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September                                                                                2009                             ...
Circle 01 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23018-01
Circle 04 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23018-04
Silverson’s high shear Batch mixers don’t just mix; theyemulsify, homogenize, solubilize, suspend, disperseand disintegrat...
September 2009                                    In ThIs Issue                                        Volume 116, no. 9  ...
Our calibration is worth its weight in gold.                                       Promass F                              ...
Winner of Eight Jesse H. Neal  Awards for Editorial Excellence                                                            ...
Raymond® & Bartlett-Snow™          Thermal Equipment & Systems                                                            ...
Do you see a dragon?             We also see a challenge to reduce carbon            footprints by using energy more effic...
BookshelfGuidelines for Chemical Transportation Safety, Security, and         Chapter one introduces trans-Risk Management...
highlights the factors that influence the different typesof safety and security measures that can be selected andultimatel...
Circle 20 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23018-20
Edited by Gerald Ondrey                                                                                                   ...
C hementato R                                                                                                       More e...
New MAK & BAT values                                                                                                  the ...
C hementato RThis process may produce electricityfrom low-temperature geothermal resourcesT  he world has vast geothermal ...
Fast digestion makes better use of municipal sludgeT  he use of residual sludge from munici-   pal sewage plants as fertil...
Li slab   Transition metal slab NewsfrontCPI ENErgIzEd bybattEry FUNdINg        DOE Awards $1.5 billion to scale up batter...
A solution in every drop of                                       water. In the simple bond of hydrogen and               ...
Company name            Award           Technology                                               Editors notes  (project l...
Company name               Award           Technology                                                Editors notes(project...
Membrane Power
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  1. 1. September 2009 Multivariable Predictive www.che.com control Page 40 9StrategieS for water reuSe • Multivariable Predictive control CSTR Design for Reversible Reactions Focus on Valves CPI Energized by Battery Funding CPVC Piping In Chemical Environments Measuring Dust and Fines CFATS and Chemical Plant Security Page 34 Facts at Yourvol. 116 no. 9 SePteMber 2009 Fingertips: Heat Transfer •
  2. 2. Circle 01 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23018-01
  3. 3. Circle 04 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23018-04
  4. 4. Silverson’s high shear Batch mixers don’t just mix; theyemulsify, homogenize, solubilize, suspend, disperseand disintegrate solids. Every high shear Batch mixer inour range significantly outperforms conventional mixers bycutting processing times by up to 90% while improvingquality, product consistency and process efficiency. Silverson High Shear Batch Mixers will: • Process from 1 to 8000 gallons • Eliminate agglomerates and fish eyes • Create stable emulsions and suspensions • Reduce particle size • Rapidly dissolve solids • Accelerate reactions For more information or a free trial give us a call @ 800.204.6400 Mixing at the speed of silverson.com Circle 13 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23018-13
  5. 5. September 2009 In ThIs Issue Volume 116, no. 9 Commentary 5 Editor’s Page Honoring in- novation The Kirkpatrick Chemi- cal Engineering www.che.com Achievement Award has honored the most noteworthy,Cover story commercialized,34 Cover Story Strategies For chemical engineer- Water Reuse Membrane ing technologies technologies increase the since 1933. This sustainability of industrial pro- year’s five finalists cesses by enabling large-scale have been selected water reuse departmentsneWs Letters . . . . . . . . . 611 Chementator A cost-effective process for recycling wastewater; A pro- Bookshelf . . . . . 8, 9 tective coating helps fine powders flow, 46 Engineering Practice CSTR Design for Reversible Reactions Here, a design ap- Who’s Who . . . . 31A without agglomeration; Process optimi- zation software allows rapid setup, cost proach for continuous stirred-tank reactors Reader Service savings; More efforts to make biofuels is outlined for three cases of second-order page . . . . . . . . . . 62 from algae ... and from microorganisms; reactions Economic New heating technique improves zeolite 50 Engineering Practice CPVC Piping in Indicators . . . 63, 64 membrane performance; Pt-free catalysts Chemical Environments: Evaluating the promise to lower fuel-cell costs ... as does Safety Record No torches, fewer burn advertisers reducing the Pt load; This process may hazards and outstanding fire characteristics produce electricity from low-temperature Product Showcase . 56 make CPVC a safe, effective alternative for geothermal resources; An activated car- industrial piping Classified bon for picking up heavy metals; Fast Advertising . . 57–60 digestion makes better use of municipal equipment & serviCes sludge; and more Advertiser Index . 61 32D-1 ISA Show Preview (Domestic16 Newsfront CPI Energized By Battery Edition) These power supplies are op- Coming in Funding The U.S. Dept. of Energy awards timized for driving inductive loads; A oCtober $1.5 billion to scale up battery production new gage with data-logging feature is Look for: Feature for electric-powered cars introduced; This oxidation-and-reduction Reports on Filtra- potential sensor is built to last; Measure21 Newsfront Chemical Plant Security tion; and Flowmeters; water and CO2 to low ppm range with While security has long been a concern for an Environmental this gas analyzer; Industrial electronics firm the CPI, impending regulatory changes (to Manager article on offers a host of new products; Customers CFATS) have everyone’s attention Preventing Dust Explo- can configure these valves using online sions; an Engineer-engineering tools; and more ing Practice article24 Solids Processing Measuring Dust and 32I-2 New Products & Services (Interna- on Compressed Gas Fines in Polymer Pellets The ability to tional Edition) Coriolis meters for low-flow Cylinder Safety; A carry out such measurements can help applications; An optimum valve for recip- Focus on Analyzers; operators improve quality control, assess rocating pumps; This thermocouple con- News articles on equipment performance and optimize the nector communicates wirelessly; A kneader Chemical Engineering process for high-fill, rigid-PVC compounding; Save Salaries; and Pressure space with a new size of mini ball valves; Measurement & Con-31B Facts At Your Fingertips Heat Transfer Monitor processes remotely with this sta- trol; Facts at Your This one-page guide outlines consider- tion; and more Fingertips on Corro- ations for designing a heat-transfer system 54 Focus Valves New radial diaphragm sion; and more40 Feature Report Multivariable Predictive valves improve “cleanability”; Achieve lower Control: The Scope is Wider Than You air leakage with these rotary valves; These Cover: Double-walled Think With tighter integration between sampling valves are designed for ease of hollow-fiber ultrafiltra- process units and more aggressive opti- use; This rotary valve is designed for com- tion membranes are mization goals, this technique is gaining plete shutoff and long life; Use this device widely used in water attention throughout the CPI as an alterna- to lock out plug valves; This valve is de- treatment tive to PID control signed for slurries and corrosives; and more The Dow Chemical Co. ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com September 2009 3
