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  • 1. Human, Computer and Vulnerability 작성자 :서승현(20113920) tgnice@nchovy.com 1
  • 2. Table of Contents 1. Background …………….…………………………………………………………………………………. 4 1.1 IT Trend ……….……………………………………………………………………………………... 5 1.2 Prediction ..…………………………………………………………………………………..…….. 8 1.3 Benchmarking ….…………………………………………………………………………………. 10 1.4 What They Do .......………………………………………………………………………………. 11 1.5 CES 2012 ………….…………………………………………………………………………………. 14 2. What is Profiling …….…………………………………………………………………………………. 15 2.1 Definition …….……………………………………………………………………………………... 16 2.2 Type of Profiling ………………………………………………………………………………….. 17 2.3 Different View ……………………………………………………………………………..…….. 18 2.4 Expectation …………………………………………………………………………………..…….. 19 3. Why Do We Profiling …………………………………………………………………………………. 20 3.1 Origins ..………………………………………………………………………………………..……. 21 3.2 Present .………………………………………………………………………………………..……. 22 3.3 Future ………………………………………………………………………………….........……. 24 4. Mobile User Profiling …………………………………………………………………................ 25 4.1 Context Aware ………………………………………………………………………............... 26 4.2 Set of Raw Data ……………………………………………………………………............... 28 4.3 Extract Attribute ………………………………………………………………………………... 30 4.4 Constraints …………………………………………………………………………………………. 31 2
  • 3. Table of Contents 5. Intelligence ……………………………………………………………………………………………..... 32 5.1 Introduce …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33 5.2 Intellectual Intelligence.………………………………………………………………………. 34 5.3 Emotional Intelligence ……………………………………………………………………….. 35 5.4 Qualified Intelligence …………………………………………………………………………. 36 6. Related Works ……………………………………………………………………………………........ 37 6.1 Web Profiling……………………………………………………………………………………….. 38 6.2 Location Sensing………………………………………………………………………………….. 39 6.3 Energy Efficiency………………………………………………………………………………….. 40 6.4 Emotion Sensing …………………………………………………………………………………. 41 6.5 Privacy ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 43 7. Approach ………………………..…………………………………………………………………......... 44 7.1 Privacy Problem ..…………………………………………………………………................ 45 7.2 User Profiling ..………………………………………………………………………............... 46 7.3 Research Goal .………………………………………………………………………............... 48 Appendix 49 References 59 3
  • 4. 4
  • 5. 0. Speaker Profile (2007. 11 ~ 2010. 12)  nchovy team in INZEN Security  Nchovy.com Foundation Member  Krakenapps.org Committer  IDS Neowatcher Maintainer  Malware, Exploit Analysis  Security Group Chief (2011. 02 ~ 2011. 12)  Freelance at Future System , Itnade Conference  2008.02 PADOCON Spoofing & Scanning Certification  CCNP  LPIC  CISA 5
  • 6. 6
  • 7. 1. Prologue 1.1 Are you Safe? 7
  • 8. 1. Prologue 1.2 Do You Know? 8
  • 9. 1. Prologue 1.2 Do You Know? 9
  • 10. 1. Prologue 1.3 Cyber Attack 10
  • 11. 1. Prologue 1.4 Threat 11
  • 12. 1. Prologue 1.5 We Need This? 12
  • 13. 13
  • 14. 2. Hackers 2.1 History Hacking has been around for more than a century. In the 1870s, several teenagers were flung off the countrys brand new phone system by enraged authorities University facilities with huge mainframe computers, like MITs artificial intelligence lab, become staging grounds for hackers. At first, "hacker" was a positive term for a person with a mastery of computers who could push programs beyond what they were designed to do. John Draper makes a long-distance call for free by blowing a precise tone into a telephone that tells the phone system to open a line. Draper discovered the whistle as a give-away in a box of childrens cereal 14
  • 15. 2. Hackers 2.1 History Two members of Californias Homebrew Computer Club begin making "blue boxes," devices used to hack into the phone system. The members, who adopt handles "Berkeley Blue" (Steve Jobs) and "Oak Toebark" (Steve Wozniak), later go on to found Apple Computer. Morris, Son of former National Security Agency scientist Robert Morris, is known as the creator of the Morris Worm, the first computer worm to be unleashed on the Internet. As a result of this crime, he was the first person prosecuted under the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. 15
  • 16. 2. Hackers 2.1 History Kevin Mitnick secretly monitors the e-mail of MCI and Digital Equipment security officials. He is arrested (again), N.C., after he is tracked down via computer by Tsutomu Shimomura at the San Diego Supercomputer Center. Tsutomu Shimomura is a senior fellow at the San Diego Supercomputer Center, where he works on problems in areas as diverse as computational physics and computer security. In February 1995 he helped several online service and Internet companies track down computer outlaw Kevin Mitnick. 16
  • 17. 2. Hackers 2.2 Now 17
  • 18. 2. Hackers 2.2 Now 18
  • 19. 2. Hackers 2.3 Kind of 19
  • 20. 2. Hackers 2.4 Near Enemy 20
  • 21. 21
