unity for This yield pressure increases linearlyfor spherical particles, and dp is par- decreasing aspect ratio of the com- with particle hardness. Strength alsoticle size. This is a maximum achiev- pact, decreasing diameter, increasing increases linearly with compactionable filling rate, and it is a strong powder friction, and most important, pressure, with a slope inversely re-function of opening size, B. Carefully decreasing wall friction, as controlled lated to particle size.controlling gap distances for free flow- by the addition of lubricants (Figure During the short time scale of the ap-ing materials is critical. In practice, 7 and Example 3). Low stress trans- plied load, any entrapped air must es-38 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010
  • 51. P Plastic Transmission of Tablet density profile along tablet side deformation applied stress 1.6 P Highest pressure at applied load P > 3 hardness 0% MgS 1.5 0.25% MgS 1.4 1% MgS Density, mg/cc VH VH P L Interfacial P H H Compact properties M 1.3 bonding (Hardness and voidage) M M H Wc = 2γs f (Internal stress, voidage) 1.2 Top (applied load) L L Lowest pressure f (Operating variables 1.1 0 + material variables) P 1.0 80 Tablet delamination f (process design E Elastic Bottom + formulation design) 0.9 recovery 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Escape of E Top Pixel number (top to bottom) Bottom entrapped airFigure 6. The micro-level mechanisms of compac- Figure 7. The density along a lactose tablet edge (pixel number) istion are shown here [4] (letters in inset refer to levels shown as a function of level of magnesium stearate lubricant. The insetof pressure; low, high, medium and very high) photo is a near infrared (NIR) chemical image of a lactose tablet density [13]cape and a portion of the elastic strain duce die extrusion, with this pressure Ideally, the choice of equipment shouldenergy must be converted into perma- increasing with desired throughput. be made on the basis of the desired finalnent plastic deformation. The devel- On the other hand, the actual pressure product attributes. Agglomerate poros-oped air pressure will vary inversely that can be developed by the sliding ity is a very important consideration inwith permeability, and increase with action of the barrel from the reference that it impacts strength and attritioncompact size and production rate. Low frame of the screw flight decreases resistance, hardness, internal surfacepowder permeability and entrapped with increasing throughput and screw area, reactivity and dissolution rate.gas may act to later destroy perma- friction, and increases with decreasing The desired agglomerate appearancenent bonding, and generally lower al- barrel friction. Lastly, the rheologi- and size distribution, as well as the abil-lowable production rates. cal properties of the liquid phase are ity to utilize moisture or solvents are Upon stress removal, the compact equally important. Poor rheology can additional considerations. Wet granula-expands due to elastic recovery of the lead to separation of the fluid and solid tion produces low- to medium-densitymatrix, which is a function of elastic phases, large rises in pressure, and granules of varying sphericity. Bindersmodulus and expansion of any re- undesirable sharkskin-like surface ap- are typically utilized, and drying of sol-maining entrapped air. This can result pearance on the granulate, which is vents is required, with the associatedin loss of particle bonding and flaw prone to high attrition [3, 4]. energy and dust-air handling costs. Ifdevelopment, which is exacerbated These mechanisms of compaction denser agglomerates are required, dryfor variation in compaction stress due control the final flaw and density compaction or wet extrusion should beto poor stress transmission. The final distribution throughout the compact, considered, although it is worth notingstep of stress removal involves com- whether it is a roll-pressed, extruded that reasonably dense granules are pos-pact ejection, where any remaining or tabletted product; and as such, sible with two-stage mixer processing.radial elastic stresses are removed. If control compact strength, hardness, Dry compaction is suitable for moisturerecovery is substantial, it can lead to strength characteristics and dissolu- sensitive materials. Appearance con-capping or delamination of the com- tion behavior. Process performance siderations might suggest tabletting, orpact. Therefore, most materials have and developed compaction pressures wet granulation or extrusion combinedan allowable compaction pressure in extrusion and dry compaction with spheronizing for free-flowing,range, with a minimum pressure set equipment are very sensitive to pow- nearly spherical granules. ■by hardness, and a maximum by elas- der flow and mechanical properties Edited by Dorothy Lozowskitic and permeability effects. of the feed. These processes generally In the case of extrusion, both wet produce much denser compacts or ag- Authorand dry techniques are strongly influ- glomerates than wet granulation. Bryan J. Ennis is president of E&G Associates, Inc. (P.O. Boxenced by the frictional properties of 681268, Franklin, TN 37068;the particulate phase and wall. In wet Process equipment selection Phone: 615–591–7510; Email: bryan.ennis@powdernotes.extrusion, wet mass rheology and fric- The choice of agglomeration equipment com), a consulting firm thattion control the pressure needed to in- is subject to a variety of constraints. deals with particle processing and product development for a variety of industrial and gov-References ernmental clients. Ennis is an1. Ennis, B.J., On the Mechanics of Granulation, 6. Hapgood, K., “Nucleation & Binder Dis- agglomeration and solids han- Ph.D. Thesis, The City College of the City Uni- persion in Wet Granulation”, The Univ. of dling expert, who has taught versity of New York, University Microfilms In- Queensland, 2000. over 75 highly acclaimed engineering workshops ternational, No. 1416, 1990. 7. Kapur, Adv. Chem. Eng., 10, 55, 1978; and in the last 25 years. He received his B.S.Ch.E. Chem. Eng. Sci., 26,1093, 1971. from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and his2. Parikh, D., “Handbook of Pharmaceutical Ph.D. from The City College of New York. Ennis is Granulation Technology”, 3rd ed., Informa 8. Ennis, B., Tardos, G. and Pfeffer, R., Powder Tech., 65, 257, 1991. the editor of Section 21: Solid-Solids Operations Healthcare USA, N.Y., 2010. & Equipment of the Perry’s Chemical Engineers’3. Perry, R. and Green, D., “Perry’s Chemical En- 9. Tardos, G.I., Khan, M.I. and Mort, P.R., Pow- der Tech., 94, 245, 1997. Handbook (8th ed.) and a contributor to several gineers’ Handbook,” Section 21: Solids-Solids other powder technology handbooks. He served Processing, Ennis, B.J. (section Ed.), 8th ed., 10. Ennis, B.J. and Sunshine, G., Tribology Inter- as an adjunct professor at Vanderbilt University McGraw Hill, N.Y., 2005. national, 26, 319, 1993. and his honors include two national awards from4. Ennis, B.J., Design & Optimization of Granu- 11. Ennis, B.J., Measuring Powder Flowability, AIChE for service to the profession and founding lation Processes for Enhanced Product Perfor- E&G Associates, Nashville, Tenn. of the Particle Technology Forum. Ennis also runs mance, E&G Associates, Nashville, Tenn. 12. R. M. Nedderman, “Statics & Kinematics of bi-annual continuing education workshops in sol-5. Litster, J. and Ennis, B.J., “The Science & En- Granular Media”, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992. ids handling, wet granulation and compaction, gineering of Granulation Processes”, Kluwer 13. Ellison and others, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., and powder mixing as part of the E&G Powder Academic, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, 2004. Vol. 48, p.1, 2008. School (www.powdernotes.com). ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010 39
  • 52. Engineering Practice Feature Report OilPurifying 1 3 4 2Coke-Cooling CokeWastewater 7 5 FIGURE 1. Typical coke-cooling waste- water treatment system. 1–coke drum; A new method for treating coke-cooling 2–gravity settling pit; 3–cooling tower; 4–hot coke-cooling water pump; 5–water 6 wastewater in a delayed coking unit storage tank; 6–high-pressure pump; 7–coke settling pit OverflowZhi-shan Bai, Hua-lin Wang and Shan-Tung TuEast China University of Science and Technology FeedT he delayed coking process is a coke-cooling wastewater and offers fundamental part of the petro- a path toward cleaner petrochemical leum refining and petrochemi- production. cal industries, and is among themain technical means for transform- Delayed coking Inner spiraling inexpensive heavy oil into more Essentially, delayed coking is a high- Outer spiralvaluable, light-oil products. Delayed temperature process involving ex-coking units are common in petroleum tensive use of direct heat to generaterefineries, and the process has been higher-value products from crude oil.developed significantly as a heavy oil The coking process combines severeprocessing method in many countries, thermal cracking and condensationincluding China and the U.S. reactions, and requires a large amount FIGURE 2. Fluid The importance of delayed coking of high-grade energy. The process em- flow in a hydrocy-and its advanced development has ploys a heater designed to raise tem- clone occurs in anot, however, eliminated certain dis- peratures of the residual feedstock swirling fashion Underflowadvantages. The process uses high- above the coking point without sig-sulfur heavy oil as its raw material, nificant coke formation. The term “de- matic diagram is shown in Figure 1.and requires a large amount of cool- layed coking” is derived from the fact A de-oiling and clarifier system maying water. This wastewater is referred that an insulated coke drum is pro- be used before pumping water backto as “coke-cooling wastewater.” The vided for the heater effluent, so that to its storage tank. A cooling tower islarge volume of wastewater produced sufficient time is allowed for coking to used to lower the temperature of theby a delayed coking process at a typi- occur before subsequent processing. coke-cooling wastewater. The oil andcal petroleum refinery not only con- In delayed coking, heater effluent coke removal has traditionally beentains solid coke breeze (residue from flows into the coke drum in service. achieved by a gravity settling pit, butscreening heat-treated coke) and liq- When the drum is filled to within a safe the gravity-separating efficiency is lowuid heavy oil, but also contains organic margin of capacity, the heater efflu- at temperatures of around 85–125°C.and inorganic sulfides — all potential ent feed is switched to an empty coke Water containing fine coke and oilsources of environmental pollution. drum. The full drum is then isolated, can cause costly operational and main- The problem of cleaning coke-cool- steamed to remove hydrocarbon vapors, tenance problems. Solids can settle ining wastewater has vexed engineers and filled with cooling water. Next, the the water storage tank, requiring rou-for decades, but effective solutions drum is opened, drained and emptied, tine flushing or cleaning. The concen-have remained elusive. Without a low- yielding a petroleum coke product. All tration of fine coke then becomes abra-cost technique to treat coke-cooling the coke-cooling wastewater produced sive and can damage the high-pressurewastewater, environmentally inocuous by the delayed coking process nor- pump, coke drilling tools, as well asproduction of petroleum is impossible. mally drains from the coke solids and the control and water-isolation valves.The process discussed here represents is collected and recycled for drilling Damage to the pump and valves canan improved method for purifying and drum cooling. A water-flow sche- cause a unit outage or shutdown,40 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010
