• Human variability and complexity
• Resources limited ,opportunity cost
• Management GET things done( achieve the
organizational aims using its resources )
HR management: Is to plan for, attract, develop and retain EFFECTIVE
• prepare the suitable
Do you find any relation between
the problems on the board and the
HR functions we just discussed??
Is the process of locating and attracting QUALIFIED
applicants for jobs open in the organization.
Planning the human resources needed
• Developing a systemic comprehensive strategy
I. Understand the current employee needs
II. Predicting future employee needs
– Trend analysis
Uses previous employment figures to predict future needs
– Ratio analysis
Ratio of causal factors to the number of employees required
Understanding current employee
• To plan for the future you must understand
•Is to determine by
analysis the basic
elements of the job.
It summarize what
the holder of the job
does and how and
why he or she does
It describe the
person must have to
perform the job
Job description may also involve the job
title, the responsibilities, the working
conditions, place in the hierarchy of the
structure and the evaluation system
• Job title:
• Position in hierarchy (Responsible
to, and Responsible for?):
• Purpose or objective of the job:
• Duties :
• Job conditions (payment, working
time, training offered ,
opportunity of promotion )
Assume that the
Assume that the
Trend analysis Ratio analysis
Planning the work force NEEDS
1. The number of the staff required
Depend on many factors:
The demand for the firms product or surface
(level , pattern, competitors actions)
Productivity level of staff
Business objective (expansion or increased
Predicting labour turnover and absenteeism
2. Level of skills needed (specialized or
Expect a change in al kasr al ainy in
the coming 5 years and its effect
on the workforce needed
•Motivating lower turn over
•No fresh blood
•Gives a false impression about
the importance of seniority
•It create a vacancy some where
•Qualification inventories for
•Personnel replacement charts
•Realistic job preview
•Fresh points of view
•More expensive and time
Needs further training
Personnel replacement charts
• The type of the job
• Persuasive (join the successful team, advertize
the firm “bashta3’al fe haded azz”)
• Appropriate media (a paper on the wall or a
phone call or meeting )
What changes would you suggest
to kasr al ainy recruitment plan??
The best candidate
• Sources: CV, check list, motivational letter
, application form ……etc.
• 67% lying in USA
• Just to limit the candidates for interviewing
No systemic scoring
and compare the
answers to a prepared
answers with scoring
applicants actually done
Ability test Personality test Performance test others
Physical ,mental ,
personality traits as
Participate in the
job activities for
few days while
being assessed by
N.B legal problems
Describe kasr al ainy selection
process ? And what do you suggest
to improve it ??
Full or part time?—temporary or
permanent?, out sourcing?
The universal trend is going toward part timing,
temporary contracts, and outs sourcing.
To the firm:
•Flexible organizational size
•Kind of testing staff before full
To the worker:
•Ideal for certain type of workers
e.g. students, parents
•Allow the employee to combine
more than one job
To the firm:
More staff to manage
Effective communication is harder
(large no. and cant make one meeting
for all employees)
Motivation level may be adversely
To the worker:
Less satisfaction of safety
needs, autonomy need, need to
Inferior work conditions
• Helping newcomer fit smoothly into the job
and the organization
• Give the candidates the information they need
• Formal e.g. collage
• Informal e.g. SSS system
• The information:
the organization is
Purpose +products or
Job routine: whats
required for the
job, how the work
are the immediate
work rules and
Bylaws and rewarding
} adv. Vs. dis.
Design an orientation for the new
house officers in your
Training and development
• In a study on 216 big firms employee
involvement (upgrading workers skills and
knowledge) was the best stratge offering the
highest return over down sizing and TQM
– Employee involvement 19.1 %
– Downsizing 15.4%
– TQM 15%
needs to Enable
them to do their
employees training needs to
help them in improving
their current performance
((performance appraisal ))
Training vs. development
for technical and
operational how to
better do their
and managers in the
skills they need to do
their jobs in the future
Types of training cont.
• On the job training :take place in the work
setting while the employees perform job
related tasks, major techniques are:
– Training position.
– Job rotation.
– Planned work activates.
• Off the job training: e.g. classroom
programs, videotapes, workbooks or playing
Evaluating the training
• kirkpatrick's learning and training evaluation
• Jack Phillips' Five Level ROI Model
• Daniel Stufflebeam's CIPP Model (Context, Input, Process, Product)
• Robert Stake's Responsive Evaluation Model
• Robert Stake's Congruence-Contingency Model
• Kaufman's Five Levels of Evaluation
• CIRO (Context, Input, Reaction, Outcome)
• PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique)
• Alkins' UCLA Model
• Michael Scriven's Goal-Free Evaluation Approach
• Provus's Discrepancy Model
• Eisner's Connoisseurship Evaluation Models
• Illuminative Evaluation Model
• Portraiture Model
examples of evaluation
tools and methods
relevance and practicability
1 Reaction Reaction evaluation is
how the delegates felt
about the training or
'Happy sheets', feedback
Verbal reaction, post-
training Survey or
to gather or to analyse.
