Human resources managment

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Basics of human resources management

Basics of human resources management

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  • 1. Human Resources MANAGMENT By: Mohamed Thabet
  • 2. Why we are here ??
  • 3. Expectations?
  • 4. Day 1 • HRM introduction • Pretest • Recruitment • Orientation • Training and development
  • 5. State one problem you think it hinders the development of kasr al Ainy ?
  • 6. HRM what does it means ??? Is to plan for, attract, develop and retain EFFECTIVE workforce
  • 7. Skill development • Managerial skill and separate department
  • 8. History
  • 9. HR Managment • Human variability and complexity • Resources limited ,opportunity cost • Management GET things done( achieve the organizational aims using its resources )
  • 10. HR model organization HR management: Is to plan for, attract, develop and retain EFFECTIVE workforce Hiring Dismissal • orientation • Training • Developing • Motivating • prepare the suitable environment
  • 11. Do you find any relation between the problems on the board and the HR functions we just discussed??
  • 12. Recruitment Background info. interviews Performance test Is the process of locating and attracting QUALIFIED applicants for jobs open in the organization.
  • 13. Describe kasr al ainy recruiting strategy
  • 14. Planning the human resources needed • Developing a systemic comprehensive strategy for I. Understand the current employee needs II. Predicting future employee needs – Trend analysis Uses previous employment figures to predict future needs – Ratio analysis Ratio of causal factors to the number of employees required
  • 15. Understanding current employee needs • To plan for the future you must understand the present Job analyses: •Is to determine by observation and analysis the basic elements of the job. •Interviewing job occupants Job description: It summarize what the holder of the job does and how and why he or she does it. Job specification: It describe the minimum qualification a person must have to perform the job successfully. Job description may also involve the job title, the responsibilities, the working conditions, place in the hierarchy of the structure and the evaluation system
  • 16. Job description • Job title: • Department: • Position in hierarchy (Responsible to, and Responsible for?): • Purpose or objective of the job: • Duties : – Main – Occasional • Job conditions (payment, working time, training offered , opportunity of promotion ) Job specification •Educational Qualifications •Essential •Desirable •experience •Skills •Physical fitness •Personal characteristic POSITION DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE
  • 17. Lets work it out!!
  • 18. Predicting future employee needs Assume that the organization won’t change much Assume that the organization will change Trend analysis Ratio analysis
  • 19. Planning the work force NEEDS 1. The number of the staff required Depend on many factors: The demand for the firms product or surface (level , pattern, competitors actions) Productivity level of staff Business objective (expansion or increased quality level) Predicting labour turnover and absenteeism 2. Level of skills needed (specialized or multitask performer)
  • 20. Expect a change in al kasr al ainy in the coming 5 years and its effect on the workforce needed
  • 21. Source Internal: •Job posting •Motivating  lower turn over •Cheaper •Fewer risk •No fresh blood •Gives a false impression about the importance of seniority •It create a vacancy some where else. •Qualification inventories for the employees •Personnel replacement charts External: •Attraction •Realistic job preview •Advertising •Fresh points of view •More expensive and time consuming •Higher risk •Expected unemployment rate •Specific occupational availability
  • 22. What should we do to attract the Best ??
  • 23. Present performance Promotional potential Outstanding satisfactory Needs improvement Ready now Needs further training Questionable Dean Vice Students affairs Vice Post graduate studies Vice Environmental affairs Personnel replacement charts
  • 24. Job advertisement • The type of the job • Informative • Persuasive (join the successful team, advertize the firm “bashta3’al fe haded azz”) • Appropriate media (a paper on the wall or a phone call or meeting )
  • 25. What changes would you suggest to kasr al ainy recruitment plan??
  • 26. selection The best candidate Employment test interviewing Background information
  • 27. Background information • Sources: CV, check list, motivational letter , application form ……etc. • 67% lying in USA • Just to limit the candidates for interviewing
  • 28. interviewing unstructured Asking probing questions No systemic scoring procedure structured Situational: give hypothetical situation and compare the answers to a prepared answers with scoring system Behavioral: what applicants actually done in past
  • 29. Employment test Ability test Personality test Performance test others Physical ,mental , clerical….etc Measure personality traits as adjustment, energy sociability, independence need for achievement Participate in the job activities for few days while being assessed by evaluators Lying test Riding horses N.B legal problems in developed countries
  • 30. Describe kasr al ainy selection process ? And what do you suggest to improve it ??