  • 53. Oil 1 7 4 6 2 5 Coke 8 3 Figure 5. A solid-liquid separating hydrocyclone helps prevent sulfur pol- lutants 9 then is pumped into the coke drum. After the separated oil phase (heavy Figure 3. Coke-cooling wastewater treatment system with hydro- cyclone. 1–coke drum; 2–hot coke-cooling wastewater tank; 3–coke oil) enters into an oil tank for further10 settling pit; 4–hot coke-cooling water pump; 5–solid-liquid separat- purification, it either returns to the ing hydrocyclone; 6–deoiling hydrocyclone; 7–oil tank; 8–air cooler; coke tower for reprocessing, or it is 9–water storage tank; 10–high-pressure pump stored in the oil tank to be pumped into the coke tower for eventual oil re- fining when needed. Hydrocyclone treatment A key component of the process is a single-stage, high-efficiency de-oiling hydrocyclone, a centrifugal separation device that, unlike other centrifugal machines, has no moving parts. The driving force for the separation comes from transforming the static energy of the fluid (fluid pressure) into dynamic energy (fluid velocity). Because of con- siderable research and development effort in this area, hydrocyclones are now widely used in various industries to separate two components of different densities. The devices were originally applied to particle-liquid separations,Figure 4. A de-oiling hydrocyclone is shown with an air cooler in a plant facility and have been used more recently for liquid-liquid and air-liquid separationwhich raises costs significantly. Since further separating the resulting liquid as an alternative to gravity-based con-the system is open to the atmosphere, phase into oil and water phases; and ventional separators. Hydrocyclonesthe oil and sulfides in the cooling tower discharging water from the oil phase. have several advantages that havewastewater become environmental The solid-liquid hydrocyclone sepa- led to wide industry acceptance. Thesepollutants via evaporation. rator (Figures 3–5) is deployed be- include the equipment’s ease of op- tween a coke-cooling hot wastewater eration, capability of generating highSeparating phases tank and an oil-water separator. The throughput, and requirements for lessTo move past the difficulties associ- coke-cooling wastewater is pumped maintenance and floor space.ated with purifying wastewater from into the hydrocyclone, wherein a ma- The hydrocyclone consists of cylin-delayed coking processes, we have jority of solid fine coke is separated drical and conical components. The liq-designed a closed process that offers from the coke-cooling wastewater at uid with suspended particles is injecteda reliable and cost-effective method separation efficiencies of up to 70–80%. tangentially through an inlet openingto treat wastewater from industrial Under stable operating conditions, the in the upper part of the cylindrical sec-cool-coking. The method comprises the separated fine coke is recycled back to tion. As a result of the tangential entry,following steps (Figure 2): cooling the the gravity settling pit for recovery. a strong swirling motion developswastewater mixture produced from After the separated water phase is within the hydrocyclone device.delayed coking to between 5 and 50°C; cooled by the air cooler to below 55°C, Figure 3 shows the fluid flow in liq-subjecting the cooled wastewater to a according to engineering require- uid-liquid hydrocyclones. As the fluidsolid-liquid separation step to obtain a ments, or preferably lower than 50°C, is injected tangentially at the top ofcoke breeze phase and a liquid phase; it enters the water storage tank, and the hydrocyclone, centrifugal forces ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010 41
  • 54. October 19 - 21, 2010 Reliant Center, Hall E HOUSTON, TEXAS ARE YOU IN ? CONNECTING WITH THE FUTURE OF THE GLOBAL CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES cpievent.com PRESENTED BY PRODUCED BY Chemicals & Petrochemicals. Petroleum Refining. PRESENTED BY PRODUCED BY Pulp & Paper. Nonferrous Metals.Stone, Clay, Glass & Ceramics. Food & Beverages. Rubber. S T R AT E G I C PA R T N E R S S T R AT E G I C PA R T N E R S
  • 55. Engineering Practice cooling wastewater. Among them is the cooling wastewater operations helps prevention of sulfur pollution and foul to solve several long-standing prob- odor while purifying wastewater. The lems associated with purifying the new system also saves energy and cost coke-cooling hot wastewater produced resources by improving the efficiency in cool coking processes. The method of cool coking. The system also has the enables cleaner production of petro- potential to reduce unit outage and chemicals through a closed system shutdown time. with pollution-free discharge. ■ Utilizing hydrocyclones in coke-  Edited by Scott Jenkins FIGURE 6. A de-oiling hydrocyclone helps improve coke-cooling efficiency accelerate particles toward the walls. The fluid’s spiral movement forces large or dense particles against the wall of the cyclone and they migrate downward toward the underflow. Fine, or low-density, particles are swept into a second inner spiral, which moves upward to the overflow. Figures 4–6 show the installation of the hydrocy- ICAL HEM clone and air cooler in the treatment EN C MPS WILD PU process for coke-cooling wastewater. WITH ANSFER TR Advantages The method and equipment of the new system have a host of advantages over previous treatment systems for coke- • Global leader in AODD pump chemical transfer Authors Zhi-shan Bai is a professor in the School of Mechanical • Pump range: 6mm (¼”) and Power Engineering at the East China University of through 203 mm (8”) Science and Technology (130 Meilong Road, Shanghai, China 200237; Phone: 86- • Broadest material offering 021-64252748; Email: fbaizs@ yahoo.com.cn). Bai’s research in the industry is focused on filtration and related separation processes. He has written numerous ar- • Pro-Flo X: Most efficient Air ticles on hydrocyclone separation. Shan-tung Tu is a professor Distribution System (ADS) in the School of Mechanical and Power Engineering at the in the industry East China University of Sci- ence and Technology. (Email: sttu@ecust.edu.cn). Tu has • Superior containment contributed considerably to the progress of design and life assessment methods of high- temperature structures, par- ticularly creep and fracture behavior of welded structures, mechanical reliability and development of novel heat transfer equipment. Hua-lin Wang is a professor in the School of Mechanical and Power Engineering at the East China University of Sci- ence and Technology. (Phone: 86-021-64252748; Email: www.pumpsg.com wanghl@ecust.edu.cn). Wang has contributed to the prog- ress of liquid-liquid and liq- 22069 VAN BUREN STREET • GRAND TERRACE, CA 92313-5607 uid-solid separation methods for the chemical engineering (909) 422-1730 • FAX (909) 783-3440 industry. The hydrocyclone w i l d e n p u m p . c o m technology has been applied in various chemical engineering units. Circle 25 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-25 Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 2009 43 WildenChemicalAd_4.625x7.375.ind1 1 4/30/09 1:44:40 PM15_CHE_030110_EP1_SJ.indd 43 2/26/10 8:09:06 AM
  • 56. 10,000 Equation Data Solubility of water in compound, ppm(wt) Engineering Practice Feature Report 1,000 Solubility of Water in 100 Benzene Derivatives 10 Solubility and Henry’s Law constants for water 1 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 in benzene and its derivatives Boiling point, K Figure 1. Solubility correlation with boiling points for benzene derivatives. Carl L. Yaws and Manish Rahate, Correlation for water solubility shown in Figure 1 for benzene deriva- Lamar University In earlier work by Yaws and coworkers tives. The data of Englin [4] and Polak [22, 25], the solubility of hydrocarbons and Lu [9], which are applicable at T he solubility of water in the hy- and other chemicals in water was cor- ambient temperature, were selected drocarbons that comprise crude related as a function of the boiling point for the graph. The graph reveals favor- oil is an increasingly important of the compound. In this present work, able agreement between correlation issue in view of processing, safety it was determined that the boiling point values and experimental data. and environmental considerations sur- method was also applicable for correla- rounding product quality and equip- tion of solubility of water in benzene Henry’s Law constant ment sustainability. Water in the re- derivatives: The results for solubility of water and acting hydrocarbon species may result Henry’s Law constant are given in log10(S) = A + B × TB (1) in the formation of undesirable by- Table 1. In the tabulation, the results products. The presence of water in the where: for Henry’s Law constant are based on product may be detrimental to quality. S =  olubility of water in compound s water solubility and vapor pressure at Water content at high enough levels at 25°C, ppm by weight ambient conditions using the appropri- in the products of a given hydrocarbon B =  oiling point temperature of T b ate thermodynamic relationships [22]. process may render the products unu- compound (K) A compilation by Yaws [24] was used seable by the customer. When chemi- A = 3.780 for vapor pressure. The presented val- cal processes involve lowering tem- B = –2.720 × 10–3 ues are applicable for water in a wide peratures to values near the freezing The correlation applies to boiling variety of benzene derivatives (normal point of water, solids (ice or hydrates) point temperatures in a range from and branching). can form. Such solid formation will about 280K to 590K. The tabulated values are based on affect both the fluid flow in piping as The coefficients (A and B) for the both experimental data and estimates. well as the operational characteristics correlation were determined from re- In the absence of data, the estimates of process equipment. For catalytic re- gression of the available data. In pre- for isomers and large-sized compounds actions, water in the hydrocarbon may paring the correlation, a literature (compounds larger than C10) should poison the catalyst that promotes the search was conducted to identify data be considered rough values, useful for desired reaction. source publications [1–25]. Excellent initial analysis. If initial analysis is fa- To illustrate the importance of water compilations by Englin and others vorable, follow-up experimental deter- solubility in hydrocarbons, we offer [4], Glasoe and Schultz [5], Jones and mination is recommended. the results of solubility studies involv- Monk [6], Polak and Lu [9], IUPAC The results are presented in a tab- ing water in benzene derivatives. The [10–14] and Sorensen and Artl [16] ular format, which is especially ap- results for both solubility and Henry’s were consulted for solubility of water. plicable for rapid engineering usage Law constant for water are provided The compilation by Yaws [23] was with the personal computer or hand in an easy‑to‑use tabular format for used for boiling point temperature. calculator. The tabulation is arranged a wide variety of benzene derivatives The publications were screened and by carbon number (C6, C7, C8...). This contained in crude oil. copies of appropriate data were made. provides ease-of-use in quickly locat- A new correlation for solubility of These data were then keyed into the ing data using the chemical formula. water is also presented. It provides computer to provide a database for reliable solubility values down to which experimental data are avail- Applying the data low concentrations (parts per million able. The database also served as a The results for solubility and Henry’s range). The correlation is based on basis to check the accuracy of the cor- Law constant are useful in engineer- the boiling point temperature of the relation. ing applications involving water in hydrocarbon. Correlation values and The solubility of water versus boil- benzene derivatives. Examples are experimental data agree favorably. ing point temperature of compounds is shown below. 44 Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 201016_CHE_030110_EP2_SCJ.indd 44 2/26/10 8:20:28 AM
  • 57. Table 1. Solubility of Water In Benzene Derivatives Solubility of Water (S),       Henry’s Law Constant (H) parts per million (ppm) S @25°C, S @25°C, H @ 25°C, H @ 25°C, No. ID FORMULA NAME CAS No. TB (K) ppm ppm code atm/mol code atm/mol/m3 (wt) (mol) frac 1 7339 C6H6 benzene 71-43-2 353.24 691.88 3000.00 1 10.45 1.8804 × 10–4 1,2 2 11216 C7H8 toluene 108-88-3 383.78 541.78 2771.00 1 11.31 2.0358 × 10–4 1,2 3 14332 C8H10 ethylbenzene 100-41-4 409.35 441.01 2599.00 1 12.06 2.1706 × 10–4 1,2 4 14333 C8H10 o-xylene 95-47-6 417.58 454.93 2681.00 1 11.69 2.1042 × 10–4 1,2 5 14334 C8H10 m-xylene 108-38-3 412.27 431.17 2541.00 1 12.33 2.2201 × 10–4 1,2 6 14335 C8H10 p-xylene 106-42-3 411.51 438.97 2587.00 1 12.11 2.1806 × 10–4 1,2 7 17591 C9H12 cumene 98-82-8 425.56 347.73 2320.00 1 13.51 2.4316 × 10–4 1,2 8 17592 C9H12 m-ethyltoluene 620-14-4 434.48 396.47 2645.23 2 11.85 2.1326 × 10–4 1,2 9 17593 C9H12 o-ethyltoluene 611-14-3 438.33 387.03 2582.21 2 12.14 2.1847 × 10–4 1,2 10 17594 C9H12 p-ethyltoluene 622-96-8 435.16 394.79 2633.99 2 11.90 2.1417 × 10–4 1,2 11 17595 C9H12 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene 526-73-8 449.27 361.40 2411.21 2 13.00 2.3396 × 10–4 1,2 12 17596 C9H12 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene 95-63-6 442.53 376.98 2515.17 2 12.46 2.2429 × 10–4 1,2 13 17597 C9H12 trimethylbenzene 25551-13-7 445.00 371.19 2476.56 2 12.65 2.2779 × 10–4 1,2 14 17598 C9H12 mesitylene 108-67-8 437.89 332.74 2220.00 1 14.12 2.5411 × 10–4 1,2 15 17599 C9H12 propylbenzene 103-65-1 432.39 401.70 2680.09 2 11.69 2.1049 × 10–4 1,2 16 20487 C10H14 butylbenzene 104-51-8 456.46 387.89 2890.00 1 10.84 1.9520 × 10–4 1,2 17 20488 C10H14 isobutylbenzene 538-93-2 445.94 369.01 2749.35 2 11.40 2.0519 × 10–4 1,2 18 20489 C10H14 sec-butylbenzene 135-98-8 446.48 370.58 2761.00 1 11.35 2.0432 × 10–4 1,2 19 20490 C10H14 tert-butylbenzene 98-06-6 442.30 339.71 2531.00 1 12.38 2.2289 × 10–4 1,2 20 20491 C10H14 cymene 25155-15-1 449.50 360.88 2688.73 2 11.66 2.0981 × 10–4 1,2 21 20492 C10H14 m-cymene 535-77-3 448.23 363.76 2710.20 2 11.56 2.0815 × 10–4 1,2 22 20493 C10H14 o-cymene 527-84-4 451.33 356.77 2658.09 2 11.79 2.1223 × 10–4 1,2 23 20494 C10H14 p-cymene 99-87-6 450.28 359.17 2676.00 1 11.71 2.1081 × 10–4 1,2 24 20495 C10H14 1-methyl-2-propylbenzene 1074-17-5 457.95 342.28 2550.13 2 12.29 2.2122 × 10–4 1,2 25 20496 C10H14 1-methyl-3-propylbenzene 1074-43-7 454.95 348.77 2598.50 2 12.06 2.1710 × 10–4 1,2 26 20497 C10H14 1-methyl-4-propylbenzene 1074-55-1 456.45 345.51 2574.20 2 12.17 2.1915 × 10–4 1,2 27 20498 C10H14 (S)-(1-methylpropyl)benzene 5787-28-0 457.10 344.11 2563.76 2 12.22 2.2004 × 10–4 1,2 28 20499 C10H14 diethylbenzene 25340-17-4 455.05 348.55 2596.87 2 12.07 2.1723 × 10–4 1,2 29 20500 C10H14 o-diethylbenzene 135-01-3 456.61 345.16 2571.62 2 12.19 2.1937 × 