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# Motivational Design (Gamification) and the Workplace

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What is "gamification"? …

What is "gamification"?

Is there a better term to describe the use of games in a serious context?

How can motivational design be applied to office work?

This presentation is a sneak-preview of Playrocket and how it is being applied in a call center.

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine
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• A basic motion element is one of a set of fundamental motions required for a worker to perform a manual operation or task. The set consists of 18 elements, each describing a standardized activity.\nTransport empty [unloaded] (TE): reaching for an object with empty hand. ((called now (reach).))\nGrasp (G): grasping an object by the active hand.\nTransport loaded (TL):moving an object using a hand motion.\nHold (H): holding an object.\nRelease load (RL): release control of an object.\nPreposition (PP):positioning and/or orienting an object for the next operation and relative to an approximation location.\nPosition (P): positioning and/or orienting an object in the defined location.\nUse (U): manipulate a tool in the intended way during the course working.\nAssemble (A): joining two parts together.\nDisassemble (DA): separating multiple components that were joined.\nSearch (Sh): attempting to find an object using the eyes and hands.\nSelect (St): choosing among several objects in a group.\nPlan (Pn): deciding on a course of action.\nInspect (I): determining the quality or the characteristics of an object using the eyes and/or other senses.\nUnavoidable delay (UD): waiting due to factors beyond the worker&apos;s control and included in the work cycle.\nAvoidable delay (AD): waiting within the worker&apos;s control causes idleness that is not included in the regular work cycle.\nRest to over come a fatigue (R): resting to overcome a fatigue, consisting of a pause in the motions of the hands and/or body during the work cycles or between them.\nFind: A momentary mental reaction at the end of the Search cycle. Seldom used.\n\nExample Usage\nHere is an example of how therbligs can be used to analyze motion:[1]\n...Suppose a man goes into a bathroom and shave. We&apos;ll assume that his face is all lathered and that he is ready to pick up his razor. He knows where the razor is, but first he must locate it with his eye. That is &quot;search&quot;, the first Therblig. His eye finds it and comes to rest -- that&apos;s &quot;find&quot;, the second Therblig. Third comes &quot;select&quot;, the process of sliding the razor prior to the fourth Therblig, &quot;grasp.&quot; Fifth is &quot;transport loaded,&quot; bringing the razor up to his face, and sixth is &quot;position,&quot; getting the razor set on his face. There are eleven other Therbligs -- the last one is &quot;think&quot;!\n&amp;#x2014;Frank Gilbreth, Jr. and Ernestine Gilbreth Carey,&amp;#xA0;Cheaper By the Dozen\n\n\n
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• Near Miss theory -- Journal of Gambhng Behavior, Vol. 2(1), Spring/Summer &amp;#xA9;1986 Human Sciences Press (http://stat-www.berkeley.edu/~aldous/157/Papers/near_miss.pdf)\n\nThe Near miss theory claims that in gambling and lottery a player is much more likely to repeat certain tasks if he has a feeling that he was almost successful and that the reward has just only slipped through his fingers.\n\nA combination of Skinner&amp;#x2019;s conditioning studies along with the Near Miss Theory is what we are researching and implementing with PlayRocket:\n\n- An employee in a call center gets points/coins for doing his everyday routine.\n\n- Withe the earned points he can buy &amp;#x201C;diggs&amp;#x201D; in the magical Playrocket garden and search for rewards such as a free coffee from the office vending machine, a free ticket for 1 hour of work, more points for more digging etc.\n\nMoreover we provide the &amp;#x201C;player&amp;#x201D; with a notification -- if he has missed and is close to a reward, we notify him, that he has missed a free coffee for just 3 squares with the purpose of giving the employee the motivation to try again.\n
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• #We believe that for successful &amp;#xA0;use of gaming elements in real life and work:\n\n- Each subject to be gamified has to be studied in detail and case by case\n\n- You have to understand the specific goals of each case -- i.e. you have to predict specific user behaviour and determine upfront, what is the behaviour you want to trigger\n\n#In addition to common gamification elements, pertinent to each case you have to research and implement:\n\n- specific rewards and achievements\n\n- adjust the design according to the demographics and the environment (work, entertainment, male, female etc.)\n
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• ### Transcript