  6. 6. Our calibration is worth its weight in gold. Promass F Coriolis mass flow measurement Tested on the world’s finest production calibration rigs, Promass F shines not only on the outside; it also shines thanks to its performance. With its robust design and unparalleled stability in operation, it greatly increases the value of your facilities. Promass F is ideal for virtually all fluids and measures several process parameters directly in the pipeline: Mass and volume flow, density, concentration as well as temperature. This means that expensive raw materials and semi-finished products are measured reliably, strict quality requirements are observed to the letter and maintenance costs are reduced significantly. • High degree of accuracy in practice: resistant to vibration, temperature and pressure changes • Optimum installation flexibility thanks to various process connections from 3/8” to 10” (DN 8 to 250) • High-temperature version up to 662°F (350°C) • National and international approvals for custody transfer • Excellent measuring accuracy: Promass F ±0.05%; calibration rig ±0.015% • Internationally accredited, fully traceable calibration rigs according to ISO/IEC 17025 (SAS, A2LA, CNAS)Endress+Hauser, Inc2350 Endress PlaceGreenwood, IN 46143 Sales: 888-ENDRESSinquiry@us.endress.com Service: 800-642-8737www.us.endress.com Fax: 317-535-8498 Circle 06 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23018-06
  7. 7. Winner of Eight Jesse H. Neal Awards for Editorial Excellence Editor’s Page Published since 1902 Honoring innovation T An Access Intelligence Publication he first round of judging in Chemical Engineering’s 2009 KirkpatrickPublisHEr Art & dEsiGN Chemical Engineering Achievement Award competition (CE, January,MikE O’rOurkE dAvid WHitcHEr p. 19) has produced the following five finalists (in alphabetical order):Publisher Art Director/ • The Dow Chemical Co. (Midland, Mich.) and BASF SE (Ludwigshafen,morourke@che.com Editorial Production Manager dwhitcher@che.com Germany), for an industrial process for producing propylene oxide (PO)EditOrs PrOductiON via hydrogen peroxiderEbEkkAH J. MArsHAllEditor in Chief MicHAEl d. krAus • DuPont (Wilmington, Del.), for commercializing Cerenol — a new family VP of Production & Manufacturingrmarshall@che.com mkraus@accessintel.com of high-performance polyether glycols made from corn-derived 1,3-pro-dOrOtHy lOzOWskiManaging Editor stEvE OlsON panediol (Bio-PDO)dlozowski@che.com Director of Production & • Lucite International (Southampton, U.K.), for its Alpha technology — a ManufacturingGErAld ONdrEy (Frankfurt) solson@accessintel.com new process for making methyl methacrylate (MMA)Senior Editorgondrey@che.com WilliAM c. GrAHAM • Solvay S.A. (Brussels, Belgium), for its Epicerol process — a new process Ad Production ManagerkAtE tOrzEWski bgraham@che.com for producing epichlorohydrin from glycerineAssistant Editorktorzewski@che.com MArkEtiNG • Uhde GmbH (Dortmund) and Evonik Industries AG (Essen, both Ger-scOtt JENkiNs HOlly rOuNtrEE many), for the HPPO process for making PO via H2O2Associate Editor Marketing Manager hrountree@accessintel.com From these five finalists — selected by heads of chemical engineering de- desjenkins@che.com AudiENcE partments of U.S. and European universities — the winner will be chosen bycONtributiNG EditOrs dEvElOPMENt a board of judges composed of chemical-engineering-department heads thatsuzANNE A. sHEllEy sylviA siErrAsshelley@che.com Senior Vice President, were selected by their peers. In the December issue, the winner will be an-ancHArlEs butcHEr (U.K.) Corporate Audience Development nounced, along with process details for all five technologies being honored. ssierra@accessintel.comcbutcher@che.com The aim of the biennial competition (established in 1933) is to honor thePAul s. GrAd (Australia) JOHN rOckWEllpgrad@che.com Vice President, most noteworthy chemical engineering technology to have been commer- commertEtsuO sAtOH (Japan) Audience Development Chemical cialized during the previous two years, the key criteria being the novelty jrockwell@accessintel.comtsatoh@che.com lAuriE HOfMANN of the technology and the difficulty of the chemical engineering problemsJOy lEPrEE (New Jersey) Audience Marketing Director encountered and solved. As editor of this magazine’s Chementator depart- departjlepree@che.com lhofmann@Accessintel.comGErAld PArkiNsON ment, it gives me great pleasure to congratulate the chemical engineers tErry bEst(California) gparkinson@che.com Audience Development Manager and chemists involved in developing these noteworthy process technolo- technoloEditOriAl tbest@accessintel.com gies because they — the people involved — are the ones being honored.AdvisOry bOArd GEOrGE sEvEriNE It is through their efforts and innovations that keep the chemical process Fulfillment ManagerJOHN cArsON gseverine@accessintel.com industries (CPI) at the forefront of improving our standard of living, byJenike & Johanson, Inc.dAvid dickEy JEN fElliNG enhancing the performance of products that are made and by reducing the List Sales, Statlistics (203) 778-8700MixTech, Inc. j.felling@statlistics.com environmental impact of the methods used to make them.MukEsH dOblE cONfErENcEs Each of the five process technologies being honored involve alternativeIIT Madras, IndiaHENry kistEr dANA d. cArEy routes with “greener” feedstocks, when compared with the conventional Director, Global Event SponsorshipsFluor Corp. dcarey@chemweek.com routes used to making the products. They all tout lower energy consump- consumptrEvOr klEtz tion, reduced side products and, thus, lower production costs. And whileLoughborough University, U.K. PEck siMGErHArd krEysA Senior Manager, their employers will be happiest about the “bottom-line” advantages, we Conference ProgrammingDECHEMA e.V. psim@chemweek.com residents of planet Earth can take some comfort that efforts to cut costsrAM rAMAcHANdrAN bEAtriz suArEz also reduce the impact to our climate, the air we breath, the water we drinkBOC Director of Conference Operations bsuarez@chemweek.com and the land in which we grow our food.iNfOrMAtiON sErvicEsrObErt PAciOrEk cOrPOrAtE While the five finalists now join a distinguished list of former Kirkpat-Senior VP & Chief Information Officer stEvE bArbEr rick honorees, they, and the nominees not making the final round, alreadyrpaciorek@accessintel.com VP, Financial Planning & Internal Audit sbarber@accessintel.com belong to an ever-growing list of companies and the engineers and chem- chemcHArlEs sANdsSenior Developer briAN NEssEN ists they employ to continuously improve the process technologies used toWeb/business Applications Architect Group Publisher make products.csands@accessintel.com bnessen@accessintel.com CE takes pride in honoring these achievements every two years with theHEAdquArtErs Kirkpatrick Chemical Engineering Achievement Award, every two alter- alter110 William Street, 11th Floor, New York, NY 10038, U.S.Tel: 212-621-4900 Fax: 212-621-4694 nate years with the Personal Achievement Award, andEurOPEAN EditOriAl OfficEs every month in the Chementator department. ReadersZeilweg 44, D-60439 Frankfurt am Main, Germany of CE regularly look to those pages to keep abreast ofTel: 49-69-2547-2073 Fax: 49-69-5700-2484 the latest process technology and equipment innova-innovacirculAtiON rEquEsts:Tel: 847-564-9290 Fax: 847-564-9453 tions that have been discovered, scaled up or commer- commerFullfillment Manager; P.O. Box 3588, cialized for the first time. If you are working on such aNorthbrook, IL 60065-3588 email: clientservices@che.com process and believe you and your employer deserve toAdvErtisiNG rEquEsts: see p. 62 be recognized, too, please let us know; we’d love to hearFor photocopy or reuse requests: 800-772-3350 or info@copyright.comFor reprints: chemicalengineering@theygsgroup.com from you. n Gerald Ondrey ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com September 2009 5
