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From search to discovery: Information search strategies and design solutions
 

From search to discovery: Information search strategies and design solutions

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Understanding human information-seeking strategies and their implications for design

Understanding human information-seeking strategies and their implications for design

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    From search to discovery: Information search strategies and design solutions From search to discovery: Information search strategies and design solutions Presentation Transcript

    • Tony Russell-Rose, PhDUXLabs Ltd + City University London
    •  The landscape of search A framework for design  Dimensions of search user experience  Patterns of search behaviour Lessons from the field Design resources Conclusions 2
    • Understanding the territory 3
    • Web Search  Key differences• Multiple engines  Rich link structure• Single source  Redundancy  Adversarial search & spamEnterprise search• Single engine  User goals & tasks• Multiple sources 4
    • 5
    • Disciplines and dimensions 6
    • How it worksDesign How it looks • User interface designResearch • Information architecture • Visual design • Interaction design Design Process • User-centred design 7
    • How should we present mixedcontent results to help users discoverthe most relevant and useful items? 8
    • Where should the FacetedNavigation menu be located andhow should it be organised? 9
    • User Type Objective Assets Mode of Discovery Electronics Engineer  “Find part #35456…”  Products  Analyzing Purchasing Agent  “Discover compatible  Rich Media  Comparing Novice Shopper parts …”  Textual Info  Evaluating Technical Enthusiast  “Understand part  Relationships  Exploring… obsolescence …”  Community  Locating … … … 10
    • Users vary in their level of knowledge, confidence & attitude Novice KNOWLEDGE Expert Uncertain CONFIDENCE Confident NoviceCasual Purchasing Maintenance Tech Electronics News ShopperNews Agent Technician Enthusiast Engineer Analyst Reader 11
    • Objectives vary in breadth & complexity I need to discover I want to buy shoes compatible parts that match my for my that work We want an affordable need to II need want to buy I to find interview suit assembly entertainment systemunderstand partpart number Harry the new for our family obsolescence & Potter book2335456 manage our risks BREADTH Focused Broad Simple Complex COMPLEXITY Electronics Novice Engineer Shopper 12
    • Simple COMPLEXITY Highly FacetedHomogeneous Diverse 13
    • Marchionini, 2006 • Lookup • Learn • InvestigateSpencer, 2006 Morville, 2010• Known-item • Quit• Exploratory • Narrow• Don’t know what • Expand you need to know • Pearl-growing• Re-finding • Pogo-sticking • Thrashing 14
    • Locating Verifying Monitoring Comparing Comprehending ExploringScenarios 15
    • • To find a specific (possibly known) item Locating • e.g. I need to find a new part with particular technical attributes and then source it from the most qualified supplier – Engineering • To confirm or substantiate that an item or set of items meetsVerifying some specific criterion • e.g. How can I determine if I am looking at the latest information for a part or supplier? - Supply Chain Specialist • To maintain awareness of the status of an item or data set forMonitoring purposes of management or control • e.g. I need to monitor at risk/failing customers/dealers so I can prompt my Account Reps to fix the problems - Sales Manager 16
    • • To examine two or more items to identify similarities & differences Comparing • e.g. I need to compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality – Engineering • To generate insight by understanding the nature or meaning of an item or data setComprehending • e.g. I need to analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan – Director, Brand Image • To proactively investigate or examine an item or data set for the purpose of serendipitous knowledge discovery Exploring • e.g. I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices - Procurement 17
    • • To critically examine the detail of an item or data set to identify patterns & relationships Analyzing • e.g. I need to know the cost drivers for a part such as materials that impact cost. Is the relationship a correlation or step function for a part cost driver? – Engineering • To use judgement to determine the significance or value of an item or data set with respect to a specific benchmark or model Evaluating • e.g. I need to determine my current state in my prints so I can evaluate if I have price variation to negotiate a better price – Procurement • To generate or communicate insight by integrating diverse inputs toSynthesizing create a novel artefact or composite view • e.g. I need to prepare a weekly report for my boss (sales mgr) of how things are going - Account Rep 18
    • Lookup • Locating • Verifying • MonitoringInvestigate Learn• Analyzing • Comparing• Evaluating • Comprehending• Synthesizing • Exploring 19
    • Mode chains and sequences 20
    • Analyzing Comparing Evaluating Core Engineer: Identify parts used for same function as candidates for commonization and complexity reduction Engineering: Replace a problematic part (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) with an equivalent or better part without compromising quality and cost. Engineering: Compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality. Portfolio Manager: Compare a leads performance claims with relevant benchmarks to assess the leads claims Procurement: See the difference between what we are spending and what we should be spending to maximize savings (between actual PO and should costs). Cost Estimators: Analyze & understand gaps between current costs of commodity versus best in class manufacturing costs 21
    • Exploring Analyzing Evaluating Core Engineer: Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts District Manager: Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross sell; promotional targets Category Manager: Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we be making/selling? Brand Manager: Identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products Core Buyer: Determine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements Program Administrator: Identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems 22
    • Analyzing Comprehending Evaluating Engineering: Track module cost versus functionality over time to determine trends. Engineering: Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I should replace that part. Portfolio Manager: Understand a leads underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity Portfolio Manager: Understand a portfolios exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix Procurement: I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices. 23
    • Monitoring Analyzing Evaluating SVP Sales: Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division Supervisor/Inspector: Monitor and grade incoming incidents; close incidents, add incident close codes Core Engineer: Monitor global commodity use in relation to plan/guidelines to identify gaps that require corrective action District Manager: Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division Brand Manager: Monitor & evaluate how our brand is performing in re: revenue, margin, and market share targets Financial Analyst: Monitor & assess commodity status against strategy/plan/target 24
    • Analyzing Comparing Synthesizing Director, Brand Image: Analyze and understand consumer- customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan Engineering: Find out how many parts I have in my module set of parts and find ways to reduce cost across them Core Buyer: Formulate scope & strategy for sourcing and gap closure Brand Image Analyst: Analyze and understand a market: marketer network, competitive position, customer sat, & share, etc. to inform brand strategy and communications plan 25
    • VerifyingAnalyzing Comprehending Synthesizing Comparing EvaluatingMonitoring AnalyzingExploring 26
    • Borrowing ideas and best practices 27
    •  eCommerce users least prepared to compromise  Competition is only one click awayConsumer ease of use Power of enterprise applications 28
    • Lookup • Locating • Verifying • MonitoringInvestigate Learn• Analyzing • Comparing• Evaluating • Comprehending• Synthesizing • Exploring 29
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    • Building on the foundations 45
    • Identify need for Identify the people who will human-centred design use the product, what they will use it for, and under what conditions they will use itEvaluation — ideally throughusability testing with actual users — is as integral as Understand & specify quality testing is to good software development context of use System satisfies Evaluate and modify specified requirements Specify requirements designs to drive design Build in stages, from Identify the business rough concepts to a Produce design solutions requirements and user goals complete design which meet requirements that must be met for the product to be successful * ISO 13407: Human centred design processes for interactive systems (to be renamed as ISO 9241-210) 46
    • 47
    • Welie 48
    • Final thoughts and questions 49
    • Don’t think user interface…• …think user experienceIdentify patterns of search behaviour• Model discovery modes & workflowsLearn from other search contexts• Explore ideas from the wider search landscapeStand on the shoulders of giants• Use proven design processes, methodologies & resources 50
    • Tony Russell-Rose, PhD Vice-chair, BCS IRSG Chair, IEHF HCI Group Email: tgr@uxlabs.co.uk Blog: http://isquared.wordpress.com LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/tonyrussellrose/ Twitter: @tonygrr 51