  • 22. 3. Information Security 3.1 Definitions Protecting information and information systems from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, perusal, inspection, recording or destruction Computer security and information assurance are frequently used interchangeably Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability Plus Accountability(Non-Repudiation) Process, Risk Management, BCP/DRP 22
  • 23. 3. Information Security 3.2 Attributes Confidentiality  used to prevent the disclosure of information to unauthorized individuals or systems Integrity  means that data cannot be modified undetectably. This is not the same thing as referential integrity in databases Availability  A requirement intended to assure that systems work promptly and service is not denied to authorized users Accountability(Non-Repudiation)  The requirement that actions of an entity may be traced uniquely to that entity. 23
  • 24. 3. Information Security 3.3 Risk Management Risk management is the identification, assessment, and prioritization of risks (defined in ISO 31000 as the effect of uncertainty on objectives, whether positive or negative) followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities Composite Risk Index = Impact of Risk event x Probability of Occurrence 24
  • 25. 3. Information Security 3.4 Process Security Governance  The Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, in a publication titled "Governing for Enterprise Security (GES)", defines characteristics of effective security governance Incident Response Plans  computer security incident management involves the monitoring and detection of security events on a computer or computer network, and the execution of proper responses to those events Change Management  Change management is an IT service management discipline. The objective of change management in this context is to ensure that standardized methods and procedures are used for efficient and prompt handling of all changes to control IT infrastructure, in order to minimize the number and impact of any related incidents upon service 25
  • 26. 3. Information Security 3.5 BCP/DRP BCP may be a part of an organizational learning effort that helps reduce operational risk. BCP is working out how to continue operations under adverse conditions that include local events like building fires, theft, and vandalism, regional incidents like earthquakes and floods, and national incidents like pandemic illnesses. Disaster recovery is the process, policies and procedures related to preparing for recovery or continuation of technology infrastructure critical to an organization after a natural or human-induced disaster 26
  • 27. 27
  • 28. 4. Social Engineering 4.1 Survey 28
  • 29. 4. Social Engineering 4.2 Fact 29
  • 30. 4. Social Engineering 4.3 Human Vulnerability 30
  • 31. 4. Social Engineering 4.4 Based on Trust 31
  • 32. 4. Social Engineering 4.5 Physical Security Basic Security Robbery / Access Control Protect Asset from External Threat Include People 32
  • 33. 33
  • 34. 5. Network Hacking 5.1 DoS A denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) or distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS attack) is an attempt to make a computer or network resource unavailable to its intended users Method  Consumption of computational resources, such as bandwidth, disk space, or processor time.  Disruption of configuration information, such as routing information.  Disruption of state information, such as unsolicited resetting of TCP sessions.  Disruption of physical network components.  Obstructing the communication media between the intended users and the victim so that they can no longer communicate adequately. 34
  • 35. 5. Network Hacking 5.2 ARP Spoofing ARP spoofing is a computer hacking technique whereby an attacker sends fake ("spoofed") Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) messages onto a Local Area Network. Even ARP entries which have not yet expired will be overwritten when a new ARP reply packet is received. There is no method in the ARP protocol by which a host can authenticate the peer from which the packet originated. This behavior is the vulnerability which allows ARP spoofing to occur. Defense  Static ARP entries  OS Security 35
  • 36. 5. Network Hacking 5.3 XSS Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of computer insecurity vulnerability typically found in Web applications (such as web browsers through breaches of browser security) that enables attackers to inject client-side script into Web pages viewed by other users. XSS vulnerabilities have been reported and exploited since the 1990s. Prominent sites affected in the past include the social-networking sites Twitter, Facebook, MySpace, and Orkut. 36
  • 37. 37
  • 38. 6. Malware 6.1 Types of Malware 38
  • 39. 6. Malware 6.2 Original Sin 39