  8. 8. Raymond® & Bartlett-Snow™ Thermal Equipment & Systems Letters Raymond and Bartlett-Snow ® ™ products have been success- fully providing solutions for Honoring the man thermal process applications behind the scenes involving chemical, petro- The readers of Chemical En- chemical, ceramic, magnetic, gineering rarely get an inside metals, food, fertilizer, plastic, look at how this publication industrial solid waste and is put together. Since it would nuclear industries. For over a easily have gone undetected, century, we have provided we wish to recognize a long- innovative and dependable standing tradition that is equipment and systems for coming to a close. The October the changing needs of these industries worldwide. issue will mark the first issue in 50 years that does not involve Bill Graham, the person Rotary Calciners who handles our print production. Rotary Dryers Our readers do not know him, but most of our advertis- ers have communicated with him in one way or another Rotary Coolers since Aug. 24, 1959 (photo). For our readers, he has put Rotary Kilns together an award winning publication every month and never asked to be recognized. For our salespeople, he has Flash Dryers worked endless times to squeeze in a last minute ad or to try to get a better position for one of their clients. For the 4525 Weaver Pkwy, Warrenville, IL 60555 editors, he is the one who puts together the puzzle and Toll free: 877.661.5509 makes everything fit each month. Tel: 630.393.1000 • Fax: 630.393.1001 Air Preheater Company Raymond Operations Email: info@airpreheatercompany.com Over the last 50 years, a lot of things have changed in the publishing industry. When Bill started, we had prepress TM www.bartlettsnow.com rooms, typesetting and negatives for all of the advertise- Circle 07 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23018-07 ments. These days everything is done digitally. Bill has mastered the production work regardless of how it was done. Bill has been many things to me since I joined Chemical Engineering. He has been my historian, mentor and co- worker, but mostly he has been my friend, and I am going to miss him. Thank you, Bill, for your 50 years of service! Mike O’Rourke, Publisher Chemical Engineering True loyalty deserves recognition Over one’s career, colleagues frequently come and go — sometimes without much pomp or circumstance mark- ing their departures. In fact, an employee with five or more years working with a single company has come to be thought of as relatively loyal by today’s standards. A higher exhibit of loyalty, however, is why we take pause to honor our colleague Bill Graham, who, with this issue, HIGH ACCURACY FLOW METERS celebrates 50 years with Chemical Engineering. FOR HIGH TEMPERATURES Bill has devoted his entire career to this publication and holds it in the highest esteem. He never seeks recogni- AND HIGH PRESSURES tion and yet has been a key contributor to its success. The magazine would never be what it is today without his flex- – non-intrusive ultrasonic clamp-on technology ibility, advice, hard work and, above all else, respect for – for temperatures up to 750 °F – independent of process pressure the reader. – multi-beam for high accuracy www.flexim.com As our previous Editor-in-Chief once reassured me upon usinfo@flexim.com – wide turn down the departure of another colleague, there has never been, – installation without process shut down FLEXIM Instruments LLC and never will be, a single individual whose exit would – no maintenance CA: (510) 420-6995 cause this magazine to cease publication. But Bill’s depar- – no pressure loss NY: (631) 492-2300 – standard volume calculation TX: (281) 635-2423 ture does mark the end of an era here. It will be another 32 years, at the very least, before we can celebrate an em- TYPICAL APPLICATIONS: ployee’s 50 year anniversary. Thank you for your loyalty, HEAT TRANSFER OILS | BITUMEN | PITCH/TAR | COKER FEED | CRUDE OILS/SYNTHETIC Bill. We will miss you. CRUDE | GAS OILS | REFINED PETROLEUM PRODUCTS | HOT OR TOXIC CHEMICALS Rebekkah Marshall, Editor in Chief Chemical Engineering Circle 08 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23018-08 6 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com September 200987_Flexim-Anzeige-ChemEngin 1 11.01.2008 11:18:49 Uh
  9. 9. Do you see a dragon? We also see a challenge to reduce carbon footprints by using energy more efficiently. Veolia Energy develops and implements sustainable solutions such as cogeneration (capturing and converting heat into energy), renewable energy resources and optimized efficiency of customers’ on-site infrastructure and complex equipment. In 2008, the energy efficiency we created provided carbon emission reductions in excess of 6.2 million tons of carbon dioxide. The environment is our universal challenge.Learn more about the high-quality energy and facility operations and management veolianorthamerica.comservices we have implemented for the Galleria Shopping Center in Houston. Circle 09 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23018-09
  10. 10. BookshelfGuidelines for Chemical Transportation Safety, Security, and Chapter one introduces trans-Risk Management, 2nd Edition. By the Center for Chemical portation risk management, asProcess Safety/AIChE. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 111 River well as key stakeholders in theSt., Hoboken, NJ 07030. Web: wiley.com. 2008. 166 pages. supply chain and risk management$125.00 process. Chapter two discusses baseline programs for safety andReviewed by: Stanley S. Grossel, security management for all modes of hazardous materialProcess Safety & Design Consultant, Clifton, N.J. transport that need to be in place prior to a risk analysis. Risk assessment fundamentals are discussed in Chap-H azardous chemical transport poses significant pub- ter three, as is a protocol for conducting transportation lic health and environmental risks. In 1995, the risk assessments. Chapter four focuses on qualitative and CCPS published “Guidelines for Chemical Trans- semi-qualitative techniques that can be used to analyzeportation Risk Analysis.” The book reviews risk analysis the safe transport of hazardous materials. Chapter fivetechniques used to evaluate chemical transportation oper- provides an overview of quantitative risk analysis (QRA)ations. The new edition serves as a complement to, rather techniques for evaluating hazardous materials transpor-than a replacement for, the 1995 edition, and the earlier tation issues, including data sources and requirements,guidelines are included in CD form along with four other analysis techniques, and the generation and