2 Learning Learning evaluation is
the measurement of
the increase in
knowledge - before
Pre and post test . simple to set up; clear-cut for
Less easy for complex learning.
3 Behavior Behavior evaluation is
the extent of applied
learning back on the
job - implementation.
Observation and interview
over time are required to
assess change, relevance of
change, and sustainability of
Measurement of behavior
change typically requires
cooperation and skill of line-
4 results Results evaluation is
the effect on the
Indicators measuring the
Individually not difficult; unlike
• Did the trainees like and enjoy the training?
• Did they consider the training relevant?
• Was it a good use of their time?
• Did they like the venue, the style, timing, domestics,
• Level of participation.
• Ease and comfort of experience.
• Level of effort required to make the most of the
• Perceived practicability and potential for applying the
• Did the trainees learn what was intended to
• Did the trainee experience what was intended
for them to experience?
• What is the extent of advancement or change
in the trainees after the training, in the
direction or area that was intended?
• Did the trainees put their learning into effect when
back on the job?
• Were the relevant skills and knowledge used
• Was there noticeable and measurable change in the
activity and performance of the trainees when back
in their roles?
• Was the change in behavior and new level of
• Would the trainee be able to transfer their learning
to another person?
• Is the trainee aware of their change in behaviour,
knowledge, skill level?
• Volumes, values, percentages, timescales,
return on investment, and other quantifiable
aspects of organisational performance, for
instance; numbers of complaints, staff
turnover, attrition, failures, wastage, non-
compliance, quality ratings, achievement of
standards and accreditations, growth,
1. Make job analysis for your own job in kasr al
2. Prepare a recruitment strategy for kasr al
ainy residents / administration (groups)
• Organization definition and type
• Organization culture
• organization structure
• Authority, Responsibility, Delegation
• Centralization vs. decentralization
• Is a system of consciously coordinated
activates of two or more people to achieve a
Here the main goal
of the organization
is to achieve profits
purpose is to
(not non money
Could be either public
or private sector.
• Is a system of shared believes and values that
develop within the organization and guide the
behavior of its members.
• It’s the “social glue ” of the organization
• It’s the organizational personality.
• Its extremely important to develop, to
recognize and to consider during
hiring, motivation, and managing.
Levels of culture
I. Invisible (core culture):
This are the values, believes and assumptions
Which are widely shared but rarely discussed
Within the organization.
e.g. Islamic believes, Honesty, Equity, accepting
others, hardworking……(sss vs pdne)
Its source: the founder vision, assumptions and
the outlook the new employees.
The culture cont.
• The visible level: it’s the obvious culture
which is manifested by the company
slogan, manner of
dress, symbol, story, hero, activates, ceremoni
es (rites and rituals )
• Is a box and lines illustration showing the
formal lines of authority and the organization
official positions or divisions of labor.
• Chain of command
• Span of control
• Tall vs. flat organizations (the new trend
• Line managers( ) vs. staff personnel (---)
Head of surgery
Head of pediatric
planning advisor Legal counsel
Authority, Responsibility, Delegatio
IN A MANGERIAL
obligation to perform
the tasks assigned to
you (staff and line
Is the process of
employees lower in
it creates a second
line of managers an
continuity of the
Perfection trap: most managers are expected
to delegate as much of their work as possible
however, many mangers fall in this trap “you
are the only person who can do it” and fail to
realize that delegation is an important part of
Centralization vs. decentralization
Important decisions are
made by higher level of
1. Little scope for
2. Less conflicts
3. Less confusion
between the clients.
4. Senior managers
take decisions for the
interest of the whole
organization not only
5. Central managers
decisions are made by the
middle or supervision
N.B. all organizations keep
a certain level of authority
concentrated at the top of
1. Managers who take the
decision have local
2. Develop 2nd line of
3. +ve motivation
4. More flexible
5. Faster responses
• Increase the perceived fairness of the low
level employees with little effect on high level
• Its always the best choice especially in routine
Types of organizational structure
Has authority centralized in one person ,a flat
hierarchy, few rules, and low work
specialization, this is usually found in early
stages of organizational development.