10–4 1,2 30 20501 C10H14 m-diethylbenzene 141-93-5 454.29 350.21 2609.26 2 12.01 2.1620 × 10–4 1,2 31 20502 C10H14 p-diethylbenzene 105-05-5 456.94 344.45 2566.31 2 12.21 2.1982 × 10–4 1,2 32 20503 C10H14 3-ethyl-o-xylene 933-98-2 467.11 323.19 2407.95 2 13.02 2.3428 × 10–4 1,2 33 20504 C10H14 4-ethyl-o-xylene 934-80-5 462.93 331.76 2471.82 2 12.68 2.2822 × 10–4 1,2 34 20505 C10H14 2-ethyl-m-xylene 2870-04-4 463.19 331.23 2467.80 2 12.70 2.2860 × 10–4 1,2 35 20506 C10H14 4-ethyl-m-xylene 874-41-9 461.59 334.56 2492.65 2 12.57 2.2632 × 10–4 1,2 36 20507 C10H14 5-ethyl-m-xylene 934-74-7 456.93 344.47 2566.48 2 12.21 2.1981 × 10–4 1,2 37 20508 C10H14 2-ethyl-p-xylene 1758-88-9 459.98 337.95 2517.92 2 12.45 2.2405 × 10–4 1,2 38 20509 C10H14 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene 488-23-3 478.19 301.52 2246.52 2 13.95 2.5111 × 10–4 1,2 39 20510 C10H14 1,2,3,5-tetramethylbenzene 527-53-7 471.15 315.12 2347.79 2 13.35 2.4028 × 10–4 1,2 40 20511 C10H14 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene 95-93-2 469.99 317.41 2364.91 2 13.25 2.3854 × 10–4 1,2 41 22958 C11H16 pentylbenzene 538-68-1 478.61 300.73 2474.77 2 12.66 2.2795 × 10–4 1,2 42 22959 C11H16 2-phenylpentane 2719-52-0 463.15 331.31 2726.38 2 11.50 2.0692 × 10–4 1,2 43 22960 C11H16 3-phenylpentane 1196-58-3 464.15 329.24 2709.36 2 11.57 2.0822 × 10–4 1,2 44 22961 C11H16 1-phenyl-2-methylbutane 3968-85-2 470.15 317.10 2609.44 2 12.01 2.1619 × 10–4 1,2 45 22962 C11H16 1-phenyl-3-methylbutane 2049-94-7 472.05 313.35 2578.57 2 12.15 2.1878 × 10–4 1,2 46 22963 C11H16 2-phenyl-2-methylbutane 2049-95-8 465.53 326.41 2686.04 2 11.67 2.1002 × 10–4 1,2 47 22964 C11H16 2-phenyl-3-methylbutane 4481-30-5 461.15 335.48 2760.75 2 11.35 2.0434 × 10–4 1,2 48 22965 C11H16 1-phenyl-2,2-dimethylpropane 1007-26-7 459.15 339.71 2795.55 2 11.21 2.0180 × 10–4 1,2 49 23006 C11H16 1,2,4-trimethyl-6-ethylbenzene --- 486.15 286.86 2360.62 2 13.28 2.3897 × 10–4 1,2 50 23007 C11H16 1,3,5-trimethyl-2-ethylbenzene 3982-67-0 485.55 303.80 2500.00 1 12.54 2.2565 × 10–4 1,2 51 23008 C11H16 pentamethylbenzene 700-12-9 504.55 255.64 2103.68 2 14.90 2.6816 × 10–4 1,2 52 25025 C12H18 hexylbenzene 1077-16-3 499.26 264.25 2380.29 2 13.17 2.3700 × 10–4 1,2 53 25026 C12H18 1,4-dipropylbenzene 4815-57-0 481.77 294.85 2655.92 2 11.80 2.1240 × 10–4 1,2 54 25027 C12H18 diisopropylbenzene 25321-09-9 473.60 310.32 2795.28 2 11.21 2.0182 × 10–4 1,2 55 25032 C12H18 1,2,3-triethylbenzene 42205-08-3 490.66 278.87 2512.01 2 12.48 2.2457 × 10–4 1,2 56 25033 C12H18 1,2,4-triethylbenzene 877-44-1 491.15 278.02 2504.32 2 12.51 2.2526 × 10–4 1,2 57 25034 C12H18 1,3,5-triethylbenzene 102-25-0 489.05 281.70 2537.47 2 12.35 2.2232 × 10–4 1,2 58 25043 C12H18 1,2,4-trimethyl-5-isopropylbenzene 10222-95-4 494.15 272.84 2457.70 2 12.75 2.2954 × 10–4 1,2 59 25044 C12H18 4-tert-butyl-o-xylene 7397-06-0 478.15 301.60 2716.75 2 11.54 2.0765 × 10–4 1,2 60 25046 C12H18 hexamethylbenzene 87-85-4 536.60 209.15 1883.93 2 16.64 2.9944 × 10–4 1,2 61 25049.1 C12H18 2,4,6-trimethyl-1-propylbenzene --- 494.15 298.24 2686.50 1 11.67 2.0999 × 10–4 1,2 62 26983 C13H20 heptylbenzene 1078-71-3 519.25 233.15 2281.72 2 13.74 2.4724 × 10–4 1,2 63 26984 C13H20 1-methyl-2,4-diisopropylbenzene 1460-98-6 497.15 267.76 2620.44 2 11.96 2.1528 × 10–4 1,2 64 28365 C14H22 octylbenzene 2189-60-8 537.55 207.90 2196.51 2 14.27 2.5683 × 10–4 1,2 65 28366 C14H22 1,2,3,4-tetraethylbenzene 642-32-0 524.16 226.09 2388.66 2 13.12 2.3617 × 10–4 1,2 (Continues on p. 46) Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 2010 4516_CHE_030110_EP2_SCJ.indd 45 2/26/10 8:21:15 AM
  • 58. Table 1. Solubility of Water In Benzene Derivatives (Continued) Solubility of Water (S),       Henry’s Law Constant (H) parts per million (ppm) S @25°C, S @25°C, H @ 25°C, H @ 25°C, No. ID FORMULA NAME CAS No. TB (K) ppm ppm code atm/mol code atm/mol/m3 (wt) (mol) frac 66 28367 C14H22 1,2,3,5-tetraethylbenzene 38842-05-6 522.00 229.17 2421.20 2 12.94 2.3300 × 10–4 1,2 67 28368 C14H22 1,2,4,5-tetraethylbenzene 635-81-4 523.16 227.51 2403.67 2 13.04 2.3470 × 10–4 1,2 68 28369 C14H22 1,4-di-tert-butylbenzene 1012-72-2 510.43 246.39 2603.16 2 12.04 2.1671 × 10–4 1,2 69 29455 C15H24 nonylbenzene 1081-77-2 555.20 186.15 2111.58 2 14.84 2.6716 × 10–4 1,2 70 29456 C15H24 1,2,4-triisopropylbenzene 948-32-3 517.15 236.24 2679.81 2 11.70 2.1051 × 10–4 1,2 71 29457 C15H24 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene 717-74-8 511.15 245.29 2782.43 2 11.26 2.0275 × 10–4 1,2 72 29458 C15H24 3,5-di-tert-butyltoluene 15181-11-0 517.15 236.24 2679.81 2 11.70 2.1051 × 10–4 1,2 73 30357 C16H26 decylbenzene 104-72-3 571.04 168.57 2043.41 2 15.34 2.7607 × 10–4 1,2 74 30358 C16H26 pentaethylbenzene 605-01-6 550.16 192.12 2328.89 2 13.46 2.4223 × 10–4 1,2 75 30361 C16H26 (1-methylnonyl)benzene 4537-13-7 562.65 177.66 2153.65 2 14.55 2.6194 × 10–4 1,2 76 30361.1 C16H26 (2,4,6-trimethylheptane)benzene --- 562.65 202.52 2455.00 1 12.77 2.2979 × 10–4 1,2 77 31034 C17H28 undecylbenzene 6742-54-7 586.40 153.11 1975.20 2 15.87 2.8561 × 10–4 1,2 78 31730 C18H30 dodecylbenzene 123-01-3 600.76 139.94 1914.27 2 16.37 2.9470 × 10–4 1,2 79 31731 C18H30 hexaethylbenzene 604-88-6 571.16 168.44 2304.17 2 13.60 2.4483 × 10–4 1,2 80 31732 C18H30 1,2,4,5-tetraisopropylbenzene 635-11-0 532.15 215.06 2941.86 2 10.65 1.9176 × 10–4 1,2 Code: 1 = data, 2 = estimate TB — boiling point temperature, K Example 1. In hydrocarbon pro- log10(S) = 3.780 – 2.720 × 10–3 × 383.78 From thermodynamics at low pressure, cessing, toluene (C7H8) comes into = 2.73612 the vapor concentration is given by: contact with water at ambient con- S = 544.65 ppm (wt.) y = H / (Ptot × X) ditions (25°C, 1 atm). Organic and Example 2. Consider a toluene (C7H8) where: aqueous phases are separated. Es- spill into a body of water at ambient H = Henry’s Law constant timate the concentration of water conditions (25°C, 1 atm). After separa- X = mole fraction at saturation in the toluene after tion, the concentration of water in the Ptot = total pressure separation. toluene at the surface is 0.00277 mole Substitution of Henry’s Law con- Substituting coefficients and boiling fraction. Estimate the concentration stant from the table, total pressure Chemical Engineering e 86x123_2010.qxd:Mu llerGmbh_e.qxd points into Equation (1) yields: of water in the vapor at the surface. (Ptot= 1 atm) and liquid concentration Chemical Engineering e 1_6 Messe 86x123 03/2010 POWTECH NÜRNBERG from 27.04.-29.04.2010 Hall 9 / Stand 316 Transferring potent or toxic substances? Müller Containment Valve MCV – Suitable for OEB 4 (OEL 1–10 µg/m3) – Available sizes: DN 100, DN 150, DN 200 and DN 250 – Pressure-tight version up to 3 bar – Vacuum-tight version down to –1 bar – Explosion-proof to ATEX for Zone 0/20 – Easy-to-wipe flat surfaces – AISI 316 L stainless steel, Hastelloy available on request – GMP-compliant design Müller GmbH - 79 618 Rheinfelden (Germany) Industrieweg 5 - Tel. +49 (0) 76 23 / 969-0 - Fax +49 (0) 76 23 / 969-69 A Company of the Müller-Group info@mueller-gmbh.com - www.mueller-gmbh.com Circle 19 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-19 Circle 26 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-26 46 Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 201016_CHE_030110_EP2_SCJ.indd 46 2/26/10 8:22:03 AM
  • 59. Engineering Practice into the above equation yields: References 14. Solubility Data Series, IUPAC-NIST, D. G. Shaw and A. Maczynski, eds., 81. Hydrocar- y = 11.31 / (1 × 0.00277) = 0.0313 1. Chen, H. and Wagner, J. J. Chem. Eng. Data, 39, 470. 1994. bons with Water and Seawater – Revised y = 3.13 mol %  ■ 2. Chen, H. and Wagner, J. J. Chem. Eng. Data, and Updated. Part 11. C13-C36 Hydrocar- 39, 475. 1994. bons with Water, J. Phy. Chem. Ref. Data, 35, Edited by Scott Jenkins 3. Chen, H. and Wagner, J. J. Chem. Eng. Data, 687-784. 2006. 39, 679. 1994. 15. Solubility Data Series, IUPAC-NIST, Shaw, Authors 4. Englin, B. A. and others, Khim. Tekhnol. Topl. D.G. and Maczynski, A. eds., 81. Hydrocar- Massel, 9, 42. 1965. bons with Water and Seawater – Revised Carl L. Yaws is a professor and Updated. Part 12. C5-C26 Hydrocarbons of chemical engineering at 5. Glasoe, P. K. and Schultz, S.D. J. Chem. Eng. Data, 17, 66. 1972. with Seawater, J. Phy. Chem. Ref. Data, 35, Lamar University in Beau- 785-838. 2006. mont, Tex. (Email: clyaws@ 6. Jones, J. R. and Monk, C.B. J. Chem. Soc., 2633. 1963. 16. Sorensen, J. M. and Artl, W. Liquid-Liquid my.lamar.edu). Yaws holds Equilibrium Data Collection, Vol. V, part bachelor’s, master’s and doc- 7. Marche, C., De Hemptinne, J.C. and Jose, J. J. Chem. Eng. Data, 51, 355. 2006. 1, Dechema Chemistry Data Series, 6000 toral degrees from Texas A&I Frankfurt/Main, Germany. 1979. University and University of 8. Moule, D. C. and Thurston, W.M. Can. J. Houston. A registered profes- Chem., 44, 1361. 1966. 17. Stavely, L.A.K., Johns, L.G.S. and Moore, sional engineer (Texas), he is 9. Polak, J. and Lu, B.C.Y. Can. J. Chem., 51, B.C. J. Chem. Soc., 2516. 1951. the author of 30 books and 4018. 1973. 18. Tsonopoulos, C. and Wilson, G.M. AIChE J., has published more than 640 10. Solubility Data Series, IUPAC, Vol. 37, Hy- 29, 990. 1983. technical papers. His research interests include drocarbons with Water and Seawater, Part 1 19. Tsonopoulos, C., Heidman, J.L. and others. technology development, thermodynamic and – Hydrocarbons C5 to C7, Pergamon Press, AIChE J., 31, 376. 1985. transport property data, environmental engi- Oxford, England. 1989. 20. Tsonopoulos, C., Economou, I.G. and others., neering and process simulation. 11. Solubility Data Series, IUPAC, Vol. 38, Hy- AIChE J., 43, 535. 1997. Manish Rahate is a gradu- drocarbons with Water and Seawater, Part 1 21. Tsonopoulos, C., Fluid Phase Equilib., 186, ate student working on a – Hydrocarbons C8 to C36, Pergamon Press, 185. 2001. master’s degree in environ- Oxford, England. 1989. 22. Yaws, C.L. “Chemical Properties Handbook,” mental engineering at Lamar 12. Solubility Data Series, IUPAC-NIST, Shaw, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, N.Y. 1999. University. He is a recipient of D.G. and Maczynski, A. eds., 81. Hydrocarbons with Water and Seawater – Revised and Up- 23. Yaws, C. L., “Yaws Handbook of Physical an engineering scholarship in Properties for Hydrocarbons and Chemicals,” the Civil Engineering Depart- dated. Part 9. C10 Hydrocarbons with Water, J. Phy. Chem. Ref. Data, 35, 93-151. 2006. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Tex. 2005. ment at Lamar. His research interests are in thermody- 13. Solubility Data Series, IUPAC-NIST, Shaw, 24. Yaws, C.L. “Yaws Handbook of Vapor Pressu- namics, environmental engi- D.G. and Maczynski, A. eds., 81. Hydrocar- ree — Antoine Coefficients,” Gulf Publishing neering and water treatment. bons with Water and Seawater – Revised Co., Houston, Tex. 2007. He earned a bachelor’s degree and Updated. Part 10. C11 and C12 Hydro- 25. Yaws, C.L., “Yaws Handbook of Properties at Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology carbons with Water, J. Phy. Chem. Ref. Data, for Environmental and Green Engineering,” in Nagpur, India. 35, 153-204. 2006. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Tex. 2008. Psst ... SoundPLAN is recognized around the globe as the LIST leader in noise evaluation and mapping software. We give you cutting edge noise-control innovations with fast calculations and striking graphics that are easy to understand. It’s all designed to help you manage potential noise problems before they arise, keeping your project on budget and on time. Software is available in English, Asian & European languages. And we are proud to offer expert, local support for your technical and sales needs. Let us introduce you to SoundPLAN— CONTACT US FOR A FREE DEMO CD Call today +1 360 432 9840 www.soundplan.com Circle 27 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-27 Circle 28 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-28 Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 2010 4716_CHE_030110_EP2_SCJ.indd 47 2/26/10 8:23:16 AM
