Drying: Making Gravity Work


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Drying: Making Gravity Work

  1. 1. May gulf Coast 2009 special advertising section Page 55 www.che.com 5Gravity dryers • fire & Gas safety Page 34 Refiners Face Uncertain Future Heat Automating Transfer Batch Processes Optimal Cooling Selecting an Facts at Your Fingertips: Systems for ERP Package Choosing a Control System Coastal Plants Fire and Gas Safetyvol. 116 No. 5 may 2009
  2. 2. Circle 01 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/23014-01
  3. 3. Circle 04 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/23014-04
  4. 4. Circle 05 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/23014-05
  5. 5. may 2009 In ThIs Issue Volume 116, no. 5 Commentary 5 Editor’s Page Keep GHG de- bates on point While the spotlight is on carbon diox- www.che.com ide, care should be taken in keeping the broader per-Cover story spective in mind34 Cover Story Designing and when discussing Operating Gravity Dryers greenhouse gases, Properly designed, bulk solids bins particularly when or silos offer numerous advantages shaping regulations in slow, diffusion-limited drying operations departmentsneWs Letters . . . . . . . . . . . 611 Chementator Petroleum refiners seek to increase distillation yield, Bookshelf . . . . . . . 8, 9 decrease emissions, knock out NOx, Who’s Who . . . . . . . 32 and control SOx; Reducing foundry Reader emissions; Cold-war cleanup; Service page . . . . . . 70 Ammonia from biomass; Solid catalyst simplifies turning algae into Economic biodiesel; A better way to make effi- Indicators . . . . . 71, 72 cient catalysts; Spinning yarns of CNTs; Alkaline-earth-based catalysts advertisers for C—C bond formation; and more equipment & serviCes Gulf Coast19 Newsfront Refiners Face Uncertain 30 Focus Heat Transfer New line of Special Future Declining product demand, blown film coolers is designed for Advertising Section . 55 volatile margins, and a global recession warm climates; These heat exchangers are forcing many refiners to rethink offer high heat-transfer coefficients; Product Showcase . . 64 investment decisions Withstand harsh outdoor conditions Classified with this heat exchanger; Mobile cool- Advertising . . . . .65–6825 Newsfront Staying Alive Repeatability, ers designed for demanding oil applica- flexibility and visibility via automated control tions; and more Advertiser Index . . . 69 systems can help batch processors make it through the recession 32D-1 New Products & Services Coming (Domestic Edition) Splice detection in Juneengineering system for paper and packaging; Flow Look for: Feature calibrator with extended range dual-33 Facts At Your Fingertips Choosing a Reports on Distilla- manifold capability; Achieve consistent Control System This one-page guide tion; and Flow Mea- dispensing over 8 or 12 pipette chan- details the technology requirements to surement; A Solids nels; This flow controller is unaffected by consider when choosing a control system Processing article temperature and pressure; This thermal-40 Feature Report Fire and Gas Safety Sys- on Vibratory Feeders; imaging camera is portable; Communica- tems Integrating fire-and-gas detectors and An Environmental tion blocks for field devices into control mitigation systems into overall process safety Manager article systems; These thermal transfer printers control can help ensure fast responses to on Controlling Elec- feature internal memory; and more emergencies trostatic Charges; 32I-1 New Products & Services A Focus on Pumps;45 Engineering Practice Optimal Cooling (International Edition) Realtime vis- News articles on Systems For Coastal Plants When all eco- cosity monitoring, even at high pres- Seals & Gaskets; and nomic and environmental factors are consid- sure; The IS1 remote I/O interface now Practical Applications ered, a cooling tower may be the best option comes in a FF HSE version; A versatile for Renewable Feed-49 Engineering Practice EPC Contractors level switch for monitoring bins, silos stocks; Facts at Your Selecting an ERP Package The goal of any and hoppers; This booster allows fast Fingertips on Mate- engineer-procure-construct (EPC) arrange- control, even with high flowrates; Ana- rials of Construction; ment is to manage risk, prevent cost overruns, lyze molten liquids at very high tem- and more and deliver the project on time . The right peratures; This valve seal keeps emis- enterprise resource planning (ERP) sions at bay without excessive friction; Cover Photo: system can help and more Jenike & Johanson ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com may 2009 3
  6. 6. We’re raising expectations. The presence of polar gas or steam is no match for dynamic gas phase compensation When highly accurate liquid level measurement is required, Levelflex M goes to work. Microwave pulses are directed down the instrument’s probe and reflected from the medium’s surface. Level is determined by the time required for the pulse to travel to the surface and back. This means reliable measurement is not affected by changes in process conditions, turbulence or foam. Continuous gas phase compensation technology is one way Endress+Hauser is raising expectations. With traditional level instruments, the presence of polar gas or steam can cause an error of 28% or greater depending on the pressure in the application. Levelflex M uses dynamic gas phase compensation to virtually eliminate this error. One more reason Endress+Hauser is the preferred supplier for difficult and critical level measurement applications. www.us.endress.com/levelEndress+Hauser, Inc2350 Endress PlaceGreenwood, IN 46143 Sales: 888-ENDRESSinquiry@us.endress.com Service: 800-642-8737www.us.endress.com Fax: 317-535-8498 Circle 06 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/23014-06
  7. 7. Winner of Eight Jesse H. Neal Awards for Editorial Excellence Editor’s Page Published since 1902 Keep the GHG debate on point T An Access Intelligence Publication he anthropogenic global warming debate experienced a reawakeningPublisHEr Art & dEsiGN last month, following the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s pro-MikE O’rOurkE dAvid WHitCHEr posed finding that greenhouse gases contribute to air pollution that mayPublisher Art Director/ endanger public health or welfare. In an effort to keep the debate from head-morourke@che.com Editorial Production Manager dwhitcher@che.com ing far off course, I must comment on one particular argument that is, in myEditOrs PrOduCtiON view, nonsensical and ultimately distracts attention away from the inter-rEbEkkAH J. MArsHAllEditor in Chief MiCHAEl d. krAus ests of the chemical process industries (CPI). VP of Production & Manufacturingrmarshall@che.com mkraus@accessintel.com The argument is that carbon dioxide is somehow exempt from being con-dOrOtHy lOzOWski stEvE OlsON sidered a pollutant simply because it is a naturally occurring substanceManaging Editordlozowski@che.com Director of Production & that is essential for plant life — and, therefore, human life. In addition to ManufacturingGErAld ONdrEy (Frankfurt) solson@accessintel.com letters and emails, I’ve seen this argument everywhere from small-townSenior Editorgondrey@che.com WilliAM C. GrAHAM newspapers to well-known trade and consumer publications — and, of Ad Production ManagerkAtE tOrzEWski bgraham@che.com course, on their blogs. Each time, numerous contradictions come to mind.Assistant Editor MArkEtiNG Carbon dioxide is not the first substance with positive use to be classifiedktorzewski@che.com HOlly rOuNtrEE as a pollutant. Many well-established precedents already exist throughoutsuzANNE A. sHEllEyContributing Editor Marketing Manager hrountree@accessintel.com the