• Here people with similar functional specialty
are grouped together e.g.
Hr, marketing, finance
• People with diverse occupational specialty are
put together in formal groups by similar
products or services, or geographical pattern
e.g. Eop, ic , tlc
• An organization uses functional and divisional
stricture at different parts of the same
• For firms with rigid activities
CEO of General
Vice president of
Vice president of
Vice president of
President of Buick
President of Chevrolet
Subordinate reporting to
both HR manager and
Hybrid hierarchy matrix
Less flexible More flexible
Less coordination More coordination
Less conflicts More conflicts( )
More customer confusion Less customer confusion
Factors influencing the choice of
the organizational structure
1. Environment of the organization ( lawrence &
2. Technology of production (woodward’s
3. Life span
Environment of the
organization(the present and the
•Authority is centralized
•Tasks and rules are
•Employees are closely
•Work best when the
organization is in a stable
environment or in
lunching and crises
•Authority is decentralized
•Less rules and procedures
•Informal groups are
encouraged to cooperate in
rabid response to
•Best in rabidly changing
markets and working
demands e.g. IT companies
and clothing companies
lawrence & lorsch model
• Lawrence and Lorsch develop an open systems
theory of how organizations and
organizational sub-units adapt to best meet
the demands of their immediate environment.
They used interview data from executives in
six chemical processing companies to support
the following propositions:
1 .Organizations must balance differentiation
and integration to be successful. Those
companies who manage to achieve high sub-
unit differentiation and yet still maintain high
integration between sub-units seem to be
best equipped to adapt to environmental
2. Groups that are organized to perform simpler,
more certain tasks (e.g., production groups)
usually have more formal structure than
groups focusing on more uncertain tasks (e.g.,
research and development).
lawrence & lorsch model cont.
II. The size of the organization (the larger the
more the mechanistic)
The tendency of the parts of the
organization to disperse and
•It arise due to technical
specialization and divisions of
•E.g. Mitsubishi (cars, mobile
Tendency of parts of the organization to
draw together to achieve common goal
•Cross functional groups
•Proper communication network to
allow frequent communication and
III. Technology (woodward’s model)
III. Life cycle :
Small patch “Job
Large batch “patch
e.g. Toyota, ready made
clothes (assembly )
Higher level of
specialization and more
More organic than
The new approach is to fit the jobs to the
people not the people to the jobs
• Get the maximum from your work force
• Motivation (achievement, self-actualization,...)
• Need extra HRM effort to avoid burning out
and conflicts and deal with them
• Constitute a problem upon replacement
((Enlargement and enrichment ))
Change in organizations
o “We are living in a changing word so we
either change or die”
o Change is like a dragon:
o Fight it you will lose
o Ignore it it will eat you
o The only way to win is to RIDE IT.
Why and how??
o We either change in response to a PROBLEM
or an OPPORTUNITY
o Optimistic plan and realistic implantation
Types of change
Reactive change :
Making a change in
response to problems and
opportunities as they arise
•They respond to surprises
•Less time to obtain
,analyze, plan and decide
•Low ability to prepare the
resources needed to the
•Series mistakes take
•Low quality change
Proactive change :
(planned change) making
careful thought out changes
in anticipation of possible or
expected problems or
•They imagine different
scenarios and set a plan for
• more time to obtain accurate
data ,analyze, plan and
•high ability to prepare the
resources needed to the
•Series mistakes are avoided
•high quality change
Frequency of change
Old British way:
a) Analyze and evaluate
The new japans way:
Forces for change
•Employee problems(e.g. goal gap or job
Areas of change
I. Changing people (MOST Important )
Perception ,attitude, performance(motivation),
II. Changing technology: any machine or
process that enable the organization to gain
a competitive advantage (1)
e.g. new device,
new website ,new registration system….
III. changing structure
IV. Change strategy
Lewin’s change model integrated
with kotter’s eight steps for leading
I. Unfreezing : try to instill in employees the
motivation to change (the first 4 steps in
1. Establish the sense of urgency : by showing a
compelling reason why change is needed and
enhance a general feeling of dissatisfaction with
the old way of doing things, creating +ve and –ve
motives for change is helpful in this stage.
2. Create the guiding coalition: group of
employees that spans the functions and the
levels of the organization with the authority
(informal) to lead the change.
3. Develop a vision and strategy for change
4. Communicate the change vision: create and
implement a communication strategy, it
could be formal, informal, ”let them ask what
I want” strategy…..etc.
II. Changing: in this stage the employees need
to be given the tools of change with going on
• its helpful to provide benchmarking results,
role models, experts and training.
