Dispersion Without Agglomeration: Keep it Clean!
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    Dispersion Without Agglomeration: Keep it Clean! Dispersion Without Agglomeration: Keep it Clean! Document Transcript

    • July revamps: 2009 Smooth turnaround strategies Page 34 www.che.com 7Disperse Difficult Solids • Revamps: Smooth turnaround strategies Page 40 Separation Processes Achema 2009 Removing Fouling Deposits Offer More Doesn’t Disappoint From Heaters Facts at Your Fingertips: Weighing andV ol. 116 No. 7 July 2009 Flowmeter Selection Proportioning 01_CHE_070109_COV.indd 1 6/23/09 9:39:39 AM
    • mighty powerful With Experion LS even small plants can carry a heavy load. Improve cycle time, quality and compliance with the power of a distributed control system delivered in a compact package. Honeywell provides process manufacturers of all sizes with optimum productivity and profitability. With powerful batch features, Experion LS helps small sites better respond to market changes and increase process uptime without the cumbersome engineering and lifecycle support of traditional PLC-based solutions.Let the process control experts help you transform your business with an agile system designed toreduce lifecycle costs and improve process efficiencies.  To learn more about Experion LS, please call 1-877-466-3993 or visit  /© 2009 Honeywell International, Inc. All rights reserved. Circle 01 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-01
    • Circle 04 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-04
    • Circle 05 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-05
    • Month 2009 In ThIs Issue VoluMe 116, no. X Commentary 5 Editor’s Page Keep one foot in your own yard A new study challenges traditional business www.che.com models, suggesting per that “home teams per- form best”. It revealsCover story that high-performance40 Cover Story Disperse Difficult chemical companies Solids Recent advances in mix- have no more than ing technology offer increased 45% of sales outside efficiency in dispersing pow- their home markets dered additives in both low- and other surprising and high-viscosity applications insightsneWs11 Chementator A gypsum-free, departments energy-saving route to lactic Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 acid; New catalyst boosts liquid- Bookshelf . . . . . . . . 8, 11 fuel yield from heavy hydrocar- bons; Direct conversion of cel- Who’s Who . . . . . . . . . 32 lulose to HMF demonstrated; A Reader Service page . . 54 new support for biofilters; Using Economic gold to catalyze oxidation reac- Indicators . . . . . . . 55, 56 tions; Scaleup is set for an air- separation membrane; A less-expensive way to make platinum catalysts; Water advertisers from air; This photocatalyst works with eqUipment & serviCes Product Showcase. . . . 49 visible light; Greener solar panels; The 28 Focus Weighing and Proportioning Classified missing piece for wireless process control; Distribute and weigh solid library com- Advertising . . . . . . 50–52 and more pounds automatically; These bulk-bag fill- Advertiser Index . . . . . 5320 Newsfront Separa- ers have options for automatic operation; tion: More, More, For explosive areas, this weight indicator More The CPI are is flexible and mobile; Collect dust while Coming in aUgUst asking for more ef- dumping materials with this unit; Dust Look for: Feature Re- ficiency and higher buildup won’t affect this scale; and more ports on Particle Size purity from their Reduction; and Mea- separation processes 32D-1 New Products & Services (Domes- tic Edition) Examine reaction kinetics and suring Fluid Behavior;25 Newsfront Achema 2009 more with this system; This infrared thermome- Engineering Practice Doesnt Disappoint ter has variable configuration software; Screen articles on REACH; and Despite global economic large particles while drawing out air and Energy Conservation in turmoil, attendance didn’t dust; A power supply for a wide range Wastewater Treatment slump of welding applications; These vapor- Plants; A Focus on Boil- degreaser solvents are safer and greener; ers and Steam Handling;engineering For clean processes, this magmeter has A News article on Safety Instrumentation;31 Facts At Your Fingertips Flowmeter onboard sensor memory; This microfluidic chip offers rapid fluid mixing; Two-way A Technology Show- Selection This one-page guide details im- valves with online configuration tool for easy case on Air Pollution portant facts for selecting a flowmeter ordering; Communication modules for ex- Monitoring; Facts at34 Feature Report Revamps: Strategies for Your Fingertips on Ad- A Smooth Turnaround Tie-in opportuni- treme environments; and more sorption; and more ties are few and far between. These rules 32I-1 New Products & Services (Interna- of thumb will help make sure everything tional Edition) A new range of dosing Cover Photo: The classic and everyone line up in time pumps; This positioner is SIL 2 certified; A rotor/stator mixer – the44 Engineering Practice Removal of Foul- new IR thermometer for industrial appli- basis of the advanced ing Deposits on Heat Transfer Surfaces cations; New features for this mag-drive rotor/stator mixing and in Coal-Fired Process Heaters and Boil- pump; Solvent recycling for HPLC analyz- dispersion technology ers When conventional soot blowers are ers; A smart seal for screw pumps; An ex- available today. inadequate, an automated shot-blasting panded line of temperature-measurement Courtesy of Charles Ross system offers a powerful solution devices; and more & Son Company ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com July 2009 3
    • The information you need at your fingertips.Information at your fingertips in seconds! Whether you’re planning, procuring, installing and commissioning or operatinga plant, W@M – Life Cycle Management from Endress+Hauser keeps you up to date on the complete installed base of pro-cess automation equipment, even for non-Endress+Hauser products. W@M is designed as an open and flexible informationplatform with software applications and services that reduce equipment failure and plant downtime, and minimize repairand maintenance costs, cutting total life cycle costs. Talk to us today. We’ll be glad to tell you more about how W@M canhelp improve your business. www.us.endress.com/W@MEndress+Hauser, Inc2350 Endress PlaceGreenwood, IN 46143 Sales: 888-ENDRESSinquiry@us.endress.com Service: 800-642-8737www.us.endress.com Fax: 317-535-8498 Circle 06 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-06
    • Winner of Eight Jesse H. Neal Awards for Editorial Excellence Editor’s Page Published since 1902 An Access Intelligence Publication Keep one foot in your own yard IPublisHEr Art & dEsiGN n offering up strategies for the chemical process industries (CPI), manyMikE O’rOurkE dAvid WHitCHEr business experts turn to the virtues of a global stage. For decades now,Publisher Art Director/ CPI companies in developed countries have eagerly followed the urge tomorourke@che.com Editorial Production Manager dwhitcher@che.com expand into emerging regions. Likewise, geographical expansion is becom-EditOrs PrOduCtiON ing attractive for companies in developing areas as they look to catalyzerEbEkkAH J. MArsHAllEditor in Chief MiCHAEl d. krAus their own growth. A new analysis, however, shows that the grass is not VP of Production & Manufacturingrmarshall@che.com mkraus@accessintel.com necessarily much greener on the other side and instead advocates more ofdOrOtHy lOzOWski stEvE OlsON a straddle-the-fence approach.Managing Editordlozowski@che.com Director of Production & The Accenture Research (New York; www.accenture.com) study of ap- ManufacturingGErAld ONdrEy (Frankfurt) solson@accessintel.com proximately 100 chemical companies and business units aims to under-Senior Editorgondrey@che.com WilliAM C. GrAHAM stand how chemical companies most effectively manage the cyclical nature Ad Production ManagerkAtE tOrzEWski bgraham@che.com of the industry. Perhaps surprisingly, the results show that while manyAssistant Editor MArkEtiNG companies only consider foreign markets for growth, “home teams performktorzewski@che.com HOlly rOuNtrEE best,” says Paul Bjacek, Accenture Research global chemicals and naturalsuzANNE A. sHEllEyContributing Editor Marketing Manager hrountree@accessintel.com resources lead, and coauthor of the study findings. In fact, the researchsshelley@che.com AudiENCE shows that high-performance chemical companies have no more than 45%COrrEsPONdENts dEvElOPMENt of sales outside of their home markets.CHArlEs butCHEr (U.K.) sylviA siErrA This phenomenon can be explained, Bjacek says, by the fact that producerscbutcher@che.com Senior Vice President, Corporate Audience Development with a stronger emphasis on their home markets adjust to cycles better thanPAul s. GrAd (Australia) ssierra@accessintel.compgrad@che.com those more geographically diversified. Domestic companies (in any particular JOHN rOCkWElltEtsuO sAtOH (Japan) Vice President, region) have an advantage because they know how to manage their countries’tsatoh@che.com Audience Development Chemical inherent risks and excel within their own business environments, he adds.JOy lEPrEE (New Jersey) jrockwell@accessintel.comjlepree@che.com lAuriE HOfMANN Consider, for instance, that North American and Western European compa compa-GErAld PArkiNsON Audience Marketing Director nies’ divisional operations in regions such as Asia, Latin America, Africa and lhofmann@Accessintel.com(California) gparkinson@che.com the Middle East experience more volatility than the domestic producers in tErry bEstEditOriAl Audience Development Manager those regions, he says. Meanwhile, companies that perform best in foreignAdvisOry bOArd tbest@accessintel.com markets do so through joint ventures with local companies.JOHN CArsON GEOrGE sEvEriNEJenike & Johanson, Inc. Fulfillment Manager Contrary to popular perception, the CPI in developed economies such asdAvid diCkEy gseverine@accessintel.com Europe, Japan and the U.S., continue to grow, maintain margins and experi experi-MixTech, Inc. JEN fElliNG ence fewer swings in profitability, the study reveals. Therefore, Bjacek warnsMukEsH dOblE List Sales, Statlistics (203) 778-8700IIT Madras, India j.felling@statlistics.com that chemical companies in developed economies should not abandon theirHENry kistEr CONfErENCEs home markets. He admits that competition is fierce in these regions, re re-Fluor Corp. dANA d. CArEy quiring unique innovation to serve customers that are themselves growing, Director, Global Event SponsorshipstrEvOr klEtz dcarey@chemweek.com inventive and internationally competitive. Still, with this complementaryLoughborough University, U.K. PECk siM edge on developing new and better products, developed regional marketsGErHArd krEysADECHEMA e.V. Senior Manager, continue to maintain the world’s highest overall margins (except for large- Conference ProgrammingrAM rAMACHANdrAN psim@chemweek.com volume chemicals in the Middle East), he says.BOC bEAtriz suArEz Ironically, these so-called market makers attain the highest margins with Director of Conference OperationsiNfOrMAtiON bsuarez@chemweek.com the lowest productivity in terms of revenue per employee. They require moresErviCEsrObErt PACiOrEk COrPOrAtE high-skilled labor, such as engineers and chemists for technical service, tech tech-Senior VP & Chief Information Officer stEvE bArbEr nology support and R&D, to address customers’ increasingly intense technol technol-rpaciorek@accessintel.com VP, Financial Planning & Internal Audit sbarber@accessintel.com ogy needs. Market makers are not focused on scale or production. Instead,CHArlEs sANdsSenior Developer briAN NEssEN they focus on increasing margin through better ideas and revenue growth.Web/business Applications Architect Group Publisher Of course, none of this is to say that geographic expansion should becsands@accessintel.com bnessen@accessintel.com avoided altogether, or that such a trend should be expected. In fact, BjacekHEAdquArtErs says that more investment capacity is headed into “risky territory” — risk110 William Street, 11th Floor, New York, NY 10038, U.S.Tel: 212-621-4900 Fax: 212-621-4694 in this case being defined by either political risk, politi-EurOPEAN EditOriAl OffiCEs cal terror or corruption. For the study’s projected periodZeilweg 44, D-60439 Frankfurt am Main, Germany of 2008–2020, less than 10% is going to be invested inTel: 49-69-2547-2073 Fax: 49-69-5700-2484 “low-risk” regions such as Canada, Australia, JapanCirCulAtiON rEquEsts:Tel: 847-564-9290 Fax: 847-564-9453 and New Zealand, while more than 80% is destined forFullfillment Manager; P.O. Box 3588, “high-risk” regions such as China and Russia.Northbrook, IL 60065-3588 email: clientservices@che.com In any case, the overall message is encouraging forAdvErtisiNG rEquEsts: see p. 54 chemical engineers in developed and developing countriesFor photocopy or reuse requests: 800-772-3350 or info@copyright.comFor reprints: chemicalengineering@theygsgroup.com alike. Each group still has an edge, especially at home. ■ Rebekkah Marshall ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com July 2009 5
    • Letters Passionate GHG arguments I must applaud you on your May Editor’s Page com- ments in “Keep the GHG debate on point”. I believe there are three distinct aspects to the issue that should not be commingled. First is “global warming”, which is a natural phenomena that has occurred about every 1,500 years for the last million or so years that we can track it. It’s happening, and there is nothing we can do about it. The second is the role that CO2 plays in this, which is little to nothing, certainly nothing that puts responsibility on human factors. The third aspect is improving energy effi- ciency, and reducing dependency on fossil fuels. Certainly it is necessary to reduce greenhouse gases that clearly have an impact on the world, basically pol- lution and health. But CO2 isn’t one of them. I have seen people use the numbers you quote in the reverse, by mak- ing them into “CO2 equivalents”, to emphasize a reduction in CO2, not the GHG itself. To move to a so-called cap-and-trade approach to reduc- ing CO2 emissions, which could mean severe limitations (taxes) on coal energy production or exhaust emissions, is a big mistake. Making efforts to increase fuel efficiency to either make our fossil fuels last longer or reduce de- pendence on foreign oil, is probably a good thing, and if that can be done by mandating better fuel efficiency for vehicles, well maybe that’s a better idea. Tom Rolfes Rolfes International LLC, Wyoming, Ohio I just finished reading your editor’s page comment on anthropogenic global warming. I would recommend the following areas of study for you or your magazine in order for you to have a more rounded opinion on an- thropogenic global warming.Circle 07 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-07 • Ice core data and CO2 •  eaf stomata and CO2 atmospheric levels L • CO2 atmospheric sampling pre and post 1957 • 13C isotopic concentration of the atmosphere •  cean currents and their effects on weather patterns O •  O2 concentrations of seawater and their variations C due to locale This is just a small list of topics that when researched would give any scientist doubt as to the validity of CO2 induced global warming. I will not go on and make any negative remarks about your insulting comment that any belief against anthropogenic [CO2] induced global warming is nonsensical and likening those who fight this belief as being akin to possessing elementary-school-like minds as it pertains to science. John Benkovic Plant manager, CIL Isotope Separations The editorial does not make any arguments for or against the premise of anthropogenic global warming. It merely argues that life-giving characteristics ALONE do not form the basis for a pollution exemption. Nor does it suggest that those who fight this belief possess elementary-school-like minds. Instead, it calls for deeper scientific education on the issue than that related to CO2’s life giving characteristics. — Ed.
    • Centrifuges Filters Dryers Systems -Maffei Krauss fuges Centri ryers D Filters, d an s System I count on Which Krauss-Maffei Centrifuge best meet your company’s requirements are ward better to be discussed face-to-face. You can count on more than 80 years Gold A LRQArs of experience and the dedicated know-how of our engineers. As a benefit a 10 ye ous of our in depth consultation and experience, your operating and investment n c ontinu Certificatio costs can be reduced. Take advantage of KMPT´s Tradition with approved DIN ISO Krauss-Maffei Centrifuges, Filters and Dryers. Further information on KMPT is available at www.kmpt.com/active Circle 08 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-08
    • Bookshelf Advanced Membrane Technologies and Applications. Edited by Norman N. Li. Wiley. 111 River St., Hoboken, NJ 07030. Web: wiley.com. 2008. 994 pages. $150.00. Reviewed by Peter S. Cartwright, Cartwright Consulting Co., Minneapolis, Minn. T he crossflow-pressure-driven membrane separa- tion technologies of microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis have been commercially available for less than 50 years, yet criti- cal shortages of water of acceptable quality for drinking, commercial, industrial and agricultural uses, as well as the opportunities for innovative chemical processing and manufacturing are fueling exceptional research and de- velopment activities in these technologies, with no end in sight.These seemingly frenetic activities in membranes have produced a number of technology offshoots utilized either in non-water applications or to meet specialized separation requirements. Circle 09 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-09 This book is comprised of six categories with 35 chap- ters, addressing applications from traditional and rela- tively mature water and wastewater treatment and gas separations, to membrane contactors, reactors and fuel cells. This book offers something for every reader: what’s new in water purification and wastewater treatment, membrane polymer chemistry, biomedical membrane applications and numerous specialized membranes still under development. There is almost no membrane appli- cation, whether commercially developed or still a labora- tory curiosity, that is not addressed in this book. With well over 35 authors, there is some redundancy, and with those for whom English is not their first lan- guage, spelling, grammar and punctuation were some- times a problem. Some chapters have glossaries; however, it would have been beneficial to have had one for the entire work, and HIGH ACCURACY FLOW METERS for all of the authors to have used the same acronyms FOR HIGH TEMPERATURES throughout. Units of measurement should have included both metric and English in every chapter. AND HIGH PRESSURES It was a relief to note that the figures and tables are virtually on the same pages where they are addressed; – non-intrusive ultrasonic clamp-on technology however, using different numbering systems for figures – for temperatures up to 750 °F and tables would have been less confusing. – independent of process pressure – multi-beam for high accuracy www.flexim.com It would have been helpful to have had one chapter de- usinfo@flexim.com – wide turn down voted to the history of membrane development, as it was – installation without process shut down FLEXIM Instruments LLC repeated by a number of authors. – no maintenance CA: (510) 420-6995 The mix of authors from membrane manufacturing – no pressure loss NY: (631) 492-2300 – standard volume calculation TX: (281) 635-2423 companies and academia is refreshing, as the book is nei- ther too commercial nor too theoretical. The six categories comprised of water and wastewater, TYPICAL APPLICATIONS: HEAT TRANSFER OILS | BITUMEN | PITCH/TAR | COKER FEED | CRUDE OILS/SYNTHETIC biotechnology, gas separation, contactors/reactors, envi- CRUDE | GAS OILS | REFINED PETROLEUM PRODUCTS | HOT OR TOXIC CHEMICALS ronmental/energy and materials/characterization enable the reader to quickly focus on the chapter of interest. Circle 10 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-10 8 Chemical Engineering www.che.com July 200987_Flexim-Anzeige-ChemEngin 1 11.01.2008 11:18:49 Uh
    • Circle 11 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-11
    • Circle 12 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-12
    • Bookshelf This book captures the current “state of the art” for Westfalia Separator ®membranes on a global scale, encompassing today’sextremely diverse membrane climate and provides the caretechnology reader with a vision of some of the interesting membrane developments that may be tomorrow’s commercial applications. Magnetic Nanoparticles. Edited by Sergey P. Gublin. Wiley. 111 River St., Hoboken, NJ 07030. Web: wiley.com. 2009. 484 pages. $200.00. Predictive Functional Control: Principles and Industrial Ap- plications. By Jacques Richalet and Donal O’Donovan. Springer. 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013. Web: springer.com. 2009. 244 pages. Engineered $149.00. Lean For the Process Industries: with Care Dealing with Complexity. By Peter L. King. Productivity Press. 7625 Empire Dr., Florence, KY 41042. Web: productivitypress.com. 2009. 358 Protecting people and the environment while pages. $49.95. boosting separation efficiency and reducing operating costs – Westfalia Separator caretechnology Computational Transport Phe- combines these parameters in a single concept. nomena for Engineering Analy- ses. By Richard C. Farmer, Ralph Our separators and decanters, developed specially W. Pike, Gary C. Cheng and Yen-Sen for the chemical industry, ensure safe production. Chen. CRC Press, 6000 Broken Sound They fulfil all applicable explosion proof regulations Parkway, NW, Suite 300, Boca Raton, FL 33487. Web: crcpress.com. 2009. and are rated for overpressure conditions. 530 pages. $139.95. Profitable production is assured thanks to design Elastomer Shaping Processes. features such as the special corrosion-resistant By Andre Cheymol. ISTE Publishing lining of the separator bowls and the option of Company. 3rd Floor, Tuition House, direct drive. 27/37 St George’s Road, London SW19 4EU, UK. Web: iste.co.uk. 2009. 576 Safety and productivity in ideal combination – pages. $289.95. Westfalia Separator caretechnology for the chemical industry. Biomass and Alternate Fuel Sys- tems. By Thomas McGowan. Wiley- You will find further information at: AIChE. 3 Park Ave., New York, NY www.westfalia-separator.com, SMARTSearch Code 2505CE 10016-5991. Web: iste.co.uk. 2009. 264 pages. $89.95. Circle 13 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-13 Pipeline Rules of Thumb Hand- book, Seventh Edition: A Manual of Quick, Accurate Solutions to Everyday Pipeline Engineering Problems. By E. W. McAllister. Gulf Publishing Company, P.O. Box 2608, Houston, TX 77252. Web: gulfpub. GEA Westfalia Separator Process GmbH WSPC-2-50-005 com. 2008. 800 pages. $125.00.  ■ Werner-Habig-Straße 1 · 59302 Oelde (Germany) Kate Torzewski Phone +49 2522 77-0 · Fax +49 2522 77-2828 ws.process@geagroup.com · www.westfalia-separator.com
    •        Powder Inlet Liquid Inlet Completed DispersionAn intense vacuum draws powders including silica, SLIM eliminates the clogging and poor dispersion qualitythickeners and pigments into the mix chamber of the associated with eductor-based systems. It also eliminatesSLIM Solids/Liquid Injection Manifold. They are injected the need for an auxiliary pump in most applications.through a ported rotor directly into the high shear zone Operation is simple – and the portable inline SLIM easilyand dispersed instantly. serves multiple process lines.                         Circle 14 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-14
    • Edited by Gerald Ondrey July 2009 NH3A gypsum-free, energy- Watersaving route to lactic acid Sugar Fermentation Precoat- Ultra- SMB- Evaporation filtration filtration chrom.U hde GmbH (Dortmund, Germany; www. Nitrogen uhde.biz) is developing a new process for H2SO4producing lactic acid (LA) — a monomer for Lactic acidmaking the biodegradable plastic polylactic with ammonia, which is added to adjust the Amm.sulfate evaporationacid (PLA) — that does not require a distil- pH. After the fermentation — which produceslation step. As a result, savings in steam and more than 130 g/L LA titer (productivity > 4electrical power are calculated to be up to g/Lh) — the broth is filtered and sulfuric acid Amm.sulfate€100/ton of LA, says Joachim Schulze, head is added to release the LA. Finally, simulated- crystallization/ granulationof Uhde’s biotechnology division. moving-bed (SMB) chromatography and In conventional routes, lactic acid is made evaporation are used to recover LA with pu- (NH4)2SO4by the fermentation of sugar using bacteria, rity sufficient for making PLA. The LA yieldsuch as lactobacillus, streptococcus or pedio- is better than 90%, says Schulze. Instead ofcoccus. As LA is produced, lime milk [satu- producing low-value gypsum, the new routerated aqueous Ca(OH)2] is added to keep the generates ammonium sulfate, which can be FutureGenpH from becoming too acidic for the bacteria made into fertilizer granulate. The U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE;to survive. After fermentation, sulfuric acid is Uhde has been developing the new pro- Washington D.C.; www.doe.added to convert the calcium lactate into free cess at a test facility in Leipzig since 2007, gov) has revived a programacid, producing gypsum (CaSO4) as a byprod- and recently performed a toll operation (50 for a commercial-scale dem- onstration of a fully integrateduct. The crude LA is separated by filtration m3 fermenter) in the Czech Republic. Plans plant that would combine coaland clarification of the broth and evaporation are underway to build a pilot plant, and gasification, H2 production,of the water, and then purified by distillation. ultimately integrate the LA process into electricity generation, and The new process (flowsheet) uses a thermo- the PLA process of Uhde Inventa-Fischer CO2 capture and undergroundphyllic bacteria strain that is also compatible GmbH (Berlin). storage. The program, called FutureGen, had been dropped by the Bush Administration inNew catalyst boosts liquid-fuel yield 2008 because of the cost. DOE has signed an agree-from heavy hydrocarbons ment with the FutureGen Alliance (Washington, D.C.;A new zeolite catalyst that increases yields of light cycle oil (LCO) from high molecu-lar weight “bottoms” hydrocarbons in petro- with more acidic-active sites and pore struc- tures that blunt the poisoning effects of con- taminant metals (Fe, Ca, Ni, V), improves the www.futuregenalliance.org), an industrial sponsorship group, with the goal of build-leum fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) units selectivity of the catalyst in gasoline- and ing a plant in Mattoon, Ill. Thewas commercialized last month by Grace- LCO-forming reactions compared to conven- agreement calls for $1.073 bil-Davison, an operating segment of W.R. tional FCC catalysts, says Schiller. Midas lion to be contributed by DOEGrace & Co. (Columbia, Md.; www.grace. 300 “selectively cracks naptheneoaromatic and $400–600 million by thecom). Observed gains in LCO (boiling point compounds without a coke or gas penalty.” Alliance, a group of interna-430–650°F) yields of up to 6% are significant Midas 300 optimizes catalysis of three tional companies that includesto petroleum refiners seeking to improve bottoms-cracking mechanisms, including electric utilities and coal com- panies. A final decision eitherproduction of valuable liquid products, such pre-cracking of large molecules on the cata- to move forward or discontinueas transportation fuels and chemical feed- lyst matrix, zeolite-catalyzed dealkylation of the project will be made instocks, from heavy hydrocarbons (HCs), says aromatics and long-chain breakage, as well early 2010, following a detailedproduct manager Rosann Schiller. as the destruction of napthene rings. cost study. Known as Midas 300, the USY- (ultra- Midas 300 catalyst has been in commer-stable Y-type) zeolite-containing catalyst de-rives its enhanced activity from an increase cial use at two FCC units in North America and an additional plant in the Asia-Pacific Li-ion cathode Last month, BASF Corp.in mesoporosity of the catalyst matrix. Mes- region since late 2008. The facilities include (Florham, N.J.; www.basf.oporosity refers to pore sizes in the range a small gas-oil refinery and a large, residual com) signed a global licenseof 100 to 600 Å — critical for allowing free fuel-oil processor. Schiller notes that the eco- agreement with DOE’s Ar-diffusion of heavy HCs into the catalyst. nomic value of a 6% yield increase in liquid gonne National LaboratoryGreater mesoporosity improves overall se- products varies depending on the size of the (ANL; Argonne, Ill.; www.anl.lectivity by converting coke precursors into FCC unit, the type of feed and the operat- gov) to mass-produce andliquid product, explains Schiller. ing conditions, but benefits in the range of (Continues on p. 14) Enhanced catalyst mesoporosity, coupled $0.75–1.50/bbl have been reported.Note: For more information, circle the 3-digit numberon p. 54, or use the website designation. Chemical Engineering www.che.com July 2009 13