  • 60. Engineering Practice Feature ReportWould You Use a SafetyPLC for Process Control? Community emergency response Ensure unambiguous independence Plant emergency response of the control and safety Physical protection (containment) Physical protection layers of protection (relief devices) Automatic SIS Critical alarms and manual interventionRobin McCrea-Steele Basic controlInvensys Operations Management Basic designW ith today’s state-of-the-art Figure 1. The digital technology, the sky layers of protec- seems to be the limit for tion for a chemical doing everything with one plant, including both con-system platform. However, with the trol and safety, should beexception of a few very specific appli- unambiguously independentcations, using a safety PLC (program-mable logic controller) for process con-trol is not a good choice. Safety PLCs the mode of operation tend to reveal Think of your DCS as a Ferrariare designed and optimized to operate the failures to plant operators. Inter- Testarossa with a 12-cylinder enginein a static environment, where action nal failures in safety systems, on the optimized to perform at 200 mph andis only taken when a process variable other hand, may be overt but also can designed with the goal of crossing theapproaches an unsafe region and can- be covert and dangerous, because they finish line first. Now think of yournot be controlled by a process control are masked due to the static mode of safety system as a Volvo optimized tosystem, such as a distributed control operation. If the internal auto-diag- perform best at 65 mph and designedsystem (DCS). Similarly, in the re- nostics of the safety system cannot de- with all the airbags and safety featuresverse situation, a DCS should not be tect a dangerous failure, it will be re- for secure transportation. With this inused for ESD (emergency shutdown) vealed either by online external proof mind, you would not likely think ofsafety applications. testing or by a process demand. The driving your kids to school in a modi- It is very important to understand latter is the critical issue, because re- fied car based on a design optimized tothat the design requirements for a vealing a dangerous covert failure by run at incredibly high speeds revvingsafety PLC operating in a static, vigi- a process demand mostly realizes the at 7,500 rpm, nor would you dream oflant mode rely on a very high level of hazard being protected against, with racing in a “juiced-up” Volvo sedan.online auto-diagnostics while operat- consequent release of energy that may In this article, we discuss the ad-ing in a fail-safe manner. The internal result in fires, explosions, injuries, loss vantages and disadvantages of usingauto-diagnostic routines are continu- of life and other safety incidents. a common platform approach forally toggling the discrete values to as- As can be derived from the above safety and control, while adheringsure that the devices will operate when discussion, the design requirements to the spirit of IEC 61511/ANSI ISAa process demand requires action. for a safety system and a process con- S84.00.01 standards and good engi- Conversely, control systems are de- trol system are completely opposing neering practices in the chemical pro-signed and optimized to operate in a and conflicting. Chemical engineers cess industries (CPI).dynamic environment, in which mea- responsible for operating potentiallysurements and actions are continu- hazardous process plants should be Independent protection layersous and operators and engineers have aware of these differences when en- The basis for the concept of defenseless rigorous constraints on access for countering vendors that have not been in depth and diversity (D3) and inde-tweaking and changing settings. traditional players in the safety arena, pendent protection layers (IPL) at the Internal failures in control systems but now design safety systems based heart of all the international safetyare usually overt, as the dynamics of on their existing DCS platforms. standards (including IEC 61508 and48 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010
  • 61. Plant response AIChE-CCPS “GuIdElInES for SAfE And rElIAblE community response ProtECtIvE SyStEmS” SECtIon C C.1 Independence. For a protection layer to be considered independent, its performance should not be affected by the occurrence of the initiating cause, its consequences, or by the failure of another protective function used to reduce the risk of the same hazardous Containment dike, bunker, event. The correct operation of the protection layer should not be conditional on any and so on other layer, and its separation from other layers should be unambiguous. C.2 Functionality. The protection layer must be capable of responding effectively within the time required by stopping the propagation of the initiating cause, even in the pres- Safety relief valve ence of other protection layer failures. This requirement along with the core attribute Rupture disk, of independence generally results in the use of separate equipment and management and so on systems for each protection layer.* The reduction of the system to its individual functions allows function classification Automatic SIS SIS and provides traceability between the design and management of the function and the required risk reduction. ❏ *Emphasis by author Operator Alarms intervention separate and diverse safety system, 9.5, addresses the requirements for there is inherent, built-in protection preventing common-cause, common- from these risks. mode and dependent failures. Clause Each IPL is designed to indepen- 9.5.2 states that the assessment shall Process variable BPCS dently protect against the hazard for consider (a) independency between which it has been designed to safe- protection layers, (b) diversity between guard. Figure 2 summarizes the key protection layers, (c) physical separa- factors in effective IPLs. From a pro- tion between protection layers and (d)Figure 2. Each independent protection cess safety point of view, one of the du- common-cause failures between pro-layer (IPL) is designed to independently ties of the DCS is to reduce the num- tection layers and the BPCS.protect against specific hazards. Shown ber of demands on the SIS. A demand The question is how to conform tohere are the specific characteristics oftrue layer and action independence on the SIS implies that the control clause 11.2.4 without physical and system has failed to keep the process diverse separation. Systematic, com- within the safety margin and the pro- mon-cause and software errors formANSI ISA 84.00.01-2004 [IEC 61511 cess is now relying on the SIS to pro- an integral component of the overallMod]), is that every layer of protection, tect against the hazard. safety assessment.as shown in Figure 1, including both In essence, with truly, unambigu- The recently published AIChEcontrol and safety, should be unambig- ously independent protection layers, Center for Chemical Process Safetyuously independent. Some of the rea- the potential hazard will occur “only (CCPS) book, titled “Guidelines forsons for this basic requirement are to when both the BPCS (basic process Safe and Reliable Protective Systems”avoid common cause faults, minimize control system) and the SIS fail”. cautions that the international safetysystematic errors and provide security However, if the IPLs are not truly standards are performance bench-against unintentional access, sabotage independent, systematic errors and marks for minimum requirements.and cyber-attacks. common-cause faults could result It further defines in Section C, p. 301 If two IPLs are designed based on in both the DCS and SIS failing si- that “independence, functionality, in-the same hardware-software platform, multaneously, which could lead to a tegrity, reliability, auditability, accessthe effect of common-cause and sys- safety incident. security and management of changetematic errors is a merge of two lay- are fundamental characteristics of aners of protection, leading to a safety Interpreting safety standards independent protection layer (IPL).”incident waiting to happen. It is not IEC 61511-1 clause 11.2.4 states that This section, shown in the Box above,enough to separate the safety func- the BPCS shall be designed to be explains why a safety logic solver thattions in a functionally separate mod- separate and independent to the ex- is embedded within the same platformule if the hardware and software are tent that the functional integrity of as the control system, even if it usingbased on the same DCS platform. the SIS is not compromised. The cau- separate modules, does not meet the Regarding the cyber-security risks, if tion here is that these are minimum requirements of an independent layerthe DCS and SIS (safety instrumented benchmark requirements and may of protection.system) are sharing communication not provide adequate risk reduction innetworks, as in network traces on many CPI applications. Still, several Is TÜV certification enough?DCS-controller backplane-embedded automation vendors have interpreted International safety-application stan-systems, the amount of risk that the the above clause 11.2.4 to mean that dards require that manufacturers doc-SIS is exposed to by the outside world, the standard does not require physi- ument compliance of SIS logic solversnetwork is heightened by the number cal separation or diversity. Such a to IEC61508. Some people may thinkof viruses or other maladies that the conclusion is dangerous. that a third-party certificate of equip-DCS network might encounter. However, another section of the ment compliance based on such stan- On the other hand, with a physically same standard IEC 61511-1, clause dards is sufficient. A TÜV certificate ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010 49
  • 62. AIChE-CCPS “GuIdElInES for SAfE And rElIAblE ProtECtIvE SyStEmS” SECtIon f Engineering Practice Section F.2.3: Future Technology Most owner/operators continue the practice of implementing separate, and often di- verse, platforms for the BPCS and SIS*, following the well-proven, defense in depth strat-of compliance goes a long way, and al- egy that supports both safety and reliability. With a physically separate BPCS controllerthough essential, it should not be the and SIS logic solver, independence is easier to assess and manage over the processonly criterion. The ultimate responsi- equipment lifetime. Independence allows the owner/operator to implement differentbility for documentation lies with the management systems for the BPCS and the SIS; the BPCS management system may beplant operating company’s manage- more flexible and less rigorous than the SIS management systems.ment, not the vendor. A third-party certificate of compli- Section F.3.5: Logic Solver Separationance for the SIS logic solver will vali- The interaction between the BPCS and SIS is now much more complex. Field devices aredate the design and fail-safe suitabil- often shared as discussed in Section F.4, and there may be extensive communication between the systems as discussed in Section F.6. However, experienced engineers andity for use in a safety instrumented many good engineering practices continue to recommend implementing the SIS in afunction up to the SIL (safety integ- physically separate logic solver from the control functions.rity level) claim limit. For systems A major justification for separation is reduced long-term administrative costs. Whenwhere the SIS logic solver hardware layers are combined, the management systems of the highest layer applies. Meansand software is based on the same should be provided to restrict access, to limit communication to other systems and toplatform as the control system (DCS), control system changes. Generally the cost of separation is significantly less than thethe certification will validate the fact administrative cost to maintain the required rigor. The administrative rigor must bethat failures in the DCS will not affect maintained for the life of the system, including the provision for necessary resources tothe SIS safety functions. verify and audit compliance. The first deficiency is that the cer- Adequate separation is achieved by administrative controls and physical means. Phys- ical separation is provided at the system level by executing the functions in separate and,tification does nothing to avoid the often diverse logic solvers. Access security and management of change is enhanced bycommon-cause failures of the SIS and physically separate systems. When the BPCS is physically separate from the SIS, theDCS, which are based on the same need to access the SIS is reduced and the BPCS can be managed under a less rigoroushardware-software platform. Nor does management system.the certification say anything about Separation ensures that the BPCS and SIS are not dependent on each other to oper-the systematic errors inherent in ate. It also provides a clear and unambiguous distinction between the BPCS and SIS,using the same platform for SIS and which supports long-term access security and management of change. SeparationDCS. The certification basically vali- also ensures that when maintenance and testing is conducted on one system the otherdates the “functional separation” and remains available. ❏non-interference of control-system *Emphasis by authorfailures on the SIS, firewalls and pass-word-based access protection. Independence of the layers of pro- non-interfering, the BPCS-SIS separa- cases, it is recommended to implementtection in the plant is also not part of tion could not be adequately satisfied the applications in a fault-tolerantthe SIS logic-solver certificate. Rather, as an IPL. This operating company safety system, rather than in a DCS.this determination is a responsibility concluded that, because common com- Different vendors offer varied de-of the operating plant company. munication traces were used by both grees of integration and solutions. Compliance to the “functional sepa- the BPCS and the SIS equipment on The question is how to provide anration” requirements of IEC61511 is the same carrier, no credit could be integrated control and safety solu-enough to obtain a TÜV certificate. gained for the BPCS as an indepen- tion with advanced functionality andHowever, an independent layer of pro- dent layer of protection. productivity without compromisingtection needs to be “unambiguously” safety and security.independent. If a common-cause error Common-platform approachcan affect both the DCS and the SIS, Certainly, a “common-platform” ap- Tight integrationthen no credit can be taken for the proach, using similar hardware and There is undoubtedly a very good casecontrol system as an independent software dedicated for control and to be made for tight integration oflayer of protection. safety functions, respectively, can ar- control and safety from an operations- Therefore, although a TÜV certifi- guably provide the potential for some and-productivity point of view. Some ofcate for a certain SIL-capability limit cost savings. However, it is widely ac- the major potential benefits include:for the SIS logic solver validates the knowledged that utilizing separate, • Seamless integrationuse of a functionally separate, but independent, and diverse hardware • Time synchronizationcommon-platform DCS-SIS, great cau- and software for process safety and • limination of data mapping Etion needs to be taken in the overall control is the optimal way to protect duplicationimplementation of plant risk-reduc- against potentially catastrophic com- • ommon HMI (human machine Ction requirements. mon-cause and systematic design and interface) A recent study by a major petroleum- application errors. • Compatible configuration toolsrefining and energy corporation deter- Some very specific applications such • Minimized set of spare partsmined in its review of a TÜV-certified, as surge control, turbomachinery speed • ingle operator and maintenance SDCS-embedded safety system (which control or burner management systems training requirementsused separate modules), that although are examples of the exceptions. In these All of the above are great benefits for50 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010