  • 31. Full or part time?—temporary or permanent?, out sourcing? The universal trend is going toward part timing, temporary contracts, and outs sourcing. Advantages: To the firm: •Flexible organizational size •Kind of testing staff before full contracts To the worker: •Ideal for certain type of workers e.g. students, parents •Allow the employee to combine more than one job Potential drawbacks To the firm: More staff to manage Effective communication is harder (large no. and cant make one meeting for all employees) Motivation level may be adversely affected To the worker: Lower salary?? Less satisfaction of safety needs, autonomy need, need to belong Inferior work conditions
  • 32. Combination Peripheral Temporary Half time Core Full time Permanent staff
  • 33. Orientation • Helping newcomer fit smoothly into the job and the organization Time J.S.
  • 34. orientation • Give the candidates the information they need to perform. • Formal e.g. collage • Informal e.g. SSS system • The information: The organization mission and operation: what's the organization is about Purpose +products or services. Job routine: whats required for the job, how the work will be evaluated,and who are the immediate coworkers and The organization work rules and employee benefits: Bylaws and rewarding system. } adv. Vs. dis.
  • 35. Design an orientation for the new house officers in your department/hospital ?
  • 36. Training and development • In a study on 216 big firms employee involvement (upgrading workers skills and knowledge) was the best stratge offering the highest return over down sizing and TQM – Employee involvement 19.1 % – Downsizing 15.4% – TQM 15%
  • 37. Training process Assessment Is training needed? Objectives What should the training achieve? Evaluation Is training working? Implementation How should training be effective? Selection Which training method?
  • 38. Training needs analysis Performance analysis Task analysis Assessing new employees training needs to Enable them to do their tasks Assessing current employees training needs to help them in improving their current performance ((performance appraisal ))
  • 39. Training vs. development Training: for technical and operational how to better do their current job Development: educating professionals and managers in the skills they need to do their jobs in the future
  • 40. Types of training cont. • On the job training :take place in the work setting while the employees perform job related tasks, major techniques are: – Coaching. – Training position. – Job rotation. – Planned work activates. • Off the job training: e.g. classroom programs, videotapes, workbooks or playing
  • 41. Evaluating the training • kirkpatrick's learning and training evaluation theory • Jack Phillips' Five Level ROI Model • Daniel Stufflebeam's CIPP Model (Context, Input, Process, Product) • Robert Stake's Responsive Evaluation Model • Robert Stake's Congruence-Contingency Model • Kaufman's Five Levels of Evaluation • CIRO (Context, Input, Reaction, Outcome) • PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) • Alkins' UCLA Model • Michael Scriven's Goal-Free Evaluation Approach • Provus's Discrepancy Model • Eisner's Connoisseurship Evaluation Models • Illuminative Evaluation Model • Portraiture Model
  • 42. le v el evaluation type (what is measured) evaluation description and characteristics examples of evaluation tools and methods relevance and practicability 1 Reaction Reaction evaluation is how the delegates felt about the training or learning experience. 'Happy sheets', feedback forms. Verbal reaction, post- training Survey or questionnaires. Quick and easy Not expensive to gather or to analyse. 2 Learning Learning evaluation is the measurement of the increase in knowledge - before and after. Pre and post test . simple to set up; clear-cut for quantifiable skills. Less easy for complex learning. 3 Behavior Behavior evaluation is the extent of applied learning back on the job - implementation. Observation and interview over time are required to assess change, relevance of change, and sustainability of change. Measurement of behavior change typically requires cooperation and skill of line- managers. 4 results Results evaluation is the effect on the business or Indicators measuring the organizational performance. Individually not difficult; unlike whole organization.
  • 43. Reaction • Did the trainees like and enjoy the training? • Did they consider the training relevant? • Was it a good use of their time? • Did they like the venue, the style, timing, domestics, etc? • Level of participation. • Ease and comfort of experience. • Level of effort required to make the most of the learning. • Perceived practicability and potential for applying the learning.
  • 44. Learning • Did the trainees learn what was intended to be taught? • Did the trainee experience what was intended for them to experience? • What is the extent of advancement or change in the trainees after the training, in the direction or area that was intended?