    • C hementato R (Continued from p. 13) market ANL’s patented com- posite cathode materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries.Direct conversion of cellulose to HMF demonstrated BASF will further develop the technology at its Beachwood,R esearchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL; Richland, Wash.;www.pln.gov) have published the first di- CrCl2) dissolved in an ionic liquid (1-ethyl- 3-methylimidazolium chloride) at tempera- tures of 80 to 120°C to catalyze the single- Ohio facility. ANL’s cathode is a combina- tion of lithium- and maganese-rect route for converting plant cellulose to step conversion of cellulose to HMF. In the rich, mixed-metal oxides5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a valuable laboratory, the process achieves an unrefined designed to extend operat-platform chemical for the production of both purity of 96% among recoverable products, ing time between charges,plastics and biofuels. Appearing in the June and an overall HMF yield of about 55%. increase the lifetime andissue of Appl. Cat. A, the research could Principal investigator Conrad Zhang, who improve the inherent safety ofmark a pathway to less expensive, large- has since left PNNL, says that cellulose de- Li-ion cells. Enhanced stabil-scale production of HMF. polymerization occurs at a rate one order of ity of the composite material Although a two-step process of HMF magnitude faster than conventional acid- permits batteries to charge to higher voltages, which leads toformation from plant biomass via simple catalyzed hydrolysis. The research group a “substantially” higher energy-sugars has been demonstrated previously, evaluated a wide range of metal chlorides storage capacity, says ANL.a mild-temperature, single-step process to and found that a combination of CuCl2 and BASF plans to commercial-convert cellulose directly to HMF has re- CrCl2 at a catalyst load of 37 μg/mol gener- ize these cathode materials formained elusive. ated the highest HMF yields. Experiments transportation and other appli- PNNL’s conversion process relies on the are underway to elucidate the reaction cations. Contingent upon win-use of twin metal chlorides (CuCl2 and mechanism, which is not yet understood. ning a DOE grant under the Recovery Act (Electric DriveA new support for biofilters Vehicle Battery and Compo- nent Manufacturing Initiative), the company plans to build aR esearchers from the Environmental Bio- technology Cooperative Research Center(Sydney and Perth, Australia; www.ebcrc. face of the zeolite and the internally porous crystalline structure of regularly spaced cavities provide large surface area and mo- cathode-material production plant in Elyria, Ohio.com.au) have developed a new way to har- lecular sieve properties. According to theness bacteria to biodegrade odor-causing researchers, those properties make zeolite CO2 capturesubstances. Traditional biofilters typically a filter bed material capable of adsorbing Last month, Alstom (Paris,; www.alstom.com) signed anemploy compost supported on wood chips odors, as well as provide surfaces for micro- engineering, procurementto trap the odor-producing substances, and organisms to form a biofilm to biodegrade and construction (EPC) con-rely on micro-organisms in the compost to the adsorbed odors. Since zeolite is inert, tract with StatoilHydro ASAbreak down those substances. The center’s there is no need to replace it. Backflush or (Stavanger, Norway; www.sta-executive director, David Garman, says that backwash should be enough to reduce block- toilhydro.com) on behalf of the“while bacteria can deal with a wide range age caused by biofilms. partners of the European CO2of odors, their unreliability, poor viability A fully automated laboratory-scale (1-L) Technology Center Mongstadand poor performance in normal biofilter plant, with two separate filter reactors, has (TCM; Norway) for a chilled-systems mean that often operators prefer to been constructed. Using ammonia as a model ammonia, CO2-capture plant.use simpler chemical systems. Some of these compound to understand the mechanism The demonstration plant will be the first one of its kind to treatsystems are effective at masking the odors of odor removal, experiments have demon- fluegas (FG) from a gas-firedbut do not remove or break them down.” strated that the adsorption capacity of the power plant, says Alstom. The center’s new technology replaces the zeolite bed is comparable to that of conven- Alstom will supply and installcompost and wood chips by a non-biodegrad- tional biofilters. The next step will be to dem- the demonstration plant —able matrix that also acts as an adsorbent. onstrate the system using odor-degrading scheduled to start up in No-A naturally occurring zeolite is used for micro-organisms. A full pilot plant will be set vember 2011, which will use thethat purpose. The electrically charged sur- up shortly in Perth, Western Australia. companys chilled ammonia, post-combustion technology (for process details, see CE,Using gold to catalyze oxidation reactions April 2008, p. 13) to capture CO2 from FG of a combinedP olymer-supported nanoclusters of gold have recently been shown to catalyzethe oxidation of alcohols to ketones at room dation reactions continuously. The catalyst strongly binds to the 0.25-µm-thick polysi- loxane coating of a commercially available heat and power plant at Mong- stad. It will also treat FG from a petroleum processing plant attemperature in air by the research group of gas-chromatography capillary tube [Inert- the nearby Mongstad refinery,chemistry professor Shu Kobayashi, Uni- Cap 225 from GL Science Co. (Tokyo)]. As a which has a CO2 output equalversity of Tokyo (www.chem.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp), test of the system, 1-phenyl ethanol was oxi- to that of a coal-fired powerin a project supported by Japan Science dized to the corresponding ketone with high plant. The TCM facility will cap-and Technology Agency (JST). Now, the re- yield. After four days of continuous opera- ture up to 100,000 metric tonssearchers have developed a procedure to de- tion, no loss of catalyst or catalyst activity (m.t.) per year, of which chilledposit the gold catalyst onto the inside walls was observed. Improved yields and selectiv- NH3 will capture 80,000 m.t./yr — the equivalent of a 40-MWthof glass capillary tubes, which can then be ity have also been observed by oxidation in a power plant.used as tubular reactors for performing oxi- palladium-gold-supported capillary system. 14 Chemical Engineering www.che.com July 2009
    • Too good to be true? We’ll let you decide. Try the AT9000 before youbuy. We think that you’ll be impressed with its consistent performancefrom day one to year ten, thrilled by its ease of customization, andpleasantly surprised by the window sticker.The Yamatake AT9000 Advanced TransmitterReliability you need. Performace you want. Pricing you crave. Circle 15 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-15888-262-4639YamatakeAmerica.com
    • C hementato R Planar membrane wafer stack Thin membraneScaleup is set for an Porous membraneair-separation membrane supportT he Electric Power Research Institute Dense, slotted (EPRI, Palo Alto, Calif.; www.epri. backbonecom) has signed an agreement with Air Air (vitiated)Products (Allentown, Penn.; www.air-products.com) to support the company’s 800-900°C Spacerdevelopment of a ceramic ion transport 200-300 psig between wafersmembrane (ITM) for air separation. Themembrane is being tested and scaled Productup under a cooperative agreement with withdrawalthe U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE, Wash- tubeington D.C.; www.doe.gov). The goal is to substitute the mem-brane for cryogenic air separation forintegrated gasification combined cycle Pure oxygen(IGCC) and oxycombustion systems. Inoxycombustion, oxygen replaces combus- velopment for advanced gas separation 19). Under the agreement with DOE,tion air, thus producing a fluegas that is with Air Products. Air Products has been testing the mem-nitrogen-free, but rich in carbon diox- Air Products’ ITM consists of a stack brane at a scale of 5 ton/d of O2 and haside, which can be readily captured. ITM of wafers made of doped, complex metal achieved an O2 purity of 99%. Startingtechnology is expected to reduce power oxides. Air is heated to above 700°C in 2010, the company plans to test aconsumption for air separation by up at 280 psi, and O2 is ionized, passes 150-ton/d system and integrate it withto 30% and capital costs by about 30%, through the membrane, then reforms a gas turbine. Several of EPRI’s utilitysays Ted Foster, director of business de- into molecules (CE, December 2008, p. members are cooperating in the project. Helping you keep your cool under any circumstances 24/7/365. Aggreko Cooling Tower Services (ACTS) ACTS provides proven rental cooling is the world’s largest provider of rental tower solutions to: cooling tower solutions. For over • Maintain cooling capacity during 20 years, we have successfully helped partial or complete tower repair customers solve their cooling water limitations - under any circumstances. • Reduce cooling water temperatures during peak summer conditions From the planning stages to the turnkey • Minimize post-disaster downtime installation of convenient modular cooling towers, ACTS has the solutions to help • Add cooling water capacity with no you keep your cool, 24/7/365. capital commitment Contact Aggreko today for all your rental cooling tower needs. Performance Certified by Cooling Technology Institute 866.310.0870 www.coolingtowers.com Circle 16 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-16 Circle XX on p. XX or go to adlinks.che.com/230XX-XX 16 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com July 2009
    • A less-expensive way to make platinum catalystsT he cost of producing platinum cata- lysts could be reduced by up to 90%by a process being developed jointly by atomic-level control of film thickness. The catalyst structure has been tested for conversion of CO to CO2 and achieved with surface areas of up to 3,000 m2/g. The high surface area allows more of the catalyst to be exposed, notes Biener.Lawrence Livermore National Labora- nearly 100% conversion efficiency with a In the ALD process, an organic platinumtory (LLNL, Livermore, Calif.; www. platinum content of as little as 0.05 mg/ precursor in the vapor phase is depositedllnl.gov) and Stanford University (Stan- cm2. “We get a very fine dispersion, so a on aerogel disks at around 300°C in a ni-ford, Calif.; www.stanford.edu). The pro- small amount of catalyst can do a lot,” trogen atmosphere. Biener points out thatcess involves the deposition of minute says Juergen Biener, a materials scien- the process differs from chemical vapor de-amounts of platinum onto disks of car- tist with LLNL. position in that the deposition is surface-bon aerogel by a technique called atomic The carbon aerogels, made by sol-gel catalyzed and self-limiting, so that onlylayer deposition (ALD), which permits chemistry, are strong, yet highly porous, one atomic layer is deposited at a time.Extracting drinking water from humidityA n energy-autonomous process for cap- turing air humidity for drinking waterhas been developed by scientists at the gle households or hotels in regions where there is no electricity infrastructure. In the process, water from the atmo- condensed and runs through a com- pletely filled column, creating the vac- uum needed for the brine tank. Recon-Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial En- sphere is absorbed by hygroscopic brine, centrated brine then repeats the cycle.gineering and Biotechnology (IGB; Stutt- which runs down a tower-shaped unit. Prototypes for both system componentsgart; www.fraunhofer.de) and Logos-Inno- The brine is then sucked up to an ele- — absorption and vacuum evaporationvationen GmbH (Bodnegg, both Germany; vated tank, which is under vacuum, and — have been built, and the combinationwww.logos-innovationen.com). The con- heated by solar collectors thereby evap- tested on a laboratory scale. A demon-cept is suitable for supplying water to sin- orating the water. Water vapor is then stration facility is the next step. Circle 17 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-17www.che.com July 2009 Chemical Engineering 17
    • C hementato RThis photocatalyst works with visible lightA photocatalyst that uses visible light to deodorize and disinfect air hasbeen developed by Hiroshi Taoda at sumer applications, such as car interi- ors, bathrooms and smoking rooms. An optimized composition of TiO2, (UV) irradiation. For disinfection, the catalyst was shown to reduce the num- ber of Staphylococcus aureus by nearlythe Materials Research Institute for apatite and iron has been shown to be five orders of magnitude to below 10Sustainable Development, National In- nearly six times more effective at de- after 8 h irradiation with white fluores-stitute of Advanced Industrial Science composing formaldehyde than existing cent light — an efficiency of 99%. Theand Technology, Chubu, Nagoya, (AIST; photocatalysts, which also do not re- catalyst also eliminates 90% of oxidesChubu, Nagoya, Japan; www.aist.go.jp). spond to visible light, says Taoda. Also, of nitrogen (NOx) by UV irradiation ofThe catalyst is made from inexpensive acetaldehyde is completely broken down a gasflow containing 1 part-per-millioncomponents, such as titanium dioxide, to CO2 and water after 3-h irradiation. (ppm) NOx. The researchers estimateapatite mineral and iron, without using Furthermore, the photocatalyst showed that the cost for producing a catalystmore costly noble and rare-earth metals, enhanced performance for the decompo- slurry would be a few thousand Yenthus making it suitable for use in con- sition of acetaldehyde under ultraviolet (around $10) per kilogram.Making solar panels even greenerL ast month, Malibu GmbH & Co, KG (Bielefeld, Germany; www.malibu-solar.de) started up a thin-film photo- icant global warming potential — from the manufacturing process. The facil- ity uses an improved cleaning process payback time — the time it takes the use of photovoltaic panels to offset the environmental impact of their manu-voltaic-module fabrication facility that based on fluorine (F2), which is gener- facture — is reduced by one year, saysis claimed to be the world’s first to ated onsite by a patented technology the firm. The process is being used ineliminate the use of nitrogen trifluoride from Linde Gases (Munich, Germany; Malibu’s new, 40-MW production facil-(NF3) — a greenhouse gas with a signif- www.linde.com). As a result, the carbon ity in Osterweddingen, Germany. The new RecipCOM delivers diagnostics, protection and therapy for your reciprocating compressors. Spread the word!
    • The missing piece for A new way to make BDO from sugarswireless process control Genomatica (San Diego, Calif.; www.genomatica.com) has developed a process for the production of commercial-grade 1,4-butanediol (BDO) from renewable feedstocks, announcing last month that it can produce BDO at greater than 99% purity. In additionL ast month, Honeywell Process So- lutions (HPS; Phoenix, Ariz.; www.honeywell.com/ps) unveiled the process to glucose and sucrose, the ability to use xylose has also been demonstrated, which may lead to the development of second-generation processes that consume the carbo- hydrates of lignocellulosic biomass.industry’s first redundant wireless sys- In the cost-efficient, scalable process, BDO is produced directly in a fermentation brothtem gateway (WSG), connecting the last from sugars by strains of bacteria that are tolerant of the commercial target concentra-major gap in the path to wireless process tions. The yield and rate of BDO production needed on a commercial scale are achieved.control. WSGs manage data between Operations at a demonstration plant will be underway by 2010 with an expected ca- pacity of approximately 1 ton/d. When the demonstration plant validation is complete,wireless field instrumentation and a Genomatica plans to commercialize the process through partnerships. ❏plant’s process control network. Redun-dancy between the wireless instrumentsthemselves and their assigned gateway do that wirelessly?” says Becker. advantage, he points to one of the firstwas already a reality since the introduc- The redundant WSG overcomes impor- commercial installations planned fortion of so-called wireless mesh networks. tant programming hurdles, such as the the new system, a 35-tank, monitoringPrior to this latest release, however, any- avoidance of signal confusion from dual and control system in Houston whereone using wireless networking still had a gateways without more than a 2-s delay. the quote to install a wired system wasreliability risk: that if a gateway failed, so Meanwhile, unique failure-recovery fea- 50% higher than for the wireless setup.would the signals being routed through tures help prevent data loss, Becker says. Depending on location, the savingsit, explains Jeff Becker, global wireless The release is especially timely for could be closer to 70%, he says. And,business director at HPS. “We would not the vast number of aging facilities with that completes the upfront capital forexpect our customers to run [process] control networks and instrumentation a full wireless network in which subse-control over wires without full redun- that are nearing the end of their life- quent wireless devices can be added fordancy, so why should we expect them to cycle, Becker says. To illustrate the cost “hardly anything”. ■ www.hoerbiger.com Circle 18 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-18 For more information please contact compressor-mechatronics@hoerbiger.com
    • CDS NewsfrontSeparation:More, More, More Figure 1. The CDS StatoilHydro Bulk Deboiler is a compact cyclone Chemical processors are asking for more efficiency designed to separate oil from water for a wide range of water cuts and higher purity from their separation equipment ration or you can get the same amount in an effort to produce higher-quality through with better separation,” ex- plains Rukovena. “In new construc- product at the lowest cost possible tion, the technology permits building of smaller towers. Some distillation tow- ers can get as large as 40 ft. in dia., soC hemical processors want more marketing with Fractionation Re- any foot you can take off when work- from their separation processes search Inc. (Stillwater, Calif.). For this ing at higher pressure equals a big cost these days. Whether their tech- reason, finding a technology that can savings in material and energy.” He nology choice is distillation, provide even a half-percentage change notes that in either case, by increasingmembrane or magnetic, processors in efficiency across the industry would the efficiency of the separation, less en-are asking for more energy efficiency, present a significant energy savings. ergy is used in the process.more process efficiency and more pu- One promising area is a new “un- GEA Process Engineering (Colum-rity in an effort to make their compa- conventional” tray design, according to bia, Md.) is also working to improvenies more competitive. Rukovena, whose non-profit research energy efficiency of separation pro- “When you improve the efficiency or consortium includes 69 members in the cesses, such as evaporation and distil-capacity of a product, it almost always chemical, petroleum, engineering and lation, by integrating process steps.can be used to improve the process equipment supplier industries with an “There are major trends to highlyeconomics with respect to investment interest in separation technologies. integrate the columns in the overallcosts or operating costs,” says Mark Typically, packing and trays in dis- plant design, which allows us to offerPilling, manager of technology with tillation towers are used to mix liquid combination units where the columnsSulzer Chemtech (Tulsa, Okla.). To and vapor. The liquid and vapor move can heat each other, as well as to usehelp processors do this, separation- counter-current to each other and, hybrid units in combination withtechnology providers strive to main- as they do that under normal grav- evaporators,” explains Matthias Loe-tain a strong base of engineering ex- ity, the capacity can only get so high wenberg, application engineer withpertise to assist customers in making before vapor blows the liquid back- GEA Process Engineering.sure the separation design ultimately wards up the tower. “We are always These integrated technologies pro-provided is the proper solution with trying to figure out how to develop vide energy savings by recycling heatedrespect to the whole process. “This is something that will let more capac- steam. “In the case of integrated col-especially important when new pro- ity through and make the separation umns, you can reuse steam from thecesses are arising from the efforts between the liquid and vapor without first column in the second column,”for greener and more energy-efficient the back mixing that ruins the effi- says Loewenberg. In very basic terms,technologies,” notes Pilling. ciency,” says Rukovena. one column heats the other so proces- These new, unconventional trays sors only have to put energy into theMore efficiency might be the ticket. Instead of just first column and can conserve energyEnergy efficiency certainly plays a counting on gravity for separation of down the line in the next column.starring role in what chemical proces- liquid and vapor, the new trays use The most common duos for this en-sors are demanding from their sepa- centrifugal forces and impingement ergy efficient technology, according torations, especially when it comes to devices to accomplish separation, Loewenberg, include hybrid columns,distillation. “Distillation processes which lets processors go beyond the such as combination units of falling-that make separations for chemical separation that would normally be film evaporators in conjunction withand oils are one of the biggest consum- achieved using gravity alone. distillation columns or rectificationers of energy in the country,” explains “For existing towers, this means you columns.Frank Rukovena, vice president of can get more through at the same sepa- With compression systems, says20 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com July 2009
    • Circle 19 on p. 54 or go toadlinks.che.com/23016-19
    • CDS NewsfrontLoewenberg, GEA provides mechani- in this way will most always pro-cal vapor recompression, where in- vide payback without higher cap-stead of using steam, boiled-off vapor ital costs.is compressed and used again as a Process efficiency is also onheating source. many processors’ wish lists, espe- Membrane technology, too, is an- cially when it comes to substanceother application for reducing energy separation. “We see a lot of inter-use in separations, according to Kevin est from operators in subsea oil Figure 2. The CDS StatoilHydro Inline de-Donahue, business manager for indus- processing in doing their separa- liquidizer has been applied at a number of fields, de-bottlenecking or replacing large,trial processes with Koch Membrane tions in a more compact and ef- conventional gas scrubbers with ultra-com-Systems (KMS; Wilmington, Mass.). ficient way,” says Rune Fantost, pact separation in pipe segmentsFor example, if a plant is processing technology director of CDS Sepa-at full capacity but wants to boost pro- ration Technology (Houston), which we can offer them solutions upstreamduction further, debottlenecking the is part of FMC Technologies’ Separa- or downstream from the existing ves-evaporator could help. “In these cases, tion’s Group. “In this field they have sels that can increase capacity andthe companies should consider the use been seeking a technology that will performance,” says Fantost.of a membrane to remove water from permit inland separation using pipe CDS has worked with a variety ofthe fluid ahead of the evaporator to segments instead of large vessels.” operators to develop compact, inlinepreconcentrate the liquids or solids,” The quest for this technology is separation technology. “We’ve spent aexplains Donahue. “The membrane driven by bottlenecks and operating lot of time qualifying this technologycould provide a factor of five or ten problems offshore on the platforms, to come up with operating envelopestimes more energy efficiency com- which creates the need to find a simple and how it will perform in differentpared to an evaporator [alone].” way to retrofit. “They have a certain applications with the major oil com- While he says the exact savings number of separation vessels and they panies,” says Fantost. The result is aare plant specific, using membranes don’t want to replace those vessels, so line of inline separators based on com- “QUALITY PRODUCTS DESIGNED AND TESTED TO SATISFY CUSTOMER NEEDS.” At Valve Concepts, Inc., we realize that quality can’t be inspected into a product. Instead, it starts in the factory, where we employ an ISO 9001:2000 Quality Assurance Program to ensure compliance to international standards. Our commitment to engineering excellence also extends to our own state-of-the art, full-scale test facility, where we collect and analyze flow performance data. We’re comparing the results against our own standards — which are often higher than those stated in API requirements. It’s just one more way that “We simply make it right.” Darrin Vanderbilt, Engineering Lab Manager 7 Years Industry Experience www.cashco com Cashco, Inc., P.O. Box 6, Ellsworth, KS 67439-0006, Ph. (785) 472-4461, Fax: (785) 472-3539 Innovative Solutions Circle 20 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-2022 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com July 2009 CAS-179A.indd 1 11/25/08 2:49:35 PM