  • 63. productivity and maintenance. How- tection based on the same platform, agement, HMI and enterprise levelsever, merging control and safety too where the design requirements are • o not cut corners by using a DCS- Dclosely could negate these advantages. completely opposing and conflicting embedded safety systemTherefore, users need to consider the and where the implications of com- A plant can achieve maximum eco-side effects of using a common plat- mon-cause and systematic errors are nomic benefit by smartly integrat-form. How is the integrity of each conducive to higher operational risks. ing separate and diverse control andindependent protection layer guaran- To ensure that process safety risks safety systems at the interoperabilityteed? Could a loss of communication are minimized and reliability is opti- level, without compromising safetycause the SIS controller to fail to func- mized, it is important to implement and security. ntion? Can a common network expose control and safety utilizing the ap- Edited by Gerald Ondreythe SIS to security risks? Does a DCS- propriate tools specifically designed Authorembedded safety-logic solver pose con- for each job. Robin McCrea-Steele is acerns of side effects and hidden costs? • or process control, use a DCS or F TÜV FSExpert and senior safety consultant at Inven- Potential benefits can turn into li- other control system designed for a sys Operations Managementabilities if they come at the expense dynamic operations environment (15345 Barranca Parkway, Irvine, CA 92618: Phone:of safety and security, and most times • or process safety, use a fault-toler- F 949-885-0774; Email: robin.they can even increase lifecycle costs. ant safety PLC designed for a static mccreasteele@invensys.com). McCrea-Steele is a TÜV operations environment, maximizing Functional Safety Expert I. D. 0101 and an approvedSmart integration auto-diagnostics and proof testing instructor for the TÜV ASIThe AIChE-CCPS “Guidelines for • se physically and functionally sep- U Rheinland Functional Safety Program. He is an AIChE Member, ISA Senior Member andSafe and Reliable Protective Systems” arate and diverse systems for safety SP84 committee member working on the Safetydiscusses future technology and logic and control IPLs Fieldbus task force. McCrea-Steele is a safety consultant to the FF-SIS Rollout managementsolver separation in Section F (Box , p. • se interoperable integration of U team. He is a patent holder for continuous on-46). The conclusion is that integrating safety and control systems at the in- line safety integrity monitoring methodology, and he specializes in process safety consultingphysically separate and diverse un- formation, configuration, asset man- and risk assessments.ambiguously independent safety andcontrol systems — with interoperabil-ity at the information, configuration,asset management and HMI levels —is the safest, most reliable and lowestlifecycle cost solution. It must also benoted that all the capabilities of fielddiagnostics and asset management,including partial stroke testing, canbe implemented effectively throughinteroperable integration.Integrating smartly at an interoper-ability level requires additional mea-sures to ensure that the safety of thecommunications and control commandsare policed by the safety system. When implementing an automationinfrastructure for a potentially haz-ardous process, consider defense indepth and diversity, integrating safety Everything under Control?and control smartly with an interoper- Reliable process control needs a sharp eye.able solution. The process refractometer PIOX ® R400 reliably measures refractive index and concentration,Final analysis even under the most adverse conditions. Using the transmitted light principle and differentialChemical engineers responsible for op- measurement, the PIOX ® R400 guaranteeserating potentially hazardous process optimal process measurement, in additionplants should evaluate the criticality to being durable, stable, and accurate. www.flexim.comof the application, and determine if it usinfo@flexim.com info@flexim.comis appropriate to use a process safetysystem that is designed based on the FLEXIM: USA: Toll Free: 1-888-852-7473same hardware-software platform as A clear view with International:the DCS. transmitted light. +49 30 93 66 76 60 The assessment should consider thedownsides of using two layers of pro- Circle 18 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-18 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010 51
  • 64. Focus onAnalyzersPlugging is not an issuewith this phosphorus analyzerThe ChemScan mini oP analyzer(photo) for ortho-phosphorus analysisfeatures flow paths designed to avoidplugging. The analyzer uses largeorifice sizes, compared to capillarytubes and needle valves of most other Fleximanalyzers. The unit operates for threemonths between reagent addition, andany of the analyzer’s components canbe replaced within 5 min. — ASA Ana-lytics, Waukesha, Wisc.www.chemscan.com GeneralDeposits are not a problem ASA Analytics Monitorsfor this process refractometerTo meet the requirements of the chem-ical industry, versions of the PIOXR400 process refractometer (photo)for use in explosive atmospheres fromATEX Zones 2 to 0 are now available.The device measures the light trans-mitted through the entire volume ofthe sample, instead of a thin film be-tween prisms. As a result, higher reso-lution and extremely high precision ABB Instrumentationare achieved. Also, the measurement Electro-Chemical Devicesis less sensitive to deposits formingon the prism compared to critical- Measure fluoride levels using HART, Foundation fieldbus orangle reflectometry. The instrument over a wide concentration range Profibus. The complete measurementuses dual beams of light, which allows Accurate fluoride-ion measurements system is available with ATEX Zonefor completely drift-free differential are required for applications including 1/FM Class 1 Div. 1 approval, if re-measurements, even with deposits. — semiconductor fabrication and glass quired. — Mettler-Toledo, Inc., Colum-Flexim GmbH, Berlin, Germany manufacturing. The S10 and S17 Fluo- bus, Ohiowww.flexim.de ride pIon Sensors (photo) measure the www.mt.com activity of free fluoride ions in solutionThis gas sensor can now be in concentration from 0.02 to 2,000 This phosphate analyzercalibrated remotely ppm over a pH range from 5–8. They consumes less reagentsCalibrating the Model S4000CH Com- operate over a temperature range of 0 The new Navigator 600 phosphatebustible Gas Detector with a remotely to 80°C. The sensors can be integrated analyzer (photo) greatly reduces theinstalled sensor is now easier than with the company’s C22 Analyzer amount of required reagents (1/10thever with the new Automatic Remote to provide automatic pH compensa- that of competitive units), and main-Gas Calibrator (ARGC; photo). The tion. — Electro-Chemical Devices, Inc., tenance, thereby substantially reduc-ARGC, which consists of a Remote Gas Irvine, Calif. ing the cost of phosphate monitoring.Calibrator and a solenoid valve, blocks www.ecdi.com Aimed at phosphate-dosed, high-ambient air and redirects the calibra- pressure boilers, the unit providestion gas to the catalytic bead sensor Measure dissolved O2 with this accurate monitoring over the concen-for calibration or testing sensor ac- amperometric system tration range of 0 to 15 ppm of PO4–3.curacy. The instrument can calibrate This firm offers a comprehensive The analyzer is available in single- orgases at wind velocities as high as 50 range of amperometric systems for multi-stream configurations, enablingmph and maximum temperatures of measuring dissolved oxygen, with up to six streams to be monitored se-75°C. The S4000CH is a hydrocarbon sensors for wide application coverage, quentially. It provides current loops,gas detector suitable for use in SIL retractible housings for sensor extrac- Ethernet and optional Profibus DP3 applications. — General Monitors, tion without process interruption, and V1 outputs. — ABB Instrumentation,Lake Forest, Calif. transmitters for signal conversion and Warminster, Pa.www.generalmonitors.com connection to process control systems www.abb.com/instrumentation52 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010 Note: For more information, circle the 3-digit number on p. 62, or use the website designation.
  • 65. Ametek Process Instrumentation Servomex Group Emerson Process Management Siemens Water TechnologiesMeasure hydrocarbons with ple gases with high dew points. The tics, speeds the troubleshooting pro-ppb resolution standard version has its sample cell cess, and reduces the number of tripsUtilizing a high-performance, low- heated to 100°C, and another version into the field by an estimated 50%.noise flame-ionization-detector (FID) is available for 150°C. — Ametek Pro- The instrument offers a programma-subsystem and logarithmic ampli- cess Instrumentation, Pittsburgh, Pa. ble logic controller that enables auto-fier that decreases drift and thermal www.ametekpi.com mation of the sample-handling systemnoise, the Servopro FID (photo) offers and online programming through theaccurate (100 ppb resolution) mea- A photometer that can Web browser. An enhanced data log-surement of hydrocarbons. With all store 16 parameters ger offers improved data tracking,flow electronically regulated and tem- The new version of the Photometer including a Namur status indicator,perature regulated, the system offers P15 plus (photo) has a measured-value improved event logging and a new “cala “Lock Range” facility to allow the op- memory card and a realtime clock. It log” file. — Emerson Process Manage-erator to fix the unit within a desired can store the values of up to 16 of the ment, Houston, Tex.range, as well as an automatic rang- most used water-treatment quality pa- www.emersonprocess.coming feature that changes the measure- rameters, together with their times ofment parameters according to impuri- measurement. Factors that could im- An FTIR for ruggedties detected. — Servomex Group Ltd., pair measurement — such as excess industrial environmentsCrowborough, U.K. turbidity of the water sample — are The Titan-OL system includes an in-www.servomex.com automatically detected and displayed. dustrial Fourier-transform infrared Parameters such as pH, acid capacity, (FTIR) spectrometer, gas cells, sampleThis gas analyzer has a free and total chlorine, chlorine diox- manifold, control valve electronicstwo-laser platform ide, bromine, ozone and cyanuric acid and software, and provides realtime,Two separate lasers are installed can be measured quickly, easily and multi-component extractive gas-in the Model 5100HD gas analyzer precisely. — Siemens Water Technolo- phase analysis. The system features(photo). They share a common optical gies, Warrendale, Pa. the firm’s new ADC architecture andpath through the sample, allowing the www.siemens.com advanced mirror drive for increasedinstrument to measure two analytes sensitivity and very low detection lev-simultaneously, which results in sig- Web access is a feature els of a variety of compounds. Systemsnificant cost savings. The system is of this gas analyzer can operate at temperatures from am-based on TDLAS (tunable diode-la- The Rosemount Analytical X-Stream bient to 240°C, allowing moist sampleser absorption spectroscopy) and can XE process gas analyzer (photo) com- streams to be analyzed without con-measure a combination of any two of bines Web-browser-based accessibility densation. — Midac Corp., Costathe following: water vapor, CH4, H2S, with advanced processing capabilities. Mesa, Calif.CO and O2 in process or fluegas. The The ability to remotely manage the www.midac.com ■instrument is designed to handle sam- analyzer greatly simplifies diagnos- Gerald Ondrey