  • 45. Behavior • Did the trainees put their learning into effect when back on the job? • Were the relevant skills and knowledge used • Was there noticeable and measurable change in the activity and performance of the trainees when back in their roles? • Was the change in behavior and new level of knowledge sustained? • Would the trainee be able to transfer their learning to another person? • Is the trainee aware of their change in behaviour, knowledge, skill level?
  • 46. Result • Volumes, values, percentages, timescales, return on investment, and other quantifiable aspects of organisational performance, for instance; numbers of complaints, staff turnover, attrition, failures, wastage, non- compliance, quality ratings, achievement of standards and accreditations, growth, retention, etc.
  • 47. The assignments 1. Make job analysis for your own job in kasr al ainy 2. Prepare a recruitment strategy for kasr al ainy residents / administration (groups)
  • 48. HOME
  • 49. DAY 2
  • 50. Day 2 • Organization definition and type • Organization culture • organization structure • Authority, Responsibility, Delegation • Centralization vs. decentralization
  • 51. Organization • Is a system of consciously coordinated activates of two or more people to achieve a certain goal. • types: Profit making(business): Here the main goal of the organization is to achieve profits Mutual benefits organization: Are voluntary collection of members whose purpose is to advance members interests Non-profit making: (not non money making) Managers called administrators e.g. hospitals and collages Could be either public or private sector.
  • 52. Organization culture • Is a system of shared believes and values that develop within the organization and guide the behavior of its members. • It’s the “social glue ” of the organization • It’s the organizational personality. • Its extremely important to develop, to recognize and to consider during hiring, motivation, and managing.
  • 53. Levels of culture I. Invisible (core culture): This are the values, believes and assumptions Which are widely shared but rarely discussed Within the organization. e.g. Islamic believes, Honesty, Equity, accepting others, hardworking……(sss vs pdne) Its source: the founder vision, assumptions and the outlook the new employees.
  • 54. The culture cont. • The visible level: it’s the obvious culture which is manifested by the company slogan, manner of dress, symbol, story, hero, activates, ceremoni es (rites and rituals )
  • 55. Organization chart • Is a box and lines illustration showing the formal lines of authority and the organization official positions or divisions of labor. • Chain of command • Span of control • Tall vs. flat organizations (the new trend toward flattening) • Line managers( ) vs. staff personnel (---)
  • 56. Board of directors CEO Executive administrator Quality control HR Legal staff Executive medical director Head of surgery department Head of pediatric department Head of obs&gyne Strategic planning advisor Legal counsel
  • 57. Authority, Responsibility, Delegatio n AUTHORITY: RIGHTS INHERINT IN A MANGERIAL POSATION TO TAKE DESCIOSN GIVE ORDERS AND UTILIZE RESOURCES (staff managers) RESBONSIBILITY: obligation to perform the tasks assigned to you (staff and line managers) Delegation: Is the process of passing (sharing) managerial authority AND RESPONSIBILITY to managers and employees lower in the hierarchy. it creates a second line of managers an ensures the continuity of the business. Perfection trap: most managers are expected to delegate as much of their work as possible however, many mangers fall in this trap “you are the only person who can do it” and fail to realize that delegation is an important part of their job
  • 58. Centralization vs. decentralization centralization Important decisions are made by higher level of managers. Advantages: 1. Little scope for discussion. 2. Less conflicts between employees. 3. Less confusion between the clients. 4. Senior managers take decisions for the interest of the whole organization not only their department 5. Central managers are experienced decision makers Decentralization: important decisions are made by the middle or supervision managers. N.B. all organizations keep a certain level of authority concentrated at the top of the hierarchy advantages: 1. Managers who take the decision have local knowledge 2. Develop 2nd line of managers 3. +ve motivation 4. More flexible 5. Faster responses
  • 59. Decentralization • Increase the perceived fairness of the low level employees with little effect on high level employees • Its always the best choice especially in routine production jobs.