CPI. At certain concentrations these substances are indeed valuable —sshelley@che.com AudiENCE if not essential — to human life. Like the current proposals for regulatingCOrrEsPONdENts dEvElOPMENt carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases (GHGs), the natural existenceCHArlEs butCHEr (U.K.) sylviA siErrA of these substances is not controlled. And in many cases, the industrialcbutcher@che.com Senior Vice President, Corporate Audience Development emission of these substances into the air, water or ground is all but ignoredPAul s. GrAd (Australia) ssierra@accessintel.compgrad@che.com up to a certain point (which is usually defined on the basis of concentra- JOHN rOCkWElltEtsuO sAtOH (Japan) Vice President, tion or mass). A simple, yet important fact that is seemingly ignored in thetsatoh@che.com Audience Development Chemical argument “CO2 is automatically exempt from pollutant status” is that theJOy lEPrEE (New Jersey) jrockwell@accessintel.comjlepree@che.com lAuriE HOfMANN distinction of pollutant applies exclusively to human activities that exceedGErAld PArkiNsON Audience Marketing Director certain emission thresholds. lhofmann@Accessintel.com(California) gparkinson@che.com Perhaps the simplest of these examples is warm water, which arguably is tErry bEstEditOriAl Audience Development Manager essential to the developed world but is also classified by the U.S. EPA andAdvisOry bOArd tbest@accessintel.com others as “thermal pollution” when released into a nearby stream, river,JOHN CArsON GEOrGE sEvEriNEJenike & Johanson, Inc. Fulfillment Manager lake or ocean. Indeed, in the design of industrial cooling water systems,dAvid diCkEy gseverine@accessintel.com warm water discharge is a key consideration (for more see p. 45).MixTech, Inc. JEN fElliNG Ozone (O3) is classified as a pollutant even though it naturally sustainsMukEsH dOblE List Sales, Statlistics (203) 778-8700IIT Madras, India j.felling@statlistics.com life on earth (in the stratospheric ozone layer) and has beneficial commer-HENry kistEr CONfErENCEs cial applications (such as water treatment). Meanwhile, hydrochloric acidFluor Corp. dANA d. CArEy is considered a hazardous air pollutant in the U.S. and elsewhere, yet it is Director, Global Event SponsorshipstrEvOr klEtz dcarey@chemweek.com produced naturally by the human body for digesting food.Loughborough University, U.K. PECk siM The point is that once again a group of scientists has developed a hy-GErHArd krEysADECHEMA e.V. Senior Manager, pothesis about the potentially harmful effects of human activities and Conference ProgrammingrAM rAMACHANdrAN psim@chemweek.com has presented enough supporting evidence to raise concern in substantialBOC bEAtriz suArEz numbers of the scientific community and the public alike. Regulation is Director of Conference OperationsiNfOrMAtiON bsuarez@chemweek.com now unavoidable. Flawed arguments don’t do anything to change that andsErviCEsrObErt PACiOrEk COrPOrAtE actually hurt the interests of CPI by distracting everyone from the im-Senior VP & Chief Information Officer stEvE bArbEr portant decisions that are already taking place — how those regulationsrpaciorek@accessintel.com VP, Financial Planning & Internal Audit sbarber@accessintel.com should be defined and carried out.CHArlEs sANdsSenior Developer briAN NEssEN True industry advocates should instead focus on helping shape green-Web/business Applications Architect Group Publisher house gas policies that are both effective and realistic in terms of theircsands@accessintel.com bnessen@accessintel.com immediate and longterm impacts on global economics (see p. 6). In thisHEAdquArtErs effort, I agree with the premise that more education on greenhouse gases110 William Street, 11th Floor, New York, NY 10038, U.S.Tel: 212-621-4900 Fax: 212-621-4694 and their effects is needed. But, instead of diverting toEurOPEAN EditOriAl OffiCEs carbon dioxide’s life-giving characteristics, which areZeilweg 44, D-60439 Frankfurt am Main, Germany part of most elementary-school science classes anyhow,Tel: 49-69-2547-2073 Fax: 49-69-5700-2484 I suggest, for one, raising awareness of other, lesser-CirCulAtiON rEquEsts:Tel: 847-564-9290 Fax: 847-564-9453 known greenhouse gases with higher estimated globalFullfillment Manager; P.O. Box 3588, warming potential. For instance, hydrofluorocarbons,Northbrook, IL 60065-3588 email: clientservices@che.com perfluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride and N2O globalAdvErtisiNG rEquEsts: see p. 70 warming impacts are estimated to be 298–22,800 timesFor photocopy or reuse requests: 800-772-3350 or info@copyright.comFor reprints: chemicalengineering@theygsgroup.com that of CO2 (per unit mass) over a 100 year period. ■ Rebekkah Marshall ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com maY 2009 5
  8. 8. Letters Shaping GHG policies Edison Electric Institute (EEI) member companies support action to lower the country’s carbon and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 80% from current levels by 2050. And we want to do so in a way that softens electricity price increases for families and our energy-intensive customers, such as chemical manufac- turers. A critical factor for achieving this goal within a federal cap-and-trade program is by allocating rather than auctioning emissions allowances. Under a cap-and-trade program, the government sets a national cap on GHG emissions. Over time, this cap becomes lower until the ultimate GHG reduction goal is met. The government would create allowances for electric utilities and others to emit GHG emissions under the cap. The method by which the government initially introduces these allowances into the market — by allocation or auc- tion — is crucial. Auctioning allowances sharply increase costs by re- quiring companies to pay both for the allowances and for the cost of actually reducing emissions. All of these costs would be passed on to consumers. In contrast, if allow- ances are allocated, only the costs of actually reducing emissions are passed along. A portion of the revenue raised through an auction may be returned to customers via a tax rebate. But this isn’t an efficient mechanism for channeling relief to all custom- ers. Nor is it assured that all of the revenue raised would be directed to mitigating energy prices or developing the technologies that we as a nation need to transition to a vibrant, low-carbon economy. Support is growing for allocating allowances. The U.S. Cli- mate Action Partnership — an alliance of major businesses, such as Dow and DuPont, as well as leading climate andCircle 07 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/23014-07 environmental groups — is in favor of allocating emissions allowances. So is the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commission- ers, and a number of labor groups among others. Although additional measures will certainly need to play roles in lessening energy cost increases under a national climate change program, allocating emissions allowances will be vital. Please contact your members of Congress and ask that they support allocating allowances in any climate change legislation. For more information on EEI and its climate principles, please visit www.eei.org/climate. Thomas R. Kuhn President Edison Electric Institute Poscripts, corrections April, Capital Costs Quickly Calculated, pp. 46–52: In three places in the box at the top of p. 47, the factor 0.8 should have been rendered as an exponent and was not [30.8 at the bottom of the first column, 20.8 at the top of the second column, and (0.635/2)0.8 at the third line from bottom of second column]. A cor- rected version of the article can be found by searching for the title of the article at www.che.com.