  • 66. March 2010 Literature Review chE.cOM Visit CE Lit OnlineFeaturing Brochures and Catalogs of Products and Services for the CPI at che.com A Box 4 U — Blast Resistant Modules Buy Our Filter . . . Founded in 1998, A Box 4 U is the industry Protect the Future leader in the manufacture of blast resistant Protect natural habitats and environments by utiliz- utiliz modules and storage units. Originally ing our filters to eliminate the release of toxic ma- ma A Box 4 U manufactured storage units, but terials. A portion of every order that is placed with quickly saw the need for worker safety in the Midwesco® in 2010 will be donated to nonproft or- petrochemical and chemical processing ganizations to fight against climate change. markets. One of A Box 4 U ’s strengths is Call today to schedule a free collector the ability to innovate and build custom blast coaching session! 800.336.7300 resistant modules to meet the customer’s www.midwescofilter.com.products.aspx requirements. The A Box 4 U team works with the customer to create the payment plan, lease, purchase or lease to own that fits their budget. To request a free catalog, call 877-522-6948 or sales@abox4u.net “We Take The Dust Out of Industry!”® Circle 290 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-290 Circle 297 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23021-297 Free Catalog - Magnatrol Solenoid Valves BWB Technologies Catalog details 2-way bronze & stainless Model XP Flame Photometer steel solenoid valves 3/8” - 3” to control The BWB- XP is a high quality, high perfor- flow of Water, Ammonias, Fuel Oil, Gas, mance instrument employing modern technol- Steam, Brine, Solvents, Cryogenics and ogy to measure alkali and alkaline earth met- Oxygen. Available NC/NO, packless con- als Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Lithium (Li), struction, continuous-duty coils for all volt- Calcium (Ca) and Barium (Ba). Liquid samples, ages, no differential pressure required to when introduced to a flame fuelled by pro- open and 2-way straight thru design. pane or lpg, will emit light of a specific wavelength, the intensity of For literature or same day quotation contact: which will be proportional to the concentration of the ions present. MAGNATROL VALVE CORPORATION The principle has been understood for over one hundred years, but 67 Fifth Avenue • P.O. Box 17, Hawthorne, the BWB-XP brings 21st century technology to the technique, mak- New Jersey • 07507 • U.S.A. PHONE: 973-427-4341 - FAX: 973-427-7611 ing analysis more reliable, accurate and simple than ever before. E-MAIL: info@magnatrol.com WEB SITE: www.magnatrol.com BWB Technologies www.bwbtech.com Circle 292 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-292 Circle 293 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-293 Delta Cooling Towers, Inc. Cooling Towers No More Guessing! Measure Color Delta Cooling Towers manufactures For Optimal Quality. a complete line of corrosion-proof en- The UltraScan VIS spectrophotometer gineered plastic cooling towers. The objectively qualifies slight lot differences towers incorporate a high efficiency in yellowness and color for clear and chro- counter-flow design and carry a matic chemicals. (Dry or Liquid, hot or cold, 15-year warranty on the casing, which large or very, very small samples.) Generate is molded into a unitary leak-proof an electronic record of the test results. structure of engineered plastic. All Download Tech Notes. models are factory assembled, simple www.hunterlab.com/Industry/Chemical to install and nearly maintenance free. 1-800-289-3358 www.deltacooling.com sales@deltacooling.com www.hunterlab.com 703-471-6870 info@hunterlab.com Circle 294 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-294 Circle 295 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-295
  • 67. Chemical Engineering’s Literature Review March 2010 Mixing Solutions by Pulsair Equipment Cleveland Wire C loth Wire Cloth This brochure describes Pulsairs mix- Specializes in high temperature, corro- ing systems that release sequential sion resistant, and specialty metals and pulses of air or gas to mix tank con- alloys for process functions, as well as tents. Systems are adaptable from a OEM components. Wire cloth is woven to single 55-gallon drum to multiple precise, customer requirements. Catalog 1,000,000 gallon tanks and can be includes application data, design guide- managed from a central control unit. lines, technical specifications, ordering Pulsair mixers are currently in use information, and a new, interactive CD with worldwide in the petroleum, lubricant, a wire cloth specifications calculator. wastewater, food and wine industries. Tel: 800-321-3234 (U.S. & Canada) or Pulsair Systems, Inc., 216-341-1832; Fax: 216-341-1876; Bellevue, WA; Tel: 800-582-7797; cleveland@wirecloth.com; www.pulsair.com sales@pulsair.com www.wirecloth.com Circle 296 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-296 Circle 297 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-297 Literature Review MARCH 2010 MARCH, JUNE, SEPTEMBER & DECEMBER Chemical Engineering is the preferred Chemical Engineers publication among CHEM Show Attendees Total Circulation: 64,464* Includes: USA, Canada, Mexico, CE US territories, other advertizing in CE CEBG about products and services s * (BPA Audit December 2009) e The Wayman Group, 2009 CHEMshow survey Contact: Helene Hicks 212-621-4958 hhicks@che.com Inside Sales Manager/CEBG Sales Manager. June closing: 5/4/10
  • 68. PRODUCT SHOWC ASE Krytox ® High Pressure Fluorinated Lubricants Silencers • Simple yet effective diffuser silencing • Suitable for high pressure, high temperature steam and gas • Compact size and weight • Non Clogging Krytox® Fluorinated Greases and Oils • Minimum supporting requirement are: Chemically Inert. Insoluble in common solvents.Thermally stable.Temperature range (-103˚F to 800˚F). Nonflammable. Nontoxic. Oxygen Compatible - safe for oxygen serv- ice. Low Vapor Pressure. Low Outgassing. No Migration - no silicones or hydrocarbons. Model Krytox offers Extreme Pressure, Anticorrosion D800 and Antiwear properties. Mil-spec, Aerospace Silencer and Food Grades (H1 and H2) available! Useful in Vacuum Systems. We also offer a complete line of inert fluorinated Dry Lubricants and Release Agents. For technical information, call 203.743.4447 800.992.2424 (8AM - 4 PM ET). m s CU Services LLC miller-stephenson chemical company, inc. 725 Parkview Cir, Elk Grove, IL 60007 California - Illinois - Connecticut - Canada Ph 847-439-2303 rcronfel@cuservices.net e-mail: support@miller-stephenson.com www.miller-stephenson.com www.cuservices.net SEALS/GUARDS 2C AD-07 8/15/07 8:59 AM Page 1 Circle 201 on p. 62 or go to Circle 202 on p. 62 or go to Circle 203 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-201 adlinks.che.com/29248-202 adlinks.che.com/29248-203 New! ® Protect pressure or vacuum instruments from clogging, corrosion and damage. Compact and Economical, Plast-O-Matic Gauge Guards prevent dangerous leaks and Advertise in the Classified allow dependable instrument readings from full vacuum to 250 psi. • PTFE or FKM diaphragms. Interested? • PVC, Polypro or PVDF bodies. For more information on • Available with classified advertising, STANDARD SEALS FOR C.E.M.A. & METRIC or without please contact: gauges. SCREW CONVEYORS • Gauge Helene Hicks Shields for On display at harsh environments. Tel: 212.621.4958 Powder & Bulk Solids 2010 Fax: 212.621.4976 May 4-6, Stevens Center, Rosemont IL Booth #2630 email: hhicks@che.com Manufactured by WOODEX Bearing Co. Georgetown ME USA PLAST-O-MATIC VALVES, INC. 1 800 526 8800 Toll-free CEDAR GROVE, NJ 07009 CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING +1 207 371 2210 Worldwide (973) 256-3000 • Fax: (973) 256-4745 T H AT W O R K S www.woodex-meco.com www.plastomatic.com • info@plastomatic.com56 Circle 204 on p. 62 or go to Circle 205 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-204 adlinks.che.com/29248-205
  • 69. Intelligen Suite The Market-Leading Engineering Suite for Modeling, Evaluation, Scheduling, and Debottlenecking of Single & Multi-Product Facilities SuperPro SchedulePro R e cipe D B Use SuperPro Designer to model, evaluate, and Switch to SchedulePro to schedule, model, debottleneck batch and continuous processes and debottleneck multi-product facilities Tracking of equipment occupancy Tracking demand for resources Inventory tracking for raw materials, in multi-product facilities (e.g., labor, materials, utilities, etc.) intermediates, products, and wastesSuperPro Designer is a comprehensive process simulator that facilitates modeling, cost analysis, debottlenecking, cycle timereduction, and environmental impact assessment of biochemical, specialty chemical, pharmaceutical (bulk & fine), food, consumerproduct, mineral processing, water purification, wastewater treatment, and related processes. Its development was initiated at theMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). SuperPro is already in use at more than 400 companies and 500 universities aroundthe world (including 18 of the top 20 pharmaceutical companies and 9 of the top 10 biopharmaceutical companies).SchedulePro is a versatile finite capacity scheduling tool that generates feasible production schedules for multi-product facilities thatdo not violate constraints related to the limited availability of facilities, equipment, resources and work areas. It can be used inconjunction with SuperPro (by importing its recipes) or independently (by creating recipes directly in SchedulePro). Any industrythat manufactures multiple products by sharing production lines and resources can benefit from the use of SchedulePro. Engineeringcompanies use it as a modeling tool to size utilities for batch plants, identify equipment requirements, reduce cycle times, anddebottleneck facilities. Circle 240 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-240 Visit our website to download detailed product literature and functional evaluation versions of our tools INTELLIGEN, INC. • 2326 Morse Avenue • Scotch Plains, NJ 07076 • USA Tel: (908) 654-0088 • Fax: (908) 654-3866 Email: info@intelligen.com • Website: www.intelligen.com Intelligen also has offices in Europe and representatives in countries around the world
  • 70. Software CA Co PE-O mp PE lian N t! Circle 242 on p. 62 or go to HTRI Xchanger Suite® – an integrated, easy-to-use suite of tools that adlinks.che.com/29248-242 delivers accurate design calculations for • shell-and-tube heat exchangers • fired heaters engineering e-material, e-solutions, e-courses and e-seminars for energy conversion systems: • jacketed-pipe heat exchangers • air coolers • Physical Properties • Steam Approximations • hairpin heat exchangers • economizers • Power Cycles • Compressible Flow • Power Cycle Components/Processes • plate-and-frame heat exchangers • tube layouts ENGINEERING SOFTWARE • spiral plate heat exchangers • vibration analysis Phone/FaX: (301) 540-3605 web Site: http://www.engineering-4e.com Visit the web site to check out free demos etc.! Interfaces with many process simulator and physical property Circle 243 on p. 62 or go to packages either directly or via CAPE-OPEN. adlinks.che.com/29248-243 Heat Transfer Research, Inc. HTRI@HTRI.net 150 Venture Drive www.HTRI.net College Station, Texas 77845, USA Get CoNNeCteD toDaY Circle 241 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-241 www.che.com The new Outotec HSC Chemistry® 7 - out now! HSC Chemistry 7, Outotecs new innovative process calculation software, includes an updated flowsheet simulation module and a thermochemical database expanded to over 25,000 species. With 22 calculation modules and 12 databases at your fingertips, HSC 7 is an invaluable tool for any process engineer or scientist since the cost of one laboratory experiment may exceed that of a single HSC license. Get your HSC 7 license now! For more information, please contact hsc@outotec.com. www.outotec.com/hsc Circle 244 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-24458 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010
  • 71. New & Used eqUipmeNt FIlteR PResses Shriver • JWI • Komline • Sperry Recessed and Plate & frame designs Wabash sells & Rents PaRts seRVICe CenteR boilers 20,000 - 400,000 #/Hr. Plates: Poly • Alum & CI Diesel & turbine Generators Filter cloth and paper 50 - 25,000 KW Gears & turbines Side bars • Hydraulic cylinders 25 - 4000 HP We stock large inventories of: Avery Filter Company, Westwood, NJ Air Pre-Heaters • Economizers • Deaerators Phone: 201-666-9664 • Fax 201-666-3802 Pumps • Motors • Fuel Oil Heating and Pump Sets Valves • Tubes • Controls • Compressors E-mail: larry@averyfilter.com Pulverizers • Rental Boilers & Generators www.averyfilter.com 24/7 Fast emergency service 800-704-2002Phone: 847-541-5600 Fax: 847-541-1279 Circle 249 on p. 62 or go to www.wabashpower.com adlinks.che.com/29248-249wabash Power equiPment Co.444 Carpenter Ave., wheeling, iL 60090 Circle 245 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-245 Circle 250 on p. 62 or go to Circle 246 on p. 62 or go to Circle 247 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-250 adlinks.che.com/29248-246 adlinks.che.com/29248-247 CENtriFugE gEArBOXES Parts & Service for: • Bird • Alfa-Laval • Sharples A Revolution in Gear Box Technologies (515) 266-8225 Fax (515) 266-5676 E-mail: sales@revtechlc.com Web Site: www.revtechlc.com Circle 251 on p. 62 or go to Circle 248 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-248 adlinks.che.com/29248-251 Advertise in the Buyers Guide Contact Helene Hicks Buyers tel: 212-621-4958 Fax: 212-621-4976 Guide 2011 email: hhicks@che.com ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010 59