  • 60. Types of organizational structure I. Hierarchy • Simple Has authority centralized in one person ,a flat hierarchy, few rules, and low work specialization, this is usually found in early stages of organizational development. Owner or founder Administrative assistant
  • 61. Functional structure • Here people with similar functional specialty are grouped together e.g. Hr, marketing, finance President Vice president marketing Vice president finance Vice president HR
  • 62. divisional • People with diverse occupational specialty are put together in formal groups by similar products or services, or geographical pattern e.g. Eop, ic , tlc CEO Eye on patient TLC Infection control
  • 63. Hybrid structure • An organization uses functional and divisional stricture at different parts of the same organization. • For firms with rigid activities CEO of General Motors President of Cadillac Vice president of marketing Vice president of finance Vice president of HR Vice president of production President of Buick Vice president of marketing Vice president of finance Vice president of HR production President of Chevrolet Vice president of marketing Vice president of finance Vice president of HR production
  • 64. II. matrix CEO marketing HR Quality control Finance . Project manager EOP Project manager IC Project manager TLC Subordinate reporting to both HR manager and project manager
  • 65. Hybrid hierarchy matrix Less flexible More flexible Less coordination More coordination Less conflicts More conflicts( ) More customer confusion Less customer confusion
  • 66. Factors influencing the choice of the organizational structure 1. Environment of the organization ( lawrence & lorsch model) 2. Technology of production (woodward’s model) 3. Life span
  • 67. Environment of the organization(the present and the desired) Mechanistic organization: •Authority is centralized •Tasks and rules are clearly specified •Employees are closely supervised •Work best when the organization is in a stable environment or in lunching and crises •E.g. MacDonald's Vs. Organic organization: •Authority is decentralized •Less rules and procedures •Informal groups are encouraged to cooperate in rabid response to unexpected tasks •Loose structure •Best in rabidly changing markets and working demands e.g. IT companies and clothing companies
  • 68. lawrence & lorsch model • Lawrence and Lorsch develop an open systems theory of how organizations and organizational sub-units adapt to best meet the demands of their immediate environment. They used interview data from executives in six chemical processing companies to support the following propositions:
  • 69. 1 .Organizations must balance differentiation and integration to be successful. Those companies who manage to achieve high sub- unit differentiation and yet still maintain high integration between sub-units seem to be best equipped to adapt to environmental changes. 2. Groups that are organized to perform simpler, more certain tasks (e.g., production groups) usually have more formal structure than groups focusing on more uncertain tasks (e.g., research and development).
  • 70. lawrence & lorsch model cont. II. The size of the organization (the larger the more the mechanistic) Differentiation: The tendency of the parts of the organization to disperse and fragment. •It arise due to technical specialization and divisions of labor. •E.g. Mitsubishi (cars, mobile phones ……etc.) Integration: Tendency of parts of the organization to draw together to achieve common goal •Cross functional groups •Proper communication network to allow frequent communication and coordination
  • 71. III. Technology (woodward’s model) III. Life cycle : Small patch “Job production” •e.g. Handmade products •Informal and flexible “organic” Large batch “patch production”: e.g. Toyota, ready made clothes (assembly ) Higher level of specialization and more bureaucratic Continuous process” mass production” e.g. Pepsi More organic than mechanistic birth stage Non bureaucratic Youth stage Pre- bureaucratic Middle life Bureaucratic Maturity stage Very Bureaucratic 1 2 3 4
  • 72. The new approach is to fit the jobs to the people not the people to the jobs Advantage • Get the maximum from your work force • Motivation (achievement, self-actualization,...) Disadvantage • Need extra HRM effort to avoid burning out and conflicts and deal with them • Constitute a problem upon replacement ((Enlargement and enrichment ))
  • 73. Change in organizations o “We are living in a changing word so we either change or die” o“” o Change is like a dragon: o Fight it you will lose o Ignore it  it will eat you o The only way to win is to RIDE IT.