  9. 9. The Original… ‘s PowerTrap® was the firstcombination pump/trap solution tomaximize heat exchanger performance.And it’s still the best choice for your For Optimumimportant process applications. Why?Optimal Productivity• Increase yield by eliminating process Heat Exchanger variation caused by stall conditions• Built-in steam trap synchronizes pumping and trapping functions to maximize available tube bundle surface Performance. areaAssured Uptime Reliability• Increased equipment availability through the elimination of heat exchanger stratification• Non-electric, intrinsically safe design with no cavitation or seal leakage• Precision engineered, warranted internals using INCONEL® equivalent compression spring and snap-action mechanismImproved SystemEfficiency• Complete condensate recovery reduces energy consumption, and lowers water treatment and sewage costs• Energy conserving, contoured body design uses less motive mediumAchieve outstanding productivity,performance, and energy efficiencywith the original PowerTrap from .Call to learn how the PowerTrapcan optimize heat exchanger value inyour process application.INCONEL is a registered trademark of the INCO family of companies Member of 13901 South Lakes Drive, Charlotte, NC 28273-6790 Tel: 704-597-9070 Fax: 704-583-1610FLUID CONTROLS INSTITUTE www.tlv.com Circle 08 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/23014-08
  10. 10. Bookshelf Hazards of Oil Refining Distillation Units. By BP International Ltd. (BP Process Safety Series). Institution of Chemical Engineers, Davis Building, Railway Terrace, Rugby CV21 3HQ, U.K. Web: icheme.org. 2008. 81 pages, £27. Reviewed by Stanley S. Grossel, Process Safety & Design, Inc., Clifton, N.J. T his booklet was written as a reference tool for opera- tors, engineers and technicians working on crude and vacuum distillation units (CDUs and VDUs) in the petroleum industry. It outlines the main hazards associated with these units and promotes the adoption of safe operat- ing practices and procedures in order to prevent the recur- rence of serious incidents. The book contains seven chapters, a list of relevant ref- erences, an incidents list, and a glossary. Chapter 1, the introduction, opens with a process description of crude oil distillation with a schematic of CDU and VDU process flows and products, followed by a summary of the main hazards in these units, and a breakdown of when CDU and VDU incidents occur. Chapter 2 discusses the chemi-Circle 09 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/23014-09 cals found in crude oil that contribute to the hazards in distillation, such as hydrocarbons, inorganic and other materials imported with crude oil, and other hazardous substances in common use on CDU and VDUs [super- heated steam, water, ammonia, chemicals used for break- ing desalter emulsions and for corrosion control, nitrogen, and nucleonic sources (used in liquid level instruments)]. In Chapter 3, entitled Physical Hazards, a number of incidents are described that occurred during startup and shutdown, normal operation, and unit turnarounds. The chapter covers a large number of causes, and is very infor- mative. Hazards related to equipment failure of columns MIXING MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE IS EASY, and other associated equipment are discussed in Chapter FAST, EFFICIENT, MONEY-SAVING 4. Among the topics covered are: columns and other pres- AND MAINTENANCE-FRIENDLY sure vessels and piping (corrosion and inadequate designLet’s You Mix Sodium Hydroxide, Pulsair’s and construction), desalters, fired heaters, rotating equip-Sodium Hypochlorite, TM/ETM-2000 ment, heat exchangers and distillation column overfilling. Series MixersMagnesium Hydroxide Much useful information is presented in this Chapter.and others with just a little Chapter 5 covers safe operating practices and proce-compressed air dures, discussing startup, shutdown, and normal operatingand ... and emergency procedures. Also briefly discussed are trou-NO MOVING bleshooting and the concept of a safe operating envelope.PARTS in the In Chapter 6, some serious incidents that have oc-tank! curred on CDU and VDUs are described. These include:Pulsair Systems offers a full line of mixers for poly, fiberglass and steel fire and casualties at a crude unit tower, electrocutiontanks. The mixers are either electronic or pneumatic control depending incident at a CDU desalter, hazards of water enteringon customer needs. The in-tank accumulator plates can be made from vacuum towers, hazards of atmospheric relief valves, anmaterials compatible with the liquids being mixed. internal VDU tower fire during a turnaround, and four fatalities during the repair of piping. Chapter 7 is a self- Pulsair Systems, Inc. test questionnaire containing 21 questions designed to P.O.Box 562, Belevue, WA 98009 assess the effectiveness of knowledge transfer following a 1-800-582-7797 review of this booklet. The incidents list is a compilation PHONE: 425-455-1263• FAX: 425-451-7312 E-MAIL: sales@pulsair.com •WWW.PULSAIR.COM of 144 accidents that have occurred to refinery columns and associated equipment. Circle 28 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/23014-288 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com may 2009
  11. 11. This booklet contains much useful and practical infor-mation on problems that have occurred in distillation ofcrude oil. Although it pertains primarily to CDUs andVDCs in the petroleum industry, many of the incidentsdiscussed and the lessons learned can be applied to distil-lation columns in chemical, petrochemical and pharma-ceutical plants. The Green Book: Flow, Level and Environmental Handbook and Ency- clopedia. 8th Edition. Omega Engineer- ing, Inc. One Omega Drive, Stamford, CT 06907. Web: omega.com. 2007. 1,300 pages. Free. Modern Drying Technology: Ex- perimental Techniques. Volume 2. Edited by E. Tsotsas and A. S. Mujum- dar John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 111 River St., MS 8-01, Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774. Web: wiley.com. 2009. 412 pages. $215. Handbook of Maintenance Man- agement and Engineering. By M. Ben-Daya, S. O. Duffuaa, A. Raouf, J. Knezevic, D. Ait-Kadi. Springer, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013. Web: springer.com. 2009. 741 pages. $209. Ultraviolet Light in Food Technol- ogy: Principles and Applications. Second edition. By T. Koutchma, L. J. Forney and C. I. Moraru. CRC Press, 6000 Broken Sound Parkway, NW, Suite 300, Boca Raton, FL 33487. Web: crcpress.com. 2009. 296 pages. $179.95. PVC Formulary. By G. Wypych. ChemTec Publishing, 38 Earswick Drive, Toronto, Ontario M1E 1C6, Canada. Web: chemtec.org. 2009. 324 pages. $275. Engineering Materials Properties and Selection: International Edi- tion. By K. Budinski and M. Budinski. Pearson Higher Education, One Lake St., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Web: pearsonhighered.com. 2009. 784 pages. $135.20. Manufacturing of Pharmaceuti- cal Proteins: From Technology to Economy. By S. Behme. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 111 River St., MS 8-01, Hobo- ken, NJ 07030-5774. Web: wiley.com. 2009. 404 pages. $130. ■ Kate Torzewski Circle 11 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/23014-11 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com may 2009 9
