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A Taxonomy of Site Search

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Classic IR (information retrieval) is predicated on the notion of users searching for information in order to satisfy a particular ‘information need’. However, much of what we recognise as search ...

Classic IR (information retrieval) is predicated on the notion of users searching for information in order to satisfy a particular ‘information need’. However, much of what we recognise as search behaviour is often not informational per se. In this presentation, we examine the behaviour of individuals across a range of site search scenarios, and define a taxonomy of fundamental behaviours or 'search modes'. We compare these with a comparable set of modes derived from the domain of enterprise search, and examine some of the key differences between the two. We also discuss some initial implications and techniques for the design of more effective site search experiences.

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  • c/o Grounded Theory
  • Also List Inlay (e.g. Google reader)? How about hit highlighting?
  • Citation maps, Concept maps, summariesTyler learning styles docGeospatial / water example
  • Also addGrouping of similar results: structured results, a la NCSU libraries?

A Taxonomy of Site Search A Taxonomy of Site Search Presentation Transcript

  • Tony Russell-Rose, UXLabsStephann Makri, UCL
  •  The information-seeking process  Models and frameworks  Search strategies and tactics Patterns of search behaviour  Enterprise Search  Site Search Design patterns Conclusions UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 2
  • Models and frameworks UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 3
  • Query Refinement Standard Model  Broder 2002 Task Information Need Verbal form Query Search Engine Results  Sutcliffe & Ennis 1998 Documents Cognitive Model  Norman 1988, Marchioni 1989 Dynamic Model External World  Bates 1989, O‘ Day and Jeffries 1993 UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 4
  • • to keep a search on track and Monitoring efficientInformation • for navigating through the file or link structure structure of the individual resources Query • to support the overall query orreformulation search specification) • to aid the selection of words or Term phrases in the current query UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 5
  • Search Modes • Monitoring a known topic or set of variables over time • Following a specific plan for information gathering • Exploring a topic in an undirected fashionAnalysis Techniques • Looking for trends or correlations • Making comparisons • Experimenting with different aggregations/scaling • Identifying critical subsets • Making assessments • Interpreting data to find meaning UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 6
  • Original Model• Starting: activities associated with the initial search for information• Chaining: following citation chains• Browsing: semi-directed searches• Differentiating: filtering the material examined• Monitoring: maintaining awareness• Extracting: working thru a source to locate material of interestAdditions• Verifying: checking accuracy of information• Ending: activities associated with the end of a project UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 7
  • Navigational • to reach a particular site • to acquire information assumed to beInformational present on one or more web pages • to perform some web-mediatedTransactional activity Resource • to get access to an online resource UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 8
  • UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 9
  • Search modes and chains UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 10
  • Academic • Bates • Ellis • MarchioniniPractitioner Data-driven• Morville• Spencer • Enterprise search• Lamantia • Site search UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 11
  •  104 scenarios gathered thru professional services engagements  e.g. I need to understand the cost drivers for a commodity so I can negotiate better terms with suppliers Generated by end users / stakeholders  Moderated and prioritised in requirements workshops Represent user needs  Not limited by current systems  Self-reported (not inferred from interview transcripts) Consistent analysis: Grounded Theory  Iterative coding / re-coding  Excluded ‘non-discovery’ scenarios UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 12
  • Locating Verifying Monitoring Comparing Comprehending ExploringScenarios UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 13
  • Lookup • Locating • Verifying • MonitoringInvestigate Learn• Analyzing • Comparing• Evaluating • Comprehending• Synthesizing • Exploring UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 14
  • • Find a specific (possibly known) itemLocate • Find a new part with particular technical attributes – Engineering • Confirm that an item meets some specific, objectiveVerify criterion • Ensure all data in the fund attributes table is accurate and up to date – Quantitative Analyst • Maintain awareness of the status of an item for purposesMonitor of management or control • Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division – District Manager UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 15