  • 74. Why and how?? o We either change in response to a PROBLEM or an OPPORTUNITY o Optimistic plan and realistic implantation
  • 75. Types of change Reactive change : Making a change in response to problems and opportunities as they arise . •They respond to surprises •Less time to obtain accurate data ,analyze, plan and decide •Low ability to prepare the resources needed to the change •Series mistakes take place •Low quality change Proactive change : (planned change) making careful thought out changes in anticipation of possible or expected problems or opportunities •They imagine different scenarios and set a plan for each. • more time to obtain accurate data ,analyze, plan and decide •high ability to prepare the resources needed to the change •Series mistakes are avoided •high quality change
  • 76. Frequency of change a b Old British way: a) Analyze and evaluate b) improve Keizen The new japans way: CONTINOUS IMPRVMENT
  • 77. Forces for change Organization •Employee problems(e.g. goal gap or job dissatisfaction) •Managers behavior Demographic changes: new Malaysians and Yemen Market changes: Continuous market research!! Technological advancement Social and political pressures
  • 78. Areas of change I. Changing people (MOST Important ) Perception ,attitude, performance(motivation), skills (training)… II. Changing technology: any machine or process that enable the organization to gain a competitive advantage (1) e.g. new device, new website ,new registration system…. III. changing structure IV. Change strategy
  • 79. Wheel of Change Pre-contemplation Maintenance Contemplation Decision/ Preparation Action Relapse
  • 80. Lewin’s change model integrated with kotter’s eight steps for leading organization change I. Unfreezing : try to instill in employees the motivation to change (the first 4 steps in kotter’s) 1. Establish the sense of urgency : by showing a compelling reason why change is needed and enhance a general feeling of dissatisfaction with the old way of doing things, creating +ve and –ve motives for change is helpful in this stage.
  • 81. Cont. change 2. Create the guiding coalition: group of employees that spans the functions and the levels of the organization with the authority (informal) to lead the change. 3. Develop a vision and strategy for change 4. Communicate the change vision: create and implement a communication strategy, it could be formal, informal, ”let them ask what I want” strategy…..etc.
  • 82. II. Changing: in this stage the employees need to be given the tools of change with going on motivation. • its helpful to provide benchmarking results, role models, experts and training. • Its advisable to convey the idea that change is a continuous learning process and not a single one time event. • It include the 5 th , 6 th , 7 th steps in kotter’s.
  • 83. 5. Empower broad based action: identify the target elements of change, eliminate barriers to change (human, technological, organizational, cultur al and sociological, psychological, educational, infor mational, governmental……. ) 6. Generate “short term wins”: it aids motivation, managers should recognize and reward those who contributed to this wins.(most people are not patient) 7. Consolidate gains &produce more change: use the short term wins as the fuel for long
  • 84. III. Refreezing: • it’s the 8th step of kotter’s “anchoring new approaches into the culture” • Here we need to make the new way normal • It may take years for long term changes • Highlight connections between new behaviors and process and organizational successes (if present).
  • 85. Organization development • It’s a set of techniques for implementing planned change to make people and organizations more effective, its bt into practice by : • Change agent: is a consultant with background in behavior sciences who can be a catalyst to help the organization to deal with the old problems in a new way. • Its used in every stage in the previously discussed models.
  • 86. What can OD be used for? 1. Managing conflicts 2. Revitalizing organization: opening communication, fostering innovation, and dealing with stress. 3. Adapting to mergers: either external or internal, (not only merging assets and brand names we also merge people, cultures, and systems)
  • 87. Characteristics of OD 1. It aims to fundamental changes: its not concerned with minor changes it work on the deep issues: 2. It’s a process oriented not content oriented: its not important to understand all the technical details of the conflict the OD consultant focus on the process (e.g. to coach the two parties to better communication, deal with trust problems, career development, decision making…..etc.)