  12. 12. Circle 12 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/23014-12
  13. 13. Edited by Gerald Ondrey May 2009Petroleum refiners seek to increase Wireless add-ondistillate yield, decrease emissions . . . aBB instrumentation (warmin- ster, Pa.; www.abb.com/instru-S trategies for extracting more dis- Grace Davison and other cata- mentation) has made its entry tillate from petroleum to meet the lyst manufacturers have devel- into wireless communicationsgrowing demand for diesel fuel con- oped new catalysts that crack technology with the wire- lessharT upgrade adapter,stituted a major theme of the recent more of the bottoms to obtain LCO. previewed at aBB’s recent au-annual meeting of the National Pet- Grace’s latest catalyst, Midas 300, tomation & Power world. Thisrochemical and Petroleum Refiners can increase LCO yield by 6 vol% adapter is used to connectAssociation (NPRA, Washington D.C.; www. without slurry recycle. Hunt adds that re- existing harT transmitters thatnpra.gov) in San Antonio, Tex. Worldwide, cycling part of the feed can also boost LCO are wired to existing systemsthe demand for distillate is expected to in- yield. In laboratory tests, using a Midas that do not take full advantagecrease by more than 5 million bbl/d over the catalyst, Grace found that the highest LCO of the transmitters’ functionality.next 10 years, says Richard Rossi, business yield was achieved by recycling the fraction most harT instrumentsmanager for conversion technologies with that boils at 650–850°F. “Recycling isn’t continuously monitor overUOP LLC (Des Plaines, Ill.; www.uop.com). that common,” he says, “but it may become 15, possibly up to 50 condi- tions and these instruments Many of the diesel-boosting technologies more common in the future.” are likely to hold valuablediscussed at the meeting involve modify- Albemarle Corp. (Houston, Tex.; www.al- maintenance and processing the operation of fluid catalytic crackers bermarle.com) offers a new family of FCC information that the user(FCCs) and the use of new FCC catalysts catalysts, called Upgrader, for processing may be unaware of, accord-to increase distillate yield. Another lead- residual oil. In one of its first applications, ing to aBB. The upgradeing topic was pollution control for FCCs, in a North American refinery, the catalyst adapter allows full usage ofwhich are a major source of refinery emis- has led to a 6% increase in feed throughput. an instrument’s capabilitiessions. Rossi noted that complex refineries This increases profitability by $10 million/ and transmits this informa-with FCC and hydrocracking units have sig- yr, according to Kenneth Bruno, Albemarle’s tion wirelessly. it works on allnificant potential to shift toward diesel fuel global applications technology manager for makes of harT instruments. while other wireless adapt-production, with attractive economics and FCC, who spoke at the NPRA meeting. ers exist, the advantages ofminimal investment. In a separate, commercial trial in a re- this one, according to aBB, An increase in the ratio of light cycle oil sidual FCCU, an Upgrader MD (maximum are its small size and the fact(LCO) to gasoline in an FCC can be read- distillate) catalyst increased LCO yield by that it does not run on batter-ily achieved by adjusting the unit’s operat- nearly 3 wt.% and decreased the bottoms ies. Battery life can be an areaing conditions and reducing the catalyst yield by 1 wt.%. of concern for wireless trans-activity, noted David Hunt, technical ser- BASF Catalysts LLC (Iselin, N.J.; basf. mitter users. aBB is planningvice manager for Grace Davison (Houston, com) has also commercialized a new FCC to launch this product later thisTex.; www.grace.com). The drawback is an catalyst, HDXtra. In its initial installations year, and is currently lookingincrease in bottoms yield, said Hunt, so the catalyst has increased LCO yield from for testers to ensure full in- teroperability of this adapter.“maximizing LCO in the FCCU at reduced 10 vol% to as much as 30 vol%, says Joeconversion without producing incremental McLean, global marketing manager for re-bottoms oil is the true challenge.” fining catalysts. Corrosion protection a coating with comparable or even superior corrosion. . . knock out NOx . . . resistance than those based on chromium has beenA relatively inexpensive way to treat oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from an FCCis to use an additive, which is mixed with the Praxair, Inc. (Tonawanda, N.Y.; www. praxair.com) have joined forces to develop a novel NOx-control system for FCCs called developed by scientists at Brookhaven national labora- tory (Upton, n.y.; www.bnl.catalyst and minimizes NOx formation by CONOx. The system combines Shell’s NOx- gov). The patented technologymanipulating N2 oxidation/reduction reac- control process with a Praxair oxygen-in- can be applied to aluminum,tions in the regenerator. Additives can reduce jection technique. steel, nickel, copper, bronzeNOx by up to 70–75%, says, Martin Evans, Shell’s process redirects the airflow in the and brass, making it promis-vice-president engineering for Intercat Inc. catalyst regenerator to reduce NOx output ing for protecting components(Sea Girt, N.J.; www.intercatinc.com), which to below 40 ppm (CE June 2008, p. 15). In of valves, pumps and othermakes additives that are a mix of catalyti- CONOx, a jet of hot oxygen is subsequently equipment. The technology is available for licensing.cally active metals. Higher removal levels re- injected through a lance into the fluegas. The The coating can be appliedquire additional technology, such as selective O2 oxidizes CO and destroys NOx precursors. by a variety of ways, includingcatalytic reduction, he says. In pilot tests CONOx has reduced NOx emis- spraying or dipping compo- Shell Global Solutions (Houston, Tex.; sions by 70–80%, says Ye-Mon Chen, Shellwww.shell.com/globalsolutions) and (Continues on p. 12) (Continues on p. 12)Note: For more information, circle the 3-digit numberon p. 70, or use the website designation. ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com may 2009 11