• 2. GamiﬁcationElements usually found in games used in “serious” contexts.
• 3. Gamiﬁcation“Modern User Interface Design”
• 4. Check in to earn points & badges
• 5. Check in to, perform challenges to earn real-life rewards
• 7. Health care
• 8. Health care
• 9. Health care
• 10. Education
• 11. Education
• 12. “Education”
• 13. Can anything be turned into a game?
• 14. Anything that can be measuredcan be made into a game. - Jesse Schell
• 15. Games have become the only place in lifewhere utopian promises, incl. meritocracy and a free market, are truly kept. - McKenzie Wark
• 17. Workorganizational purpose unclear organizational purpose unclear lackinspiration lack of of inspiration individual goals uncertain individual goals uncertainfeedback missing or confusing feedback missing or confusing skills <> challenges skills <> challenges lack of control over work lack of control over work
• 18. Workorganizational purpose unclear lack of inspiration Too easygoals uncertain individual vs. too hardfeedback missing or confusing skills <> challenges lack of control over work
• 19. Gamers already perform every category of information work imaginable - all in the course of digital play.
• 20. Play is not the opposite of work Command Engage workers
• 21. Mihaly Czikszentmihaly Flow
• 22. Call Center Work
• 23. Outbound Call CenterMax number of calls per day Grinding Reach daily goals Boring & repetitive
• 24. Outbound Call Center Hit “pause” to go to the toilet Breaks deducted from salaryHigh pressure, negative motivation
• 25. Assembly line mentalityTherblig (Gilbreth in reverse) Industry psychology
• 26. My progress: 23%100% = daily quota deﬁned by manager# successful calls / daily quota
• 27. Team progress: My progress: 23% 34 %100% = total daily quota# successful calls / daily quota
• 28. Operators earn badgesExample200 calls per dayBest morning performanceFirst to start calling
• 29. 550Operators earn pointsExampleAny call = 1 pointSuccessful call = 15 pointsConversion (sale) = 60 points
• 30. 550Virtual currencyOperators spend theirvirtual gold insidethe game environment.
• 31. Avatars & Mirror Neurons
• 32. Avatars & Balanced Communication Style Extroverts become less extrovert Introverts become less introvert
• 33. John Bateman Team progress: 32 %WORK SECRET GARDEN Hide 4 My progress: 33%550 coupons
• 34. John Bateman Team progress: 32 %WORK SECRET GARDEN Hide 4 My progress: 33%550 coupons Customize your avatar Eyes Hair Extras My color Save
• 35. Customize your avatar Eyes Hair Extras Custom player appearanceEach player picks their color My color Save
• 36. Fields contain hidden coupons
• 38. Coupons for real rewards30 minutes offfree coffeelunch at a restaurantvending machine credit
• 40. Events - calls, sign-in, sign-outGoals - max calls, max salesGoal progress - % completeRewards - golden coinsAchievements - badgesGame world - marketplace for coins
• 41. CustomizableDefine the conditions for a reward/achievement:- event tracked- time span (morning, afternoon, from-to hours)- consecutive, every n-th occurence- individual, competitive, team
• 42. Findings: BehaviorCause & EffectBetter feedbackOperators can follow their own progressRewards are less subjective, more fair
• 43. Call Center ManagersCall Center: KPI driven businessManagers appreciate the extra statsMore granularityDynamic goal settingBuilds on their existing strategies.No really new concepts.
• 44. AdjustmentsMy progress: 33 / 100 (33%) vs.My progress: 33%
• 45. FutureGarden grows based on progressPlants, objects, buildings Feeling of growth, accomplishment
• 46. Future My progress: 33%Item growth on goal completionA new item grows for each completed goalGarden ownershipShowing off the garden to other offices
• 47. FutureAvatar customizationSpecial items awarded randomlyor when reaching levelsScarcity - each item unique
• 48. What about boring hard work?Stress.Distractions.Multi-tasking.Information overload.Work needs a better economy.It helps the company. But how does it help me?
• 49. What about boring hard work?AutonomyMasteryPurposeGroups benefit when tacit knowledgemorphs into explicit knowledge.
• 50. Play is facilitated when complex tasks are broken into more manageable units.
• 51. The Future of “Gamiﬁcation”“Just adding points” is not enough.Understand the environment.Use and reinforce existing positivebehavior.Application + consulting
• 52. Extrinsic motivationBadges, points, progress bars, salaryCompelled
• 53. Intrinsic motivationchallenge + curiosity + control + fantasy +competition + cooperation + recognition + progress Engaged
• 54. Extrinsic vs. IntrinsicI get paid but the project never launches.
• 55. Extrinsic vs. IntrinsicWith non-trivial tasks, extrinsic motivation alone can have a negative effect on productivity. - FED (US), LBS (UK Business School)
• 56. Mechanics < Game
• 57. Mechanics + aesthetics + technology + story
• 58. The real work begins after launchObserving behavior.Balancing.Fine-tuning.Setting goals.Reward schedules.(like with social games)
• 59. Games set their players goals and then make attaining these goals interestingly hard. - Margaret Robertson
• 60. Games are engagement engines. To design a game is to takesome thing - some basic enjoyable and/or satisfying interaction - and carefully apply rules to help players maximize the enjoyment and/or satisfaction they have with the interaction. - Josh Knowles
• 61. Games are not fun because they are games. They are fun when they are well-designed. - Sebastian Deterding
• 62. Our best moments - those we say we enjoy the most - occur when we’re voluntarily trying to accomplish something difficult for which we have the right skills. - Mihaly Czikszentmihalyi