  • • To identify similarities & differences between a set of items Compare • Compare a leads performance claims with relevant benchmarks – Portfolio Manager • To generate independent insight by understanding the patterns within a data setComprehend • Understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers - Procurement • To investigate an item or data set for the purpose of knowledge discovery Explore • Identify sales opportunities and targets – District Manager UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 16
  • • To examine an item or data set to identify patterns & relationships Analyze • Analyze expected cost impact of proposed strategies/actions – Cost Estimator • To use judgement to determine the value of an item with respect to a specific goal Evaluate • Assess leads for potential to build portfolio – Department Lead • To create a novel or composite artefact from diverse inputsSynthesize • Formulate scope & strategy for sourcing and gap closure – Core Buyer UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 17
  •  Emphasis on Analyze (72) and Evaluate (67)  Locate represents a tiny fraction of all needs (2)  (Baseline = 242 instances) Search behaviour is not random  Framework captures common patterns  Repeating sequences of 2 or 3 modes  Composite chains (nested) UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 18
  • VerifyAnalyze Comprehend Synthesize Compare EvaluateMonitor AnalyzeExplore UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 19
  •  Comparison-driven search (analyze-compare-evaluate)  Engineering: Compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive Exploration-driven search (explore-analyze-evaluate)  Core Engineer: Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts Strategic insight (analyze-comprehend-evaluate)  Engineering: Track module cost versus functionality over time to determine trends Strategic oversight (monitor-analyze-evaluate)  Financial Analyst: Monitor & assess commodity status against strategy/plan/target UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 20
  •  Methodology as before  277 site search scenarios Emphasis on Locate (121) and Explore (109)  Synthesize represents a tiny fraction (2)  (Baseline = 454 instances) Search behaviour is not random UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 21
  • Explore Analyze Comprehend Comprehend Locate Evaluate Verify UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 22
  •  Explore -> Analyze -> Comprehend (44/97)  Assess the proper market value for my car  Understand what my competitors are selling Explore -> Locate -> Evaluate (31/97)  Find useful stuff on my subject topic  I want to find best offers before the others do so I can have a high margin Locate -> Verify (29/56)  Find out if a specific book is available in the library  Find a van that meets a customers requirements UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 23
  •  Greater emphasis on ‘Lookup’ modes  Locate, Verify Less emphasis on ‘Investigate’ modes  Analyze, Evaluate Much flatter distribution  Shorter chains  Less embedding UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 24
  • Support for search modes UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 25
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  • Summary and future work 36
  • Search modes and patterns• A lens for understanding information-seeking behaviour• A framework for designSite Search vs. Enterprise Search• Same modes but different patterns• Different priorities: lookup vs. investigateFurther Work• Refine and validate process• Extend framework to other data sources UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 37
  •  Coming soon … Morgan Kaufmann, late 2012
  •  M.J. Bates. Information search tactics. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 30(4):205–214, 1979 A. Broder. A taxonomy of web search. SIGIR Forum, 36(2):3–10, 2002 D. Ellis. A behavioural model for information retrieval system design. Journal of Information Science, 15:237–247, 1989 Gary Marchionini. Information Seeking in Electronic Environments. Cambridge University Press, 1995 D.A. Norman. The Psychology of Everyday Things. Basic Books, New York, 1988 Vicki L. ODay and Robin Jeffries. Orienteering in an information landscape: how information seekers get from here to there. In Proceedings of the INTERCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI93), Amsterdam, April 1993 D.E. Rose and D. Levinson. Understanding User Goals In Web Search. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on World Wide Web (WWW04), pages 13–19, 2004 A.G. Sutcliffe and M. Ennis. Towards a cognitive theory of information retrieval. Interacting with Computers, 10:321–351, 1998 UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 39
  • Tony Russell-Rose, PhDDirector, UXLabs Web: http://uxlabs.co.uk Email: tgr@uxlabs.co.uk Blog: http://isquared.wordpress.com LinkedIn: http://uk.linkedin.com/in/tonyrussellrose Twitter: @tonygrr UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 40