interpreta-appendices. The new publication addresses transporta- tion of quantitative risk results.tion security and risk management broadly and provides Chapter six presents current security guidelines andtools and methods for a wider range of transportation regulations, and a methodology for adapting and apply-professionals and stakeholders. In particular, it introduces ing security vulnerability assessment (SVA) techniquesqualitative and practical techniques for identifying and designed for fixed chemical facilities to account for themanaging higher-level risk issues that balance safety and differences specific to transportation. Risk reductionsecurity. Together, the two books can help effectively ana- strategies are discussed in Chapter seven, which provideslyze and manage chemical transportation risk. guidance on developing risk reduction strategies and From formulation to wastewater treatment, Myron L Water Quality Instruments provide accurate reliable measurements of key parameters: CONDUCTIVITY, RESISTIVITY, TDS, ORP, PH & TEMPERATURE Monitor/ Ultrameter II 6P™ TechPro II TPH1™ controllers pDS Meter ™ See our full line of quality instruments at www.myronl.com MADE IN USA 2450 Impala Drive Carlsbad, CA 92010 Tel: 760-438-2021 Fax: 760-931-9189 Circle 10 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23018-108 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com september 2009
  11. 11. highlights the factors that influence the different typesof safety and security measures that can be selected andultimately implemented. The book concludes with tips forkeeping risk management practices current with chang-ing trends and regulations. It is an excellent informationsource for those involved with chemical transport safety. Petroleum Microbiology, Concepts, Environmental Implications, In- dustrial Applications, vols. 1 and 2. By Jean-Paul Vandecasteele. Editions Technip, 25 rue Ginoux, 75015 Paris, France. Web: editionstechnip.com. 2008. 816 pages. $200.00 Scaling Analysis in Modeling Transport and Reaction Processes: A Systematic Approach to Model Building and the Art of Approxima- tion. By William Krantz. John Wiley and Sons, 111 River Road, Hoboken, NJ 07030. Web: wiley.com. 2007. 529 pages. $115.00. Polymer Melt Processing: Founda- tions in Fluid Mechanics and Heat Circle 11 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23018-11 Transfer. By Morton Denn. Cambridge Univ. Press, 32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013-2473. Web: cam- bridge.org. 2008. 250 pages. $99.00. Reactive Distillation Design and Control. By William Luyben and Cheng-Ching Yu. John Wiley and Sons, 111 River Road, Hoboken, NJ 07030. Web: wiley.com. 2008. 574 pages. $130.00. Diffusion: Mass Transfer in Fluid Systems, 3rd Ed. by E.L. Cussler. Cambridge University Press, 32 Av- enue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013-2473. Web: cambridge.org. 2009. 631 pages. $80.00. Nanotechnology: Basic Calcula- tions for Engineers and Scientists. By Louis Theodore. John Wiley and Sons, 111 River Road, Hoboken, NJ 07030. Web: wiley.com. 2006. 459 pages. $105.00. Nano and Microsensors for Chemi- cal and Biological Terrorism Sur- veillance. Edited by Jeffrey Tok. RSC Publishing, Milton Road, Cambridge, CB4 0WF, UK. Web: rsc.org. 208 pages. $148.00. ■ Scott Jenkins Circle 12 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23018-12 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com september 2009 9
  12. 12. Circle 20 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23018-20
  13. 13. Edited by Gerald Ondrey September 2009 Untreated Process Oxygen and air injection water control controlled by DO and pH feedback loops OxygenA cost-effective process Return flow used for oxygenationfor recycling wastewater and process mixing AirA wastewater treatment process that con- Bioreactor sumes less energy, produces less sludge Membrane DO = dissolved O2and makes available up to 75% of the water modules RO = reverse osmosisfor reuse — including that of potable water Separation of biomassquality — has been commercialized by /treated water TreatedLinde Gases, a division of The Linde Group RO process water Water reuse/(Munich, Germany; www.linde.com). The so- Bio-treatment and water reuse final disposal and oxygenationcalled Axenis process is suitable for treatingwastewater with soluble organic pollutants, The return flow from the UF membranessuch as that generated by biodiesel produc- is used for injecting O2 and air, and to Making a C–F bondtion and the food, dairy, paper-and-pulp, pig- achieve mixing in the MBR, thereby elimi- Pharmaceuticals and agro-ments and cellulose (starches) industries, nating the need for an additional aeration chemicals often incorporatesays Darren Gurney, process engineer at device and agitator, says Gurney. This con- a fluorine atom within theirLinde Gases. Axenis handles wastewater figuration also has the effect of recovering molecular structure to improvewith COD (chemical oxygen demand) lev- some of the energy needed for separation, he properties, such as keeping theels in the range of 2,000 to 100,000 mg/L, says. The controlled use of O2 (for biological body from metabolizing a drughe says. treatment) and air (to control pH) enables too rapidly. However, adding a Axenis utilizes the patented, oxygen-based the MBR to operate at about 5–10°C higher fluorine to an aromatic ring at aVairox technology in a membrane bioreactor than conventional MBRs without the associ- late stage of the synthesis can be difficult and expensive due(MBR) in combination with cross-flow ultra- ated production of surplus biological sludge. to the harsh conditions neededfiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) in Operating at this higher temperature can by traditional methods. Now,an integrated, automated unit. In the pro- lead to a 10% or more increase in flux rate. chemists at the Massachusettscess (flowsheet), wastewater is first fed to an As a result, the reactor can be at least one- Institute of Technology (MIT;MBR, where bacteria oxidize the COD into half, and in some cases, as much as one-third Cambridge; www.mit.edu) haveCO2 and water. The waste stream is then the size of conventional MBRs for the same devised a new way to add a flu-pumped through a tubular UF (cutoff range capacity, says Gurney. orine atom to an aromatic com-of 0.001 to 0.03 microns) membrane module The first commercial reference of Axenis pound with a single catalyticto remove suspended solids. Finally, RO is — a retrofit at a U.K. company treating 2 step. In the reaction, a palladiumused to remove dissolved inorganic com- m.t./d (metric tons per day) of COD — is now catalyst is used to exchange a triflate group (CF3SO3–) with apounds. Final water quality with BOD (bio- being built, and Gurney anticipates the first fluoride ion, which is taken fromlogical oxygen demand) and suspended sol- greenfield application to be announced in 6 a salt such as CeF.ids levels of less than 5 mg/L are achieved. mo., with startup in 2010.A protective coating helps fine powders flow, without agglomerationA team from Monash Institute of Phar- maceutical Science at Monash Uni-versity (Melbourne, Australia; www. Corp. (Osaka, Japan; www.hosokawami- cron.co.jp/en) — that has a specially de- signed fast blade, providing a fast mov- croscopy revealed significant differences in morphology: untreated and mixed batches were mostly agglomerated or hadpharm.monash.edu.au), has developed ing compressive surface. The process the particles with smooth surfaces and sharpan approach — a hybrid mixing and team has developed involves coating the edges, whereas the Mechanofusion-pro-milling process — for producing fine particles with a nano-layer of an addi- cessed samples were de-agglomerated,(1–20 µm) pharmaceutical powders with tive, which is polished into the particles’ and had rounded edges due to the attri-good flow and de-agglomeration prop- surface. The coating is believed to im- tion and deformation during the high-erties. Team leader David Morton says prove flow properties by reducing inter- shear dry-coating process. Changes insimilar methods have been applied for particle forces. surface textures indicated that the addi-bulk pigments and ceramics, but are not Fine-milled lactose samples were used tive had effectively coated the particles.generally known for such fine and cohe- as model cohesive pharmaceutical pow- The dry-coating process leads to asive powders that tend to form clumps ders, and about 1–2 wt.