  • 72. New & Used eqUipmeNt EquipNet.com/chemical +1.781.821.3482 Chemical Manufacturing Process Equipment from FMC 189527 - Unused 200 Gallon Pfaudler Glass Lined Reactor 233664 - 18 Gallon Hastelloy C276 Kilo Lab Reactor System 225984 - Unused Quadro YTRON Z1 Emulsifier 233707 - Mettler Toledo MultiMax RBO4-50 & RB02-250 Lab Reactor System 226327 - Unused 3V Cogeim .3 Square Meter Hastelloy Nutsche Filter DryerCHE subscribe 1-2h09.pdf 8/7/08 11:16:21 AM 189010 - Unused 1995 Cogeim 0.6 Square Meter Hastelloy Nutsche Filter Dryer Circle 253 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-253 CoNsUltiNg Circle 252 on p. 62 or go to CRYSTALLIZATION & PRECIPITATION adlinks.che.com/29248-252 Dr. Wayne J. Genck Genck International 3 Somonauk Court, Park Forest, IL. 60466 NOISE MEASUREMENT, ASSESSMENT, AND CONTROL • COMPUTER NOISE MODELING Tel (708) 748-7200 Fax (708) 748-7208 ACOUSTICAL BUILDING DESIGN • COMMISSIONING TESTS FERC, EUB, OSHA, NEPA • PLANT NOISE CONTOURS HFP ACOUSTICAL CONSULTANTS genckintl@aol.com – http://www.genckintl.com NOISE CONTROL ENGINEERING • Design/Scale-up • Troubleshooting • Particle Habit HOUSTON, TEXAS CALGARY, AB • Size Distribution • Purity • Product Micro-Analysis (713) 789-9400 (403) 259-6600 www.HFPacoustical.com/CE • Laboratory Investigations • Caking • Polymorphism INDUSTRIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SOUND LEVEL SURVEYS • REGULATORY COMPLIANCE STUDIES • Filtration • Drying • Kinetics Studies Circle 254 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-254 ◆◆◆ Industrial Seminars ◆◆◆ SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE p. 62 or go toSUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE Circle 255 on SUBSCRIBE adlinks.che.com/29248-255 SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE July 2008 SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE U B S C SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE SUBSCRIBE S SUBSCRIBE R I B E T O Incorp oratin www. So g Into lids 6 che. Liquid com s Focu s on Gas New Detec Engin tion eering Closed Mater Liquid ials Dispe Findin nsing g the To Fit Right the Ap Gloves Facts plicat at Yo ion ur Fin Vacu gertip um Pu s: mps Flowm eter News Augu st 2008 Written for engineers, by engineers www. Sterili 8 che. zation com More and more, business in the Chemical Process Industries (CPI) is not Rever se Osmo sis Heat Transf er Fluids Hydro local, it’s global. To keep up with this rapidly evolving marketplace, you car Prope bon rties Focu Filtra s on need a magazine that covers it all, not just one country or region, not just one vertical market, but the whole CPI. tion Facts at Yo Finge ur Lesso rtips: ns-Le Syste arned Valve ms s Preven ting Cakin g With editorial offices in Europe, Asia, and North America, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING is well-positioned to keep abreast of all the latest innovations in the equipment, technology, materials, and services used by process plants worldwide. No other publication even comes close. The #1 choice of worldwide To subscribe, please call 1-847-564-9290 CPI organizations or visit clientservices@che.com www.che.com 60 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010
  • 73. Advertisers’ Index Advertiser Page number Advertiser Page number Advertiser Page number Advertiser Page number Phone number Reader Service # Phone number Reader Service # Phone number Reader Service # Phone number Reader Service # * A Box 4 U SECOND COVER • Gea Wiegand Gmbh 24I-4 Midwesco Filter Soundplan Int’l Llc 47 877-522-6948 * 49 7243 705-0 Resources 19 360-432-9840 adlinks.che.com/29248-01 adlinks.che.com/29248-34 1-800-336-7300 adlinks.che.com/29248-27 adlinks.che.com/29248-15 Sric Consulting THIRD Altana Ag 6 Heinkel Usa 24D-4 adlinks.che.com/29248-07 856-467-3399 Müller Gmbh 46 COVER adlinks.che.com/29248-32 49 76 23/969-0 adlinks.che.com/29248-02 Arizona Instruments Llc 46 adlinks.che.com/29248-19 Interphex 8 Sric Consulting 33 1-800-528-7411 adlinks.che.com/29248-26 1-888-334-8704 Ptxi International 25 adlinks.che.com/29248-24 adlinks.che.com/29248-09 310-445-4200 * Tlv Corp 23 Armstrong International 24B adlinks.che.com/29248-21 Load Controls Inc 24D-2 704-597-9070 269-273-1415 Rembe Gmbh adlinks.che.com/29248-17 adlinks.che.com/29248-20 1-888-600-3247 Auma Riester Gmbh adlinks.che.com/29248-29 Safety + Control 47 * Western States & Co Kg 31 49 29 61 7405 0 Machine Co 24D-3 Mettler Toledo adlinks.che.com/29248-28 adlinks.che.com/29248-22 513-863-4758 Process Analytics 16 adlinks.che.com/29248-31 Basf Catalyst Llc 15 adlinks.che.com/29248-14 Ross, Charles adlinks.che.com/29248-13 & Son Company 10 Wilden Pumps & Eng Llc 43 Microsoft Media 2 1-800-243-ROSS 909-422-1730 Beumer Maschinenfabrik adlinks.che.com/29248-05 adlinks.che.com/29248-11 adlinks.che.com/29248-25 Gmbh & Co KG 7 adlinks.che.com/29248-08 Bryan Research See bottom of next page for advertising sales representatives contact information & Engineering 4 1-800-776-5220 Classified Index - March 2010 adlinks.che.com/29248-06 Advertisers’ (212) 621-4958 Fax: (212) 621-4976 Product Showcase. . . . . . . . . . 56 Busch Vacuum Pumps & Systems 24D-3 Send Advertisements and Box replies to: Computer Software . . . . . . . . 57-58 1-800-USA-PUMP Helene Hicks adlinks.che.com/29248-30 Chemical Engineering, 110 William St. Consulting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Check-All Valve Mfg Co 24 11th Floor, New York, NY 10038 515-224-2301 Equipment, Used or Advertiser Page number Advertiser Page number adlinks.che.com/29248-35 Surplus New for Sale. . . . . . 59-60 Phone number Reader Service # Phone number Reader Service # Chemstations Inc 13 adlinks.che.com/29248-12 ABZ 59 Heat Transfer Reasearch, Inc. 58 Advertiser Page number * Dipesh Engineering Works 1 800-747-5282 adlinks.che.com/29248-248 979-690-5050 Phone number Reader Service # 91-22-2674 3719 adlinks.che.com/29248-241 Rev-Tech 60 adlinks.che.com/29248-04 Amadus Kahl 56 Durr Systems Inc 20 HFP Acoustical 515-266-8225 adlinks.che.com/29248-203 adlinks.che.com/29248-251 734-254-2314 Consultants 60 adlinks.che.com/29248-16 Avery Filter Company 58 713-789-9400 Wabash Power Equipment Emerson Process FOURTH 201-666-9664 adlinks.che.com/29248-254 adlinks.che.com/29248-249 Company 59 Mgmt COVER 800-704-2002 Indeck 59 adlinks.che.com/29248-03 CU Services 56 adlinks.che.com/29248-245 847-541-8300 Flexim Gmbh 51 847-439-2303 adlinks.che.com/29248-247 1-888-852-7473 adlinks.che.com/29248-202 Western State 59 adlinks.che.com/29248-18 Intelligen 57 513-863-4758 Flottweg 32 Engineering Software 58 908-654-0088 adlinks.che.com/29248-250 1-859-448-2300 301-540-3605 adlinks.che.com/29248-240 adlinks.che.com/29248-243 Western State 60 adlinks.che.com/29248-23 Miller Stevenson 56 513-863-4758 • Gea Niro A/S 24I-3 Equipnet 60 adlinks.che.com/29248-252 203-743-4447 5 39 54 54 54 781-821-3482 adlinks.che.com/29248-201 adlinks.che.com/29248-33 adlinks.che.com/29248-253 Woodex Bearing Gea Westfalia e-simulators 58 Outotec 58 Company 56 Separator Ag 9 358-20-529-211 207-371-2210 480-380-4738 49 2522 77-0 adlinks,che.com/29248-244 adlinks.che.com/29248-204 adlinks.che.com/29248-242 adlinks.che.com/29248-10 Genck 60 Plast-O-Matic Valves, Inc. 56 Xchanger Inc. 60 • International Section 973-256-3000 952-933-2559 708-748-7200 *  dditional information in A adlinks.che.com/29248-255 adlinks.che.com/29248-205 adlinks.che.com/29248-246 2010 Buyers’ Guide Chemical Engineering www.che.com March 2010 6121_CHE_030110_AD_IND_RS.indd 61 2/26/10 8:29:12 AM
  • 74. New Product Information March 2010 JustFAXit! or go to www.che.com/adlinks Fill out the form and circle or write in the number(s) go on the web and fill out the ✁ below, cut it out, and fax it to 800-571-7730. online reader service card.name TitleCompanyaddressCity State/Province Zip/Postal CodeCountry Telephone Faxemail | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |FREE PRODUCT INFO 14 engineering, Design & Construc- 29 10 to 49 employees 47 Pollution Control equipment(please answer all the questions) tion Firms 30 50 to 99 employees & Systems 15 engineering/environmental Ser- 31 100 to 249 employees 48 PumpsYOUR INDUSTRY vices 32 250 to 499 employees 49 Safety equipment & Services01 Food & Beverages 16 equipment manufacturer 33 500 to 999 employees 50 Size reduction & agglomeration02 wood, Pulp & Paper 17 energy incl. Co-generation 34 1,000 or more employees equipment03 inorganic Chemicals 18 other———————————— YOU RECOMMEND, 51 Solids handling equipment04 Plastics, Synthetic resins JOB FUNCTION SPECIFY, PURCHASE 52 Tanks, Vessels, reactors05 Drugs & Cosmetics (please circle all that apply) 20 Corporate management 53 Valves06 Soaps & Detergents 40 Drying equipment 21 Plant operations incl. mainte- 54 engineering Computers/Soft-07 Paints & allied Products 41 Filtration/Separation equipment nance ware/Peripherals08 organic Chemicals 42 heat Transfer/energy Conserva- 22 engineering 55 water Treatment Chemicals09 agricultural Chemicals tion equipment 23 research & Development & equipment10 Petroleum refining, 43 instrumentation & Control Sys- 24 Safety & environmental 56 hazardous waste management Coal Products tems 26 other———————————— Systems11 rubber & misc. Plastics 44 mixing, Blending equipment 57 Chemicals & raw materials12 Stone, Clay, glass, Ceramics EMPLOYEE SIZE 45 motors, motor Controls 58 materials of Construction13 metallurgical & metal Products 28 less than 10 employees 46 Piping, Tubing, Fittings 59 Compressors1 16 31 46 61 76 91 106 121 136 151 166 181 196 211 226 241 256 271 286 301 316 331 346 361 376 391 406 421 436 451 466 481 496 511 526 541 556 571 5862 17 32 47 62 77 92 107 122 137 152 167 182 197 212 227 242 257 272 287 302 317 332 347 362 377 392 407 422 437 452 467 482 497 512 527 542 557 572 5873 18 33 48 63 78 93 108 123 138 153 168 183 198 213 228 243 258 273 288 303 318 333 348 363 378 393 408 423 438 453 468 483 498 513 528 543 558 573 5884 19 34 49 64 79 94 109 124 139 154 169 184 199 214 229 244 259 274 289 304 319 334 349 364 379 394 409 424 439 454 469 484 499 514 529 544 559 574 5895 20 35 50 65 80 95 110 125 140 155 170 185 200 215 230 245 260 275 290 305 320 335 350 365 380 395 410 425 440 455 470 485 500 515 530 545 560 575 5906 21 36 51 66 81 96 111 126 141 156 171 186 201 216 231 246 261 276 291 306 321 336 351 366 381 396 411 426 441 456 471 486 501 516 531 546 561 576 5917 22 37 52 67 82 97 112 127 142 157 172 187 202 217 232 247 262 277 292 307 322 337 352 367 382 397 412 427 442 457 472 487 502 517 532 547 562 577 5928 23 38 53 68 83 98 113 128 143 158 173 188 203 218 233 248 263 278 293 308 323 338 353 368 383 398 413 428 443 458 473 488 503 518 533 548 563 578 5939 24 39 54 69 84 99 114 129 144 159 174 189 204 219 234 249 264 279 294 309 324 339 354 369 384 399 414 429 444 459 474 489 504 519 534 549 564 579 59410 25 40 55 70 85 100 115 130 145 160 175 190 205 220 235 250 265 280 295 310 325 340 355 370 385 400 415 430 445 460 475 490 505 520 535 550 565 580 59511 26 41 56 71 86 101 116 131 146 161 176 191 206 221 236 251 266 281 296 311 326 341 356 371 386 401 416 431 446 461 476 491 506 521 536 551 566 581 59612 27 42 57 72 87 102 117 132 147 162 177 192 207 222 237 252 267 282 297 312 327 342 357 372 387 402 417 432 447 462 477 492 507 522 537 552 567 582 59713 28 43 58 73 88 103 118 133 148 163 178 193 208 223 238 253 268 283 298 313 328 343 358 373 388 403 418 433 448 463 478 493 508 523 538 553 568 583 59814 29 44 59 74 89 104 119 134 149 164 179 194 209 224 239 254 269 284 299 314 329 344 359 374 389 404 419 434 449 464 479 494 509 524 539 554 569 584 59915 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 210 225 240 255 270 285 300 315 330 345 360 375 390 405 420 435 450 465 480 495 510 525 540 555 570 585 600if number(s) do not appear above,please write them here and circle: Fax this page back to 800-571-7730 Advertising sAles representAtivesMike O’rourke, Publisher North America george gortz, Helene Hicks,Chemical Engineering Jason Bullock, District Sales Manager Inside Sales Manager110 william St., new York, nY 10038-3901 District Sales Manager Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering;Tel: 215-340-1366; Fax: 609-482-4146 Chemical Engineering 2612 edgerton road 110 william St., new York, nY 10038-3901E-mail: morourke@che.com 8325 Broadway, Ste. 202/PmB 261 University heights, oh 44118 Tel: 212-621-4958; Fax: 212-621-4976;Alabama, Canada, Connecticut, Delaware, Pearland, TX 77581 Tel: 216-932-2700; Fax 216-932-5810 E-mail: hhicks@che.comFlorida, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Tel: 281-485-4077; Fax: 281-485-1285 E-mail: ggortz@che.com Product Showcase, Literature Reviews,New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York (minus E-mail: jbullock@che.com; Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Classified Display AdvertisingWestern New York), North & South Carolina, Arkansas, Arizona, California, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Western Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Mississippi,Pennsylvania (minus Western Pennsylvania), Colorado, Georgia, Kansas, New York, Western Pennsylvania, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico,Rhode Island, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, Louisiana, Missouri, Nevada, Wisconsin North & South Dakota, Oregon, Utah,Washington, D.C., West Virginia, Latin America Oklahoma, Texas Washington, WyomingInternational dipali dhar Ferruccio silvera rudy teng Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineeringpetra trautes 110 william St., new York, nY 10038-3901 Silvera Pubblicita Professional Publication agencyChemical Engineering Tel: 212-621-4919; Fax: 212-621-4990 Viale monza, 24 milano 20127, italy 6F-3 # 103 Fen liau St neihuZeilweg 44 E-mail: ddhar@chemweek.com Tel: 39-02-284-6716; Fax: Taipei 114 TaiwanD-60439 Frankfurt am main India 39-02-289-3849 Tel: 886-2-2799-3110 ext 330;germany E-mail: ferruccio@silvera.it/www. Fax: 886-2-2799-5560Phone: +49-69-2547-2073 Katshuhiro ishii silvera.it E-mail: rudy_teng@ppa.com.twFax: +49-69-5700-2484 Chemical Engineering Andorra, France, Gibraltar, Greece, or idpt808@seed.net.twemail: ptrautes@che.com ace media Service inc., 12-6, 4-chome Israel, Italy, Portugal, Spain Asia-Pacific, Hong Kong, People’sAustria, Czech Republic, Benelux, nishiiko, adachi-ku, Tokyo 121, Japan Republic of China, TaiwanEastern Europe, Germany, Scandinavia, Tel: 81-3-5691-3335; Fax: 81-3-5691-3336Switzerland, United Kingdom e-mail: amskatsu@dream.com Japan 62 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010