  14. 14. C hementato R (Continued from p. 11) nents to be treated into a solu- tion of the components. Cross linking of the components isNOx (Continued from p. 11) U.S. refinery later this year. Chen says the then induced by subsequentGlobal’s FCC regional manager. capital cost is approximately $10 million, treatment steps, such as heat- Praxair and Shell have licensed their first around one-tenth the cost of selective cata- ing, to form corrosion-inhibit-system, which is scheduled to start up in a lytic reduction (SCR). ing metal oxide nanoparticles, such as cerium-based oxides. The resulting coating is water. . and control SOx repellent and strongly boundM ost of the sulfur emanating from FCCs FCC is operated in partial-burn mode. to the metal, making it espe- is either contained in the products or Albemarle’s newest additive, SOxMaster, cially resistant to brine. and because an ultra-thin (10-nmreleased as hydrogen sulfide in the fluegas, overcomes this disadvantage by combining thick) film is formed, Bnl saysfrom which it is scrubbed by amines. How- the hydrotalcite technology with novel mate- the coating is “highly” eco-ever, about 10% is emitted as sulfur oxides rials, says Kramer. In an initial commercial nomical and efficient.(SOx). Aside from hydrotreating the feed, the installation, SOxMaster has achieved 90%two popular ways to reduce SOx emissionsfrom the FCC catalyst regenerator are to use sulfur reduction in a deep partial-burn unit, versus a maximum of 40% for a conventional Heavy gems rubicon Technology, inc.an SOx-reduction additive or treat the fluegas additive. Kramer adds that SOxMaster has (Franklin Park, ill.; www.rubi-by wet scrubbing, says Alan Kramer, global a half-life of about 30 days, against 5–7 days con-es2.com) has grown whatFCC additives specialist for Albemarle. for a conventional additive. it believes to be the world’s An advantage of additives over wet scrub- A catchall emissions control system for largest sapphire crystal. at 200bers is that there is practically no capital FCCs is offered by Intercat and Pall Corp. kg, the super boule will enablecost, he says, but the competitiveness of (Port Washington, N.Y.; www.pall.com). The the company to offer large-sizeadditives in terms of cost and effectiveness system combines Intercat’s NOx and SOx optical windows and next-gen-depends on the cost of scrubber caustic and (magnesium hydrotalcite) additives with eration wafer products with di-the nature of the FCC operation. Albemarle Pall’s self-cleaning blowback filter for par- mensions over 12 in. rubicon’smakes additives of hydrotalcite, a magne- ticles. The filter consists of porous metal or proprietary eS2 crystal-growth technology — routinely pro-sium-aluminum hydrate compound, which ceramic tubular elements, and captures fine, ducing bulk sapphire crystalsis added to the FCC regenerator along with dry catalyst particles emitted by the regener- up to 85 kg for 8-in.-dia. wafersthe catalyst. The additive absorbs SO3 and ator. Evans, of Intercat, says the total capital and optical windows with 10-in.releases the sulfur into the reactor product cost could be as low as half that of a conven- dimensions — can be scaledstream as H2S. However, Kramer notes that tional system that uses a wet scrubber for up to produce even larger-additives tend to be less effective when an SOx, NOx and particulate-matter control. sized sapphire products in the future, says the firm.Reducing foundry emissionsC ast parts, such as engine blocks, are typically made by pouring moltenmetal into so-called cores — sand-based Technik GmbH (Fuldabrück, Germany), for the production of casting cores using the Inotec process. Developed and pat- pected to begin series production of a package consisting of various cores, in- cluding those to be used for the castingmolds that have internal passages for ented by Ashland-Südchemie-Kernfest of cylinder blocks for a new, six-cylinderthe component to be cast. Such casting GmbH — a joint venture between Süd- diesel engine of BMW AG (Munich, Ger-cores are typically made by reacting Chemie and Ashland, Inc. (Covington, many; www.bmw.com). BMW is said tosand with organic binders in a curing Ky.; www.ashland.com) — the Inotec be the first OEM in automotives to grad-process. In recent years, industry has binding system combines a liquid com- ually reduce the use of organic bindingbeen seeking alternatives to organic ponent (a modified silicate solution) agents, and use only inorganic-boundbinders to avoid releasing toxic emis- with promoters that contain high con- cores from 2010 onwards.sions during curing. centrations of minerals. Because the Inotec was first demonstrated in 2005 Last month, Süd-Chemie AG (Munich, binding system is inorganic, virtually in the production of light-metal cast-Germany; www.sud-chemie.com) inau- no emissions are emitted in the process, ings, when BMW’s foundry in Landshut,gurated in Moosburg a new production says the company. Germany, decided to use the inorganicplant of its subsidiary, WD-Giesserei- From May, the Moosburg plant is ex- binding system.Cold-war cleanup posal of waste, and cleaning and demol- ishing former weapons complex facilities. to demolish nuclear and other facilities, remediate waste sites, remediate con-O n March 31, U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE; Washington, D.C.) SecretarySteven Chu announced $6 billion in new These projects and the new funding are managed by the DOE’s Office of Environ- mental Management, which is responsi- taminated groundwater and retrieve solid waste from burial grounds. Also, the funding will accelerate cleanup offunding under the American Recovery ble for the risk reduction and cleanup of facilities, waste sites and groundwaterand Reinvestment Act to accelerate envi- the environmental legacy from the U.S.’s along the Columbia River to supportronmental cleanup work and create jobs nuclear weapons program. shrinking the active area of cleanup atacross 12 states. Projects identified for Among the 12 states and DOE sites the 586-sq. mi. Hanford Site to 75 sq.funding involve the cleanup of soil and that will receive funding is the Rich- mi. or less by 2015. More informationgroundwater, transportation and dis- land Operations (Wash.; $1.961 billion) can be obtained at www.em.doe.gov 12 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com may 2009