• Its advisable to convey the idea that change
is a continuous learning process and not a
single one time event.
• It include the 5
steps in kotter’s.
5. Empower broad based action: identify the
target elements of change, eliminate barriers
(human, technological, organizational, cultur
sociological, psychological, educational, infor
mational, governmental……. )
6. Generate “short term wins”: it aids
motivation, managers should recognize and
reward those who contributed to this
wins.(most people are not patient)
7. Consolidate gains &produce more change:
use the short term wins as the fuel for long
• it’s the 8th step of kotter’s “anchoring new
approaches into the culture”
• Here we need to make the new way normal
• It may take years for long term changes
• Highlight connections between new
behaviors and process and organizational
successes (if present).
• It’s a set of techniques for implementing
planned change to make people and
organizations more effective, its bt into
practice by :
• Change agent: is a consultant with
background in behavior sciences who can be a
catalyst to help the organization to deal with
the old problems in a new way.
• Its used in every stage in the previously
What can OD be used for?
1. Managing conflicts
2. Revitalizing organization: opening
communication, fostering innovation, and
dealing with stress.
3. Adapting to mergers: either external or
internal, (not only merging assets and brand
names we also merge people, cultures, and
Characteristics of OD
1. It aims to fundamental changes: its not
concerned with minor changes it work on the
2. It’s a process oriented not content oriented:
its not important to understand all the
technical details of the conflict the OD
consultant focus on the process (e.g. to coach
the two parties to better communication,
deal with trust problems, career
development, decision making…..etc.)
3. OD is value loaded: OD consultant prefer
cooperation over conflict, participative over
autocratic management, thus OD carries
certain values in humanistic psychology and
brought it to the organization
How OD works??
How shall we
do about it ?
Who well has
• Survey feed back: communicate the results of
the survey with the employees
• Process consultation: the OD observe the
process and give the members involved the
consultancy and skills that allow the members
to solve the problem themselves.
• Team building
• Intergroup development : improve the existing
• Techno structural activities: introducing
technology into the organization structure to
How OD can be effective?
• A study made on 245 consultants found that:
• 5 factors that made programs work:
1. Readiness for change: there is areal need for
change and the organization is ready for this
2. Management support
3. Expectations and awareness: realistic
expectations should be settled and
awareness of different OD techniques is
4. Access to organization recourses and
collaboration between the consultant and
5. Multiple intervention
• Product innovation: its an innovatory change
In the product itself
• Process innovation: change in the way the
product is produced presented or
• Incremental innovation: improving the
• Radical innovation: replacing the existing
Characters of innovation
1. Its uncertain business
2. People closest to the innovation know the
most about it while those who are far are not
3. Controversial: it needs resources for which
many partners are competing
4. Complex: cross the organizational boundries
–more than one deparment or faculty-
Developing an innovative
1. The right organizational culture: how the
employees view innovations and
experimentation?? Is the culture goes toward
punching failure or celebrating failure.
2. Recourses : “do managers put money where
their mouths are” innovation is expensive,
but its profitable.
3. Rewards: is experimentation is reinforced in
a way that matters
How to be innovative manager?
1. Recognize problems and opportunities:
Either your or by opening channels of
communication between you and your staff
2. Communicate your vision, share your vision
with subordinates then higher managers “the
solution is a puzzle that every one of us has a
piece of it”, draw yor dream to allow othersto
see it (to overcome character #2)
3. Overcome resistance empower, motivate and
reward employees to achieve the goal
• Motivation is an inner drive, impulse, or
intention that causes a person to act in a
certain way or to achieve a certain goal.
• Psychological process that arouse and direct
goal directed behavior.
• is the direction, level of effort and extent of
persistence evident in the behavior of the
• It what makes you wake half an hour early to
ensure you got to work on time, and to
perform your best once there
• Motivation comes from inside, not outside.
You can’t motivate someone.
You draw on and provide direction for the
motivation that's already there.
• It’s the ability of the organization to attract
and retain workers who are devoted ,loyal and
happy to provide the organization with their
Motivation ≠ performance
• Performance : evaluation of the quantity and
quality of the job done.
• Motivation is only one of the factors that
affect performance , other factors are:
– Personality characteristics
– Task difficulty
– Resources available
– Working conditions
– Working attitude
Motivation in theory
• There is no one complete theory accepted by
everyone ,however there is different
approaches and prospective to understand
the process of motivation.