    • Multi-pass Trays: Calculating Corrections R ecently, economics in many processes have favored very mance due to maldistribution common on multi-pass trays,” large-diameter (greater than 20–30 ft) distillation towers, ac- says Kister. cording to Henry Kister, a well-known distillation expert with In the absence of an adequate predictive tool, achieving ad- Fluor Corp. (Aliso Viejo, Calif.). While the current economy may equate pass distribution and keeping the distribution within the mandate these large towers, the size often presents a problem: recommended distribution-ratio criterion is elusive and often un- as the columns get bigger, the liquid load grows a lot faster than reachable. “We are seeing far too many recent designs in which the vapor rate and the columns and trays begin having difficulty the distribution ratios were much worse than the recommended. handling the flow of liquid, which restricts column capacity. We have seen this maldistribution causing major loss of effi- To remedy this problem, the common practice has been to move ciency, capacity, or both in four-pass trays,” he says. from single-pass trays to multi-pass trays that split the load. This There is, therefore, a great incentive to develop a tool that will allows half the liquid to go one way and half to move the other, reliably predict and quantify this maldistribution in existing tow- which reduces the liquid load. If the load is still too big, the trays ers and prevent it on newly designed ones. As a result, Fluor can be split again into a four-pass tray, but “the technology has worked to develop the Multi-pass Maldistribution Model, which been troublesome,” says Kister. “This is because in one or two is a step in the right direction. Using this formula, Fluor has had passes, there’s perfect symmetry, but in four or more, there is not successful applications of multi-pass technology in very challeng- perfect symmetry.” ing applications, says Kister. This lack of symmetry causes “maldistribution,” which occurs He says any progress made in this area is important as people when the liquid-to-vapor ratio on one pass significantly differs begin to prepare for carbon capture technology. “Carbon cap- from that of another and causes the separation process to suffer ture is a big thing and people haven’t figured it out yet, but it and efficiency to be reduced, sometimes by a large magnitude. will most likely be done with big columns and tray towers,” Tools for reliably predicting the nature and magnitude of explains Kister. “There will be a lot of applications in the future multi-pass tray maldistribution are scarce, according to Kister. that will require multi-pass technology, so it’s important that we And, the available tools are proprietary. “Our experience has figure this out now as the large plants are being built, and older been that the hydraulics calculated by these generally fail to plants are being revamped, and they are all in need of carbon reliably predict maldistribution. All these render poor perfor- capture technology.”  ❑pact cyclonic technology. Five types of gas stream, a desander that separates Purer productinline separators are currently avail- sand from a process stream, a bulk In addition to more efficiency, proces-able, including a degasser that sepa- deoiler that separates oil from water sors want to improve product purity.rates gas from a liquid stream, a del- and a flow splitter that improves the And, magnetic separators are one wayiquidizer that separates liquid from a downstream flow regime. to achieve this. “Processors are looking Circle 21 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-21 Chemical Engineering www.che.com July 2009 23
    • Separation Technology Providers CDS Separation Technology GEA Process Engineering Newsfront  www.fmctechnologies.com/  www.niroinc.com  CDSSeparationTechnologies.aspx Koch Membrane Systems Eriez Magnetics www.eriez.com  www.kochmembrane.com Fluor Corp. www.fluor.com Sulzer Chemtechfor stronger magnets in magnetic sep- Fractionation Research Inc. www.fri.org  www.sulzerchemtech.comarators so they can remove more fer-rous contamination from their product Drum Separators that feature Erium cullet, soda ash, kaolin clay, chemi-and ultimately achieve purer product, 3000, a high-quality rare earth per- cals, gypsum and quartz powder. Theywhich is important in the chemical manent magnetic power source. The remove very fine ferrous particles,industry,” says Bill Dudenhoefer, man- drum separators are able to purify locked particles and strongly para-ager of separation products with Eriez large quantities of materials such as magnetic particles.Magnetics (Erie, Pa.). foods, plastics, abrasives, metal pow- “Our customers want more bang for In answer, Eriez offers Rare Earth ders, ceramic material, paper, glass their buck,” notes Dudenhoefer. “And with stronger magnets, they get purer product, as well as other benefits.” For instance, magnetic separators with increased strength can help protect processing equipment such as mills, crushers and grinders that don’t react well to metal in the product. So by re- moving ferrous contamination, such as tramp metal, these separators improve product purity and protect equipment. Another added benefit is ease of clean- ing. By nature, rare-earth drum mag- nets are self-cleaning, which saves time and labor, and increases safety in the facility, says Dudenhoefer. Users of membrane technology are also seeking higher purity, says Dona- hue. “People are fractionating solids in the submicron area, and ultrafiltra- tion or cross-flow microfiltration tech- nology can be applied to meet these new requirements,” he says. Rather than developing new products to fit this emerging niche, Donahue says KMS is turning to Energy conservation and optimization are key issues for process plant established products, such as Ro- profitability. Proper evaluation and correction of energy losses can help micon hollow-fiber ultrafiltration bring significant cost savings and emission reductions. membranes and the FEG tube line. Romicon hollow-fiber ultrafiltration Our complete optimization program can assist in numerous ways: membranes are very energy-efficient � Evaluate opportunities for energy savings cartridges that contain high pack- ing density, which can be useful for � Develop AFE capital cost estimates separations in the submicron particle � Provide ROI calculations for management review range. FEG tubes can be used to ac- � Identify needed operation and procedure changes commodate liquids with very high � Perform front-end studies viscosities or high suspended-solids � Integrate data for air emissions compliance loadings. “This would be the choice � Implement advanced process control for colloidal dispersions for dewater- ing to the maximum extent possible,” Contact us today for information on how Mustang can help reduce the says Donahue. energy stranglehold on your facility. While the economy may be forcing processors to ask for more, it is fortu- nate that separation specialists are finding ways to improve existing prod- ucts and are developing new designs to provide process improvements that Email: ron.jackson@mustangeng.com can help processors make the right www.mustangeng.com product at the right time for the low- est cost possible. ■ Joy LePree Circle 22 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-22
    • Photos: Dechema/Helmut Stettin NewsfrontAchemA 2009Doesnt DisAppointDespite global economicturmoil, attendance wason par with that of 2006O n Sunday morning before the start of Achema 2009 (May 11–15; Frankfurt, Germany) — organizers of the world’s largestexhibition and congress on chemical en-gineering and biotechnology, Dechemae.V. (Frankfurt; www.dechema.de), aswell as industry experts participatingin the traditional press conference,were somewhat edgy. Even thoughthe ten halls’ 134,000 m2 of exhibitionspace was fully booked, and more than900 scientific papers were scheduled The halls of the Frankfurt fairgrounds were full of equipment and visitors throughout the week of Achema 2009for presentation throughout the week— not only a record number of lectures, face masks in case it got worse; even visitors and 3,880 exhibitors), bothbut the first time that organizers had the Frankfurt weather was forecast to exhibitors and organizers were highlyto turn away submissions — the ques- be a dreary, rainy week. satisfied with the outcome. “The hightion remained: will the visitors come? number of exhibitors and visitors sent For Ulz Tillmann, director general Positive start out an unmistakable message thatof the German Chemical Industry As- Nevertheless, the crowds did come will resound far beyond the Achema:sociation (VCI; Frankfurt; www.vci. when the doors opened on Monday. By our branches are going to tackle thede), the answer was clear. Attending Wednesday, Aldo Belloni, chairman of challenges and leave the economic cri-Achema is a must for just about any- the Achema committee and member of sis behind them,” says Kreysa.one working in the chemical process Linde AG’s (Munich, Germany; www. The 29th Achema was more inter-industries (CPI). They may travel linde.de) executive board was able to national than ever before, with 46.6%coach instead of business class, and begin the mid-term press conference of the exhibitors and 28% of the visi-stay at less expensive hotels, but em- “with a big sigh of relief.” The first tors coming from abroad. The numberployees in our industry cannot afford two days’ attendance at the exhibition of Chinese exhibitors doubled sinceto miss it, he said. Held every three surpassed the levels for the first two 2006, while that of Indian exhibitorsyears since 1920, Achema is the larg- days of Achema 2006 (+1.7% on Mon- increased by 23%.est venue for information exchange day, +0.7% on Tuesday). Attendancebetween vendor and user, academics figures for international representa- Views from the topand industry, and even to some extent, tion were likewise in step with those Besides positive reviews from the or-industry and government. of 2006, despite rumors of travel re- ganizers of Achema, top executives Despite Tillmann’s prediction, the strictions, noted Gehard Kreysa, chief also had good thing to say about theclimate for a successful turnout executive of Dechema. week. The following quotes were pub-seemed to be working against it: a lished in the Friday edition of theworld economy at a record low, caus- Upbeat finish Achema Daily, a joint publication ofing increased layoffs and production Over five days, 173,000 visitors from Chemical Engineering and Vogel Busi-cutbacks; the outbreak of the swine all over the world visited the 3,767 ness Media GmbH & Co. KG (Würz-flu in Mexico just a week before, which exhibitors at Achema 2009. Although burg, Germany; www.vogel.de):had organizers ordering thousands of slightly below 2006’s results (178,000 • There is nothing like Achema,” says “ ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com July 2009 25
    • Newsfront John D. Allen, president of Pump So- www.chemstations.com) lution Group (Redlands, Calif.; www. •  This Achema feels like a “ pumpsg.com), who has been coming success, and we are very to Achema for 27 years. “In Hall 9 happy with the resonance,” Achema visitors get a hands-on look at equipment you can see the entire global pump says Helmut Gänser, Ge- industry in one place. In this down schäftsführer, Ekato Holding GmbH about the outcome, but for the first economy, it’s the only show where I (Schopfheim, Germany; www.ekato. three days we had more leads than can imagine so many vendors com- com). “It has been much better than Achema 2006.” — Markus Steinke, ing together. Achema is also a driv- we expected — even better than 2006. international marketing manager, ing force in distribution, and our Achema is very important to Ekato. Metrohm AG (Filderstadt, Germany) customer numbers are up at 2006 We have been at every Achema since •  We are more than pleased with the “ levels, too.” the 1920s, and this year our stand is way Achema has progressed this•  We are extremely happy with the “ twice as big as last time.” year. There was no sign of katzen- number of attendees at the show, and •  I was very curious about the turn- “ jammer [distress] here; in fact, just the number of visitors to our booth. out, given the downturn, but have the opposite. We could discuss very Exhibition at Achema has allowed us been pleasantly surprised. We are concrete project enquiries, some- to visit with several of our current very pleased at the number and thing that was not anticipated in customers, create many new contacts high quality of visitors.” — Rich Al- light of the current economic cli- for future business, and continue to tice, vice president, commercial ser- mate. Also, the quality of the techni- understand the challenges facing the vices, Solutia, Inc., St. Louis, Mo.; cal visitors has again increased.” — chemical industry. We have six [em- www.solutia.com) Michael Ziesemer, COO and member ployees] in our booth, and we have • Achema 2009 is the best opportu- “ of board, Endress+Hauser (Reinach, been busy throughout the show meet- nity for us to meet customers from Switzerland; www.endress.com) ing visitors.” — Steve Brown, COO, all over the world. In this economic •  For over 25 years, Achema has been “CPD-5 8/20/07 Inc. (Houston, Tex.; Chemstations, 10:34 AM Page 1 climate, we were a little bit worried a traditional event for us to meet customers and business partners. This year the expectations were ad- mittedly somewhat dampened. But The best way to heat and cool the interest in our technology is high, the number of visitors is good the most corrosive materials. and there doesn’t seem to be any slump at the moment.” — Harald Nothstain, Geschäftsführer (Lurgi GmbH, Frankfurt; www.lurgi.com). Looking ahead to 2010 Following the successful Achema 2009, preparations are already under- Nothing controls way for the 8th AchemAsia, which will temperatures of take place at the new China National corrosives and high Convention Center (CNCC) in Beijing purity materials better (June 1–4, 2010). With its convenient and central location in the immedi- than AMETEK fluoropoly- ate vicinity of Beijing’s Olympic park mer heat exchangers. Not — the building was the press hub for glass. Not silicon carbide the Olympics, so its well equipped or graphite units. Available with the latest IT technology — and with steel or non-metallic its modern hall layout, CNCC will shells, diameters from 3" offer AchemAsia the long-awaited op- to 14" and metric designs, portunity for development, said Kurt AMETEK heat exchangers Wagemann, deputy chief executive of include TEMA/ANSI nozzle and Dechema. (Wagemann will assume end connections. To learn more the chief executive position following call (302) 456-4431 or visit: the retirement of Professor Kreysa at the end of this year). “The new facili- www.ametekfpp.com ties will, for the first time, enable the desired integration of the congress and the exhibition,” he says. n Gerald Ondrey Circle 23 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-2326 Chemical Engineering www.che.com July 2009
    • Circle 24 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-24
    • Focus onWeighing andProportioning Zinsser Analytic Spiroflow SystemsDistribute and weigh solid library bags are for re-sale by weight. The terial and logistics data. Also newcompounds automatically bulk bag fillers are designed to en- is a barcode reader connection thatCompound libraries are critical to sure bags are filled in a dust-free consists of a base station that can bepharmaceutical companies. Liquid manner, without spillage and to the operated via radio control with up tohandling for the dissolution of library desired weight. Filling rates of up to six barcode scanners. Additionally,compounds has been automated for 20 bags/h are possible with integral the WLAN Ex Client provides mobilemany years, but the distribution and roller conveyors and other options balance solutions in hazardous areas,weighing of the original solid dry- that allow further automation of the with the mobile explosives balancestored library compound is still done system. The C1-2 Model Spirofil of- being integrated into a WLAN net-manually. The Calli-L (photo) is spe- fers the option of automatic operation work via access points. — Sartorius AG,cifically designed for the distribution of the bag hook latches, automatic Göettingen, Germanyof dry, powder library samples for dis- deflation of the neck seal and auto- www.sartorius.comsolution, distributing samples directly matic operation of powered rollers.from the original library vial without This means that upon reaching the A weighing terminal with functionsany additional preparation step. Calli- targeted weight, other than for the that improve filling accuracyL is an automatic platform with a manual removal of the bag neck from The IND226x weighing terminal, withrobotic arm supplied with a powder the fill head, the bag is automatically IP66-protected stainless-steel housing,dispensing probe and a handler for removed from the filler and placed on is able to withstand tough operating andtransportation of vials in the range an accumulating conveyor. — Spiro- cleaning conditions in chemical and phar-from less than 1 mg to 50 mg. The flow Systems, Inc., Charlotte, N.C. maceutical facilities. It guarantees exactCalli-L uses an algorithm that chooses www.spiroflowsystems.com container filling with a LED display andthe best aspiration technique, and in integrated over/under control weighingcombination with the balance, allows For explosive areas, this weight mode. The MinWeigh function guaranteesprecise target weighing. The final tar- indicator is flexible and mobile weighing within acceptable limits, andget weight is documented with the This firm has added new performance the CalFREE function allows for elec-container data (number, position on features and interfaces to its Combics tronic calibration with weighing modules.the container, time of distribution Ex weight indicator (photo, p. 29) for The IND226x is compatible with all of thisand so on) in the database. — Zinsser Zone 1 and Zone 21 hazardous areas. company’s analog weighing platforms andAnalytic GmbH, Frankfurt am Main, The indicator is designed to be con- is equipped with the mountable IND se-Germany nected with high-resolution digital rial data interface and ACM200 interfacewww.zinsser-analytic.com platforms and memory-programmable converter, thereby enabling its connection controllers. The core of the new op- to PCs or printers via an RS232 interface.These bulk bag fillers have tions for the intrinsically safe Combics The IND226x’s various power supply op-options for automatic operation Ex indicator is the power supply with tions allow for its use in a wide range ofThe Model C1-2 Spirofil Bulk Bag Filler highly flexible configuration — the application areas, including mobile weigh-(photo) includes a load cell mounted YPSC power communication system. ing via a mains-free rechargeable battery.weigh platform that can be NTEP Barcodes are often used in potentially — Mettler Toledo, Inc., Columbus, Ohioapproved if the contents of the filled explosive environments to record ma- us.mt.com28 Chemical Engineering www.che.com July 2009 Note: For more information, circle the 3-digit number on p. 54, or use the website designation.
    • Dust buildup won’t affect this scale The Quarry King Single- Idler Belt Scale is de- signed for outdoor con- veyor weighing of dusty fines and stone-like ag- gregate materials. The scale combines “Rocking Flexure” fulcrums with a new pipe-stem, single- idler suspension system, incorporating built-in Flexicon Sartorius storage means for itsCollect dust while dumping design, with a frame height that does not calibration weight, ideal for areas wherematerials with this unit exceed 1.5 in., facilitating easy on and off dust buildup fouls suspension designs.A new sanitary bag dump weigh batch loading of heavy containers. The Model Troughed belt conveyors of 14–48-in.station (photo) with an integral mechani- 4042 spill-containment scale contains belt widths (Series 1RF-3A for 14-, 18-,cal conveyor collects dust created during moderate spills, while the Model 4042WB 24- and 30-in.; Series 1RF-4A for 36-,manual dumping of bulk materials from has the additional benefit of a special 42- and 48-in. belt widths) are avail-bags, boxes, drums and other containers, rollout bladder to hold the contents of able, operating at speeds up to 600 ft/and discharges bulk material by weight. the container being weighed if spilled min and inclines up to 18 degrees. —A high-velocity vacuum fan draws or leaked. — Scaletron Industries, Ltd., Thayer Scale, Pembroke, Mass.airborne dust from the atmosphere Plumsteadville, Pa. www.theyarscale.com nonto two cartridge filters. Automatic www.scaletronscales.com Kate Torzewskireverse-pulse filter cleaning releasesshort blasts of compressed plant airinside the cartridge filter on alternat-ing cycles, causing dust buildup on theouter filter surfaces to fall into the Ad v a n c e d Pr o c e s s So l u t i o n shopper. The hopper discharges into an LEADING WORLDWIDE IN MIXING TECHNOLOGIESintegral flexible screw conveyor, whichruns until the accurate batch weighthas been discharged. A mechanicalhopper agitator improves the flow ofmaterial into conveyor, which handlesboth free- and non-free-flowing mate-rials that pack, cake or smear, withno separation of blended products. — Having advanced to world market leader, the EKATO GROUP has been providingFlexicon, Bethlehem, Pa. their customers with the technical excellence and experience for more than 75 years.www.flexicon.com The companies within the EKATO GROUP offer a broad spectrum of mixing technologies.These new scales areunaffected by chemical spillsThese new spill-containment scales weighonly the chemical dispensed into the watertreatment system and are not affected bychemical spills. The scales have four load From modulary designed industrial agitators to turnkey pruduction plants,cells that are completely sealed in PVC the EKATO GROUP provides a range of engineering services and custom-madeand vinyl plastic enclosures to protect solutions for the most challenging customer applications. The synergies within thefrom spilled chemicals. The scale plat- EKATO GROUP ensure reliable and cost-effective solutions that meet the highestforms are resistant to most water treat- quality standards for every application. This is supported by a global service network.ment chemicals such as: fluoride, sodiumhypochlorite, sodium hydroxide, sodiumbisulfate, polymers, ammonia, phosphate,alum, caustic, sodium aluminate or other Your contact in Europe Tel.: +49 7622 29-0 GROUP Your contact in the USA Tel.: +1 201 825 4684liquids or powders. The chemical contain- e-mail: info@ekato.com www.ekato.com e-mail: ecorp@ekato.comers do not have to be centered, balancedor leveled. The scales have a low-profile Circle 25 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-25 Chemical Engineering www.che.com July 2009 29 ChemEng_2009.indd 1 03.06.2009 11:29:27 Uhr
    • Circle 26 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-26
    • Flowmeter Selection Department Editor: Kate TorzewskiW hen a flowmeter is needed, the selec- Fluids Tem- tion process should include study- Accuracy Maximum Turn- (liquid, Pipe Sizes, perature ing the characteristics of respective Flowmeter (full scale, pressure, down gas, solid, in. range,measurement technologies and analyzing the F; rate, R) psig slurry) (º F)advantages/disadvantages for different plantenvironments. This effort will help ensure Square-edged, orifice differential 0.5–1.5% R 4 to 1 L, G, S 0.5–40 8,800 –4–2,300that a meter with the right performance and pressurereliability, for a particular installation, isselected. Some of the most common industrial Electromagnetic 0.2–2% R 10 to 1 L 0.15–60 5,000 –40–350flowmeter designs are described here. Turbine 0.15–1% R 10 to 1 L, G 0.5–30 6,000 –450–600Differential Pressure Ultrasonic 1–30% R 50 to 1 L, G, SL 0.5–200 6,000 –40–250 (doppler)A differential pressure meter operates by Ultrasonic down tomeasuring the pressure differential across the 0.5–5% R L, G 1–540 6,000 –40–650 (transit time) zero flowmeter and extracting the square root. Thesemeters have a primary element that causes Vortex 0.5–2% R 20 to 1 L, G, S 0.5–16 1,500 –330–800a change in kinetic energy, which in turn Positivecreates differential pressure in the pipe. A displacement 0.152% R 10 to 1 L 0.25–16 2,000 –40–600secondary element measures the differentialpressure and provides a signal or readout, Coriolis 0.1–0.3% R 10 to 1, to L, G 0.06–12 5,700 –400–800which is converted to the actual flow value. 80 to 1 Two basic types of primary elements rely Thermal (gases) 1% F 50 to 1 G 0.125–8 4,500 32–572on this measurement: orifice plates andVenturi tubes. Both element types rely on the Thermal (liquids) 0.5% F 50 to 1 L 0.06–0.25 4,500 40–165law of conservation of energy and Bernoulli’senergy equation to determine volumetric that provides a linear output, which is directly include oval gear, rotary piston, helical,flowrates. proportional to mass flow. nutating disk and diaphragm flowmeters. In The electrical current required to maintain all design types, the fluid or gas forces a me-Electromagnetic the temperature at the temperature sensor chanical element, such as a set of gears, aElectromagnetic meters (commonly referred to is proportional to the mass flow through the disk, or a piston, to move within the primaryas “mag” meters), employ Faraday’s law of flowmeter. These flowmeters are commonly device. For every revolution of a gear, or theelectromagnetic induction, which states that used in automobiles to determine the air complete movement of a piston or plate, avoltage will be induced when a conductor density as it travels into the engine. known volume of material is displaced.moves through a magnetic field. The liquidserves as the conductor. Energized coils out- Vortex Shedding Ultrasonicside the flow tube create the magnetic field. In this instrument, fluid vortices are formed Ultrasonic meters operate by comparing theThe amount of voltage produced is directly against the meter body. These vortices are time for an ultrasonic signal to travel withproportional to the flowrate. produced from the downstream face of the the flow (downstream) against the time for Magnetic flowmeters are only applicable meter in an oscillatory manner. The shed- an ultrasonic signal to travel against the flowfor fluids with some electrical conductivity, ding is sensed using a thermistor, and the (upstream). The difference between thesetypically those with conductivity values above frequency of shedding is proportional to transit times is proportional to the flow, and5 µS/cm. Most aqueous solutions contain volumetric flowrate. the flowmeter converts this information toenough conductive dissolved solids to meetthis requirement. However, ultrapure water, flowrate and total flow.some solvents, and most hydrocarbon-based Turbine They are particularly useful for measuringsolutions do not. the flow of non-conductive fluids, such as Turbine meters incorporate a freely suspend- solvents and hydrocarbons in large pipes — ed rotor that is turned by fluid flow throughCoriolis the meter body. Since the flow passage is applications for which a magnetic flowmeter will not work. Ultrasonic flowmeters are alsoCoriolis meters provide mass-flow data by fixed, the rotors rotational speed is a true often used in district heating and chilled-measuring fluid running through a bent tube, representation of the volumetric flowrate. The water systems.which is induced to vibrate in an angular, rotation produces a train of electrical pulses, Doppler ultrasonic flowmeters have oneharmonic oscillation. Due to the Coriolis which are sensed by an external pickoff and transducer mounted at an oblique angle toforces, the tube will deform, and an ad- then counted and totalized. The number of the pipe. The transducer generates a signalditional vibration component will be added pulses counted for a given period of time is into the fluid, which is reflected back fromto the oscillation. This causes a phase shift directly proportional to flow volume. suspended particles or air bubbles.over areas of the tube, and this shift can be Turbine meters are used extensively to Transit-time ultrasonic flowmeters have twomeasured with sensors. Density measure- measure refined petroleum products, such as transducers, likewise mounted at an obliquements are made by analyzing the frequency gasoline, diesel fuel or kerosene in custody- angle to the pipe, on opposite sides of theshift of the vibrating pipe as the fluid flows transfer applications. pipe. Allternating, one transmitter sendspast the pickup. sound waves through the fluid to the other. Positive DisplacementThermal Mass References Positive displacement (PD) meters separateThermal mass meters utilize a heated sensing liquid into specific increments. The accumula- 1. Keith, J., Evaluating Industrial Flowmeterselement that is isolated from the path of fluid tion of these measured increments over time Chem. Eng., April 2007, pp. 54–59.flow. The flow stream conducts heat from is given as the flowrate. As the fluid passes 2. Kohlmann, M., Selecting the Right Flowmeterthe sensing element, and this heat is directly through the meter, a pulse, which represents for the Job. Chem. Eng., September 2004, pp.proportional to the mass flowrate. The meter’s a known volume of fluid, is generated. 60–64.electronics include the flow analyzer, temper- Some of the design types included in 3.“Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook,” 8thature compensator and a signal conditioner the positive-displacement flowmeter family ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 2008.