  15. 15. Ideas that tailor thebroadest lineto move your product.Performanteed ™Hapman’s MiniVac™ pneumaticconveyor: maximize your ROI,minimize your timeMaximize ROI with the Hapman MiniVac™ pneumatic conveyor.Eliminate the need for an expensive air supply and reduce energycosts by up to 30% with the MiniVac™’s integral blower. Reducelabor and time with tool-less, side-door access for filter changes 3 ways to convey. conveyand cleaning. Eliminate the need for separate dust collection One Performanteed™ solution.with the MiniVac™’s internal filter. Keep filter operating at top Only Hapman offers three types of conveyor systems—efficiency with the standard reverse-pulse filter cleaner. Only with and the 60+ years expertise to determine which is bestthe Hapman MiniVac™ pneumatic conveyor. for your specific application. Our tailor-made solutions and broadest material handling line carry the industry’s only true performance guarantee. Tubular drag Helix™ flexible screw Bag dump PosiPortion™ Bulk bag Bulk bag conveyors conveyors stations feeders fillers unloaders“Only Hapman offers Performantee™,the first and only true performanceguarantee in the industry. We guaranteethat our equipment will achieve USA · Kalamazoo, Michiganthe specific results for which itwas designed and manufactured. If it www.ideasthatmove.netdoesn’t, we’ll revise, repair, or make whatever UK · Bristol, England Europe · Bratislava, Slovakia www.hapman.co.uk www.hapman.euchanges are necessary. Performanteed.” India · Vadodara, GujaratNed Thompson, president, Hapman www.hapman.in Circle 13 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/23014-13
  16. 16. C hementato R Syngas clean-up Biomass & heat recovery feeder Harvest gasAmmonia from biomass Air Fluidized Water gas shiftS ynGest, Inc. (San Francisco, Calif.; www. separation bed & plant gasifier pressure swing syngest.com) plans to commercialize a Oxygen adsorptionprocess for the production of ammonia frombiomass by the fall of 2011. The first plant, Hydrogento be located in Menlo, Iowa, will convert Ammonia Ammonia150,000 ton/yr of corncobs into 50,000 ton/ synthesis storage Nitrogenyr of ammonia, enough to fertilize 500,000acres of nearby farmland. Chopped corncobs will be gasified in a wald, chief executive officer, is confidentbubbling bed gasifier at 1,700°F and 100 psi, that it will be competitive for two reasons: it The threat of GHGsusing oxygen from a cryogenic air-separation will use a cheap feedstock instead of natural After a thorough scientific reviewplant (flowsheet). The resultant syngas, pri- gas, and distribution costs will be low be- ordered by the U.S. Suprememarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide, will cause the product will be used locally. “With Court, the U.S. Environmentalbe subjected to a water-gas shift reaction, a conventional plant, distribution accounts Protection Agency (EPA; Wash-followed by pressure-swing adsorption, to for half the cost of bringing ammonia to the ington, D.C.) issued a proposedobtain 99.9%-pure H2. The H2 will be com- market,” he says. “Our long-term plan is to finding that “greenhouse gases (GHGs) contribute to air pollu-bined with N2 from the air-separation unit build small plants, located near sources of tion that may endanger publicto produce ammonia. biomass and local markets. Each plant will health or welfare.” The pro- Although the plant will be miniscule by cost approximately $80 million and will gen- posed finding, which now movesworld scale ammonia standards, Jack Os- erate revenues of about $30 million/yr.” to a public comment period, identified six GHGs that pose aSolid catalyst simplifies turning algae into biodiesel potential threat: CO2, CH4, N2O, hexafluorocarbons, perfluoro-R esearchers at United Environment & Energy (UE&E; Horseheads, N.Y.) havedeveloped a catalyst for the efficient con- traditional methanol-and-lye process. Fur- thermore, it eliminates the need for a purifi- cation step, since there is no liquid catalyst carbons and sulfur hexafluoride. According to the EPA, “science clearly shows that concentra- tions of these gases are atversion of algae to biodiesel. The mixed- mixed into the resulting fuel. UE&E has unprecedented levels as a resultmetal oxide catalyst (comprised of metals produced 10 gal. of algae biodiesel by this of human emissions, and thesethat are resistant to corrosion yet reac- method and plans to sell the technology for high levels are very likely thetive) facilitates the transesterification of commercialization by other companies. One cause of the increase in averagealgae oil and methanol. The mechanism for company has produced over 100 gal. of fuel temperature and other changesthe reaction over the solid catalyst is still by this method, and has certified the process in our climate.”under study, but preliminary results indi- to ASTM standards.cate that fine methanol/oil drops contact While algae is easy to grow, extraction of Hydrocrackingthe catalyst surface, and the active sites its oil is a challenge. UE&E has established UOP (see p. 11) now offers anof the catalyst prompt reaction along the a relationship with a non-U.S. supplier of enhanced, two-stage hydroc-methanol/oil interface. algae oil, because U.S. environmental regu- racking process that uses two The conversion process is 40% less expen- lations limit use of the toxic solvents needed new catalysts to increase distil-sive than an industrial-scale version of the to extract oil from algae. late yield by 5–6%. The com- pany has licensed the process to several companies, says Rossi,A better way to make efficient catalysts of UOP, and the first commercial units will start up in 3–4 years.A new procedure for making uniform, me- tallic nanoparticles has been developedby the research group of Kousuke Mori, The resulting nanoparticles exhibit en- hanced catalytic properties; for example, a palladium catalyst with uniform diameters Keep computers coolan associate professor at Osaka University of 2 nm are found to be twice as active as As electronics products con-(www.mat.