  • 88. 3. OD is value loaded: OD consultant prefer cooperation over conflict, participative over autocratic management, thus OD carries certain values in humanistic psychology and brought it to the organization
  • 89. How OD works?? Diagnosis What's the problem? Intervention (treatment) How shall we do about it ? Evaluation Who well has the intervention worked? •Surveys •Questioners •Interviews •Meetings •Direct observations Objective comparative evaluation
  • 90. intervention • Survey feed back: communicate the results of the survey with the employees • Process consultation: the OD observe the process and give the members involved the consultancy and skills that allow the members to solve the problem themselves. • Team building • Intergroup development : improve the existing teams • Techno structural activities: introducing technology into the organization structure to improve communication
  • 91. How OD can be effective? • A study made on 245 consultants found that: • 5 factors that made programs work: 1. Readiness for change: there is areal need for change and the organization is ready for this 2. Management support 3. Expectations and awareness: realistic expectations should be settled and awareness of different OD techniques is important
  • 92. 4. Access to organization recourses and collaboration between the consultant and the client 5. Multiple intervention
  • 93. innovation • Product innovation: its an innovatory change In the product itself • Process innovation: change in the way the product is produced presented or disseminated. • Incremental innovation: improving the existing • Radical innovation: replacing the existing
  • 94. Characters of innovation 1. Its uncertain business 2. People closest to the innovation know the most about it while those who are far are not 3. Controversial: it needs resources for which many partners are competing 4. Complex: cross the organizational boundries –more than one deparment or faculty-
  • 95. Developing an innovative organization 1. The right organizational culture: how the employees view innovations and experimentation?? Is the culture goes toward punching failure or celebrating failure. 2. Recourses : “do managers put money where their mouths are” innovation is expensive, but its profitable. 3. Rewards: is experimentation is reinforced in a way that matters
  • 96. How to be innovative manager? 1. Recognize problems and opportunities: Either your or by opening channels of communication between you and your staff 2. Communicate your vision, share your vision with subordinates then higher managers “the solution is a puzzle that every one of us has a piece of it”, draw yor dream to allow othersto see it (to overcome character #2) 3. Overcome resistance empower, motivate and reward employees to achieve the goal
  • 97. HOME
  • 98. DAY 3
  • 99. Motivation • Motivation is an inner drive, impulse, or intention that causes a person to act in a certain way or to achieve a certain goal. • Psychological process that arouse and direct goal directed behavior. • is the direction, level of effort and extent of persistence evident in the behavior of the employee.
  • 100. Cont. • It what makes you wake half an hour early to ensure you got to work on time, and to perform your best once there • Motivation comes from inside, not outside. You can’t motivate someone. You draw on and provide direction for the motivation that's already there. • It’s the ability of the organization to attract and retain workers who are devoted ,loyal and happy to provide the organization with their maximum productivity
  • 101. Motivation ≠ performance • Performance : evaluation of the quantity and quality of the job done. • Motivation is only one of the factors that affect performance , other factors are: – Ability – Personality characteristics – Task difficulty – Resources available – Working conditions – Working attitude
  • 102. Motivation in theory • There is no one complete theory accepted by everyone ,however there is different approaches and prospective to understand the process of motivation. • 3 main prospective are ;
  • 103. 3 main prospective are Motivation Need based processReinforcement
  • 104. Need based prospective • F.taylor • Elton Mayo • MacGregor’s theory X/Theory Y • Maslow’s hierarchy • Hertzberg two factor theory • McClelland’s acquired need theory
  • 105. Model of motivation motivation Behavior Rewards Feedback Un fulfilled need
  • 106. MacGregor’s theory X/Theory Y Orientation toward people Assumptions about people Interest in working Conditions under which ppl will work hard distrusting Basically lazy Need to achieve and be responsible Trusting , accepting, promoting Highlow Work when appropriately trained and recognized (right circumstances ) Work when pushed
  • 107. Maslow’s
  • 108. Hertzberg two factor theory
  • 109. Maslow Vs. Hertzberg
  • 110. McClelland’s acquired need theory • The three needs achievement ,affiliation and power are major motives determining people behavior in the work place. • Managers are encouraged to recognize the three needs in themselves and in others and to attempt to create work environment that is responsive to them. • Usually one of this three needs dominate
  • 111. McClelland’s cont. • Need for achievement “I need to excel at tasks” • Need for affiliation “I need closer relationships” • Need for power “I need to control others ” – Negative kind: need for personal power ,expressed as the desire of dominating others and manipulating them for the one’s own gratification. – Positive kind: desire of institutional power, as expressed in the need to solve problems that face the organizational goals
  • 112. Affiliationachievement power Balanced Control freak!!
  • 113. Using the acquired needs theory How to deal withHow to recognizeNeed •Prefer doing the work that offer feedback on performance •Challenging but achievable goals •Individual responsibility for results •They tend to advance in technical fields requiring creativity and individual skills •Happy of accomplishment of a task being his own reward •Don’t mind or even prefer working alone •Willing to take moderate risks Achievement Prefers work with subordinates Be publically recognized for your accomplishments Enjoy being in control of people and events and being recognized for this responsibility power Not efficient manager Better at sales, PR, HR Seek social approval and satisfy personal relationship . Affiliation
  • 114. McClellandHerzbergmasslow AchivmentMotivator factorsSelf actualization powerEsteem AffliationHygiene factorsBelongings Safety physiological
  • 115. De-motivating motivating Both motivating and Demotivating Pay them fairly. Treat them GREAT!