    • PeopleWHO’S WHO Gustavsson Lepoutre Dudas Cappellino MagnariniJonas Gustavsson becomes president ment and environment for Total and engineering for ITT Industrialof the Kanthal heating systems prod- Exploration & Production (Paris). Process (Seneca Falls, N.Y.).uct line of Sandvik Materials Tech-nology (Sandviken, Sweden). Roberto Penno becomes managing Chris Ryan joins Gevo, Inc. (Engle- director of global sales, marketing wood, Colo.) as vice-president of busi-GE Water (Vista, Calif.) appoints and strategic planning for the global ness development — downstream.Frederick Liberatore global director of engineering and constructionprocess separations. group of Foster Wheeler AG Mark Magnarini becomes COO of (Zug, Switzerland). Fontarôme Chemical, Inc.Thomas Walter and Charles Prisco (Milwaukee, Wisc.). become principal engineers with Me- Spiroflow Systems (Charlotte, N.C.) chanical Solutions (Whippany, N.J.). names Jeff Dudas CEO. Robert Race is now director of engineering services for DeltalokManoelle Lepoutre is now executive Charles Cappellino is now vice- USA (Ferndale, Wash.). ■vice-president, sustainable develop- president of research, development Suzanne Shelley NOW MORE THAN EVER ONLY WEFTEC delivers the top educational program ■ ■ ■ is the largest annual water and wastewater exhibition in the world consistently draws a strong audience from around the world helps you stay strong in an uncertain economy offers you the world’s leading technology 09 For full conference details, please view the online planner at http://weftec2009.expoplanner.com The one—and only—place where you get it all. www.wef.org Circle 27 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-2732 Chemical Engineering www.che.com July 2009
    • RaytecMunson Machinery Kason SyrrisExamine reaction kinetics batches of up to 5.0 ft3 in parts as small Raytek DataTemp Multidrop software.and more with this system as one per million with complete uni- These include a 24-V-d.c. alarm outputWith integrated mid-infrared (IR) ca- formity in less than 3 min, then evacu- triggered by target temperature orpabilities, the fully automated Atlas ates the batch with no residual. This head ambient temperature, and more.FT-IR System (photo) for reaction mon- stainless-steel, sanitary unit features The remote configuration capabilityitoring combines the technology of the a stationary inlet and outlet for inline simplifies installation and trouble-Atlas automated reactor with Bruker operation, and a rotating drum with shooting, especially when the sensor isOptics’ Matrix-MF, a process-ready proprietary mixing flights that tumble, located in a hostile or remote location.fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) turn and fold material gently, impart- The Raytek CM sensor is designed tospectrometer. This system can be used ing minimal energy to the batch while measure target temperatures rangingto examine product yields, impurities, rapidly achieving uniformity regard- from –20°C to 500°C. Its onboard elec-reaction kinetics, end points and more, less of disparities in the bulk densities, tronics are protected by a rugged IPwith upgrades available to provide particle sizes or flow characteristics 65 (NEMA-4) stainless-steel housing,further functionality, such as reaction of batch ingredients. A batch weight allowing the sensor to function in am-calorimetry, pH control, gravimetric or capacity of 500 lb is standard, with bient temperatures to 70°C withoutvolumetric reagent addition, crystalli- higher capacities optional.— Munson cooling. — Raytek, Santa Cruz, Calif.zation control. The system is available Machinery, Utica, N.Y. www.raytek.comfor a range of temperatures of –80 to www.munsonmachinery.com180 °C, pressures of up to 200 bar, and Screen large particles whilewavenumbers from 560 to 3,500 cm-1. This infrared thermometer has drawing out air and dust— Syrris, Royston, U.K. variable configuration software This circular vibratory bag dumpwww.syrris.com Raytek CM (photo) is an integrated screener removes oversize particles infrared temperature-measurement from manually dumped bulk mate-This inline rotary batch mixer sensor with precision, high-resolution rials while protecting against dustevacuates batch with no residual silicon optics. An RS232 digital inter- contamination. The 40 in.-dia. Vi-The Model 700-TH-5-SS inline minia- face allows the configuration of all broscreen separator (photo) causesture rotary batch mixer (photo) blends programmable sensor variables via bag scraps, agglomerates and otherNote: For more information, circle the 3-digit number ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com July 2009 32D-1on p. 54, or use the website designation.
    • Arc Machines New Productsoversize material to travel across material gravity-discharged from thethe screen and discharge through an screener’s outlet can be fed into a con-upper spout, while on-size particles veyor or other process equipment. Thepass through apertures in the screen Bag Dump Screener is also offered inand a lower discharge spout. Ambient 24- and 30-in. dia., and available to in-air and dust from dumping activities dustrial, 3-A, FDA, BISSC and otherare drawn onto the exterior of two car- sanitary standards. — Kason Corp.,tridge filters that derive vacuum from Millburn, N.J.a top-mounted exhaust fan. On-size www.kason.com A power supply for a wide range of welding applications, The new Model 205 Orbital Gas Tung- sten Arc Welding (GTAW) Power Sup- ply (photo) is the latest addition to this firm’s range of orbital tube weld- ing products. Whether joining 1/4-in. stainless-steel tube for a semiconduc- tor plant, 3/4-in. titanium aircraft fuel lines, 1-1/2-in. electro-polished tube for a pharmaceutical application, a 2-in. schedule, 40-carbon-steel pipe steam line, or simply tack-welding two com- ponents together, the Model 205 fits the application. Key features include: a full size color touch screen; multi-use USB port; automatic weld schedule development; programming by time or temperature; and compatiblity with all AMI fusion weld heads. — Arc Ma- chines, Inc., Pacoima, Calif. www.arcmachines.com These vapor-degreaser solvents are safer and greener Precision-V cleaners (photo, p. 32D-3) for vapor degreasing are powerful, leave no residue, evaporate quickly and are non-flammable with no flash- point. They are designed for the re- moval of oils, greases, silicones and other common industrial contami- nants. Electronics, optics, and metal parts are quickly and thoroughly cleaned, eliminating the need for fur- ther rinsing. Precision-V is non-ozone depleting, making it an ideal replace- ment for cleaners containing Freon, HFC-141b or AK225. Exposure to Precision-V solvents is less hazardous than with many other solvents com- monly used in vapor-degreasers. The Precision-V Vapor-Degreaser Parts Cleaner and Flux Remover have azeo- tropic properties that allow them to maintain stablity as they are cycled in a vapor-degreaser. They are not reac- tive nor corrosive to metals commonly found in the construction of vapor-de- greasers.— Techspray, Amarillo, Tex. www.techspray.com Circle 31 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-3132D-2 Chemical Engineering www.che.com July 2009
    • Techspray Dolomite ABB InstrumentationFor clean processes, this magme- liner deformation. Data storage inside rapid crystallisation and nanoparticleter has onboard sensor memory the sensor eliminates the problems as- synthesis. The chip measures 45 X 15This range of electromagnetic flowme- sociated with pluggable data memory mm and incorporates two independentters is designed for clean applications modules.— ABB Instrumentation, micromixer channels, each with a vol-in the food and beverage, pharmaceu- Warminster, Pa. ume of 8 µL, to ensure efficient mixingtical and biotechnology industries. www.abb.com of the fluid streams. Mixing of two orPart of the new FlowMaster product three fluid streams occurs within mil-family, the HygienicMaster magme- This microfluidic chip liseconds.— Dolomite, Royston, U.K.ter (photo) is available in sizes from offers rapid fluid mixing www.dolomite-microfluidics.com1/10 to 4 in. It is manufactured from The glass Mitos Micromixer ChipFDA-approved materials and certified (photo) is designed for the rapid mix- Two-way valves with online con-in accordance with EHEDG and 3A. ing of two or three fluid streams. Com- figuration tool for easy orderingThe units feature electrodes that are patible with the Mitos four-way edge The 8262/8263 Series two-way directembedded into the liner to ensure a connector, this novel chip enables ex- acting solenoid valves are now avail-smooth surface without any gaps, and tremely rapid mixing across a wide able with increased pressure ratingsa sensor that is clean-in-place (CIP) range of flowrates. This chip is ideal for and realtime online configurationcapable. A reinforced PFA liner im- the study of reaction kinetics, sample and ordering. The valves come in nor-proves vacuum stability and prevents dilution, improving reaction selectivity, mally-closed, brass and stainless-steel Circle 32 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-32 Circle 33 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-33 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com July 2009 32D-3
    • Rockwell Automation New Productsconstructions. They can be used tocontrol the flow of air, water, and lightoil, and are available in 1/8-, 1/4-, and3/8-in. pipe sizes. The online configu-ration tool allows customers to quickly This product family operates in a broad fice, 316-stainless-steel body construc-build a valve to meet a set of specific temperature spectrum, –20º to 70ºC, tion, and reinforced PEEK seat seals.requirements. It then displays the list and meets ANSI/ISA-S71.04-1985 The valves are rated for temperaturesprice, availability, CAD drawings and Class G1, G2 and G3, as well as cULus, of 0–250°F and maintain a full pres-specifications for the configured prod- Class 1 Div 2, C-Tick, CE, ATEX Zone sure rating throughout the operatinguct. — Asco Valve, Inc., Florham Park, 2 and SIL 2 requirements for increased temperature range. Available O-ringN.J. protection against salts, corrosives, materials include nitrile, fluoroelasto-www.ascovalve.com moisture condensation, humidity and mer and perfluoroelastomer. All wetted fungal growth.— Rockwell Automation, materials are compatible with mostCommunication modules Milwaukee, Wis. hydrocarbons. Offered in a two-wayfor extreme environments www.rockwellautomation.com configuration, the valves are availableThe Logix-XT product family (photo) is with medium-pressure tube fitting enddesigned for applications requiring in- Sealing across a full range of connections, which provide single-turncreased reliability in high-temperature pressures, up to 15,000 psig makeup, or makeup by torque. The endand corrosive environments, such as The FKB series ball valve provides connections employ a two-ferrule de-those found in oil-and-gas, wind-tur- a leak-tight seal for applications up sign to deliver robust tube grip, leak-bine and ship-building applications. to 15,000 psig. The Trunnion-style tight gas seal and vibration resistance.The Logix-XT product family includes ball valve features a direct-load de- End connections sizes are 1/4, 3/8, andthe Logix-XT controller, Allen-Bradley sign, which delivers a more consistent 1/2 in. — Swagelok, Solon, OhioFLEX I/O-XT products and ProSoft seal across a full range of pressures. www.swagelok.com nTechnology communication modules. These valves feature a 0.209-in. ori- Kate Torzewski Harness the power of positive press. Custom reprints from Chemical Engineering could be one of the smartest marketing decisions you make. Contact The YGS Group at 717.399.1900 x100 or learn more online at www.theYGSgroup.com/reprints The YGS Group is the authorized provider of custom reprints from Chemical Engineering.Circle 34 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-3432D-4 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com July 2009 Chem Eng_Quarter Vert.indd 1 3/10/09 3:10:03 PM
    • Thermo Fisher ScientificA new rangeof dosing pumpsThis firm now offers four newseries of multilayer diaphragmpumps and piston diaphragmpumps featuring the multilayerdiaphragm technology. These in-clude two series for local, manualcontrol (R-Series) and two serieswith integrated control electron-ics (C-Series). The new pistondiaphragm pumps (photo) handleflowrates of 7.5–900 L/h at an op-erating pressure of 80 bar, andthe multilayer diaphragm pumpshandle capacities of 10–1,200 L/h Seybert & Rahier Siemens Industryfor operating pressures up to 20bar. — Seybert & Rahier GmbH &Co. KG, Immenhausen, Germanywww.sera-web.deThis positioner isSIL 2 certifiedDeveloped according to SIL(safety integrity level) guide-lines, the Sitrans VP300 po-sitioner (photo) is especially suit-able for use in the paper, mining Wernert-Pumpenand oil-and-gas industries. SitransVP300 is said to be the first posi- Raytektioner on the market to feature SIL- The IP65-sealed, single-piece inte- static seals from four to two withincertified partial-stroke testing. Air grated sensor can easily replace tra- the pump. There are two defined slideexhausting in the single-acting device ditional contact probes with a J- or bearings made of silicon carbide. If theis SIL 2 rated. Both the single-acting K-type thermocouple output, or with pump is operated in a critical situation,and double-acting versions of the po- a user-scaleable 0–5 V output, if the such as intermittent flow, an emer-sitioner feature an aluminum housing application is susceptible to noise. An gency reservoir takes over the lubrica-with high protection (IP66/NEMA 4x), RS232 digital interface allows the user tion of one of the SiC slide bearings. Aand are especially resistant to vibra- to configure all programmable sensor rise in temperature is directly detectedtions. The device can be used in appli- variable via the company’s DataTemp with a central, chemical-resistant sen-cations down to –40°C and can even Multidrop software. The sensor is de- sor instead of indirect methods used tooperate in damp air that is contami- signed to measure temperatures rang- protect the pump, such as magnetic-nated with oil droplets. The positioner ing from –20 to 500°C, and can oper- field distortion, power consumption orhas a travel distance of up to 150 mm ate from ambient temperatures up vibration. The temperature rise canand can be rotated by up to 120 deg. to 70°C without cooling. — Raytek, a be analyzed by a low-cost unit, which— Siemens Industry — Industry Auto- Fluke company, Berlin, Germany is installed beside the pump, and canmation Div., Nuremberg, Germany www.raytek.de safely shut down the pump when thewww.siemens.com/automation temperature limit is reached. — Wer- New features nert-Pumpen GmbH, Mülheim an derA new IR thermometer for indus- for this mag-drive pump Ruhr, Germanytrial applications Three years after its initial launch, the www.wernert.deRaytek CM (photo) is a compact, inte- Monsun magnetically coupled pumpgrated infrared (IR) noncontact ther- (photo) that was on display at Achema Solvent recyclingmometer intended for continuous tem- 2009 has new features. For example, for HPLC analyzersperature monitoring in a wide range the rotor is designed completely with- With the ability to reduce mobile-of industrial manufacturing processes. out static seals, thereby reducing the phase consumables by up to 90%, theNote: For more information, circle the 3-digit number ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com July 2009 32I-1on p. XX, or use the website designation.
    • New ProductsSRS Pro Solvent Recycling System(photo, p. 32I-1) redirects untaintedmobile phase to the solvent reservoirduring isocratic HPLC (high-perfor-mance liquid chromatography) op-eration. Powered directly from a USBconnection, with easy plug-and-playoperation, this system is ideal for anychromatography laboratory looking toconserve solvent use. Easy-to-use soft-ware enables simple configuration ofthe system parameters and includesonline monitoring and audit-trail fa-cilities. Through continuous monitor-ing of the HPLC detector output sig-nal, the mobile phase is recycled tothe solvent reservoir when the base-line is below a threshold value. Whenthe threshold is exceeded, the eluent Swagelokflow is redirected to waste, accountingfor the transport time from the detec-tor to the switching valve. — ThermoFisher Scientific Inc., Milford, Mass.www.thermofisher.comA smart seal 1,000°F and are available in adjust- firm. The built-in self-calibration andfor screw pumps able-angle, center-back, and lower- self-tuning functionality also makesAllseal consists of an opto-electronic back mount process connections. Each installation and setup easier. The SVIsensor that detects wear of the me- thermometer is factory calibrated, IIAP positioner integrates with thechanical seals as soon as it begins and and features external reset for field AST valve configuration that includesimmediately warns the operator of any calibration. The sensors are accurate a Servovalve Engineering actuatorleaks. The system instantly detects if to ±1% of full scale, in accordance with and two volume boosters. — Dressera liquid escapes around the mechani- ASME B40.200 and are actuated by a Masoneilan, Houston, Tex.cal seal. Unusual leaks trigger acoustic sensitive bimetal helix coil. The ther- www.dresser.comand visual warning signals, which can mowells are designed to protect thealso be integrated into a centralized thermometers from contact with vis- Several designs available for thiscontrol system or forwarded to a moni- cous, pressurized, corrosive or abra- weighing feedertoring station. Allseal technology is sive process fluids. — Swagelok Co., The Multidos L Weighfeeder deliv-now available for the company’s screw Solon, Ohio ers outstanding results in gravimet-pumps and will be extended to other www.swagelok.com ric feeding tasks or when recordingpumps on a step-by-step basis, says the mass flow of special products. Avail-manufacturer. This modular sealing This large control valve has able both in an open design and withconcept now makes it possible for the a high accuracy a dustproof housing variant, the sys-user to choose between conventional Together with its joint-venture partner tem is economic, space-saving andmechanical seals, the Allseal version DS Control Technologies (Novgorod, virtually maintenance free. The sys-with leak detection, and hermetically Russia), this firm has recently dem- tem is now available with a hygienicsealed pumps with magnetic drive. — onstrated a new benchmark in large- design. The weighing module is easyAllweiler AG, Radolfzell, Germany valve positioner accuracy. The Smart to dismantle and assemble, savingwww.allweiler.de Valve Interface II Advanced Perfor- time and effort for frequent cleaning mance (SVI IIAP) positioner controls intervals and wet cleaning. The stan-An expanded line of temperature- a massive ANSI 150 measurement dardized module system with a bandmeasurement devices AST ball valve — the largest valve in width of 300 to 1,2000 mm and wheelWith the addition of bimetal thermom- a natural-gas-compression station de- bases of 1,000–3,500 mm is availableeters and thermowells for general in- signed by contractor Kukdumalakgaz in all stainless steel. The system hasdustry, this firm expands its existing in Uzbekistan. The double-acting po- a maximum output of 170 m3/h withline of temperature measurement sitioner delivers a 0.3% valve-control measurement accuracy of ±0.25% anddevices. The dampened-movement bi- accuracy rate, which is an order of feeding precision of ±0.5%. — Schenckmetal thermometers (photo) operate magnitude above the average of 1–3% Process GmbH, Darmstadt, Germanyin measurement ranges from –100 to for this type of application, says the www.schenckprocess.com32I-2 Chemical Engineering www.che.com July 2009
    • Most companies claim to have core values. But unless they benefit you, what good are they? At Swagelok, we don’t just say we value Quality. We test our products beyondWhat is the value what’s required. We don’t just profess to value Innovation. We hold more than 200 patents worldwide. For us, Customer Focus isn’t just “there when you need us.” It’s providingof values? our customers with services like assembly services, energy management, consignment and eBusiness. The value of our values not only makes our company stronger, it helps us surpass our customers’ expectations. See for yourself at swagelok.com/value. Circle 35 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-35
    • AD: www.gripa.it© 2009 Costacurta S.p.A.-VICO SINCE 1921... AND WE STILL LOVE IT For more than eighty years, we at Costacurta have been constantly and resolutely committed to the development and manufacture of special steel wire and plate components used in many different industrial processes. Every day at Costacurta, we work to improve the quality of our products and services and the safety of all our collaborators, paying ever-greater attention to the protection of the environment. Within the wide range of Costacurta products you will also find some, described below, that are used specifically in the oil, petrochemical and chemical industries: - RADIAL FLOW AND DOWN FLOW REACTOR INTERNALS; - GAS-LIQUID AND LIQUID-LIQUID SEPARATORS; - ARMOURING OF REFRACTORY, ANTI-ABRASIVE AND ANTI-CORROSIVE LININGS. For more information visit our website or contact the division C components for the oil, petrochemical and chemical industries at tcsc@costacurta.it. Gas-liquid and liquid-liquid separators Costacurta S.p.A.-VICO Management systems www.costacurta.it via Grazioli, 30 certified by LRQA: 20161 Milano, Italy ISO 9001:2000 tel. +39 ISO 14001:2004 fax: +39 OHSAS 18001:1999 Circle 36 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-
    • New Products Beumer Maschinenfabrik from a 200-L drum to fill smaller to DIN EN 14470-1 by recognized test containers. The system is easy to put institutes (TÜV Süd, iBMB Braunsch- into service due to integral plug and weig); TÜV-tested to DIN EN 14727 preassembled connections for media (laboratory furniture standard); clas- pipe, power supply (compressed air) sification Type 90 in accordance with and venting. The highest safety level DIN EN 14470-1; GS-/CE mark. — is ensured by extensive testing: the Düperthal Sicherheitstechnik GmbH removal and storage unit of the drum & Co. KG, Kleinostheim, Germany station are tested together according www.dueperthal.comThis packaging system doestwo operations in one machineThis packaging machine does notuse separate plastic bags to produceinliners for octatainers (orthogonalcontainers made of corrugated card-board; photo). Instead, the plasticfilm for the inliners comes from a roll.The companys Stretch Hood cuts andseals the film, which allows the lengthto be adjusted freely. The packagingmachine then crumples up the inlinerin order to guide it over the edge ofthe octatainer. The inliner falls intothe center of the container by its ownweight and fits perfectly against theside wall during filling, after which,the inliner is sealed and the lid put onthe container. After this, the stretchhood applies a film around the con-tainer to secure it. Both operations —creating and inserting the inliner, andsecuring it — are thus performed bya single machine, avoiding time-con-suming and problematic manual op-erations. — Beumer MaschinenfabrikGmbH & Co. KG, Beckum, Germanywww.beumer.comA station for filling andtransferring drum contentsThe Flow Line Safety cabinets forthe active storage of hazardous sub-stances are in accordance with TRbF20 Annex L, TRbF 30 and BGR 120.The concept of the filling and trans-fer stations enables users to link theirdaily work with modern, economichandling of hazardous substances.The media can be safely transferred Circle 37 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-37 Chemical Engineering www.che.com July 2009 32I-5
    • New Products Calibration gases that last longer The HiQ 60 range of calibration gases includes pure gases and non-reactive gas mixtures that have an extended 60 month (5- yr) shelf life and flat-line guar- antee, allowing for greater reliability in the accuracy of instrument measurement and longer-term usability of gas. Previously, gas suppliers had offered product expiration guarantees of 36 months, with many products available with only 12 or 24 months of shelf life. The HiQ 60 pure gases in- clude Ar, CO2, He, H2, N2 and synthetic air. — Linde Gases, Munich, Germany www.linde-gas.com A split butterfly valve for contained transfers The Müller Containment Valve (MCV) is a stable and robust split butterfly valve that is also pressure tight, making it suitable for trans- ferring highly potent or toxic Flovex substances. The seal around the valve disk has been made very small to reduce costs, and the valve disk can be exchanged in with leakage space between them de- less than 5 min. The MCV is suitable signed in such a way as to guarantee for OEB 4 (OEL 1–10 µm/m3), is GMP the thermodynamic performance of compliant and is available in sizes of the heat exchanger. Should the inner DN 100, 160, 200 and 250. The valve is or outer tube leak, the process fluid dust and liquid tight at pressures up enters the leakage space and triggers to 2 barg, with higher pressures pos- an alarm. The units can be designed sible upon request. Product-contacted with a wide range of shell diameters components are in AISI 316L stain- and tube bundle lengths, and it is pos- less steel (or Hastelloy upon request), sible to select different materials for with a PTFE seal. — Müller GmbH, the inner and outer tubes. — Flovex Rheinfelden, Germany S.p.A., Grezzago, Italy www.mueller-gmbh.com www.flovex.it Dual-walled tube bundles More functionality keep fluids contained for a smart flowmeter This manufacturer of shell-and-tube Smart-Trak 2 is a significant redesign heat exchangers has developed a new of this company’s Series 100 Digital safety heat exchanger for applications Mass Flowmeters and Controllers. The where the fluids cannot be mixed or expanded functionality of Smart-Trak contaminated. Compared with the 2 includes: true linear performance for single-wall tube bundle, this double- high accuracy and increased flexibil- wall design is characterized by a con- ity in multiple gases; Dial-a-Gas tech- struction with two tube sheets at each nology, which allows users to select end of the bundle (diagram). Then, two from up to ten pre-programmed gases tubes are fitted one inside the other, or substitute their own; the ability toCircle 38 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-38