% magnesium substantial improvement in flow prop-that stick stubbornly together. stearate served as the additive. For com- erties for these fine lactose powders. The team used a very high shear sys- parison, the samples were processed in Changes in powder-packing structuretem — a Nobilta “Mechanofusion” pro- a conventional mixer and the Mechano- are thought to be responsible for an ob-cessor developed by Hosokawa Micron fusion processor. Scanning electron mi- served doubling of the pour density.Note: For more information, circle the 3-digit numberon p. 62, or use the website designation. CHeMICal eNgINeerINg www.CHe.COM SePTeMber 2009 11
  14. 14. C hementato R More efficient smeltingProcess optimization software the energy efficiency at two record-breaking aluminumallows rapid setup, cost savings smelters in the middle east has been increased by 18%, thanksN ew industrial process-optimization soft- ware can be fully operational in sevendays — months ahead of existing predic- recipe requirements that need constant correction, the software reduces out-of- specification product and improves process to abb’s (Zurich, switzerland; www.abb.com) new rectiform- ers — the high-power compo-tive monitoring systems, according to Slip- efficiency. Companies can realize a 1–5% in- nents that control and convertstream Software (Alpharetta, Ga.; www.slip- crease in efficiency, which, in a typical chem- alternating current from the grid to direct current needed tostreamrpm.com). The company’s proprietary ical plant, could mean a few million dollars power the electrolytic processdata-modeling tools are responsible for the of savings annually, explains company CEO and produce molten al in pots.reduced setup time. By mining process his- Gary Hopkins. In addition, predictive pro- the rectiformers were devel-tory information, and collecting data from cess systems can take four to six months oped for the sohar al smeltersensors installed in the process stream, of engineering time to set up, and can cost in sultanate of oman, whichSlipstream software “dynamically reads, close to $1 million. Slipstream software can consists of 360 pots and pro-models and auto-corrects customer recipes,” achieve the same functionality in a week for duces up to 360,000 ton/yr ofthe company says. around one-fifth of the price, he adds. al — the world’s largest potline The process optimization software can be According to Slipstream, a Belgian food- (startup June 2008) — andused in wet processes (using infrared spec- additive manufacturer using its software the Qatalum smelter in Qatar, which will become the world’stroscopy as the basis for the sensors) or dry saw a 4% efficiency jump, and a paper-pulp largest aluminum smelter when(using characteristic sound vibrations) and maker saw its profits jump by 20% after in- it starts up in late 2009, with ais designed to interface with a plant’s dis- stalling the pattern modeling software. production capacity of 585,000tributed control (DCS) or supervisory con- The new software represents an addition ton/yr and 704 pots.trol and data acquisition (SCADA) system. to the company’s portfolio of root cause ana- For these massive projects, Designed for industrial processes with lytics products. abb was able to extend the voltage limit of the rectiform- ers from 1,200 V d.c. to 1,650More efforts to make biofuels from algae . . . V d.c. (for sohar) and 2,000 V d.c. for Qatalum. this enablesO ver the past few weeks there has been a number of announcements on proj-ects aimed to further develop algae-to-fu- Meanwhile, petroleum major ExxonMo- bil (Irvine, Tex.; www.exxonmobil.com) has formed an alliance with Synthetic Genomics the devices to convert and deliver more power than previ- ously possible. as a result,els technology (see also, “Pond Strength,” Inc. (SGI; La Jolla, Calif.; www.syntheticge- each smelter requires only fiveCE, September 2008, pp. 22–25). Plankton nomics.com) to develop next generation bio- rectiformers instead of the sixPower (Wellfleet; www.planktonpower.com) fuels from algae, following earlier leads by needed at the lower voltage,and the Regional Technology Development Shell (CE, January 2008, p. 15), Akzo-Nobel resulting in a “huge” savings inCorp. of Cape Cod (RTDC; Woods Hole, both (CE, July 2008, p. 16) and ConocoPhillips investment, says abb.Mass.; www.regionaltechcorp.org) have (www.che.com, July 2, 2008).formed a consortium to establish the Cape In July, The Dow Chemical Co. (Midland, Ag/polymer reflectorCod Algae Biorefinery, which will focus on Mich.; www.dow.com) said it would work scientists at skyFuel inc.pilot- and commercial-scale development of with Algenol Biofuels, Inc. (Bonita Springs, (arvada, Colo.; www.skyfuel.algae-based biodiesel. The proposed biore- Fla.; www.algenolbiofuels.com) to build and com) and the national re-finery will be located on 5 acres of land operate a pilot-scale, algae-based integrated newable energy laboratoryat the Massachusetts Military Reserva- biorefinery to make ethanol. (golden, Colo.; www.nrel.gov)tion (Bourne). Starting in the fall of 2010, In Germany, scientists at the Karlsruhe have developed a silveredPlankton Power expects to produce 1-mil- Institute of Technology (Germany; www. polymer film as a less expen- sive alternative to glass mirrorlion gal/yr of biodiesel in pilot-scale opera- kit.edu) are developing a closed, vertically reflectors. Curved sheets oftions, using the company’s cold-saltwater arranged photobioreactor that is said to the reflective material are usedalgae species. Commercial-scale operations be five-times more efficient at converting in solar troughs, which reflecton 100 acres could produce 100-million gal/ solar energy into biomass than open ponds. concentrated solar radiation onyr, which would meet 5% of the demand for A pulsed electric treatment process is also a tube filled with a heat transferdiesel and home heating fuel in the state of being developed at KIT for extracting oils fluid. Developers claim the costMassachusetts, says the firm. and other chemicals from biomass. advantage of the multi-layered polymer material is 30% when compared to glass mirrors,. . . and from microorganisms which are more expensive, heavier and more difficult toL ast month, BP Corp. (London; www.bp.com) signed a joint-development agreement withMartek Biosciences Corp. (Columbia, Md.; cept for large-scale, cost-effective production of microbial biodiesel. The concept is to utilize microorganisms to ferment sugars into lipids, install for collecting solar radia- tion. a pilot system including the polymer-silver reflectors iswww.martek.com) to work on the production which will then be processed into liquid fuels. operational at skyFuel’s facilityof microbial oils for biofuels applications. The BP is contributing $10 million to the initial in arvada, Colo.two companies aim to establish proof of con- phase of the collaboration. 12 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com september 2009