  • 116. Process perspective • Expectancy theory • Equity theory • Goal setting theory
  • 117. Expectancy theory How much do you want??and how likely are you to get it??
  • 118. Effort Performance Outcome Expectancy: Will I be able to perform at the desired level on a task?? Instrumentality: What outcome would I receive if I performed at this level Valence : How much do I want the outcome
  • 119. Using expectancy theory?? • What rewards do your employees value?? – Know your employees – Cafeteria style benefit plans • Are rewards linked to performance ? X type of performance within Y period of time will achieve Z kind of reward. • Do your employees believe you will deliver the right type of reward?? Credibility • What is the performance level (objective ) you desire?? Clear, achievable and challenging.
  • 120. Equity theory • Focuses on employees perception as to how fairly they think they are being treated compared to others. My input their input ∞ My output their output
  • 121. satisfied Satisfied Their output Their input My Output My input Angry Guilty Their output Their input My Output My input
  • 122. Response to perceived inequity (under-rewarded) • Reduce their inputs • Change the output e.g. use the firm assets and resources or theft. • Distort the inequity they will exaggerate how hard they work • Change the object of comparison • Leave the situation. (((ALL ABOUT PERCEPTION!!!)))
  • 123. Goal setting theory • Employees can be motivated by setting goals that are specific, challenging but achievable. (challenging SMART) • Make it their goal…….self objective • Study made on 1975 showed that the performance of workers (loggers) was increased from 60 % to 94% just by setting goals !!! • MBO
  • 124. • Stretch goals – Vertical: sales target from 1000 to 3000 – Horizontal: advertisement only adv.+registration • Feedback  as important as goal setting!!!
  • 125. Reinforcement Improve employee performance Employee performance improved Positive reinforcement (get raise or promotion) Negative reinforcement (avoid punishment) Employee performance NOT improved Extinction (withhold employee rewards) Punishment What the manager wants What the employee did
  • 126. Motivation in practice • push or pull ??? • motivation by words or by actions ??? • Non- monetary motivation. • Introvert Vs. extrovert • Motivation by job design : – Enhancing fit with the organization – Fitting jobs to people – Job characteristics model – Appling Job characteristics model “motivating potential score (MPS)”
  • 127. Enhancing fit with the organization Personal skills & traits Job requirements
  • 128. Fitting jobs to people Job enlargement: • Increase the number of tasks in a job to increase variety and motivation • Horizontal loading. • 1 boring job2 boring jobs!!! Job enrichment: • Adding responsibility and other motivating factors to the job • Vertical loading. • Allow employees to do jobs that is usually handled by their supervisors
  • 129. Job characteristics model 5 job attributes for better work outcome Skill Varity Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback Fell that they are doing meaningful work Felling responsible for the outcome Knowledge of the actual results of the work and how they affect others High work motivation High performance High satisfaction Low absenteeism and turnover
  • 130. Appling job characteristic model • Diagnose the working environment to see if there is a problem  Motivating potential score (MPS) from diagnostic survives Determine whether job redesign is appropriate Low MPS Decide what job character has a problem Consider how to redesign the job e.g. Work team finishing the whole product
  • 131. Lets work it out!!
  • 132. Non- monetary motivation ` • The value of being nice !!! • Work life benefits  balance life and work  help low performers to be high performers. • The surroundings …..the better u live the better u think • skill building and educational opportunities • Sabbaticals (month a year of paid time off)- recharge their batteries and cement their relation to the organization .
  • 133. Discussion and assignments
  • 134. HOME Thank you
  • 135. MacGregor’s theory X/Theory Y • Theory x ('authoritarian management' style) • The average person dislikes work and will avoid it he/she can. • Therefore most people must be forced with the threat of punishment to work towards organisational objectives. • The average person prefers to be directed; to avoid responsibility; is relatively unambitious, and wants security above all else.
  • 136. Theory y ('participative management' style) • Effort in work is as natural as work and play. • People will apply self-control and self- direction in the pursuit of organizational objectives, without external control or the threat of punishment. • Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards associated with their achievement. • People usually accept and often seek responsibility.
  • 137. Theory Y cont. • The capacity to use a high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving organizational problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed in the population. • In industry the intellectual potential of the average person is only partly utilized.