    • Circle 39 on p. 54 or go toadlinks.che.com/23016-39
    • Hans Turck New Products adjust calibration in the field for each Dual sensors of the ten gases independently; Pilot for manual valves Module, which allows users to view This firm’s dual sensor (photo) can and change critical control functions now be used on hand-operated valves in the field; and proprietary friction- for transmitting the valve’s position. less hovering, direct-acting control This is possible thanks to new, stain- valve technology. — Sierra Instru- less-steel mounting brackets, which lever by a threaded bolt. This mount- ments, Monterrey, Calif. are easily mounted on the valve with ing bracket enhances the dual sensor’s www.sierrainstruments.com two screws and attached to the manual functionality because it allows the use of reliable detection principle even in non-automated plant areas. Simple maintenance procedures, such as manual operation of drain valves, can be reliable monitored and verified off- site. — Hans Turck GmbH & Co., KG, Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany www.turck.com Through the suction Absorbing Software for controlling nozzle, the conta- minated gas is drawn Dedusting biotechnology processes in and is entrained by This firm’s control software BioSCADA the scrubbing liquid. Cooling versatilely and flexibly implements vi- sualization, control and automation of Conveying biotechnology processes. BioSCADA is not designed as a fixed software pack- Here the gas age, does not require a common pro- is purified by intensive grammable logic controller (PLC), and ... by means of jet and Venturi contact with is designed to meet 21 CFR Part 11 re- the scrubbing scrubbers by GEA Wiegand. Our quirements. This system is said to be liquid. plants are individually designed not only economical, but also enables according to integration of numerous interfaces your require- for a wide variety of functionalities as well as progressive upgrading for ad- ments and ditional process demands. — Bioengi- In the sepa- in this way rator, the neering AG, Wald, Switzerland purified gas and reach a high www.bioengineering.com the scrubbing percentage of liquid are A new version separated. purity and efficiency. The of simulation software The latest release of this firm’s steady- capacities of state simulation software, ProSim- our plants range from 0.05 m3/hr Plus, is now available. ProSimPlus is up to 100,000 m3/hr of gas flow at used in design and operation of exist- gas temperatures of more than ing plants for process optimization, 1,300° C. Our gas scrubbers are units troubleshooting, or debottleneck- ing, plant revamping or for perform- particularly suited for explosive ing front-end engineering analysis. gas mixtures, highly corrosive It provides a unique thermodynamic GJP17e09 gases and gases containing large module and a comprehensive unit op- amounts of dust. Existing plants erations library that allow modeling of can easily be equipped with our a wide variety of processes. The new gas scrubbers. release provides users with a flexible Process Engineering environment that helps them meet today’s engineering challenges, in- GEA Wiegand GmbH crease efficiency and productivity. A Einsteinstrasse 9-15, 76275 Ettlingen, Germany new, easy-to-use graphical interface Telefon: +49 7243 705-0, Telefax: +49 7243 705-330 E-Mail: info.gewi.de@geagroup.com, Internet: www.gea-wiegand.com ensures quick learning and optimizes access to simulation results. Simulis Thermodynamics, the company’s ther- Circle 40 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-40 32I-8 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com July 200915296-az-GJP17.2e09.indd 1 08.06.2009 14:47:27 Uhr
    • Confident motion in all areas.Perfect adhesive strength! When producing chemicals the excellent quality of a steel belt from Berndorf Band is shown in every detail, such as mechanical, physical or geometric properties. The belts are characterized by perfect flatness and dimensional stability as well as by their straight tracking. Both, process and transport belts, can be provided with vee-ropes and / or product retaining strips. A special Berndorf Band GmbH A-2560 Berndorf, Austria process developed by Berndorf Band Phone: (+43)2672-800-0 guarantees perfect adhesion of vee- Fax: (+43)2672-84176 band@berndorf.co.at ropes and retaining strips. www.berndorf-band.at Circle 41 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-41
    • New Productsmodynamic server, is now fully em-bedded in ProSimPlus. Transport orthermodynamic properties and phaseequilibria on streams can be calcu-lated in only a few clicks. — ProSim,Labege, Francewww.prosim.netRaman imaging has neverbeen fasterStreamLine Plus is said to be the fast-est, fully-scaleable Raman imagingsystem available today. Readout timescan be as short as 6 ms per spectrum, GF Piping Systemsand a high-quality image of an entiretablet can be collected in less than 4 A butterfly valve fly valves are suitable for conveyingmin. A combination of line focus (which for aggressive media aggressive media and operate overminimizes sample damage), a high- The Type 567/568 butterfly valves the temperature range from –20 tospeed encoded stage and synchronized (photo) feature a passage seal made 120°C. The valves are available withreadout of the CCD (charge coupled of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) in a handle lever for manual operation,device) detector enables images to be combination with the FPM backing with manual gears, as well as withcollected both rapidly and at variable seal and the PVDF media-contacting pneumatic or electric actuation fromspatial resolution. — Renishaw Plc., parts, which guarantee better chemi- DN 50 to DN 300 for wafers and lug-Wotton-under-Edge, U.K. cal resistance and expands the appli- style installation. With the new PVDF/www.renishaw.com/raman cation range possibilities. The butter- PTFE butterfly valves, a homogeneousCircle 32 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-32 Circle 42 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-4232I-10 Chemical Engineering www.che.com July 2009
    • HAVER & BOECKER The Solution Provider Whitehouse Scientificplastic piping system is now available peaks between 0.1 and 1.5 micronsfrom this firm, with pipes, fittings and has also been prepared for evaluation.butterfly valves. — GF Piping Systems Whitehouse Scientific, Waverton, U.K.Ltd., Schaffhausen, Switzerland www.whitehousescientific.comwww.piping.georgfischer.com Versatile user interfaces forSimulate solids flow Ethernet-enabled process gaugefaster than ever Two completely new interfaces, theCoRheoGrain is part of the CoRheoS HMI (Human Machine Interface) andSoftware Suite, which enables the sim- the OWS (Operator Workstation),ulation of industrial-scale processes provide different levels of user accessinvolving various types of grains and for this firm’s recently launched Eth-powders. A novel approach makes it ernet-enabled CM710e NIR gauge forpossible to simulate the flow of granu- moisture measurement in industriallar material in computer times much manufacturing processes, such asfaster than those of any DEM software, chemicals, minerals and ore-extrac- The cost-savingclaims the institute. Both rapid granu- tion, ceramics, detergents and con-lar processes and slow and arresting struction products. The HMI provides packing systemgranular material can be simulated. supervisory access to up to 16 net-Applications include simulations ofmixing, powder injection molding and worked Series 710e Gauges while the OWS connects to an individual gauge. HAVER ®bulk-material transport. — FraunhoferInstitute for Industrial Mathematics, Both multi-lingual interfaces feature 1/4 VGA high-resolution color touch- FFS DELTA NTKaiserslautern, Germany screens to provide intuitive access towww.itwm.fraunhofer.de a range of measurement information, Filling of free-flowing diagnostics and other functions, ap-Particle-size standards propriate for the level of access re- granular, micro-granular orfor high-resolution calibration quired. All variants are available in powdery bulk materials intoAs particle sizing methodologies be- high-impact polymer housings, rated plastic tubular film bagscome more sophisticated, it is becom- to IP65, and suitable for use in am-ing increasingly difficult to measure bient temperatures to 50˚C. Optional made of PE or PPthe degree of resolution offered by stainless housings meet the need forstate-of-the-art instruments. Image safety and hygiene in food processinganalysis methods, for example, offer and other environments. The HMIone of the highest resolutions avail- provides scalable analogue outputs HAVER & BOECKER, Germanyable, but until now, it has been difficult and digital I/O as well as extensive Phone: +49 2522 30-271to quantify the resolution. To address Fieldbus connectivity options, includ- E-mail: chemie@haverboecker.comthis challenge, this firm is launching ing all common EtherNet-based pro-a new Multimodal Standard (photo). tocols and DeviceNet, Profibus and www.haverboecker.comIn this standard, eight distinct peaks CANbus Open. — NDC Infrared En-have been produced between 500 and gineering Ltd, Maldon, U.K.2,000 microns. For very small particle www.ndcinfrared.com n The designation ® indicates a registered trademarksizes, a Multimodal Standard with ten Gerald Ondrey of HAVER & BOECKER OHG in Germany. Several indicated designations are registered trademarks also in other countries worldwide. M 914-E4 Circle 43 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-43
    • Circle 28 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-28
    • Feature ReportRevamps: Strategies forA Smooth TurnaroundRay ElshoutEnergy Systems Engineering Tie-in opportunities are few and far between.Dan GarciaSun Engineering Services These rules of thumb will help make sure everything and everyone line up in timeA majority of capital projects today are either debottlenecks or revamps that are intended to it from becoming schedule limiting. with another valve leading to the con- increase capacity, squeeze out The objective is to pre-install and do nection to the new equipment.incremental revenues or comply with as much of the construction as pos- In some instances, tie-ins can beimpending regulations. A unique goal sible in advance of the shutdown. Be- made in advance with the unit oper-to the planning of these projects is cause shutdown time is very limited, ating. So called hot tie-ins are usu-avoiding excess downtime during the only tasks that must be done with the ally avoided, however, because of theturnaround that would quickly erode unit shut down are undertaken at this inherent danger to process fluids ifthe project economics. time. This approach also allows for something goes wrong. The split tee is Meanwhile, the revamp opportuni- fewer people onsite during the crunch one type of hot tie-in. It is basically aties that a turnaround provides are, time, shutdown activities. tee in two pieces that has an inside di-themselves, few and far between. Pet- ameter identical in size to the outsiderochemical refineries, for instance, Ordering equipment diameter of the pipe being tapped. Ittypically try to get five years between Before a high level of schedule detail is welded into the existing line, andmajor turnarounds to maximize on- is developed, a simpler bar-chart type then the connection to the tie-in line isstream time. Some equipment can be schedule is used to develop the timing made through the lateral.connected before an actual shutdown, used for ordering the long lead timebut most of the so-called tie-ins must equipment, such as thick walled reac- Staffingfall into place during the turnaround, tors, alloy equipment and high pressure Most operating companies no longerwhich usually lasts only 20–50 days. vessels. Working back from the desired have the luxury of maintaining a dedi- Since the typical duration for the start of work in the field, the project cated, fulltime and experienced engi-design, production and construction manager can determine the latest time neering team required for executingof a major revamp can take a year or in which an order can be placed. This small to mid-sized projects. Revamplonger and involves many stages (see requires some lead time ahead of the projects are instead mainly staffed bybox, Project Stages, p. 37), advanced order to do the necessary pre-purchas- using a mixture of contract engineersplanning is critical. Equipment with ing activities. This sometimes requires and managers, supplemented withlong lead time must to be ordered that equipment purchases be made the owner’s key staff. Only a limitedwell in advance of the date required before the final design is completed. number of key plant personnel areonsite, and engineering has to be Figure 2 shows an example of back cal- dedicated to the overall team. The con-contracted-out well in advance to culating how soon development of the tractor’s team is usually kept togetherfind a quality engineering contractor purchase order must be started in order during the project and quickly demobi-with the experience required to ex- that equipment arrives onsite to fit the lized once the need no longer exists forecute the project without rework. overall construction schedule work. personnel, which minimizes costs. An- other advantage to contracting staff isPlanning for shutdown Tie-ins that an expert in a specific field can beShutdown plans have to be well or- The tie-in list is the key to the pip- obtained for a short duration.ganized so that all the work dovetails ing. It needs to differentiate the type One strategy for avoiding exces-within the allotted shutdown period. of tie-in, including the hot tap (done sive learning curve requirements andFigure 1 shows a portion of a typical during unit operation) and shutdown reducing costs of a contracted staff isproject schedule. tie-ins (made after unit is shut down to use the same contractor to perform This schedule breaks down the ac- in preparation of construction). multiple projects.tivities into a large number of steps, Most tie-ins are handled during Figure 3 shows a typical staff sce-each of which has an early start date shutdown. A typical tie-in would in- nario, including the owner’s team, theand last completion date to keep clude two block valves and a pipe stub owner’s contracted staff, and the en-34 Chemical Engineering www.che.com July 2009
    • Refinery Gas Compressor Project Schedule Major Task suMMary: Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. March April May June DuraTion, sTarT anD Finish 1 2 1 PhasE 1: Packaging 170 d 9/3/07 4/25/08 2 Engineering required 10 d 9/3/07 2/1/08 prior to packaging 3 Procure, fabricate and 113 d 10/17/07 3/21/08 10/22 deliver long-lead items 12/10 4 Build skid package 60 d 2/4/08 4/25/08 3 5 PhasE 2: off-skid en- 147 d 11/5/07 5/27/08 gineering, design and construction 6 Approval of concep- 25 d 11/5/07 12/7/07 4 2/4 2/4 tual documents 7 Detailed engineering 84 d 11/6/07 2/29/08 5 6 11/5 8 Permitting 22 d 1/21/08 2/19/08 11/5 12/7 9 Construction 92 d 1/21/08 5/27/08 7FIGURE 1. This example schedule breaks Key Taskdown the activities into a large number Milestoneof steps, each of which has an early start Summarydate and last-possible completion date to 8 Milestones Finalize packaging bid specs . . . (10/22)keep it from becoming schedule limiting. Award packaging contract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (12/10) 9The two major phases and seven major Receive compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (2/4)steps are indicated by numbered, green Receive engineer specified equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (2/4) P&ID and PFD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (11/5)lines and identified in the table Piping and equipment layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (11/5) Control philosophy . . . . . . . . (12/7) Startup . . . . . (5/27) 5/27gineering contractor staff. Not shownis the construction team, which is di- Allowing for long-lead item procurementrected independently. Arrival at site Planning, engineering design, con- Shippingstruction-management and commis- Performance testing Fabricationsioning/startup constitute the project Approval of fabrication drawingslife cycle. The project is turned over to Vendor materials purchaseoperations people for commissioning Vendor drawing preparation Issue purchase orderand startup. Vendor negotiations Evaluation of vendor bidsOwner’s staffing Vendor response timeThe number of plant personnel as- Issue specification Prepare specificationssigned to a project varies but is usually 0 10 20 30 40 50limited to a few key people including Weeksthe project manager, process engineer FIGURE 2. A simple bar chart is useful in back calculating how soon development(as required), a safety lead, the opera- of the purchase order must be started to ensure that equipment arrives on timetional lead (sometimes part time) anda cost-control/scheduling person. cause of the complexity of the equip- or man months to see if it agrees with ment interfaces. Based on $100/h the overall hours estimated.Engineering contractor contractor engineering average rate, In addition to the engineering con-A bell curve represents a typical staff- the total number of engineering hours tractor’s team, which is usually noting scenario for the engineering con- can be estimated. From here, with onsite other than having some mem-tractor’s home office, the initial phase the allowed engineering schedule, the bers in trailers either part time or fullstarts with very few people until the number of people months can be back time, there is the owner’s field team.project is developed. Then, staffing calculated. Using say 165 h/mo, theramps up as engineers and design- average number of people required on Onsite project teamers are added for the production and the project can be estimated. The following onsite team membersconstruction phases. At the end of the Typically, the allocation of the vari- have to be either hired on contract orproject, demobilization of the staff ous disciplines can be estimated from supplied by the operating company. Itstarts to occur. Table 1. Note the process and systems is desirable to bring on the team just people tend to come on early and the when needed for their work on theEngineering cost breakdown instrumentation and electrical engi- project and then release them back toFor the engineering part of a project, neers come on late. the hiring organization (job shop). Get-the overall engineering costs for so- A good way to cross check the staff- ting quality contract people is not easy.called grassroots or all-new designs ing is to show the number of staff on a There are only a few hiring organiza-are about 10% of the project costs. simplified bar chart for the various dis- tions that specialize in providing theFor revamps and retrofits the portion ciplines during the engineering phase. staff of people for the project executionincreases to between 15 and 20% be- Then total up the number of man weeks phase. These companies staff projects ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com July 2009 35
    • Feature Report Overall project staffing Project director Key owner staff Contractor staff Contracts Administration administration Owner’s contractor staffworldwide. The other op-tion is to hire from a num- Technical Quality Project Field Construction manager assurance control operations coordinatorber of different agencies.The personnel required to Project Engineering Personnelexecute a project include Process manager manager Cost Facilities administrationat least the following:•  roject engineers P Project Engineers Scheduling Planning Liaison•  roject construction P managers Staffing and•  ost control specialists C Project Project Estimating Coordination planning manager Coordination•  ecords- and file-keeping R supervisors• Purchasing Process Instrumenta- Mechanical equipment Piping Civil Electrical Architectural tion & controls process• Welding specialist• Rigging engineers Materials Mechanical Materials Structural• Materials specialist handling utilities application• Piping supervisors•  xcavation and founda- Figure 3. Typical staffing scenarios today include the E owner/operator’s staff, the owner’s contracted staff and Table 1. Typical allocation tion supervisors the engineering contractor’s staff by engineering discipline•  ransportation and de- T livery experts Discipline %*•  ield construction supervisors F 1. Process engineering Project management 10A team of these experts supplemented The process engineering is usually Process and mechanical 5 to 10with the owner’s representatives is staffed by the owner and takes the process engineeringusually housed in temporary trail- lead through the conceptual design Civil/structural 10 to 15ers onsite. The arrangement has not phase. It must be involved early on to Electrical 10changed much since the days when decide what is to be included in the Instrumentation and 15the team was comprised primarily of project. The objective is to determine controlsowner’s personnel. how the proposed concept can make Purchasing/expediting ≤5 maximum use of the existing facil- Equipment engineering 10Detailed engineering ity equipment and minimize the new (rotating equipment,It is typically necessary to contract out major equipment. This is somewhat of heat exchangers,the detailed engineering team. The a trial-and-error procedure in deter- heaters, reactors, vesselsdetailed-engineering-contractor team mining the existing limitations of the and so on)performs the engineering from its major equipment (that would be too Piping 15home office, once the project is defined costly to replace). Mechanical design 10by the operating company. The owner Three alternatives may be evalu- Support staff ≤5selects the engineering company that ated either by inspection or by a Accounting ≤5best fits the type of project, size of “quick and dirty” cost evaluation.project and local availability. In former Process engineering usually is con- * Percent of overall engineering stafftimes, the engineering company was centrated in the first two to threealmost always local. However, with months of engineering and then goes diagrams (P&IDs), equipment specifi-the proliferation of electronic draw- down to one or two people. cations and overall scope of the projectings (and their transmission and shar- are completed.ing), cell phones, telephone conference 2. Detailed engineering Usually the existing (as-built)calls and so on, the engineering team Once the process concept is firm, then P&IDs are marked up showing modi-even for revamps is no longer required the detailed engineering begins. The fications to piping, modifications toto be onsite. The onsite demands can systems engineering is the key in this the existing equipment, addition ofusually be met by a small local team phase. It starts with marking up exist- new equipment and reuse of existingthat acts mainly as the interface be- ing process flow diagrams (PFDs) and equipment in a new service. Increas-tween the field and the home office providing a project description that ing a line size, using a larger controlteam. Some revamps and retrofits still defines what modifications are to be valve size, increasing the pump im-require a local company to be effective made, what new equipment is required peller diameter to the limits of thein the day-to-day field changes. and other significant project require- casing, changing to a larger motor ments. This basis becomes the vehicle size or going to a new larger pumpEngineering execution to make sure everyone is on the same are considered to be acceptable, costThe following is the order in which the page and in agreement with the con- effective modifications.engineering at the contractor’s office cept. Detailed engineering begins once Some modifications are allowed onnormally takes place: the PFDs, piping and instrumentation major equipment as long as they are36 Chemical Engineering www.che.com July 2009