  15. 15. New MAK & BAT values the senate Commission for the investigation of health haz- ards of Chemical Compounds in the work area, establishedNew heating technique improves by the german researchzeolite membrane performance Foundation (DFg; bonn) has issued the maK (maximumA dding a rapid heat-treatment step to the Grain boundary defects form during calcina- concentration at the workplace) process of making zeolite membranes tion, a heating process required to remove and bat (biological tolerance)improves separation performance by elimi- structure-directing agents (SDAs) from zeo- Values list for 2009, which contains 62 changes and newnating grain boundary defects, according to lite pores. SDAs are added during synthesis entries. these include revisedresearchers from the University of Minne- to define zeolite pore size and shape. assessments of oxides of nitro-sota (UMN; Minneapolis, Minn.; www.umn. The research group developed a rapid ther- gen, and zinc and its inorganicedu), who published their study in the July mal processing (RTP) technique that may compounds.31 issue of Science. strengthen bonding between adjacent zeolite although the trace element The study could inform efforts aimed at crystal grains prior to removal of the SDAs. zinc, which is ingested throughproducing zeolite films for gas, liquid and In RTP, an infrared-lamp-based furnace is food, is a component of impor-vapor membrane separations processes, as used to heat synthesized zeolite membranes tant enzymes, it can have toxicwell as for hybrid membrane-distillation to 700°C within one minute prior to removal effects on the lungs if inhaled.processes that separate industrial mixtures. of the SDAs. The elevated temperature is therefore, the maximum con- centration of zinc oxide fumesIf zeolite membranes could be fabricated to maintained for 30 s to 2 min before the mem- in the breathing air to whichdeliver expected performance in flux and se- brane is cooled by water circulation. workers can be exposed withoutlectivity, they could reduce the energy costs Tsapatsis hypothesizes that the increased suffering adverse health effectsassociated with distillation by 10-fold, notes crystal-to-crystal bonding — which may re- is considerably lower than wasprofessor Michael Tsapatsis, a UMN chemi- sult from condensation reactions of Si-OH previously stated, says the DFg.cal engineer who led the research. groups on neighboring crystals — reduces the there are also seven revisions Large-scale production of zeolite films has development of cracks and grain boundary or alterations in the carcino-been plagued by the formation of cracks and defects in the membrane. When SDAs were genic substances category,grain boundary defects. Membrane defects removed in a subsequent heating step, the including the categorization ofdegrade selectivity by allowing molecules to researchers observed an increased selectiv- the chromates (except lead and barium chromate) as carcino-bypass the zeolite pores that are designed ity when the RTP-treated zeolite films were genic to humans. the completeto discriminate among mixture components. used to separate o-xylene from p-xylene. list can be downloaded at www. dfg.de.Pt-free catalysts promise to lower fuel-cell costs . . . Dust explosion advice the U.s. occupational safetyS howa Denko K.K. (Tokyo; www.sdk.co.jp/ html/english) has developed a platinum-substitute catalyst system for polymer elec- efficiency, in terms of open-circuit voltage and durability, among non-Pt catalysts an- nounced so far. Enhanced durability has also and health admin. (osha; washington, D.C.; www.osha. gov) has recently publishedtrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) under the New been observed, with operation extending to a new guidance documentEnergy and Industrial Technology Devel- more than 10,000 h, says the firm. — hazard Communicationopment Organization’s (NEDO; Kawasaki, Production costs for the new catalysts are guidance for CombustibleJapan) project led by professor Kenichiro about ¥500/kW ($5/kW), or less, which is Dusts — that helps chemicalOta of Yokohama National University. The about 1/20th that of today’s Pt-based cata- manufacturers and importersnew catalysts — based on niobium oxide lysts. The company is working to improve to recognize the potentialand titanium oxide, each containing nitro- the catalyst performance using fine-particle for dust explosions, identify appropriate protective measuresgen and carbon atoms — are used in both manufacturing technologies and high-con- and the requirements forthe cathode and anode of a PEFC and are ductivity carbon, and anticipates commer- disseminating this informationsaid to achieve the world’s highest level of cial production by 2015. on material safety data sheets and labels. the document can be downloaded from osha’s. . . as does reducing the Pt load website for free.A technique for making PEFC elec- trodes with one fourth the amountof platinum catalyst compared to con- materials with a high performance level when used in the membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) of PEFCs. Naitou fabri- generation characteristics as conven- tional systems even when reducing the Pt content by 75%. The enhanced cata-ventional PEFCs has been developed by cated the composite catalyst, composed lyst activity is thought to be the result ofHosokawa Micron Corp. (Osaka, Japan; of commercially available platinum-car- increasing the electrochemically activewww.hosokawamicron.co.jp/en) in col- bon particles and tungsten-carbide par- surface created by MCB technology. Thelaboration with professors Kiyoshi Ka- ticles. Kanamura fabricated the MEA by researchers believe the Pt load can benamura, Tokyo Metropolitan University, incorporating a Nafion membrane, and reduced by 90% through optimizing theand Makio Naitou, Osaka University. evaluated the MEA’s power-generation fine structure of the particles. HosokawaThe method, known as mechanochemical characteristics. Micron is continuing to improve its AMS-bonding (MCB), produces stable, complex The scientists obtained similar power- Mini device for MCB applications. ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com september 2009 13
  16. 16. C hementato RThis process may produce electricityfrom low-temperature geothermal resourcesT he world has vast geothermal re- sources in the temperature rangeof 150–250°F, but these temperatures ratory fellow Peter McGrail. “We have synthesized a number of MOHCs,” he says, “and the best ones we have discov- as particles of less than 100 nm and ad- sorbs as much as 30 wt.