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp), with support those prepared by impregnation for the pro- tinue to get smaller while at thefrom New Energy and Industrial Technol- duction of hydrogen peroxide from H2 and same time incorporating more components, new ways to takeogy Development Organization (NEDO; O2 in water. The catalytic activity is further away the heat is an importantKawasaki, both Japan). The photo-assisted enhanced by adding gold during the UV quest. Researchers at theprocess, which uses ultraviolet (UV) light to deposition, which leads to the formation of Fraunhofer Institute for Manu-deposit precursor metals onto active sites nanoparticles of Pd-Au alloy. The technique facturing Engineering and Ap-of a titanium substrate, is said to be less is applicable to precious metals, such as Pt, plied Materials Research (IFAM;expensive and simpler than conventional Pd and Au, and shows promise for reducing Dresden, Germany; www.ifam.impregnation methods, while producing the environmental burden of solvent-based fraunhofer.de) may have asmaller (1–3-nm dia.) particles with a con- reactions, such as the anthraquinone route (Continues on p. 17)trolled, narrow size distribution. to H2O2. 14 CHEMICAl ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.COM MAy 2009
  17. 17. Visit us at ACHEMA, Frankfurt, GermanyHALL 8 - Booths B5-B10 & M27-M29 T R A N S F E R R I N G C O N F I D E N C E PSG (Pump Solutions Group) delivers cohesion, synergies and relevant value to our customers with superior products, world class operations and a tireless commitment to excellence. PSG offers you a broad array of quality and innovative pump technologies that you’ve come to expect from premiere pump brands like Wilden, Blackmer, Mouvex, Neptune, Almatec and Griswold. PSG features world class facilities in the U.S., Germany, China, India, and France. We consider ourselves global citizens and, as a collective, are passionately committed to innovative technologies that will positively impact the world for the better. It is this ferocious pursuit of excellence and accountability that drives us to deliver unequaled customer satisfaction, state of the art technologies and market knowledge. PSG believes in its people and the intellectual capital that delivers tomorrow’s fluid transfer solutions today. Visit us today at www.PumpSG.com. Circle 14 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/23014-14 1401 Ford Street, Redlands, CA 92373 • Suite 205 • USA Telephone 909-422-1730 • Fax 909-783-3440 www.pumpsg.com • achema@pumpsg.com
  18. 18. C hementato RSpinning yarns of CNTsT he exceptional properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), such as high ten-sile strength and high thermal and Texas at Dallas (http://nan- otech.utdallas.edu), developed a way to make haveelectrical conductivities, have sug- pure, CNT yarns and webs,gested a number of applications, in- avoiding the problems asso-cluding lightweight materials for bal- ciated with the presence oflistics protection, actuators for muscles a binder.or artificial muscles, filaments for light The technology under de-sources, electrodes, super-capacitors, velopment involves growingand flow sensors. So, many research- “drawable” forests, whichers have tried to prepare macroscopic means that CNTs taken offCNT materials that exhibit at least the wall of the forest causesome of the properties of individual the drawing off of CNTsCNTs. This has so far proved elusive. from the next layer. Continuous ap- C2H2 in He at 670ºC and atmospheric One method of assembling CNTs into plication of this process leads to the pressure. The yarn is spun using amacroscopic structures is to disperse formation of a continuous web of CNTs spinner adapted from a conventionalthem into a binder. However, a rapid that may be used directly or twisted spinning method.increase of viscosity with concentration into a yarn (photo). The resulting yarns have a range oflimits the final concentrations to about The team has grown drawable for- useful properties. Single yarns have7 wt.%. Researchers from CSIRO Tex- ests on a silicon wafer with a 5-nm a breaking strength of 600 MPa andtile and Fibre Technology (Belmont, film of an iron catalyst. Aligned forests electrical conductivities of about 300Victoria, Australia; www.csiro.au), and of multi-wall CNTs are grown on the S/cm. Young’s moduli of 25 to 50 GPathe NanoTech Institute and Depart- wafer in a 45-mm dia. quartz tube by were measured and the typical break-ment of Chemistry at the University of chemical vapor deposition of 5 mol% ing strain was found to be about 5%. Helping you keep your cool under any circumstances 24/7/365. Aggreko Cooling Tower Services (ACTS) ACTS provides proven rental cooling is the world’s largest provider of rental tower solutions to: cooling tower solutions. For over • Maintain cooling capacity during 20 years, we have successfully helped partial or complete tower repair customers solve their cooling water limitations - under any circumstances. • Reduce cooling water temperatures during peak summer conditions From the planning stages to the turnkey • Minimize post-disaster downtime installation of convenient modular cooling towers, ACTS has the solutions to help • Add cooling water capacity with no you keep your cool, 24/7/365. capital commitment Contact Aggreko today for all your rental cooling tower needs. Performance Certified by Cooling Technology Institute 866.310.0870 www.coolingtowers.com Circle 15 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/23014-15 16 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com may 2009
  19. 19. (Continued from p. 14)C hementato R solution. Together with indus- trial partners in the ExtraMat project, scientists have devel- oped a material (a mixture ofAlkaline-earth-based catalysts diamond powder and copper bonded together with chrome)for C–C bond formation that has a thermal conductivity 1.5 times higher than that of copper, yet expands no moreS alts of alkaline-earth metals have been shown to catalyze reactions for the se-lective formation of carbon-carbon bonds, performed with 10 mol% Mg(OtBu)2, in di- methyl formaldehyde solvent at room tem- perature (OtBu = tert-butoxy). Switching to than ceramics when heated.by chemistry professor Shu Kobayashi 10 mol% of Sr(HMDS)2 (with 11 % ligand) H2-generating tabletsand colleagues at the University of Tokyo and THF (tetrahydrofuran) solvent (HMDS The Energy and Environmen-(www.chem.