    • Project stages The following traditional steps are aimed at sorting out the projects and determining which of the potential projects should go on to execution: •  onceptual design where the overall project goals and approach are defined and the C ballpark costs are identified by comparing the costs of other projects and expected increases in revenues or reductions in operating costs •  reliminary design where enough of the design is done, including PFD and equipment P identification, so a cost curve can be developed and the expected additional revenues can be further defined HF Inverting Filter •  etailed design where full PFDs, P&IDs, equipment data sheets are prepared and sent D Centrifuge to vendors for verbal quotes, marked up plot plans for feasibility evaluation. A factor type cost estimate can be prepared for the inside battery limits (ISBL) portion and the outside battery limits (OSBL) portion can be estimated as a percentage Cutting edge centrifuge technology for •  inal basic design where PFDs are firmed up, P&IDs are finalized; equipment loca- F filtration, washing and drying of tions are set; piping, electrical and utility runs are defined; and instrumentation counts solid/liquid suspensions are made. From there, a conceptual take-off estimate can be made for both the ISBL • Increase production and OSBL portions • Improve productivity - Thin Cake •  ontracting detailed engineering can be performed using the final basic-engineering- C Processing design package by getting bids from various contractors. The owner has the choice • Eliminate Operator Exposure - Full of also including the construction with the detailed engineering. The detailed engineer Containment usually provides the purchasing except for some of the advanced purchasing that the • Effective Automated CIP owner might perform in order to get long lead items delivered • Widest Range of Applications - Hardest to Easiest Filtering Products •  onstruction can be done either by an overall general contractor or be sub contracted C • Lowest Possible Moistures - PAC ™ out to say a civil, electrical/instrumentation and a piping/equipment contractor. It may Technology be desirable to have certain portions of the project supplied as skids to minimize the • Dry Product Inside the Centrifuge - field time PAC™ Technology •  ommissioning is usually done by owner operators and should include final checks of C the construction matching the P&ID and other drawings. Motor rotation, check valves facing the correct direction, piping matching the piping codes all need to be reviewed Conical Vacuum • Sartup is the final step to completing the project t ❏ Dryer - Mixer Advanced technology for simultaneouscost-effective and can be performed 3. Long-lead item procurement multi-functionin a reasonable shutdown period. Ex- Long lead times on alloy and high drying and mixingamples are larger nozzles, new inter- pressure equipment requires some ofnals, replacement of distillation trays the procurement activity to be done • Full Containment Operationwith higher capacity trays or struc- in advance of the project being fully • Largest Heat Transfer Surface Areatured packing and alloy lining. Major defined. This subjects the project to • Automatic CIPmodifications to major compressors, some financial risks if the equipment • Handles the Widest Range of Materials • Variable Volume Batch Sizesfired heaters and large diameter dis- ultimately requires extensive modifi- • Gentle Low Shear Drying & Mixingtillation columns is usually not cost- cations or is not used at all. The key • Quick & Trouble Free Producteffective. In gauging the feasibility to procurement is always having firm Dischargingof major equipment replacement, the specifications.rule of thumb is to parallel-up with a Good equipment data sheets aresmaller or identical item. the minimum, with alternate case Pennwalt New data sheets are developed for information provided as footnotes Super-D-Canterthe required new equipment. Check- or a second data sheet. The detailed Cutting edge continuous centrifuge technologyrating data sheets for the existing specification is key to getting out a for separation ofequipment are provided for documen- purchase order with the minimum slurries into liquid ortation that the equipment fits the number of change orders. Just refer- solid phases.new requirements. This information ring to the general codes (API, ANSI, • Only (1) drive motorshould be compiled together to serve TEMA) is not adequate. Any specific • High Abrasion Points are fitted withas backup for the project definition fabrication requirements must be replaceable parts • Advanced Polymer injection systemand cost estimates. Put the follow- called out. The associated specifica- • Most economical costing information in a set of binders tions should be included with the Ideal for:available to the task force to keep ev- general specification. Consider, for • Ethanol Stillage Dewateringeryone on the same page: process de- example, that requirements for cor- • Sludge Thickening & Dewateringscription, PFDs, P&IDs, data sheets, rosion protection are becoming more • Chemical Intermediates & Fine Chemicalpreliminary layouts and preliminary prevalent where wet acid gas is pres- • Production of Plastics (PVC Dewatering) • Clarification of Liquidspiping runs. ent. These requirements can add con- • Distillery Stillage Electrical and instrumentation ac- siderable cost. Welding specificationstivities should be minimized until the can be provided by the buyer or theproject design is developed to the point manufacturer can supply specifica-that no rework would is required. tions, and have them approved. Circle 44 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-44
    • Staggering real-world insight I n the following example, to minimize field time and costs handrail specifications that did cate the potential presence of three small engineering proj- associated with the engineer- not meet some arbitrary local hydrogen sulfide or other haz- ects were executed as part of ing, equipment contracting requirements. ardous gases that might not a single overall project during a and installation of equipment, In another area of the project, have been fully purged during petroleum refinery turnaround. piping and controls. This strat- major excavation and tie-in of shutdown. These instructions The strategy was to stagger the egy proved to be valuable in new subsurface foundations identified which control room work on the projects so a single that craft labor in the site area was required to support the had authority over the given contractor team could be used was very limited. It also pro- additional weight of some new area in order to minimize the throughout the entire engineer- vided for a lot of the work to be elevated equipment. This work standard check-in procedure ing execution. This eliminated performed in the shop where became very prolonged due with the authorizing opera- the need to retrain an engineer- productivity is higher than out to the necessity to cordon off tions staff. ing contractor multiple times to in the field. The modules were large areas during the exca- the operating company’s ac- prefit together in order to en- vation, the installation of new Materials and welding cepted approach. sure field connections would be rebar in tight spaces and the Wet acid gas was present in One of the projects was well troublefree. inability to get trucks close to several sections of the new ad- defined and allowed a contrac- The key to the equipment the area where new founda- dition. This required evaluation tor team to be formed early module concept is to have at tions needed to be poured. of corrosion standards includ- and to begin work. The other least a hand drawn battery lim- ing the requirements for special two projects were still in de- its interface of the piping com- Piping packages welding procedures and post velopment stage and required ing to and from the skids. It is In order to organize the piping weld heat treatment. This adds additional time before starting also desirable to plan how the portion of the project into an eas- cost to the plant, so prudent se- engineering. This set of circum- skids will be delivered so that ily understood format, the field lection of where the treatment stances allowed the engineering there is no obstruction from the project engineers took the engi- made sense was used to keep company to keep a dedicated skids already put on founda- neering documents produced by the costs under control. staff of engineers and designers tions with those still arriving. the engineering contractor and on the combined effort, which assembled them into work pack- Critical lifts ended up being the key to the Civil work ages. Each work package was An attempt was made to avoid overall project success. All of the civil work was con- generally a pipe run from one all critical lifts (lifts over existing tracted to a firm in the area on location to another. equipment or operating pip- Piping design a time and material basis. The The run usually consisted of ing). Special safety forms and The overall project consisted contractor was well aware of several isometric drawings, personnel were required to be of a lot of piping design work. the potential for unknown un- which are 3-D sketches show- in attendance for critical lifts. Much of the piping was run derground obstructions. As it ing the routings. The software from tie-in point to tie-in point. turned out, many field changes used by the contractor also Vessel work For the purposes of accuracy, had to be made on the fly to included a bill of materials for The heads were replaced on the engineering contractor used minimize the disruption to the each isometric drawing, which four large sized vessels. You a laser-type spotting method existing underground obstacles. served as the materials require- can almost guarantee that leg- where the coordinates of the This site required the use of piles ment for a piping task. acy vessels will be out of round various locations were identi- in order to provide the support Project engineering assem- (warped). So you need to have fied. The unfortunate part of necessary for the marshy plant bled these into packages, which personnel and equipment that this particular method was that site area. In hindsight, spread- included the tie-in photograph can bring the vessels back into the location of various runs was foot foundation might have that was taken by the piping de- round in advance of facing the referenced to imaginary coor- saved money versus the tradi- signer field team. Then, the as- problem; otherwise, schedule dinates, which are set up by a tional civil approach selected. sociated vessel drawing was in- is going to slip. reference coordinate system. cluded with a portion of the plot Converting these coordinates to Structural steel plan where each pipe run was Safety reference a particular pipe run Structural steel became a prob- marked in a particular color Safety is the ultimate concern to, say, a location on the pipe lem from a permitting stand- depending on piping code. of the project. Early recognition rack was time consuming. point. The equipment modules This allowed the people doing of the staffing and procedures Since the sub-project sched- were engineered out of state by the work to very quickly identify to assure a safe work environ- ules were staggered, the same a company that did not have an where the work would be done ment is critical. The permitting piping crew was available engineering license in the state and provided an approximate process is also a key to being throughout the whole project. of construction. It was consid- (plot plan) routing plan. sure each of the sub steps is To avoid the need for field ered unethical to have a local High-point vents and low- in compliance with the house welding on the job site, the engineer approve drawings point drains were included on rules. Some permit streamlin- piping isometric drawings were that he was not involved with the drawings. Most of these in- ing can be used on revamps converted into piping spools. during design. So the local en- cluded threaded plugs, which and retrofits by applying for gineer had to virtually recheck were seal welded (closed) after an all inclusive permit with the Modular equipment all of the design calculations. pressure testing. same information as a number On one part of the project Meanwhile, the local inspectors Special instructions were pro- of permits used on smaller, in- modular assemblies were used took exception to staircase and vided to the pipe fitters to indi- dividual projects.  ❏4. Use of skid mounted modules including all of the auxiliaries, can be for instance, the inter-stage knock-outPrefabricated equipment modules can a win-win for both parties. Using the drums, inter-stage coolers, pulsationsave a considerable amount of field manufacturers’ control-system stan- dampeners, lube oil system and con-time and money, especially for a re- dard rather than a custom design can trol panel.vamp. Having the equipment supplier also save money. Reciprocating com- Skids are especially attractive forprovide a full skid for the equipment, pressor systems can typically include, harsh climates and areas where skilled38 Chemical Engineering www.che.com July 2009
    • Feature Reportlabor is limited. The Alaskan NorthSlope oil-production plants, for exam-ple, were built using very large mod-ules shipped-in during short periodswhen the access water was clear of ice. S ince 1956 the employees of Mueller Steam Specialty have been dedi- cated to the manufacture of high quality Pre-fitting the modules together products delivered on time and withbefore shipment is a must. Flange-to- superior customer service. Our core lineflange connections, where permissible, of rugged strainers is available in a widereduce field welding demands, which range of types and materials. Whether youis especially attractive for alloy lines. require basket strainers, Y strainers, “Tee” type strainers, duplex strain-CONCLUSIONS ers, or even temporary strainers, MuellerThinking ahead is the key to a safe, will deliver your order from stock or cus-successful, on-time project that is per- tom engineer and manufacture it to yourformed without a major cost over run requirements. In addition to its strainer line,and without major surprises. Mueller offers a full line of check valves, It is important to remember sched- butterfly valves, pump protection andules are just plans. Doing things faster specialty products for a variety of industriesthan can reasonably be expected usu- and applications. Choose Mueller Steamally results in rework and more cost in Specialty for your next project.the longrun. There is typically a learn-ing curve that results in efficiency andtime saving measures being developedas the work progresses. A Watts Water Technologies Company Coordination meetings, althoughtime consuming, are a must in the ef- Circle 29 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-29ficient use of manpower. Changes to aplan may be required as unexpectedobstacles are encountered. ■ Edited by Rebekkah Marshall Where the Know-how isAuthor Ray Elshout is a process engineer for Energy Sys- tems Engineering (Pasa- COALESCERS dena, CA 91106; Phone: 626-796-0642; Email: rayel shout@aol.com). During his career, he has worked in a va- Separation of riety of industries and held a variety of positions. His main hydrocarbons from field is process engineering, but he has been a project aqueous phase manager, consultant andoperations trainer. Prior experience includes aposition at Jacobs Engineering where he devel-oped the design standards for solvent extractionof vegetable oil from soybeans, winterizing, de-odorizing, fat splitting, hydrogenation, glycerinevaporation and distillation. Elshoult holds botha B.S.Ch.E. and an M.S.Ch.E. degrees. He is alicensed professional engineer in the state ofCalifornia. Danny L. Garcia is a se- nior project manager at Sun Engineering Services, Inc. (5405 Garden Grove Blvd. CFD simulation Suite 300 Westminster CA, 92683; Phone: 714-379-2300, (velocity plot) ext. 341; Email: dangarcia@ sunengr.com), a full-service multi-discipline engineering consulting firm providing ser- As a worldwide supplier of HIGH-QUALITY SEPARATION PLANTS we stand for: vices to both energy and non- • Outstanding process technology & cost-saving solutions energy industrial facilitiesfor over 20 years. Garcia’s more than 20 years • Long standing technology experience with over 700 units installed worldwideof experience includes management of multiple • Customized all-in solutions supplied by one partnersmall- to medium-size projects concurrently,over a two-year period, as part of an alliance • Own Research & Development Department & pilot plantscontract for a major oil company. He worked as aconsultant for an oil refinery in the Los Angeles For additional information please contact: FRANKEN FILTERTECHNIK KG, Germanyarea for over eight years. In his current positionhe is both a senior project manager and the mar- Phone: +49 (0) 2233 974 40-0, e-mail: info@frankenfilter.com, web: www.frankenfilter.comketing manager. Circle 30 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-30 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com July 2009 39
    • Cover Story Feature Report Recent advances in mixing technology offer increasedefficiency in dispersing powdered additives into liquids for both low- and high-viscosity applications Ken Langhorn and Christine Banaszek, Charles Ross & Son Company ,I t’s easy to understand why R&D en- “hard-to-disperse” additives (Table 1) gineers love performance-enhancing and the inefficiency of the old-fash- additives like fumed silica, carbom- ioned mixing techniques generally ers, cellulose gum, alginates and used to disperse them, modern mix-bentonite clay. These all-purpose ingre- ing techniques present an extraordi-dients offer incredible versatility for a nary opportunity for manufacturers Figure 1. In a high shear rotor/statormultitude of products from cosmetics throughout the CPI. Recent advances mixer, a rotor turns at high speed withinto ketchup, wallpaper paste and the in mixing technology enable dramatic a fixed stator. As the blades pass each opening in the stator, the mixer appliesthermal grease used to bond a heat sink gains in process-line efficiency and intense shear to the liquid material,to a microprocessor. They can serve as end-product quality. which is rapidly accelerated and ejectedthickeners and fillers. They can impart radially through the statorrheological properties such as thixot- A recipe for “fish eyes”ropy or pseudoplasticity. They can bind The mechanisms by which thicken- defects, such as a grainy texture, vis-moisture or promote the free flow of sol- ers and other modifiers operate vary cosity below target levels and insolubleids. They can correct the mouthfeel of an considerably. However, when they are particles that resemble “fish eyes.”artificially sweetened drink or improve added to an open vessel with a propel- The cost of this imperfect dispersionthe tear strength of silicone rubber. ler generating a vortex, the results are can be measured in numerous ways. Despite the immense value and uni- usually the same: many hours of mix- Even if the product is deemed ade-versal appeal of these additives for ing, an imperfect dispersion, and often quate to proceed to downstream pro-product designers, process engineers an unsafe plant environment. cessing, these defects usually reducefacing the day-to-day reality of full- In a traditional batch-mixing pro- the efficacy of the additive. This inscale production face a unique set of cess, lightweight powders often float turn requires more solids to be addedchallenges. Dispersing these powdered persistently on top of the liquid batch. in order to generate the desired prop-additives into a liquid is one of the most A variety of factors may contribute to erties, which drives up the cost of rawformidable challenges in the chemi- this familiar and frustrating sight, materials. Every hour wasted on un-cal process industries (CPI). Although including the material’s low surface necessary mixing also wastes power,most can be dispersed fairly easily energy, low molecular weight and hy- lowers productivity and constrainsin a common laboratory mixer, when drophobic properties. The material overall production.scaled-up for batch, semi-continuous or simply drifts on the surface and re- There are also indirect costs thatcontinuous production, it’s much more sists wetting, even when subjected to can be traced to inefficient mixingdifficult, time-consuming and costly. vigorous agitation. of these additives. For example, in a Only a few years ago, in a less in- Over a period of hours, a low-shear, batch-mixing environment, fluffy pow-tensely competitive business environ- top-entering agitator will gradually ders like fumed silica, carbon black,ment, the long mix cycles devoted to coax these materials to submerge into and many other pigments and flavor-dispersing these additives did not the batch. However, most will readily ings are notorious for “dusting” in thereceive much attention. The fact that hydrate to form clumps with a tough plant. When they are poured into theinefficient mixing often led to under- outer layer that inhibits dispersion of open vessel, a cloud of airborne par-performance of additives, and there- the particles within. Especially when ticles immediately swirls into the air.fore excessive loading to compensate, using low-shear mixing devices, such This can require a great deal of laborwas also overlooked. Today, competi- as turbines and propellers, the disper- to clean up. It can also elevate the risktive pressures have amplified the sion can take many hours to complete. of contamination and expose workersimportance of every possible improve- Even in the best-case scenario, this to significant safety hazards.ment in process efficiency — especially process produces a dispersion of rea-those that might yield a significant sonable quality, but only after many Batch high-shear mixingcompetitive advantage. hours of processing. All too often, the A switch to a high-shear rotor/stator Because of the ubiquitous use of final mix includes a variety of solution mixer is the first essential step to-40 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com July 2009
    • Table 1. Materials appropriate for HigH speed induction Material typical applications Alginates Paper and textiles, beverages and soups, cosmetics, dental and prosthetic molds Alumina Coatings, ceramics Aluminum Isopropoxide Lubricating greases Bentonite clay Drilling mud, coatings, cement, adhesives, ceramic bodies and glazes, cat litter and rocket nozzles Boric acid Specialty lubricants Calcium carbonate Building materials, road-building materials, drilling fluids, latex gloves, adhesives and sealants, decorative fillers, ceramic glazes Carbon black Adhesives, inks, coatings Carbomers Pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, personal care products Cellulose gum / Adhesives, ceramics, coatings, detergents, mining, Carboxymethylcellulose paper products, textiles, pharmaceuticals, food, (CMC) cosmetics, personal care products Fumed Silica Defoamers, coatings, pharmaceutical gels, cosmetics, personal care products Hydroxyethyl Cellulose Coatings, drug capsules, dental gels Milk Powder Food Figure 2. The liquid stream (A) enters Rosin Ester Resin Water-based adhesives, coatings the mixer and immediately encounters the powder addition. Drawn into the mixer by a Starch Food, paper, adhesives powerful vacuum, the powder (B) is injected Sugar Food and beverages through the ported rotor directly into the Talc Pharmaceuticals, adhesives, cosmetics, ceramics high shear zone (C), where it is subjected Titanium Dioxide Textile chemical, inks, coatings, food coloring to intense hydraulic shear. With particles Xanthan Gum & Sodium Swimming pool water stabilizer instantly dispersed, the resulting dispersion Cyanurate Powders is ejected from the mixer (D)ward improving the dispersion of dif- through the high shear zone. For simple combination to high-shearficult solids. In its simplest form, this some materials, such as synthetic car- mixing in the rotor/stator generator —mixer consists of a rotor that turns at bomers, this over-shearing can result even if it is a distance of just inches —high speed within a stationary sta- in a permanent decrease in viscosity. agglomerates are likely to form, whichtor (Figure 1). Tolerances are close • s batch size increases, the size of A makes the device highly vulnerable to(0.010–0.015 in. typically), and as the the rotor/stator mixer required to clogging or fish-eye formation.blades of the rotor pass each opening generate adequate flow goes up, too. The rotor/stator generator easilyin the stator, they apply intense shear. As the mixer size increases, power breaks agglomerates apart, but only if In a batch configuration, the porta- consumption rises and portability the device does not clog between theble rotor/stator generator is suspended eventually becomes impractical. eductor and the rotor/stator. This real-in the vessel, slightly off-center. Mate- Mixers exceeding 10 h.p. are gener- ization led to the next major advancerial is expelled at high speed through ally installed in a permanent, fixed- in rotor/stator design: mixers thatthe stator and into the surrounding tank configuration. combine ingredients and subject themmix, which applies hydraulic shear to to high shear simultaneously.surrounding material and stimulates Inline high-shear mixingvigorous flow. As fast as material is Inline rotor/stator units provide a Inline powder dispersionexpelled, more material is drawn into high-shear mixing process that is The many ancillary benefits of anthe rotor/stator generator from below, closed and far more controlled than inline, high-shear rotor/stator mixerwhich promotes continuous flow, a batch units. A liquid stream enters the have been recognized for years, butstrong vortex beneath the mixer, and mixer (Figure 2), and it is immediately they were mainly considered littlethorough mixing. subjected to intense shear in the rotor/ more than a welcome bonus. The For dispersing troublesome pow- stator generator. It may be mixed with primary function of this mixer hasders, the traditional rotor/stator mixer a powder (or another liquid) in the always been high-speed dispersion,is far more efficient than a low-shear high shear zone, where the addition emulsification and suspension withpropeller or turbine, but in a batch is immediately dispersed with highly the application of high shear. The factconfiguration, it still presents signifi- predictable results. that a rotor/stator generator behavescant limitations: In an inline, high-shear rotor/stator like a centrifugal pump, for example,• nce powders are wetted out, they O mixer, the point at which powdered merely adds convenience and value are dispersed readily. But first, they ingredients are added to the stream to the unit. In fact, these mixers often must be drawn into the mix by the is a critical factor in determining provide sufficient pumping capacity vortex created on the surface. Mate- maximum effectiveness of the device. to eliminate the need for an auxiliary rials that float or “raft” persistently Early design concepts first combined pump to move product downstream. resist even a vigorous vortex. powdered ingredients with the liquid These mixers also have the benefit of• xposure to intense shear is not suf- E stream using an eductor. Note that in enabling the easy introduction of pow- ficiently controlled for all the mate- this scenario, the solids and liquids are der and liquid additions. rial in the batch. While the operator first combined; then they travel down- During the first 50 years of rotor/sta- waits for the remaining powder on the stream to the rotor/stator generator, tor mixer design, development contin- surface to wet out, solids already hy- where mechanical shear is applied. ued to focus mainly on the application drated are subjected to more passes During the transit from the point of of intense shear. In the last surge in ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com July 2009 41