% of the fluid, so that the working density of the alkaneare too low for economical exploitation, ered so far have a latent heat of adsorp- is not reduced. He adds that the MOHCsusing today’s technology. A process tion that is 20 times the standard heat are inexpensive and the main questionthat could change the benchmark is of vaporization of the working fluid.” is whether the nanoparticles will with-being developed at Pacific Northwest McGrail declines to give details on stand longterm cycling. PNNL plans toNational Laboratory (PNNL, Richland, the composition of the MOHCs, but says answer that question with a bench-scale,Wash.; www.pnl.gov). the material is dispersed in the alkane electricity-generating prototype unit. PNNL’s process would pump hot waterfrom a geothermal reservoir and extractheat into a working fluid through a heatexchanger, a conventional process. The An activated carbon for picking up heavy metalsnew twist is that PNNL uses a bipha-sic working fluid. It consists of a metal-organic heat carrier (MOHC) suspended T he Agricultural Research Service (ARS, Beltsville, Md.; www.ars.usda. gov) has received a patent on a process tons/yr of litter, according to the ARS. The process was developed and has been laboratory-tested at the ARSin, for example, butane, pentane or pro- for producing activated carbon from Southern Regional Research Centerpane, which drives a turbine via a Rank- poultry litter, which consists of bedding (New Orleans, La.). Litter is groundine cycle. The biphasic fluid’s properties materials such as sawdust and peanut into a fine powder, pelletized, then py-promise to boost the power-generation shells, along with droppings and feath- rolyzed at 1,300–1,500°F in a nitrogencapacity of the turbine to near that of a ers. U.S.-grown broiler chickens and tur- atmosphere. Unlike conventional acti-conventional steam turbine, says Labo- keys produce an estimated 15-million vated carbon, produced from coal, the Lower operating costs with variable pitch rotary screw vacuum pumps COBRA variable pitch dry screw pumps help optimize vacuum efficiency and reduce operating costs by combining high flow rates with low power consumption and reduced utilities. Contact us today for a free cost analysis for your process application. Visit us at the Chem Show November 17-19 New York, NY Booth #210 Circle 14 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23018-14 14 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com september 2009
  17. 17. Fast digestion makes better use of municipal sludgeT he use of residual sludge from munici- pal sewage plants as fertilizer in ag-riculture is controversial (due to heavy vest in the technology that is now state- of-the art in larger plants, according to a cost-benefit analysis performed by the tems. About 60% of the organic matter is converted into biogas. Using the biogas to make electricity to run the plant, andmetals and other pollutants), and slurry Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial En- the reduced volume of sludge needed tocan no longer be disposed of in landfills gineering and Biotechnology (IGB; Stut- be disposed of, can save the operator of ain many countries. A less expensive al- tgart, Germany; www.igb.fraunhofer.de). small (28,000 inhabitants) sewage plantternative to incineration — high-rate di- In the fast-digestion process developed about €170,000/yr, according to IGB.gestion of sludge into biogas — can lead at IGB, sludge only needs to remain into substantial savings (even for small the tower for 5–7 d instead of 30–50 d Waste-heat recoverysewage plants) despite the need to in- as typical for conventional digestion sys- GE Energy (Atlanta, Ga.; www.ge.com/ energy) and ECOS Ltd. (Slovenia) plan to demonstrate a new waste-heat re- covery system that is expected to boostARS material has a relatively high con- roughly $1/kg for coal-derived carbon. the electrical efficiency of a 7.2-MWcentration of phosphorous, which adds However, she points out that conven- biogas power plant by five percentagea negative charge. This enables the car- tional activated carbon is commonly points. GE’s pilot ORC (organic Rankinbon to adsorb heavy metal ions, such as used to adsorb organics. The adsorption cycle) waste-heat recovery system willthose of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc, of metal ions would require post-treated allow ECOS to capture more wastesays Isabel Lima, a research chemist at carbon or ionic resins, both of which heat created by its Bioplinarne Lendavathe center. are much more expensive. Lima says biogas plant, in eastern Slovenia. The extra thermal power will be used to pro- Lima estimates that the process could the technology is open for licensing by duce steam, which in turn will generateproduce activated carbon for about companies interested in building small more electricity. ❏$1.44/kg, or 65¢/lb. This compares with plants in poultry-producing areas. ■ Circle 15 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23018-15
  18. 18. Li slab Transition metal slab NewsfrontCPI ENErgIzEd bybattEry FUNdINg DOE Awards $1.5 billion to scale up battery production for electric-powered carsE fforts toward large-scale produc- technologies for road vehicles. tion of lithium-ion (Li-ion)-based In an Aug. 5 speech to announce the car batteries got a big boost in funding, U.S. Energy Secretary Ste- Transition Li site metal site Oxygen site early August, when the Obama ven Chu stated that the grants wereAdministration announced $2.4 billion handed out “not simply to boost a few Figure 1. The structure of layered metalin U.S. government investment aimed, companies, but to start an entire ad- oxides is similar among several types of cathode materials used in Li-ion batteriesin part, at dramatically ramping up vanced battery industry in America.” that are designed specifically for hybridthe supply chain for advanced batter- The $2.4 billion in grants represents electric and plug-in electric vehiclesies for the auto industry. A majority of the single biggest government invest-this funding is funneling directly into ment in electric vehicles ever. “It’s a phate material, the crystal structurethe chemical process industries (CPI), big deal,” says Jennifer Watts, com- of which contains intercalated lithiumwhich are responsible for developing munications manager at the Electric ions (Figure 1). The dominant cathodeand commercializing the necessary Drive Transportation Assn. (Washing- material in batteries for portable elec-technology. But CPI companies in- ton, D.C.; www.electricdrive.org). Es- tronic devices has been lithium cobaltvolved in this area will be challenged tablishing a domestic manufacturing oxide (LiCoO2), a material that is tooto produce batteries that meet the per- base for advanced batteries is critical costly and that carries too many safetyformance needs of the auto industry at to the future of the auto industry, and concerns to be used in HEV/PHEV bat-affordable cost. the grant funding shows that govern- teries. The DOE grant awards (Table Part of the recent economic stimulus ment and industry “are on the same 1) support large-scale production ofpackage (American Recovery and Re- page,” she commented. batteries containing several cathodeinvestment Act), the U.S. Dept. of En- Meanwhile, it gives a shot in the arm types, each exhibiting a unique struc-ergy’s (DOE; Washington, D.C.; www. to an already expanding market for ture and different metal contents.energy.gov) Electric Drive and Vehicle battery technologies. Mid-August esti- One approach to synthesizing cath-Battery and Component Manufactur- mates from the market research firm odes that can handle automobile en-ing Initiative awarded the $2.4 billion Innovative Research and Products Inc. vironments involves a metal oxidein grants to 48 different battery-tech- (iRAP; Stamford, Conn.; www.innore- structure that includes manganese andnology and electric-vehicle projects in search.net) place the global market for nickel along with cobalt. Known as an20 states. Of the $2.4 billion total, $1.5 large-format Li-ion batteries for trans- NMC cathode, the material forms thebillion in grants went to manufactur- portation at $77 million in 2009. HEVs basis of a proprietary battery technol-ers of batteries or their components, and PHEVs currently represent a neg- ogy called superior lithium