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp). The research, = hexamethyldisilazide), the Mannich reac- tal Research Laboratoriessupported by the Japan Science and Tech- tion leads to a 92% yield after 24 h, with of the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) ofnology Agency (Tokyo), promises to deliver syn-to-anti ratio of 93-to-7. Taiwan (www.itri.org.tw) hasalternatives to conventional catalysts that The group has confirmed that it can se- developed a pill that storescontain toxic, scarce and expensive metals. lect anti- or syn-type products for various H2 gas in a solid substance,The researchers found that alkaline-earth- imines substrates derived from aromatic instead of a large and hazard-metal salts can activate, with an atomic compounds, aliphatic compounds, and aro- ous pressurized bottle. Calledefficiency of 100%, the nucleating agent matic compounds containing oxygen and the Power-gra, the pill is com-sulfonyl imidate, which enables them to sulfur atoms. The reaction procedure has posed of hydrides (primarilyselectively form C–C bonds. Futhermore, also been extended to asymmetric synthe- NaBH4), a catalyst and otherKobayashi’s group has shown that the ste- sis, achieving enantio-selective Mannich re- patented ingredients. Whenreoselectivity can be adjusted by using dif- action with 85% yield after 48 h, syn-to-anti water is added, the pill re- leases H2, which can be usedferent solvents. ratio of 83-to-17 and 57% enantiomeric ex- to power a fuel cell to generate For example, the Mannich reaction of cess when using using 10 mol% of Sr(OiPr)2 electricity. In the near future, 1benzaldehyde-derived imine and sulfonyl (12 mol% of asymmetric ligand) and 10 g of Power-gra will be sufficientimidate results in a 94% yield with a syn- mol% of Et3N in THF (OiPr = isopropoxy; to fully charge a cell phone. ❏to-anti ratio of 4-to-96 after 17 h, when Et3N = triethylamine). ■ Circle XXX or go to www.info.ims.ca/34xx-xx Circle 16 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/23014-16
  20. 20. Circle 17 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/23014-17
  21. 21. NewsfrontRefineRs face unceRtainfutuRe Source: EIA Gasoline and crude oil prices Short-term energy outlook, March 2009 480 440 Retail regular gasoline* Forecast 400 Wholesale gasoline 360 Crude oil Cents per gallon 320Declining product demand, 280 240 volatile margins, and a 200 160global recession are forcing 120 80 40 many refiners to rethink 0 * Retail price includes state and federal taxes Jan 2005 Jan 2006 Jan 2007 Jan 2008 Jan 2009 Jan 2010 investment decisions Figure 1. Gasoline and crude prices will exhibit a slow recovery after falling from record highs in mid 2008P etroleum refiners throughout the cially in the U.S. A global economy in Wood Mackenzie believes that in- world are faced with increasing recession, improvements in fuel effi- dustry dynamics have fundamentally uncertainty regarding future re- ciency standards, and the replacement changed from a U.S. “demand pull” fining margins, crude prices and of petroleum-based fuels by renewable environment to a European “supplyproject costs. These factors, along with fuels are factors that combined to push.” This is because Europe is treat-falling demand for refined products, place downward pressure on demand. ing gasoline as a byproduct in its at-a global recession, and tighter credit In 2008, price of West Texas Inter- tempt to satisfy its diesel deficit. U.S.markets, are forcing global refiners to mediate (WTI) crude oil averaged refining utilizations, therefore, fellreconsider, postpone, or cancel expan- $100/bbl according to the U.S. Dept.of further than those of Europe, with thesion projects. Energy’s (DOE; Washington, D.C.) En- U.S. East Coast especially suffering. At the same time, mandated reduc- ergy Information Admin. (EIA; www. According to EIA, total consump-tion of sulfur levels in refined products eia.doe.gov). EIA predicts that the tion of refined products in 2008 fell— both gasoline and diesel fuel — are global economic slowdown will cut the nearly 1.3-million bbl/d, or 6.1%, fromsignificant factors affecting refiners’ 2008 average price by more than half, consumption levels in 2007 (Figure 2).spending plans for the next few years. to an average of $42/bbl in 2009 and Major factors contributing to decliningChanging fuel regulations in the U.S., $53/bbl in 2010. demand were a rise in retail gasolineEurope, Asia, and Latin America will During early 2009, however, gaso- and diesel prices to record levels dur-force petroleum refiners that import line prices have been slowly increas- ing the first half of 2008 and a dete-gasoline and diesel fuel into those re- ing while crude oil prices have stabi- riorating economy in the second halfgions to invest additional capital. lized; refiner margins have recovered of the year. In addition to satisfying the more- from their recent lows. After averag- EIA is projecting that total prod-stringent fuel specifications, refiners ing $1.69/gal in December 2008, the uct consumption in 2009 will declinemust produce fuels from lower qual- retail gasoline price in February rose another 420,000 bbl/d, or 2.2%, dueity crude oils. If crude oil prices rise in to $1.92/gal, according to EIA. Retail to continued economic weakness. Thethe next few years, as they did in 2008, gasoline prices are expected to aver- expected economic recovery in 2010petroleum refiners are more likely to age $1.96/gal in 2009 and $2.18/gal in should boost total refined-product con-process less expensive crudes, which 2010 (Figure 1). sumption by 210,000 bbl/d, or 1.1%,are heavier and contain more sulfur. U.S. demand for oil fell by about with all of the major fuels registering Meanwhile, refiners in the U.S. are 1.3-million bbl/d in 2008, according increases in consumption (Figure 3).also faced with uncertainty regard- to Alan Gelder, head of Downstream In the long term, EIA is predictinging future regulations for greenhouse Consulting Americas for Wood Mack- that total U.S. demand for liquid fuelsgas emissions and the potential for enzie (Houston, Tex.; www.woodmac- will grow only about 1-million bbl/dhigher requirements of biofuels in- research.com). “However, rather than between 2007 and 2030.cluding ethanol. this resulting in a drop in imports,” EIA expects a peak in gasoline prices Gelder says, “U.S. refinery utilization of slightly more than $2/gal in 2009. ItFalling demand actually fell to accommodate contin- is possible, however, that weekly pricesDemand for refined petroleum prod- ued exports from other regions, nota- could rise significantly higher at someucts is declining worldwide, and espe- bly gasoline from Europe.” point this spring or summer. ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com may 2009 19