    • Cover Story Figure 3. Equipped with helical blades, the double planetary mix- er’s operating viscosity range is extended fromdevelopment — since the early 1990s Rotor/stator approximately 2 million— multi-stage rotor/stator generators powder injection cP to at least 8 millionbecame quite sophisticated, and their For most veteran process cP. The mixer’s abilityability to create sub-micron emulsions engineers, appreciating the to disperse powders rapidly is also dramati-and dispersions improved dramati- production gain possible cally improved. As thecally. Then, about 10 years ago, mixer with rotor/stator powder in- helical blades advance,manufacturers began to recognize the jection requires “out of the they continuously pushvalue of driving rotor/stator design to- box” thinking. The scale, in powders forward, down and inwardward even higher levels of shear while many cases, is quite large,also focusing on the optimization of with cuts in the mix cycle ranging and fuel-cell-electrode pastes — re-rotor/stator design for the injection of from 50% to as much as 98%. quire dispersion at the high end of thesolids into a liquid stream. Certain variables are of high impor- viscosity range, for which the double Note the path of solids in Figure 2 tance in their effects on the process line. planetary mixer is most often chosen.as they are sucked into the mixer by a Viscosity, for example, is a key driver Compared to multi-agitator mixers forpowerful vacuum generated by a spe- in optimizing the configuration of the mid-range viscosities, this mixer is dis-cially modified rotor and stator. Once powder injection equipment. Depend- tinguished in that its agitators are notthey have entered the mixer, they are ing on the peak viscosity encountered stationary. Each of the two rectangularre-routed through the ported rotor into during the mix cycle, performance of planetary blades turns on its own axisthe interior of the rotor/stator generator. the device may be improved with ad- as they orbit the vessel on a commonThere, the solid ingredient meets the ditional agitators that stimulate flow axis. While continuously moving mate-liquid stream for the first time, and to- and homogeneous mixing throughout rial from the vessel walls and bottomgether they are immediately subjected the vessel. Other important process toward the interior of the batch, theto intense shear forces. The dispersion variables include the shear-sensitivity blades travel through the vessel andis then ejected centrifugally through of the solids added to the batch as well physically contact every point in thethe mixer outlet with sufficient force to as other ingredients already present. batch within only a few revolutions.eliminate the need for a downstream Rotor/stator mixers can be modified The drive components and agitatorspump in many applications. to inject shear-sensitive powders like in a double planetary mixer are engi- With simultaneous combination carbomers while minimizing the risk of neered to apply immense power andand high-shear mixing, agglomerates damaging the polymers. move material that is often so densehave no chance to form. Agglomerates you can easily stand on it, yet theare sheared and injected into a high- New rules for rising viscosity mixer was limited for decades to mate-quality dispersion virtually instantly. The high-speed, powder-injection rials of about 2-million cP, or even lessBy reducing the risk of clogging, this equipment discussed thus far is ideal when working with sticky materialsdesign concept has removed a signifi- for low-viscosity mixes. In a batch con- like silicone sealants that are inclinedcant constraint on production. figuration, as viscosity rises above ap- to “climb” the blades during the mix proximately 20,000 cP, however, sup- cycle and collect in the upper region ofDirect injection for batch mixers plemental agitation from a multi-shaft the process container.The principle of simultaneous com- mixer may be required. A slow-speedbination and high-shear rotor/stator anchor agitator generates additional Helical blades extend capacitymixing can also be applied to batch flow needed to move material from the The most dramatic recent advance inrotor/stator mixers. While the rotor/ vessel walls and bottom toward the in- planetary mixing is the development ofstator generator is running beneath terior of the batch and “feed” the high- helical planetary agitators. Unlike thethe surface of the batch, a feed tube shear rotor/stator device. Even with vertically oriented agitators used forallows powdered ingredients to be this addition, the mechanism remains decades, these precisely-angled, heli-added from above. As in the inline essentially the same: the injection de- cal agitators slope gracefully. As theymixer, the solids are drawn down vice sucks flowable powder and liquid travel through the batch, they continu-the tube by a vacuum created by the into the rotor/stator generator, where ously force material forward, down androtor/stator generator, remaining it applies intense shear and drives the inward (Figure 3). With close toler-dry until the moment they enter the powder into dispersion. This process ances, they also remove material effi-high-shear zone and are simultane- works well for products that flow with ciently from the vessel sidewalls. Theously combined with the liquid batch or without additional agitation, but result is that powder additions, suchand dispersed. materials that do not flow easily re- as carbon black and fumed silica, are While this configuration does not quire a completely different strategy. quickly wetted out and thoroughly dis-offer the close process control of the Instead of drawing free-flowing mate- persed, and ‘climbing’ is eliminated.inline system, it greatly improves the rial to the mixing head, we must liter- Compared to traditional agitators,performance of the batch mixer and ally bring the mixer’s agitators to the the slope of the helical blades greatlyaccelerates the dispersion of solids non-flowing batch material. reduces the drag induced by the mo-that would otherwise float on the sur- Many products — from structural tion of the agitators through the batch.face and drive up processing costs. adhesives to aerospace composites The absence of a horizontal crossbar42 Chemical Engineering www.che.com July 2009
    • Observed Induction-Rate Table & Supporting Discussion A key step in applying high-speed powder-induction Rotor/stator mixer Sample materials & maximum induction rates technology to any application is sizing the mixer size & batch/in- by rotor/stator mixer size (lb/min) to match target production rates, operating bud- line configuration get, and the flow characteristics of the materials being Carbomers carbonate Carboxy- dispersed. This table reports maximum induction rates Rotor cellulose Calcium Titanium Alumina dioxide h.p. diameter (CMC) Fumed methyl observed for a variety of materials, for both inline and Starch Sugar silica batch injection systems of various sizes. In general, (in.) larger mixers — operating with greater horsepower and larger rotor/stator generators — will apply more Inline rotor/stator powder induction mixers energy and produce higher powder-injection rates and 30 7.0 500 590 340 280 110 450 700 560 greater production. 25 3.5 90 105 60 50 20 80 125 100 For a mixer of any particular size and configuration 15 2.5 45 53 30 25 10 40 63 50 (batch or inline), variation in injection rates is due to a Batch rotor/stator powder induction mixers number of factors, including material density, particle size 50 10.5 270 315 180 150 60 240 375 300 and shape, electrical charge and the presence of moisture. 25 4.5 158 183 105 88 35 140 219 175 Injection rates for any mixer size and configuration, as 5 3.5 68 79 45 38 15 60 94 75 well as scaleup performance, are highly predictable. ■also contributes to a reduction in drag ...and for low viscosity products concept that combines a single plane-(though the principal benefit of elimi- Keeping speed constant, shear can tary blade and a high-speed disperser.nating the crossbar is the greater ease also be elevated and dispersion accel- As in a double planetary mixer, thewith which the agitators may be lifted erated simply by increasing the vis- two agitators orbit the batch on aout of a viscous, sticky batch). Also un- cosity of the batch. In some cases, this common axis while each turns on itslike vertical rectangular blades, the may even provide a superior approach own axis. This design is extremelysloped helical blades pass one another to mixing a low-viscosity product. versatile, but it is especially suitablewith a slicing motion in the vessel. With A case in point is a high-temperature for high-viscosity materials that aretolerances very close, this prevents the polymeric insulating material used for heat-sensitive but not shear-sensitive.sudden spike in power that typically electrical applications in aerospace. With the high-shear device movingoccurs when the vertical flights of The material consists of micronized through the batch and the planetaryrectangular blades pass one another. calcium carbonate dispersed in resin. blade continuously feeding mate-By reducing drag and suppressing this The final viscosity of the product is rial to it, the mixer is quite effectivepower spike, the working viscosity of only about 500 cP, but a test in a multi- at dispersing heat generated by thea planetary mixer equipped with heli- agitator mixer equipped with a slow- high-speed disperser. This lowers thecal blades is extended from 2 million speed anchor and high-speed injection risk of creating a localized buildupcP to 8 million cP or higher. This offers equipment resulted in a final particle- of heat that might damage sensitivemanufacturers some surprising new size distribution that was too wide. ingredients. Another approach topossibilities for fast dispersion needed Further tests revealed that the pro- “crossover” mixing involves mixing anto produce both high-viscosity and low- cess required high-viscosity mixing in initial stage in a low- to mid-viscosityviscosity products. a double planetary mixer. The viscos- mixer, then finishing the process in a ity was artificially raised to approxi- high-viscosity mixer. ■Dispersions for high viscosity mately 5 million cP by withholding a Edited by Kate TorzewskiCompared to the high speed devices significant amount of solvent at thediscussed earlier, the rotational and or- beginning of the mixing cycle. At this Authorbital motion of double planetary agita- initial level of viscosity, the friction in- Ken Langhorn, techni-tors is plodding. This slow-motion con- duced by the planetary blades within cal director at Charles Ross & Son Co. (710 Old Willetstact with mix materials does not mean the batch generated intense shear, Path, Hauppauge, NY 11788; Phone: 800-243-7677; Email:that the double planetary is necessar- which quickly dispersed all agglom- klanghorn@mixers.com; Web:ily a low-shear mixer. Instead, with erates of polymer particles and pro- www.mixers.com) has pub- lished many articles on mix-subtle manipulation of agitator speed duced a narrow, sub-micron particle ing and blending technology.and batch viscosity, it can be either a size distribution in only 30 minutes. Formerly an R&D specialist at Ross, he holds patents forlow-shear or high-shear mixing device. Afterward, the mixed material was let innovations in ultra-high- With close clearances between the down quite slowly to avoid over-lubri- shear mixing and high-viscosity mixing. As manager of the company’s test and developmentblades and between each blade and the cating the product and creating a new center, he oversees testing and process optimiza- tion for customers, along with operations in thevessel wall, shear increases quickly as generation of agglomerates. Overall, company’s adjacent analytical laboratory.agitator speeds increase. At low speeds, the batch duration was approximately Christine Banaszek is an ap-the mixer gently disperses such shear- 60 minutes. plication engineer at Charles Ross & Son Co. (cbanaszek@sensitive materials as micro-spheres mixers.com). She received herto produce syntactic foams and light- Hybrid dispersion strategies B.S.Ch.E. from the University of the Philippines (Diliman),weight composites. At faster speeds, it The drive to explore the crossover where she also subsequently served as instructor of chemi-quickly crushes agglomerates and dis- possibilities between high-viscosity cal and environmental engi-perses non-shear-sensitive materials and low-viscosity mixers for disper- neering. As a member of the Ross Technical Services Group,such as carbon, alumina, fumed silica, sion has led to a variety of additional she has published articles andand PTFE to produce battery and fuel strategies for mixing. One such design white papers in mixing & blending technologies, with emphasis on high performance mixing forcell components. strategy produced the hybrid mixer thickeners, surfactants and emulsion systems. Chemical Engineering www.che.com July 2009 43
    • Engineering Practice Feature ReportThe Shotgun ApproachRemoval of Fouling Deposits on heat transfersurfaces in Coal-Fired Process Heaters & Boilers When conventional soot FIGURE 1. Shot Blasting Data ln PBR versus ln Px blowers are inadequate, 10.8 an automated shot- 10.6 blasting system offers a 10.4 Table 3 powerful solution 10.2 data 10.0 Point atAlan Cross 9.8 8,500 psiT Table 1 and 2 he heat transfer surfaces of coal- 9.6 data ln PBR fired process heaters and boilers often undergo severe fouling. If left 9.4 intact, such deposits, consisting of 9.2slag from mineral matter containedin the coal, can reduce heat-transfer- 9.0surface availability, reduce thermal ef- Point at 8.8ficiency and cause corrosion. 3,600 psi If the deposits are adherent and 8.6cannot be removed by conventionalsteam soot-blowers, shutdown and 8.4more rigorous cleaning is required. 8.2Maintenance personnel have beenknown to use shot cleaning as a means 8.0of removing stubborn deposits. 8.0 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.8 9.0 9.2 9.4 9.6 9.8 10.0 10.2 10.4 10.6 10.8 Operating costs for heaters and boil- ln Pxers of the type described above, can bereduced, due to increased on-stream Figure 1. The linear relationship of ln Px versus ln PBR is of great practicaltime, through installation of perma- importance in calculating unknown performance characteristicsnent, on-stream shot-blasting equip-ment for adherent deposit removal. trical generating capacity of 125 MW, shot blasting may not be necessary atThis equipment consists of strategi- could avoid a loss of electricity sales this location.cally placed semi-automatic shotguns sufficient to pay for the cost of the shot However, shot blast cleaning is ap-(see box on p. 47), utilizing steel shot blasting equipment described herein, plicable for process heaters only withbacked by a solid propellant in the in about one year if shot blasting were tubular heating surfaces devoid of ex-form of shotgun ammunition. The am- provided for the radiant section only, posed refractory, which could be dam-munition contains the normal quota of or in about two years, if shot blasting aged by the shot [4]. Likewise, to beshot, backed by a tailored amount of were provided for both the radiant applicable for this technique coal-firedpropellant such that the shot impact and convection sections. It should be boilers must be, and usually are, pro-force on tube fouling deposits would be noted, however, that because the flu- vided with tubular heating surfacesseveral or many times that created by egas temperatures prevailing in the without open spaces between tubes.conventional soot-blowers. convection section may be below the Such surfaces are often referred to as Calculations based on realistic cost ash-fusion temperature, it is possible membrane surfaces.data [7], indicate that if an outage of that lighter tube-slag deposits may15 days per year could be avoided, be seen in the upper convection sec- Design calculationsthrough use of the proposed shot-blast- tion than in the lower radiant section If the impingement areas of the steaming equipment, a boiler having an elec- of the boiler. Thus, convection section jets or shot diameters are known, the44 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com July 2009
    • Table 1. Summary of available and CalCulated data for a Table 3. lead and Steel 30-06 rifle with 26-in. barrel, Savage model 116 Shot muzzle veloCity at full and reduCed ProPellant Case 1 1a 2* loadingS Lx, Calculated 24.5 25.5 21.6. Lead Steel Vm, Specified 2,400 2,400 2,700 Shot Shot Ro, Calculated 2,000 1,920 2,480 Lb, in. 20 20 Lx, in. 6.9 7 Px, Calculated /Specified 28,285/N.S. 27,200/N.S. 35,100/37,400 Wb, grains 547 373 Pm, Calculated 26,665 27,000 27,000 Wp, grains [6] 25 11.0 Vx, Calculated 2,274 2,261 2,492 Px, psi 8,500* 3,668 PBR, Calculated 27,900 26,700 35,300 Pm, psi 2,920 1,284 Wp, Specified 50.1 51.0 51.0 Vx, ft/s 918 735 Wb, Specified 180 180 150 Vm, ft/s 1,383 1,102 * See Ref. [8]; N.S. = not specified * 8,500 psi is the approximate maximum bar- Cases (1A) and (2) in accordance with Equations (5),(6),(8) and (10) rel pressure measured by the so-called “lead Case (1) in accordance with base straight line ln–ln plot of Figure 1 cup method” wherein the degree of deforma- tion of a lead cup, exposed to barrel pressure, is used as a measure of the peak pressure (see Table 2. Summary of available and CalCulated data Ref. [5]. for 0.44 magnum handgun with 4-in. barrel Smith and weSSon model m29 sure and velocity at the muzzle, and Case 1 1a 2 2a 3 3a properties of the propellant, such as propellant burn rate. These variables Lx, Calculated 3.0 2.0 3.0 2.0 2.5 2.0 are determinable from the equations Vm, Specified 926 926 853 853 1,203 1,203 derived in the box on p. 46. Ro, Calculated 1,628 2,443 1,791 2,690 3714 4,642 Propellant burn rate (PBR), as de- termined from these equations, also Px, Calculated 10,718 16,076 11,789 17,700 24,440 30,546 shows the relationship between burn Pm, Calculated 8,038 8,038 8,842 8,842 15,273 15,273 rate and propellant weight (Wp), ve- Vx , Calculated 718 714 652 648 857 852 locity at the point of propellant burn- out (Vx) and barrel length at the point PBR, Calculated 7,180 10,200 7,172 10,692 19,540 28,200 of burnout (Lx), as determined from an Wp, Specified 5.0 5.0 5.5 5.5 9.5 9.5 analysis of firearm performance for a Wb, Specified 180 180 240 240 240 240 number of different firearms having known values of propellant weight, Cases (1A), (2A) and (3A) in accordance with Equations (5), (6), (8) and (10). bullet weight (Wb), muzzle velocity Cases (1), (2) and (3) in accordance with base straight line ln–ln plot of Figure (1). (Vm) and barrel dimensions (see Tables 1 and 2). These data have shown that aforce on the tube-surface fouling ma- with a reduced loading of propel- straight line relationship exists whenterials can be predicted and the fol- lant. An approximate value of K the natural logarithm of pressure atlowing equation is applicable: is 4, based on 1/16-in.-dia. steel propellant burnout (Px) is plotted as shot at 1,100 ft/s, a 1/16-in. slag a function of the natural logarithm ( )(Wshot ⋅ Vi − Vf ⋅ Vi + Vf ) = K ⋅W ⋅V s s 2 ⋅ As layer, and a 2-in.-dia. steam jet at of the burn rate (Figure 1). The same 2 ⋅ g ⋅ Ls g 1,200 ft/s relationship has been demonstrated Ws = Steam density, lb/ft3 by other investigators [3]. This would (1) Vs = Sonic velocity of steam, ft/s indicate that the propellants used forWhere: Ls = Thickness of slag layer, ft all of the cases investigated had com-Wshot = Individual steel shot weight, lb As = Cross-sectional area of steam parable burn rates. Vi = Velocity of shot at slag layer, ft/s jet, ft2 The linear relationship of ln Px ver- Vf = Velocity of shot at tube wall, ft/s, g = Acceleration of gravity, ft/s2 sus ln PBR has been shown to be of and should be zero Note that the data required to com- great practical importance in calcu- K = A multiplication factor, experi- pletely define shot blasting perfor- lating unknown performance charac- mentally determined or calcu- mance and mechanical design include teristics, when the only available data lated, so as not to cause tube such variables as: muzzle velocity, for calculation purposes, to determine damage, would be based on a full recoil force, peak barrel pressure, values of Pm, Px, Vm, Vx, Lx and PBR, loading of shot in combination velocity at propellant burnout, pres- consists of Wp,Wb, Db, Lb, and Px for at ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com July 2009 45
    • Performance calculations The pressure in the shot blasting barrel can be calculated from Wb dV Wb dV Equation (3), which was derived assuming ideal gas behavior, Pb ⋅ Ab = ⋅ = ⋅V ⋅ and from data obtained from Ref. [3]. g dT g dL  (7) Where V  W  Pb = Average barrel pressure, psi Pbarrel =  2  ⋅  1  ⋅ Pmax  V  W   1  2 Wb = Total shot weight, lb  (3) g = Acceleration of gravity = 32.2 ft/s2 Where V = Bullet or shot velocity, ft/s V2 =  he volume (in.3) of a fully enclosed experimental ves- T T = Time, s sel in which a sample of a propellant is burned, in this Ab = Inside cross-sectional area of barrel, in.2 case a sample of nitrocellulose The following equations are the result of integrating Equation (7) V1 =  he volume (in.3) of the cavity formed from the barrel T between appropriate limits as follows: In the zone of ascending breech to a point in the barrel where internal pressure pressure, V varies from 0 to Vx as L varies from 0 to Lx; In the is at a maximum due to complete burning of the pro- zone of decreasing pressure, V varies from Vx to Vm as L varies pellant used from Lx to Lb. W1 = The weight of propellant used, grains W2 =  he weight of propellant charged and burned in the T (P x + 0) = 0.0000339 ⋅ Wb ⋅ Vx2 enclosed experimental vessel, grains Pbarrel = Pressure in barrel corresponding to W1 and V1, psi 2 Lx ⋅ Db 2  (8) Pmax =  he maximum pressure developed in the experimental T Where apparatus based on complete burning of the sample Wb = Total shot weight, grains charged, psi Vx =  elocity at point of maximum barrel pressure at propel- V The maximum pressure so developed is 57,000 psi and should lant burnout, ft/s be practically the same for any nitrocellulose-based propellant Px = Maximum barrel pressure, psi because the gas generated and temperature developed is primar- Lx = Length of bullet or shot travel corresponding to Vx, in. ily a function of the chemical composition of the propellant and Db = Barrel inside dia., in. does not vary much, unless the overall propellant composition is considerably different from that of nitro-cellulose. (P x + Pm ) = 0.0000339 ⋅ Wb ⋅ Vm − Vx2 2 ( ) The following equations are the result of substituting appropriate variables in Equation (3): 2 Db ⋅ ( Lb − Lx ) 2  (9) Where 1, 245 ⋅ Wp Pm = Pressure at muzzle, psi Px = Db ⋅ Lx 2 Vm = Muzzle velocity, ft/s  (4) Lb = Barrel length, in. Where: Dividing (8) by (9) gives, Px =  aximum barrel pressure at the point of complete pro- M pellant burnout, psi Px = Vx2 ⋅ (L b − Lx ) Wp = Weight of propellant used, grains Db = Inside diameter of the barrel, in. (P x + Pm ) (V2 m −V x 2  ) Lx (10) Lx =  ength of barrel from the breech to the point of maxi- L The propellant burn rate (PBR, grains/s) can be calculated from mum pressure, in. Equation (11) 1, 245 ⋅ Wp 6 ⋅ Wp ⋅ Vx Pm = PBR = D ⋅ Lb 2 Lx b  (5)  (11) Where: As noted previously, PBR is a function of Px. The equations cor- Lb = Total barrel length, in. relating these variables are: Pm = Pressure at the muzzle, psi PBR = 1.082 ⋅ ( Px − 8,103) + 4, 447 Dividing Equation (4) by Equation (5) results in the following:  (12) R = 0.785 ⋅ P ⋅ D 2 Px Lb O x  b (13) = Where Pm Lx  (6) Ro =  ecoil force (lb) based on maximum barrel pressure, R Equation (7) is based on the well known relationship between without considering effects of shot-barrel friction. The force and acceleration: recoil force would be needed for the mechanical design of the shot-blasting device. ❑ least one set of data. (See box, “Perfor- pared favorably with the specified val- Sd = Barrel design stress, psi mance Calculations,” Equations (5), (6), ues, as did the calculated barrel wall The propellant burn rates for rifles (8) (10) and (11), Table 3 and Ref. [5]). thickness, as given by Equation (2). and hand guns are similar to those Unfortunately, the barrel length, Pmax ⋅ Dbo for shotguns (Tables 1 and 2), but the Lb, of Table 3 was not specified, so t= calculated data for these tables are an average barrel length of 20 in. has (2 ⋅ Sd + Pmax ) (2) based on Wp, Wb, Lb, Db and Vm, in been assumed. Where: as much as peak barrel pressure data The calculated data of Table 3, t = Barrel thickness, in. were unavailable. namely, the muzzle velocity, Vm, and Pmax = Maximum pressure, psi As regards the data of Tables 1 and maximum barrel pressure, Px, com- Dbo = Barrel outside dia., in. 2, there is some uncertainty, as to the 46 Chemical Engineering www.che.com July 200916_CHE_070109_GSO.indd 46 6/29/09 10:51:44 AM
    • Engineering Practice FIGURE 2. General Arrangement of Shot Blasting Equipment ArrAngement of equipment A 14 2 2 8 13 4 1 13 11 9 3 10 13 9 10 12 5 6 7 9 A View A–A Flexible! Powerful! A general arrangement of the proposed shot blasting equipment is shown here. Equip- ment items are identified by number as follows: ADAPTABLE! 1. A steel shot propulsion device consisting 7. An ammunition magazine of a semi-automatic 12-gauge shotgun 8. A recoil plate 2. A stepping motor to provide for linear 9. Tension springs to prevent rotation of movement of the gun barrel in a verti- the of the barrel CONTROLLING cal, y direction 10. Barrel 3. A stepping motor to provide for linear movement of the gun barrel in the hori- 11. Barrel pivot plate COOLING zontal, x direction 12. Cooling air ports to prevent barrel overheating 4. A hydraulic shock absorber to dissipate the recoil force generated on firing 13. Universal joints to allow for free barrel DISCHARGING movement in the x and y directions 5. A firing solenoid 6. A trigger bracket activated by the firing 14. Coal fired heater or boiler enclosure wall DRYING solenoid The entire system consisting of the above components is to be sequentially controlled by FEEDING means of an appropriate programmable control device. ❑accuracy of peak barrel pressures if the appropriate data of Tables 1 and FILLINGcalculated using data obtained from 2, as discussed above, are to be usedTable 1, Case (1), and Table 2, Cases for peak barrel pressure or barrel wall HOOVERING(1), (2), and (3). These results were thickness determination, a reasonableused to obtain the slope of the straight factor of safety 1.25 or more must beline plot of ln PBR versus ln Px, which applied to the values of Px. MIXINGwere used in extrapolating the avail- Similar precautions must likewiseable data of Figure 1. The uncertainty be taken in evaluating maximum CONVEYINGresults from the lack of maximum allowable barrel design stresses. Abarrel pressure data, so that a com- multiplication factor of 1/2 applied toparison could not be made between the ultimate tensile strength, or 2/3 WEIGHINGcalculated and measured values of Px. applied to the yield strength of theThe data of Table 1, Cases (1A) and (2) barrel material would not appear toand Table 2, Cases (1A), (2A) and (3A) be unreasonable. EMDE Industrie-Technik GmbHbased on Equations (5), (6), (8) and Koppelheck D-56377 Nassau(10), are considered much more accu- Basis for the equations Telephone +49 (0) 26 04-97 03-0rate, good agreement having been ob- The objective of the calculation proce- www.emde.de info@emde.detained with data from the References. dure described above is the numeri-A certain amount of caution mustnevertheless be exercised, when these cal evaluation of all pertinent firearm operating variables. Four operating solids in motiondata are to be used for mechanical variables are used as a basis for thedesign purposes, such as selecting an design: Wb,Wp, Lb and Db.appropriate barrel material or deter- Note that there are a total of 11mining barrel wall thicknesses. Thus, variables of interest, as regards to Circle 45 on p. 54 or go to adlinks.che.com/23016-45 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com July 2009 47