  • 75. Economic Indicators Business neWs leave the company.The transaction also assessment and others. Specific financialPlant Watch includes payments of up to €300 million if terms of the acquisition were not disclosed.KBR to provide licensing of its certain sales milestones are met betweenPurifer Ammonia technology 2011 and 2013. Brain and Bayer ScheringFebruary 19, 2010 — KBR (Houston; www.kbr. Pharma cooperationcom) has been awarded a contract by Mat- Mitsubishi Chemical and Pioneer February 2, 2010 — Brain AG (Zwingenberg;ix Fertilisers and Chemicals Ltd. (MFCL) — a form alliance on OLED lighting www.brain-biotech.de) and Bayer ScheringMatix Group Co. owned by the Kanoria fam- February 9, 2010 — Mitsubishi Chemical Pharma AG (Bergkamen, both Germany;ily in India — to provide licensing and engi- Corp. (Tokyo, www.m-kagaku.co.jp) and Pio- www.bayerscheringpharma.de) are coop-neering services for MFCL’s grassroots 2,200 neer Corp. (Kanagawa, both Japan; www. erating in the field of production processmetric tons per day (m.t./d) ammonia plant pioneer.jp/index-e.html) have entered into optimization of steroid compounds.Thelocated in West Bengal, India. KBR will license an alliance on their organic light-emitting goal of the collaboration is the energy-its Purifier Ammonia technology for the Matix diode (OLED) lighting business as well as a efficient and thus sustainable fermentativeplant, which will be based on coal-bed capital alliance strengthening their com- production of steroid compounds usingmethane.The use of coal-bed methane as pany relations. Mitsubishi Chemical is aim- optimized microbial production strains,feedstock in the ammonia synthesis process ing to begin full-scale mass production and taking plant-derived raw materials as theis a relatively new application that provides launch of illumination appliances in 2011. starting material. With so-called “designeran alternative to the use of natural gas in With this business move, Mitsubishi Chemi- bugs” it is the goal, to achieve a higher yieldareas where coal is abundant. cal will use OLED lighting panels supplied by a reduced energy input.This will lead to by Pioneer. It is also looking into performing an increase of efficiency in the productionPöyry awarded board-mill joint research on printable OLED lighting de- process, coupled with a reduction of theengineering for SAICA velopment, as well as their commercializa- output of greenhouse gases.February 2, 2010 — Pöyry Plc. (Helsinki; www. tion. Both companies are currently perform-poyry.com) has been awarded an engi- ing joint research on OLED lighting panels Braskem acquires Sunoconeering contract by SAICA Containerboard that use printable hole injecting material Chemicals’ PP assetsUK Ltd. for one of the world’s most advanced (HIM) and new emitting materials. MItsubi- February 1, 2010 — Braskem S.A. (Sao Paolo,recycled paper mills to be built at Partington shi Chemicals is looking into the commer- Brazil; www.braskem.com.br) has signedWharfside, near Manchester, U.K.The new cialization of printable OLED lighing. an agreement with Sunoco, Inc. (Sunoco), apaper mill will produce 425,000 ton/yr of U.S.-based oil company, for the acquisitionhigh-performance lightweight fluting and INEOS Group to sell fluorochemicals by Braskem of the polypropylene (PP)testliner grades to be used in the manufac- business to Mexichem Fluor S.A business of Sunoco Chemicals, Inc., basedture of corrugated boxes.The 100% recycled, February 2, 2010 — The Ineos Group (Lynd- in Philadelphia, Pa. Sunoco will receivefiber-based mill is scheduled to start up at hurst, U.K.; www.ineos.com) has agreed $350 million for the PP-asset-related sharesthe beginning of 2012. to sell its fluorochemicals business to Mex- in Sunoco Chemicals. Sunoco Chemicals’ ichem, a Latin American producer of PVC polypropylene production capacity isBMS opens world’s largest pipes and resin, chloralkali, hydrofluoric 950,000 ton/yr. Its three plants located at LaCNT pilot facility acid and fluorspar.The deal comprises the Porte,Tex., Marcus Hook, Pa., and Neal, W.Va.February 1, 2010 — Bayer MaterialScience international business and assets related to account for approximately 13% of installed,(BMS; Leverkusen, Germany; www.bayer- INEOS’ fluorochemical operations located in U.S.-polypropylene-production capacity.materialscience.com) has opened a new North America, Europe, and Asia. It is expect- In addition to Sunoco’s industrial units, thepilot facility for the manufacture of carbon ed that on completion of the transaction, the acquisition also includes a technology andnanotubes (CNTs) at Chempark Leverkus- business will become an integrated, global development center in Pittsburgh, Pa.en.The company has invested some €22 producer of speciality fluorochemicals withmillion in the planning, development and annual sales revenue of over $500 million. Total and ERG create a joint venture in theconstruction of the facility, which is the larg- The sale is expected to be completed at the Italian petroleum refining businessest of its kind in the world and has a capac- end of March, subject to necessary regula- January 28, 2010 — Total (Courbevoie,ity of 200 m.t./yr. tory filings and approvals, including bank France; www.total.com) and ERG (Genoa, consent and approvals under applicable Italy; www.erg.it) have signed an agree-Mergers and acquisitions antitrust laws and regulations. ment to create a joint venture in the ItalianAbbott completes acquisition marketing and petroleum refining business.of Solvay Pharmaceuticals Total Safety acquires Total and ERG will hold equity stakes of 49%February 16, 2010 — Abbott (Abbott Park, Ill.; ICU Environmental, Health & Safety and 51%, repectively. Created through thewww.abbott.com) has completed its €4.5 February 1, 2010 — Total Safety (Houston; merger of Total Italia and ERG Petroli, thebillion acquisition of Belgium-based Solvay www.totalsafety.com) has acquired ICU En- joint venture will be called TotalErg.ThePharmaceuticals. Solvay Pharmaceuticals vironmental, Health & Safety, which provides shareholder pact calls for joint governanceis now part of Abbott’s global Pharmaceuti- services related to industrial hygiene, safety and operating independence for the newcal Products Group. Werner Cautreels, chief inspections and audits, process safety man- entity.The transaction is subject to the ap-executive officer of Solvay Pharmaceuticals, agement services, regulatory compliance, proval of competition authorities. ■will serve in a transitional role and will then environmental air-permitting consulting, risk Dorothy Lozowski For additional news as it develops, please visit www.che.comMarch 2010; VOL. 117; NO. 3Chemical Engineering copyright @ 2010 (ISSN 0009-2460) is published monthly, with an additional issue in October, by Access Intelligence, LLC, 4 Choke Cherry Road,2nd Floor, Rockville, MD, 20850. Chemical Engineering Executive, Editorial, Advertising and Publication Offices: 110 William Street, 11th Floor, New York, NY 10038; Phone:212-621-4674, Fax: 212-621-4694. Subscription rates: $120.97 U.S. and U.S. possessions, $146.97 Canada, and $249 International. $20.00 Back issue & Single copy sales.Periodicals postage paid at Rockville, MD and additional mailing offices. Postmaster: Send address changes to Chemical Engineering, Fulfillment Manager, P Box 3588, .O.Northbrook, IL 60065-3588. Phone: 847-564-9290, Fax: 847-564-9453, email: clientservices@che.com. Change of address, two to eight week notice requested. For informationregarding article reprints, please contact Lori Noffz at lori.noffz@theygsgroup.com. Contents may not be reproduced in any form without written permission. PublicationsMail Product Sales Agreement No. PM40063731. Return undeliverable Canadian Addresses to: P.O. Box 1632, Windsor, ON N9A7C9.FOR MORE ECONOMIC INDICATORS, SEE NExT PAGE ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010 63
  • 76. Economic Indicators 2009 2008 dOwnLOAd ThE cepci TwO wEEkS SOOnER AT www.che.com/pciCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLANT COST INDEX (CEPCI) 650 (1957-59 = 100) dec. 09 nov. 09 dec. 08 Prelim. Final Final Annual Index:CE Index 524.2 524.0 548.3 2001 = 394.3 600Equipment 618.4 618.0 654.3 Heat exchangers & tanks 554.2 555.9 618.2 2002 = 395.6 Process machinery 597.9 601.0 623.2 2003 = 402.0 550 Pipe, valves & fittings 776.3 768.2 806.1 2004 = 444.2 Process instruments 417.5 413.9 397.0 Pumps & compressors 895.2 895.2 891.3 2005 = 468.2 500 Electrical equipment 467.2 465.9 459.7 2006 = 499.6 Structural supports & misc 620.0 624.2 684.0 450Construction labor 331.2 331.1 328.3 2007 = 525.4Buildings 494.4 493.7 503.7 2008 = 575.4Engineering & supervision 343.2 343.8 349.9 400 J F M A M J J A S O N DStarting with the April 2007 Final numbers, several of the data series for labor and compressors have beenconverted to accommodate series IDs that were discontinued by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics CURRENT BUSINESS INDICATORS LATEST PREVIOUS YEAR AGO CPI output index (2000 = 100) Jan. 10 = 96.5 Dec. 09 = 95.9 Nov. 09 = 95.8 Jan. 09 = 91.2 CPI value of output, $ billions Dec. 09 = 1,612.4 Nov. 09 = 1,587.0 Oct. 09 = 1,540.6 Dec. 08 = 1,400.5 CPI operating rate, % Jan. 10 = 71.6 Dec. 09 = 71.0 Nov. 09 = 70.8 Jan. 09 = 66.3 Producer prices, industrial chemicals (1982 = 100) Jan. 10 = 260.1 Dec. 09 = 254.9 Nov. 09 = 251.3 Jan. 09 = 220.6 Industrial Production in Manufacturing (2002=100)* Jan. 10 = 99.4 Dec. 09 = 98.5 Nov. 09 = 98.5 Jan. 09 = 97.8 Hourly earnings index, chemical & allied products (1992 = 100) Jan. 10 = 150.4 Dec. 09 = 150.9 Nov. 09 = 150.4 Jan. 09 = 145.3 Productivity index, chemicals & allied products (1992 = 100) Jan. 10 = 135.1 Dec. 09 = 135.3 Nov. 09 = 137.0 Jan. 09 = 126.0 CPI OUTPUT INDEX (2000 = 100) CPI OUTPUT VALUE ($ BILLIONS) CPI OPERATING RATE (%) 120 2500 85 110 2200 80 100 1900 75 90 1600 70 80 1300 65 70 1000 60 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N DMARSHALL & SWIFT EQUIPMENT COST INDEX CURRENT TRENDS 1500 A (1926 = 100) 4th Q 3rd Q 2nd Q 1st Q 4th Q ll of the major business 2009 2009 2009 2009 2008 1485M & S IndEx 1,446.5 1,446.4 1,462.9 1,477.7 1,487.2 indicators for the CPI con-Process industries, average 1,511.9 1,515.1 1,534.2 1,553.2 1,561.2 1470 tinue to climb, although there Cement 1,508.2 1,509.7 1,532.5 1,551.1 1,553.4 is a lot of ground to make up 1455 Chemicals 1,483.1 1,485.8 1,504.8 1,523.8 1,533.7 before the previous peaks are Clay products 1,494.3 1,495.8 1,512.9 1,526.4 1,524.4 1440 achieved again. Glass 1,400.1 1,400.4 1,420.1 1,439.8 1,448.1 1425 Meanwhile, the year over Paint 1,514.1 1,515.1 1,535.9 1,554.1 1,564.2 year deficit in capital equip- Paper 1,415.8 1,416.3 1,435.6 1,453.3 1,462.9 Petroleum products 1,617.6 1,625.2 1,643.5 1,663.6 1,668.9 1410 ment prices (as reflected in Rubber 1,560.5 1,560.7 1,581.1 1,600.3 1,604.6 1395 the Chemical EngineeringRelated industries Plant Cost Index) is narrow- Electrical power 1,377.3 1,370.8 1,394.7 1,425.0 1,454.2 1380 ing. December 2009 equip- Mining, milling 1,548.1 1,547.6 1,562.9 1,573.0 1,567.5 1365 ment prices are 4.6% lower Refrigeration 1,769.5 1,767.3 1,789.0 1,807.3 1,818.1 than those of the previous Steam power 1350 1,470.8 1,471.4 1,490.8 1,509.3 1,521.9 December, compared to the Annual Index: 1335 widest year over year deficit 2002 = 1,104.2 2004 = 1,178.5 2006 = 1,302.3 2008 = 1,449.3 of 18.9% in July. 1320 2003 = 1,123.6 2005 = 1,244.5 2007 = 1,373.3 2009 = 1,468.6 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Visit www.che.com/pci for Quarter more on capital cost trends Source: Marshall & Swift‘s Marshall Valuation Service manual. Reprinted and published with permission of Marshall & and methodology. ■ Swift/Boeckh, LLC and its licensors, copyright 2010. May not be reprinted, copied or automated without permission.64 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com marCh 2010
  • 77. Circle 02 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-02
  • 78. Process automation just got easier. Again.Introducing the DeltaV S-series. A fresh look on usability down to the smallest detail–from the new, patent-pendinghardware that minimizes installation complexity and maximizes plant availability, to the more intuitive operator displays,to built-for-purpose smart security switches that minimize your lifecycle costs. The re-designed DeltaV system embedsknowledge, reduces complexity, and eliminates work–bringing a new level to the now-familiar DeltaV standard: Easy.www.EmersonProcess.com/DeltaV The Emerson logo is a trademark and a service mark of Emerson Electric Co.©2009 Emerson Electric Company Circle 03 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/29248-03