• 3 main prospective are ;
3 main prospective are
Need based prospective
• Elton Mayo
• MacGregor’s theory X/Theory Y
• Maslow’s hierarchy
• Hertzberg two factor theory
• McClelland’s acquired need theory
Model of motivation
motivation Behavior Rewards
MacGregor’s theory X/Theory Y
Interest in working
which ppl will work
Basically lazy Need to achieve and
Trusting , accepting,
and recognized (right
Work when pushed
McClelland’s acquired need theory
• The three needs achievement ,affiliation and
power are major motives determining people
behavior in the work place.
• Managers are encouraged to recognize the
three needs in themselves and in others and
to attempt to create work environment that
is responsive to them.
• Usually one of this three needs dominate
• Need for achievement “I need to excel at
• Need for affiliation “I need closer
• Need for power “I need to control others ”
– Negative kind: need for personal power
,expressed as the desire of dominating others and
manipulating them for the one’s own gratification.
– Positive kind: desire of institutional power, as
expressed in the need to solve problems that face
the organizational goals
Balanced Control freak!!
Using the acquired needs theory
How to deal withHow to recognizeNeed
•Prefer doing the work that
offer feedback on
•They tend to advance in
technical fields requiring
creativity and individual
•Happy of accomplishment
of a task being his own
•Don’t mind or even prefer
•Willing to take moderate
Prefers work with
Be publically recognized for
Enjoy being in control of
people and events and
being recognized for this
Not efficient manager
Better at sales, PR, HR
Seek social approval and
Pay them fairly.
Treat them GREAT!
• Expectancy theory
• Equity theory
• Goal setting theory
How much do you want??and how likely are you
to get it??
Effort Performance Outcome
Will I be able to
perform at the
desired level on a
would I receive if I
performed at this
do I want the
Using expectancy theory??
• What rewards do your employees value??
– Know your employees
– Cafeteria style benefit plans
• Are rewards linked to performance ?
X type of performance within Y period of time
will achieve Z kind of reward.
• Do your employees believe you will deliver the
right type of reward?? Credibility
• What is the performance level (objective ) you
desire?? Clear, achievable and challenging.
• Focuses on employees perception as to how
fairly they think they are being treated
compared to others.
My input their input
My output their output
Response to perceived inequity
• Reduce their inputs
• Change the output e.g. use the firm assets and
resources or theft.
• Distort the inequity they will exaggerate how
hard they work
• Change the object of comparison
• Leave the situation.
(((ALL ABOUT PERCEPTION!!!)))
Goal setting theory
• Employees can be motivated by setting goals
that are specific, challenging but achievable.
• Make it their goal…….self objective
• Study made on 1975 showed that the
performance of workers (loggers) was
increased from 60 % to 94% just by setting
• Stretch goals
– Vertical: sales target from 1000 to 3000
– Horizontal: advertisement only adv.+registration
• Feedback as important as goal setting!!!
(get raise or
Motivation in practice
• push or pull ???
• motivation by words or by actions ???
• Non- monetary motivation.
• Introvert Vs. extrovert
• Motivation by job design :
– Enhancing fit with the organization
– Fitting jobs to people
– Job characteristics model
– Appling Job characteristics model “motivating
potential score (MPS)”
Enhancing fit with the organization
skills & traits
Fitting jobs to people
• Increase the
number of tasks in
a job to increase
• Horizontal loading.
• 1 boring job2
• Adding responsibility
and other motivating
factors to the job
• Vertical loading.
• Allow employees to do
jobs that is usually
handled by their
Job characteristics model
5 job attributes for better work outcome
Fell that they are
the actual results
of the work and
how they affect
Appling job characteristic model
• Diagnose the
see if there is a
Non- monetary motivation `
• The value of being nice !!!
• Work life benefits balance life and work
help low performers to be high performers.
• The surroundings …..the better u live the
better u think
• skill building and educational opportunities
• Sabbaticals (month a year of paid time off)-
recharge their batteries and cement their
relation to the organization .
MacGregor’s theory X/Theory Y
• Theory x ('authoritarian management' style)
• The average person dislikes work and will
avoid it he/she can.
• Therefore most people must be forced with
the threat of punishment to work towards
• The average person prefers to be directed; to
avoid responsibility; is relatively unambitious,
and wants security above all else.
Theory y ('participative
• Effort in work is as natural as work and play.
• People will apply self-control and self-
direction in the pursuit of organizational
objectives, without external control or the
threat of punishment.
• Commitment to objectives is a function of
rewards associated with their achievement.
• People usually accept and often seek
Theory Y cont.
• The capacity to use a high degree of
imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving
organizational problems is widely, not
narrowly, distributed in the population.
• In industry the intellectual potential of the
average person is only partly utilized.
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