    • Engineering Practice Table 4. Coverage of Heating Surface Elements tem, however, is the need for position- by Steel and Lead Shot ing the blasting gun at an angle, both Shot Material Steel Lead horizontally and vertically, at which a Shot diameter, in. 1/16 1/16 gun must be fired in order to achieve full coverage of the available heating Distance, muzzle to target, ft. 50 20 surfaces. This is to be accomplished Shot muzzle velocity, ft/s 1,200 1,200 automatically, at each blasting sta- Shot velocity at target, ft/s 1,170 1,165 tion, by means of two linear-step Shot spacing at target impact, in. 0.56 0.28 movement motors, one for horizontal movement in the x direction and one Shot pattern diameter, ft. 2.0 1.0 for vertical movement in the y direc- Shot surroundings Flue-gas Air tion. For the case in point, wherein Temperature of surroundings, °F 2,000 60 each firing covers an area of about 2 ft in dia., there would be a 4  4 fir-the performance of the shot-blasting lutely necessary. The preferred calcu- ing grid comprising a total of 16 firingequipment; Vm, Vx,, Px, Pm, Lx, Db, Lb, lation method is one wherein at least positions having 16 (x, y) coordinatesWp, Wb, PBR, and Ro. The unknown two base data points, based on the and covering a total area of 64 ft2. Ifvariables and known variables must same propellant, are made available, operating experience were to indicatetherefore equal 11. Furthermore, so as to ensure that a proper slope is that all of the firing positions avail-there are a total of seven independent obtained for the log-log plot, thereby able were not necessarily needed, anEquations (4), (6), (8), (10), (11), (13), lending confidence to the calculation appropriate set of coordinates couldand the straight line defined by the and extrapolation of data points lying be chosen as input to the sequencingplot of ln PBR versus ln Px. The total inside and outside of the base points, control device to be provided, and po-number of unknown variables must and for other cases involving a dif- sitioning and firing would only occurnot, of course, exceed the total number ferent set of variables, but using the at the chosen coordinates.  ■of equations if the unknown variables same propellant. Edited by Gerald Ondreyare to be evaluated. At first, the solution does not ap- Data for the design Referencespear feasible since, in some cases, only Performance data used as a design 1. www.handgunsmag.com (Specified data forfive independent defining equations basis for an automated shot blasting Table 2).are available. As seen in Table 1 and system for coal-fired process heater or 2. www.chuckhawks.com (Specified data for2, however, a fifth variable, Vm, is usu- boiler are summarized in Table 4. The Table 1)ally provided in addition to the four calculated data are based on the use 3. Baschung, B., “Inorganic Nanoparticles for Gun Propellants,” Materials Research Soci-above. These data are readily avail- of conventional shotgun ammunition, ety Proceedings, www.mrs.org.able from such sources as hand load- loaded with steel instead of lead shot. 4. Cross, Alan, Coal Fired Process Heaters,ing books and magazines, and allow Use of steel instead of lead shot is pre- http://www.uspto.gov/patft/.for full evaluation of all pertinent op- ferred in this application in order to 5. www.chuckhawks.com/shotshell-reloading- data.htmlerating variables, including PBR, Px, avoid potential heating-surface dam- 6. Propellant is 800 –X ; See Ref. [5].and Ro, as well as the straight line re- age and lead emissions that might 7. Private communication, Barth, Doug (Actionlationship between ln PBR and ln Px. otherwise be carried into the atmo- Automation and Controls, P.O. Box 2540, 10 Larsen Way, North Attleboro, MA 02763; The value of Px obtained from Fig- sphere by the fluegas effluent. Email: dougb@actionauto.com; URL: www.ure 1, as a function of PBR, is some- The data for lead shot are based on actionauto.com),what different than would be predicted field observations using conventional 8. RSI – Pressure Trace, www.shootingsoft- ware.com/pressure.htmusing the equations derived in this ar- ammunition. The calculation methodsticle. However, the slope of the original used to determine performance with Authorstraight line relationship between ln this ammunition were found to very Alan Cross (73-34 244thPBR and ln Px, is used in conjunction nearly duplicate the field observed St., Little Neck, NY, 11362; E-Mail: Across8588@aol.com)with the equations presented here, the shot pattern size. The same methods is a B.S.Ch.E. graduate fromfour data points defined above, and at were therefore used to calculate per- The City College of N.Y. and an M.S.Ch,E. graduate fromleast one additional data point provid- formance data for steel shot, which is the Polytechnic Universitying for a value for Px. With these data required to pass through hot fluegas of N.Y., and has had more than 30 years of fired heaterand a straight line constructed paral- instead of relatively cool air sur- design experience with ABBlel to the straight line obtained using roundings. Lummus Heat Transfer (now CB&I Lummus Technology).the data of Tables 1 and 2, it is pos- Modified conventional semi-auto- Accomplishments include authorship of direct- fired heater patents and patents pending, relat-sible to obtain performance data for matic 12-gauge shot guns should be ing to the design of coal fired heaters, and com-any combination of the four variables used in an automated blasting system pact, low-cost fired heaters capable of processing low- and high-boiling-point petroleum-based flu-referred to above. in much the same way as soot-blowers ids, using design strategies that reduce fouling However, the point-slope calculation are presently used. A major differ- of internal tube surfaces due to coke deposition, and the design of direct-fired heaters using par-method should be used only if abso- ence, in the case of the blasting sys- ticulate matter as a heat transfer medium.48 Chemical Engineering www.che.com July 2009
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    • Advertisers’ Index Advertiser Page number Advertiser Page number Advertiser Page number Advertiser Page number Phone number Reader Service # Phone number Reader Service # Phone number Reader Service # Phone number Reader Service # A Box 4 U 1 Gea Westfalia Separator Mb Industries 32D-2 Sri Consulting 33 877-522-6948 Process Gmbh 11 337-334-1900 adlinks.che.com/23016-28 adlinks.che.com/23016-04 49 2522 77-0 adlinks.che.com/23016-31 Sri Consulting 27• Aerzener Maschinenfabrik adlinks.che.com/23016-13 Mustang Engineering 24 adlinks.che.com/23016-24 GmbH 32I-5 • Gea Wiegand Gmbh 32I-8 713-215-8000 49 51 54/8 10 49 7243 705-0 Sri Consulting 30 adlinks.che.com/23016-22 adlinks.che.com/23016-26 adlinks.che.com/23016-37 adlinks.che.com/23016-40 • Haver & Boecker 32I-11 Paratherm Corp THIRD Swagelok 32I-3 Aggreko, Llc 16 49 2522 30-271 COVER adlinks.che.com/23016-35 866-310-0870 adlinks.che.com/23016-43 800-222-3611 adlinks.che.com/23016-16 Tiger Tower Services 21 adlinks.che.com/23016-02 Ametek 26 Heinkel Usa 37 281-951-2500 302-456-4431 856-467-3399 • Rembe GmbH Safety adlinks.che.com/23016-19 adlinks.che.com/23016-23 adlinks.che.com/23016-44 + Control 32D-3, 32I-10 49 (0) 29 61 74 05-0 Trustchem Co., Ltd 32I-10 Hoerbiger Kompres- Azbil North America, Inc. 15 adlinks.che.com/23016-32 86-25-84729801 888-262-4639 sortechnik Holding 18-19 adlinks.che.com/23016-42 adlinks.che.com/23016-15 adlinks.che.com/23016-18 Robinson Fans 9 Honeywell SECOND 724-452-6121 Watts Regulator 39 Berndorf Band adlinks.che.com/23016-29 Process Solutions COVER adlinks.che.com/23016-11 GmbH & Co 32I-9 1-877-466-3993 WEFTEC 32 43 2672-800-0 * Samson Ag 6 adlinks.che.com/23016-01 adlinks.che.com/23016-27 adlinks.che.com/23016-41 adlinks.che.com/23016-07 International Exposition Co 10• Buss-Sms-Canzler GmbH 32I-6 Silverson FOURTH Western States 203-221-9232 49 60 33-85 - 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    • New Product Information July 2009 JustFAXit! or go to www.che.com/adlinks Fill out the form and circle or write in the number(s) Go on the Web and fill out the ✁ below, cut it out, and fax it to 800-571-7730. online reader service card.Name TitleCompanyAddressCity State/Province Zip/Postal CodeCountry Telephone FaxEmail | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |FREE PRODUCT INFO 14 Engineering, Design & Construc- 29 10 to 49 Employees 47 Pollution Control Equipment(please answer all the questions) tion Firms 30 50 to 99 Employees & Systems 15 Engineering/Environmental Ser- 31 100 to 249 Employees 48 PumpsYOUR INDUSTRY vices 32 250 to 499 Employees 49 Safety Equipment & Services01 Food & Beverages 16 Equipment Manufacturer 33 500 to 999 Employees 50 Size Reduction & Agglomeration02 Wood, Pulp & Paper 17 Energy incl. Co-generation 34 1,000 or more Employees Equipment03 Inorganic Chemicals 18 Other———————————— YOU RECOMMEND, 51 Solids Handling Equipment04 Plastics, Synthetic Resins JOB FUNCTION SPECIFY, PURCHASE 52 Tanks, Vessels, Reactors05 Drugs & Cosmetics (please circle all that apply) 20 Corporate Management 53 Valves06 Soaps & Detergents 40 Drying Equipment 21 Plant Operations incl. Mainte- 54 Engineering Computers/Soft-07 Paints & Allied Products 41 Filtration/Separation Equipment nance ware/Peripherals08 Organic Chemicals 42 Heat Transfer/Energy Conserva- 22 Engineering 55 Water Treatment Chemicals09 Agricultural Chemicals tion Equipment 23 Research & Development & Equipment10 Petroleum Refining, 43 Instrumentation & Control Sys- 24 Safety & Environmental 56 Hazardous Waste Management Coal Products tems 26 Other———————————— Systems11 Rubber & Misc. Plastics 44 Mixing, Blending Equipment 57 Chemicals & Raw Materials12 Stone, Clay, Glass, Ceramics EMPLOYEE SIZE 45 Motors, Motor Controls 58 Materials of Construction13 Metallurgical & Metal Products 28 Less than 10 Employees 46 Piping, Tubing, Fittings 59 Compressors1 16 31 46 61 76 91 106 121 136 151 166 181 196 211 226 241 256 271 286 301 316 331 346 361 376 391 406 421 436 451 466 481 496 511 526 541 556 571 5862 17 32 47 62 77 92 107 122 137 152 167 182 197 212 227 242 257 272 287 302 317 332 347 362 377 392 407 422 437 452 467 482 497 512 527 542 557 572 5873 18 33 48 63 78 93 108 123 138 153 168 183 198 213 228 243 258 273 288 303 318 333 348 363 378 393 408 423 438 453 468 483 498 513 528 543 558 573 5884 19 34 49 64 79 94 109 124 139 154 169 184 199 214 229 244 259 274 289 304 319 334 349 364 379 394 409 424 439 454 469 484 499 514 529 544 559 574 5895 20 35 50 65 80 95 110 125 140 155 170 185 200 215 230 245 260 275 290 305 320 335 350 365 380 395 410 425 440 455 470 485 500 515 530 545 560 575 5906 21 36 51 66 81 96 111 126 141 156 171 186 201 216 231 246 261 276 291 306 321 336 351 366 381 396 411 426 441 456 471 486 501 516 531 546 561 576 5917 22 37 52 67 82 97 112 127 142 157 172 187 202 217 232 247 262 277 292 307 322 337 352 367 382 397 412 427 442 457 472 487 502 517 532 547 562 577 5928 23 38 53 68 83 98 113 128 143 158 173 188 203 218 233 248 263 278 293 308 323 338 353 368 383 398 413 428 443 458 473 488 503 518 533 548 563 578 5939 24 39 54 69 84 99 114 129 144 159 174 189 204 219 234 249 264 279 294 309 324 339 354 369 384 399 414 429 444 459 474 489 504 519 534 549 564 579 59410 25 40 55 70 85 100 115 130 145 160 175 190 205 220 235 250 265 280 295 310 325 340 355 370 385 400 415 430 445 460 475 490 505 520 535 550 565 580 59511 26 41 56 71 86 101 116 131 146 161 176 191 206 221 236 251 266 281 296 311 326 341 356 371 386 401 416 431 446 461 476 491 506 521 536 551 566 581 59612 27 42 57 72 87 102 117 132 147 162 177 192 207 222 237 252 267 282 297 312 327 342 357 372 387 402 417 432 447 462 477 492 507 522 537 552 567 582 59713 28 43 58 73 88 103 118 133 148 163 178 193 208 223 238 253 268 283 298 313 328 343 358 373 388 403 418 433 448 463 478 493 508 523 538 553 568 583 59814 29 44 59 74 89 104 119 134 149 164 179 194 209 224 239 254 269 284 299 314 329 344 359 374 389 404 419 434 449 464 479 494 509 524 539 554 569 584 59915 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 210 225 240 255 270 285 300 315 330 345 360 375 390 405 420 435 450 465 480 495 510 525 540 555 570 585 600If number(s) do not appear above,please write them here and circle: Fax this page back to 800-571-7730 Advertising Sales RepresentativesMike O’Rourke, Publisher North America George Gortz, Helene Hicks,Chemical Engineering Jason Bullock, District Sales Manager Inside Sales Manager5 Lynbrook Lane, Doylestown, PA 18901 District Sales Manager Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering;Tel: 215-340-1366; Fax: 609-482-4146 Chemical Engineering 2612 Edgerton Road 110 William St., New York, NY 10038-3901E-mail: morourke@che.com 8325 Broadway, Ste. 202/PMB 261 University Heights, OH 44118 Tel: 212-621-4958; Fax: 212-621-4976;Alabama, Canada, Connecticut, Delaware, Pearland, TX 77581 Tel: 216-932-2700; Fax 216-932-5810 E-mail: hhicks@che.comFlorida, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Tel: 281-485-4077; Fax: 281-485-1285 E-mail: ggortz@che.com Product Showcase, Literature Reviews,New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York (minus E-mail: jbullock@che.com; Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Classified Display AdvertisingWestern New York), North & South Carolina, Arkansas, Arizona, California, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Western Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Mississippi,Pennsylvania (minus Western Pennsylvania), Colorado, Georgia, Kansas, New York, Western Pennsylvania, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico,Rhode Island, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, Louisiana, Missouri, Nevada, Wisconsin North & South Dakota, Oregon, Utah,Washington, D.C., West Virginia, Latin America Oklahoma, Texas Washington, WyomingInternational Dipali Dhar Ferruccio Silvera Rudy Teng Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering Chemical EngineeringPetra Trautes 110 William St., New York, NY 10038-3901 Silvera Pubblicita Professional Publication AgencyChemical Engineering Tel: 212-621-4919; Fax: 212-621-4990 Viale Monza, 24 Milano 20127, Italy 6F-3 # 103 Fen Liau St NeihuZeilweg 44 E-mail: ddhar@chemweek.com Tel: 39-02-284-6716; Fax: Taipei 114 TaiwanD-60439 Frankfurt am Main India 39-02-289-3849 Tel: 886-2-2799-3110 ext 330;Germany E-mail: ferruccio@silvera.it/www. 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    • Economic Indicators Business News to supply a hydrogen plant in the Ukraine Indian company Gwalior Chemical Indus-Plant Watch based on Caloric’s steam-methane-reform- tries Ltd. for €82.4-million, including debt.ThePET resin capacity expands ing technology.The H2 production plant will transaction is subject to formal approval byin Saudi Arabia be shipped by mid 2010 and will produce Gwalior’s shareholders and clearance by theJune 15, 2009 — Uhde Inventa-Fischer 2,000 Nm3/h of H2. relevant antitrust authorities. Lanxess will alsoGmbH (Berlin, Germany) has entered into acquire the business and production assetsa contract with the Saudi Basic Industries Hemlock Semiconductor Group brings of Chinese-based Jiangsu Polyols ChemicalCorp. (SABIC) to provide the technology new polysilicon capacity online Co. Parties have agreed not to disclose thelicense and the basic engineering for the May 28, 2009 —The Hemlock Semiconduc- purchase price. Closings of both transac-second PET (polyethylene terephthalate) tor Group (Hemlock, Mich.), which includes tions are expected in the 3rd Q of 2009.resin expansion of its manufacturing affiliate, two Dow Corning joint ventures, has com-Arabian Industrial Fiber Co. (Ibn Rushd) at menced operation of a new 8,500 m.t./yr Strategic partnership for MEMS-its site in Yanbu, Saudi Arabia.The plant will polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) produc- based productshave a capacity of 420,000 ton/yr. tion facility at its Hemlock, Mich. location.This June 8, 2009 — Endress+Hauser Flowtec AG new capacity represents the completion of (Reinach, Switzerland) and Integrated Sens-BASF to close Styropor plant the first phase of a $1-billion expansion at ing Systems, Inc. (ISSYS; Ann Arbor, Mich.)at Tarragona the site. The second phase of expansion will have announced a strategic partnership.June 12, 2009 — BASF SE (Ludwigshafen, come online in 2010 and, together with the The objective of this agreement is to collab-Germany) will shut down the Styropor plant first phase, will increase the total capacity to oratively develop and commercialize ad-(EPS, expandable polystyrene) at its site in approximately 36,000 m.t./yr. Later this year, vanced sensing products based on ISSYS’Tarragona, Spain.The closure is scheduled Hemlock Semiconductor Group will also be- MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems)for August 2009.The Styropor plant has gin construction of a new polysilicon manu- technology.Targeted markets include bothbecome uneconomical due to its relatively facturing facility in Clarksville,Tenn., which is the traditional industrial process industriessmall production capacity, which has re- scheduled to be operational in 2012. as well as emerging process and originalsulted in an unfavorable cost-structure. equipment manufacturing applications. Wacker Schott Solar expands silicon-Uhde wins major polymer crystal production capacity in Jena DSM acquires Biopract to entercontract in Qatar May 27, 2009 — Wacker Schott Solar GmbH, biogas marketJune 8, 2009 — Qatar Petrochemical Co. a joint venture between Wacker Chemie June 3, 2009 — Royal DSM N.V. (Heerlen,(QAPCO), a subsidiary of Industries Qatar AG (Munich) and Schott Solar AG (Alzenau, Netherlands) has acquired privately heldand Total Petrochemicals of France has both Germany), has commissioned a new Biopract GmbH (Berlin, Germany).The acqui-awarded Uhde GmbH (Dortmund, Germa- building in Jena, Germany, which will be sition will serve as an entry point for DSM intony) a contract to build a 300,000 metric ton used to produce solar-grade silicon crystals. the growing biogas market.The acquisitionper year (m.t./yr) low-density polyethylene Overall capacity should reach 275 MW by has been finalized and both parties agreed(LDPE) plant within the scope of its LDPE-3 the end of this year.The company intends to not to disclose financial details.project.The plant will be based on the Lupo- gradually expand its manufacturing capac-tech T technology licensed by LyondellBa- ity to 1 GW by 2012. Investments of over €300 AkzoNobel to sell stake insell.The plant, planned to be completed in million are planned for the Jena site. Pakistan PTA activitiesDecember 2011, will be integrated into the May 29, 2009 — AkzoNobel (Amsterdam)polyethylene production area inside QAP- Mergers and acquisitions has agreed to divest its 75% stake in theCO’s petrochemical complex in Mesaieed. Holly Corp. acquires pure terephthalic acid (PTA) activities of Sunoco Tulsa refinery its Chemicals Pakistan business to KoreanEndress+Hauser expands its June 9, 2009 — Holly Corp. (Dallas,Tex.) has company KP Chemical Corp. (KPC). Ak-production in Indiana completed its $65-million acquisition of the zoNobel acquired the holding in PakistanJune 4, 2009 — Endress+Hauser (Reinach, Sunoco Tulsa, Okla. refinery.The Tulsa facility, PTA Ltd. in 2008 as part of the acquisition ofSwitzerland) inaugurated a new production which will now operate as Holly Refining & ICI.The transaction is expected to be com-facility at its Greenwood, Ind. site.The more Marketing – Tulsa, LLC, a wholly owned sub- pleted in the 4th Q of 2009. Financial detailsthan $18-million investment brings a facility sidiary of Holly Corp., is a major producer of were not disclosed.dedicated to manufacturing and calibrat- base stocks, process and specialty oils, anding electromagnetic flowmeters.The facility wax.The refinery is capable of processing Mitsubishi Rayon completes itshouses the largest calibration rig in the U.S. about 85,000 bbl/d of oil. acquisition of Lucite Internationalfor electromagnetic flowmeters as well as May 29, 2009 — Mitsubishi Rayon Co., (To-the most accurate calibration laboratory for Lanxess acquires two kyo) has completed its purchase of LuciteCoriolis meters, according to the company. companies in Asia International Group Ltd. of the U.K.The total June 8, 2009 — Lanxess AG (Leverkusen, Ger- acquisition cost was approximately $1.6 bil-A new hydrogen plant to be many) is underpinning its longterm growth lion. Mitsubishi Rayon will become the solebuilt in the Ukraine strategy with two acquisitions in Asia. Lanxess possessor of the world’s three main tech-May 29, 2009 — Caloric Anlagenbau GmbH subsidiary, Lanxess India Private Ltd., will ac- nologies for MMA monomer.  ■(Gräfelfing, Germany) has won a contract quire the chemical businesses and assets of Dorothy Lozowski For additional news as it develops, please visit www.che.comJuly 2009; VOL. 116; NO. 7Chemical Engineering copyright @ 2009 (ISSN 0009-2460) is published monthly, with an additional issue in October, by Access Intelligence, LLC, 4 Choke Cherry Road,2nd Floor, Rockville, MD, 20850. Chemical Engineering Executive, Editorial, Advertising and Publication Offices: 110 William Street, 11th Floor, New York, NY 10038; Phone:212-621-4674, Fax: 212-621-4694. Subscription rates: $59.00 U.S. and U.S. possessions, Canada, Mexico; $179 International. $20.00 Back issue & Single copy sales. Periodicalspostage paid at Rockville, MD and additional mailing offices. Postmaster: Send address changes to Chemical Engineering, Fulfillment Manager, P.O. Box 3588, Northbrook,IL 60065-3588. Phone: 847-564-9290, Fax: 847-564-9453, email: clientservices@che.com. Change of address, two to eight week notice requested. For information regardingarticle reprints, please contact Angie Van Gorder at angie.vangorder@theygsgroup.com. Contents may not be reproduced in any form without written permission. Publica-tions Mail Product Sales Agreement No. PM40063731. Return undeliverable Canadian Addresses to: P.O. Box 1632, Windsor, ON N9A7C9.For more Economic Indicators, See Next Page Chemical Engineering www.che.com July 2009 55
    • Economic Indicators 2009 2008 dOwnLOAd ThE cepci TwO wEEkS SOOnER AT www.che.com/pciCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLANT COST INDEX (CEPCI) 650 (1957-59 = 100) April 09 Mar. 09 April 08 Prelim. Final Final Annual Index:CE Index 511.8 522.6 560.9 2001 = 394.3 600Equipment 600.5 616.6 676.7 Heat exchangers & tanks 534.3 563.2 660.0 2002 = 395.6 Process machinery 585.0 597.3 628.0 2003 = 402.0 550 Pipe, valves & fittings 752.5 761.0 804.7 2004 = 444.2 Process instruments 390.1 385.1 437.7 Pumps & compressors 897.5 898.0 860.2 2005 = 468.2 500 Electrical equipment 460.2 459.6 451.6 2006 = 499.6 Structural supports & misc 609.0 636.1 720.4 450Construction labor 326.9 325.7 317.8 2007 = 525.4Buildings 488.0 494.9 492.4 2008 = 575.4Engineering & supervision 348.5 349.0 354.3 400 J F M A M J J A S O N DStarting with the April 2007 Final numbers, several of the data series for labor and compressors have beenconverted to accommodate series IDs that were discontinued by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics CURRENT BUSINESS INDICATORS LATEST PREVIOUS YEAR AGO CPI output index (2000 = 100) May. 09 = 89.3 Apr. 09 = 89.7 Mar. 09 = 89.6 May. 08 = 106.7 CPI value of output, $ billions Apr. 09 = 1,392.2 Mar. 09 = 1,394.7 Feb. 09 = 1,430.2 Apr. 08 = 1,953.0 CPI operating rate, % May. 09 = 65.2 Apr. 09 = 65.4 Mar. 09 = 65.3 May. 08 = 78.3 Producer prices, industrial chemicals (1982 = 100) May. 09 = 218.8 Apr. 09 = 218.3 Mar. 09 = 224.0 May. 08 = 285.6 Industrial Production in Manufacturing (2002=100)* May. 09 = 94.4 Apr. 09 = 95.4 Mar. 09 = 96.0 May. 08 = 111.5 Hourly earnings index, chemical & allied products (1992 = 100) May. 09 = 146.6 Apr. 09 = 146.1 Mar. 09 = 145.5 May. 08 = 141.1 Productivity index, chemicals & allied products (1992 = 100) May. 09 = 131.0 Apr. 09 = 129.7 Mar. 09 = 128.0 May. 08 = 133.7 CPI OUTPUT INDEX (2000 = 100) CPI OUTPUT VALUE ($ BILLIONS) CPI OPERATING RATE (%) 120 2500 85 110 2200 80 100 1900 75 90 1600 70 80 1300 65 70 1000 60 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D*Due to discontinuance, the Index of Industrial Activity has been replaced by the Industrial Production in Manufacturing index from the U.S. Federal Reserve Board.Current business indicators provided by Global insight, Inc., Lexington, Mass.MARSHALL & SWIFT EQUIPMENT COST INDEX CURRENT TRENDS S 1500 ignificant month-over- (1926 = 100) 1st Q 4th Q 3rd Q 2nd Q 1st Q 2009 2008 2008 2008 2008 1485 month declines returnedM & S IndEx 1,477.7 1,487.2 1,469.5 1,431.7 1,408.6 in April equipment prices, 1470Process industries, average 1,553.2 1,561.2 1,538.2 1,491.7 1,463.2 but preliminary estimates Cement 1,551.1 1,553.4 1,522.2 1,473.5 1,448.1 1455 for the May CEPCI (out Chemicals 1,523.8 1,533.7 1,511.5 1,464.8 1,438.5 1440 next month) show that Clay products 1,526.4 1,524.4 1,495.6 1,453.5 1,429.1 capital equipment prices Glass 1,439.8 1,448.1 1,432.4 1,385.1 1,359.7 Paint 1,554.1 1,564.2 1,543.9 1,494.8 1,467.6 1425 declined only slightly Paper 1,453.3 1,462.9 1,443.1 1,400.0 1,377.7 1410 from those of the previous Petroleum products 1,663.6 1,668.9 1,644.4 1,594.4 1,555.8 month. Meanwhile, after 1395 Rubber 1,600.3 1,604.6 1,575.6 1,537.5 1,512.3 edging up slightly in April,Related industries 1380 the operating rate was Electrical power 1,425.0 1,454.2 1,454.4 1,412.8 1,380.4 down by 0.2% in May, Mining, milling 1365 1,573.0 1,567.5 1,546.2 1,498.9 1,473.3 hovering around what Refrigeration 1,807.3 1,818.1 1,793.1 1,741.4 1,711.9 1350 many consider to be the Steam power 1,509.3 1,521.9 1,499.3 1,453.2 1,426.8 1335 bottom of the recent over- Annual Index: capacity correction. 2001 = 1,093.9 2003 = 1,123.6 2005 = 1,244.5 2007 = 1,373.3 1320 Visit www.che.com/pci 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 2002 = 1,104.2 2004 = 1,178.5 2006 = 1,302.3 2008 = 1,449.3 Quarter for more on capital cost trends and methodology. ■56 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com July 2009
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