polymerwhile the remaining $900 million went ligible portion of that total. The global battery (SLPB). SLPBs may be attrac-to makers of electric drive components market for Li-ion batteries in transpor- tive to automakers because the technol-and vehicles themselves. Each DOE- tation is projected to reach $332 mil- ogy has already been commercializedgrant dollar will be matched by invest- lion by 2014, with electric automobiles for specialized military and industrialments from the awardees. accounting for $87 million. Heavy-duty applications. Dow Kokam, a joint ven- The auto industry is poised to roll out hybrid electric vehicles (buses, train ture of the Dow Chemical Co. (Mid-new hybrid electric and plug-in hybrid engines, trucks) will garner the largest land, Mich.; www.dow.com) and Kokamelectric vehicles (HEVs and PHEVs) in portion of the market, at $150 million America (Lee’s Summit, Mo.; www.the next several years, and are depend- by 2014, iRAP projects. kokamamerica.com), was awarded $161ing on a ready supply of automotive- million in DOE funds to produce SLPBsgrade Li-ion batteries. But the lack Varying cathode approaches for the HEV/PHEV markets.of manufacturing capacity has been Among the crucial factors affecting The NMC cathodes employed in thea bottleneck, especially for U.S. auto- battery performance, safety and cost, is SLPB batteries exhibit low imped-makers. The competitively awarded the cathode active material. Cathodes ance, good safety characteristics andDOE grants accelerate progress toward for Li-ion batteries generally consist rapid charge and discharge, says Raviscaling-up production of viable battery of layered metal oxide or metal phos- Shanker, corporate director of Ven-16 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com September 2009
  19. 19. A solution in every drop of water. In the simple bond of hydrogen and oxygen, the complexity of human need presents itself. But if we apply chemistry, using the Human Element as our filter, we discover solutions as vital as water itself. Solutions like advanced desalination and re-use technology from Dow Water Solutions that make the purification and recycling of municipal water possible. Dow Water Solutions’ reverse osmosis technology is at work in three wastewater reclamation and reuse facilities in Beijing, China. Reverse osmosis technology enables Beijing to meet its 50 percentwww.dow.com/hu wastewater reuse rate for the 2008 Beijing Olympic®™The DOW Diamond Logo and Human Games this summer. It also helps address growingElement and design are trademarks ofThe Dow Chemical Company © 2008 worldwide demand for water and China’s own commitment to conservation and reuse. Caring for man is caring for the future of mankind. And that is what The Dow Chemical Company is all about. www.dowwatersolutions.com Circle 16 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23018-16
  20. 20. Company name Award Technology Editors notes (project locations) amount (in millions of U.S. dollars) Johnson Controls 299.2 Production of nickel-cobalt-metal battery cells and Converted Michigan facil- Inc. (Holland, Mich.; packs, as well as production of battery separators (by ity to be operational by Lebanon, Ore.) partner Entek) for hybrid and electric vehicles end of 2010 A123 Systems Inc. 249.1 Manufacturing of nano-iron phosphate cathode pow- Initial public stock offering (Romulus, Mich.; der and electrode coatings; fabrication of battery coming soon Brownstown, Mich.) cells and modules; and assembly of complete battery pack systems for hybrid and electric vehicles Dow Kokam (Mid- 161.0 Production of manganese-oxide cathode / graphite Li- Battery production slated land, Mich.) ion batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles for 2011 Compact Power Inc. 151.4 Production of Li-polymer battery cells for the General Manganese spinel-struc- – LG Chem Ltd. (St. Motors Volt using a manganese-based cathode and a tured cathode material Clair, Pontiac and proprietary separator Holland, Mich. ) EnerDel Inc. (India- 118.5 Production of Li-ion cells and packs for hybrid and Initial capacity increase napolis, Ind.) electric vehicles. Primary lithium chemistries include at existing plants, followed manganese spinel cathode and lithium titanate by later purchase of new anode for high-power applications, as well as manga- facilities space nese spinel cathode and amorphous carbon for high- energy applicationsTable 1. Selected DOE grant recipients in the areas of battery, cell and materials manufacturingunder the Electric Drive and Vehicle Battery and Component Manufacturing Initiative (Source: U.S. Department of Energy)tures and Business Development at The venture plans to begin con- When operational, Dow Kokam ex-Dow. In addition, NMC cathodes have struction of an 800,000-ft2 SLPB plant pects the facility to produce enough40% higher energy density than that in Midland, Mich. this autumn. SLPBs batteries to supply 60,000 HEVs/of another cathode material alterna- will likely appear in road automobiles PHEVs annually.tive, lithium iron phosphate. in 12–18 months, Shanker projects. NMC cathode material is also the The new RecipCOM delivers diagnostics, protection and therapy for your reciprocating compressors. Spread the word!
  21. 21. Company name Award Technology Editors notes(project locations) amount (in millions of U.S. dollars)General Motors 105.9 Production of high-volume battery packs for the GM Chevy Volt anticipated toCorp. (Brownstown, Volt. Cells will be from LG Chem and other cell provid- be launched at the end ofMich.) ers to be named later 2010Saft America Inc. 95.5 Production of Li-ion cells, modules and battery packs New plant to make Li-ion(Jacksonville, Fla.) for industrial and agricultural vehicles and defense batteries for military, avia- application markets. Primary chemistries include tion, energy storage nickel-cobalt-metal and iron phosphateCelgard LLC – Poly- 49.2 Production of polymer separator material for Li-ion Funding will help expandpore (Charlotte, batteries existing plant and buildN.C.; Aiken, S.C.) new oneToda America Inc. 35 Production of nickel-cobalt-metal cathode material for Experienced metal oxide(Goose Creek, S.C.) lithium-ion batteries producerChemetall Foote 28.4 Production of battery-grade lithium carbonate and Raw material productionCorp. (Nev.; N.C.) lithium hydroxideHoneywell Interna- 27.3 Production of electrolyte salt (lithium hexafluorophos- First U.S. producer of LiPF6tional Inc. (N.Y.; Ill.) phate, or LiPF6) for Li-ion batteriesBASF Catalysts LLC 24.6 Production of nickel-cobalt-metal cathode material for New plant operational in(Elyria, Ohio) Li-ion batteries 2012 choice of another DOE grant recipient. materials, explains that NMC-type BASF hopes to begin production of the BASF Catalysts LLC (Iselin, N.J.; cat- cathodes contain only about one third cathode material. alysts.basf.com) was awarded almost the cobalt in LiCoO2 cathodes, allow- Johnson Controls Inc. (JCI; Milwau- $25 million to help build a plant in ing a corresponding price reduction. kee, Wis.; www.johnsoncontrols.com) Elyria, Ohio for production of cathode NMC-type cathodes “offer the best recipient of the single largest DoE powders. Prashant Chintawar, BASF combination of cost, safety and per- award ($299 million), will produce senior manager for advanced cathode formance,” adds Chintawar. By 2012, batteries containing another layered www.hoerbiger.com Circle 18 on p. 62 or go to adlinks.che.com/23018-18 For more information please contact compressor-mechatronics@hoerbiger.com

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