  • 40. 6. Malware 6.3 Definition Short for Malicious Software Software designed to disrupt computer operation, gather sensitive information, or gain unauthorized access to computer systems Computer viruses, worms, trojan horses, spyware, adware, most rootkits, and other malicious programs Is not the same as defective software 40
  • 41. 6. Malware 6.4 Infection Called Virus, Worm Many early infectious programs. They were generally intended to be harmless or merely annoying, rather than to cause serious damage to computer systems Before Internet access became widespread, viruses spread on personal computers by infecting the executable boot sectors of floppy disks Virus is used for a program has infected some executable software and, when run, causes the virus to spread to other executables. A worm is a program that actively transmits itself over a network to infect other computers. 41
  • 42. 6. Malware 6.5 Concealment Called Trojan Horses, Rootkit, Backdoor When a malicious program is disguised as something normal or desirable, users may be tempted to install it without realizing it. This is the technique of the Trojan horse or trojan. A rootkit was a set of tools installed by a human attacker on a Unix system, allowing the attacker to gain administrator (root) access A backdoor is a method of bypassing normal authentication procedure 42
  • 43. 43
  • 44. 7. Encryption 7.1 Origins 44
  • 45. 7. Encryption 7.1 Origins A watermark is a recognizable image or pattern in paper that appears as various shades of lightness/darkness when viewed by transmitted light (or when viewed by reflected light, atop a dark background), caused by thickness or density variations in the paper Cryptology From Greek κρυπτός, "hidden, secret" graphein, "writing", or -λογία, -logia, "study", respectively Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one, apart from the sender and intended recipient, suspects the existence of the message, a form of security through obscurity 45
  • 46. 7. Encryption 7.2 Water Marking In philately, the watermark is a key feature of a stamp, and often constitutes the difference between a common and a rare stamp A watermark is very useful in the examination of paper because it can be used for dating, identifying sizes, mill trademarks and locations, and the quality of a paper. Encoding an identifying code into digitized music, video, picture, or other file is known as a digital watermark. 46
  • 47. 7. Encryption 7.3 Cryptography It is about constructing and analyzing protocols that overcome the influence of adversaries and which are related to various aspects in information security such as data confidentiality, data integrity, and authentication. Symmetric-Key Cryptography  DES,AES Public-Key Cryptography  RSA(Ronald Rivest, Adi Shamir, Len Adleman) Cryptanalysis Bruce Schneier 47
  • 48. 7. Encryption 7.4 Steganography The first recorded uses of steganography can be traced back to 440 BC when Herodotus mentions two examples of steganography in his Histories. Steganography includes the concealment of information within computer files. In digital steganography, electronic communications may include steganographic coding inside of a transport layer, such as a document file, image file, program or protocol Steganography is used by some modern printers, including HP and Xerox brand color laser printers. Tiny yellow dots are added to each page. The dots are barely visible and contain encoded printer serial numbers, as well as date and time stamps 48
  • 49. 49
  • 50. 8. Privacy 8.1 Issues 50
  • 51. 8. Privacy 8.1 Latin : Privatus “Separated from the Rest” Want Anonymous  Keyboard Warrior  Debate Sensitive Topic  Social Fatigue  Security Problem(Like Social ID) Do Not Want  Watch Your Behavior  Know Your Feeling  Know Where You Are/Live 51
  • 52. 52
  • 53. 9. Related Works 9.1 Kraken It means Legendary sea monsters of giant proportions said to dwell off the coasts of Norway and Iceland. OSGi Based Network Security Platform Pcap Packet Analysis 53
  • 54. 9. Related Works 9.2 Network Scanning 54
  • 55. 9. Related Works 9.3 Metasploit The Metasploit Project is an open-source, computer security project which provides information about security vulnerabilities and aids in penetration testing and IDS signature development. Its most well-known sub-project is the Metasploit Framework, a tool for developing and executing exploit code against a remote target machine Created by H.D Moore in 2003 Penetration Testing Tool 55
  • 56. 9. Related Works 9.4 Backtrack BackTrack is a distribution based on the Ubuntu GNU/Linux distribution aimed at digital forensics and penetration testing use It is named after backtracking Merged WHAX and Auditor Security Collection Penetration Testing Tool 56
  • 57. 9. Related Works 9.5 Anti Virus is software used to detect and remove computer viruses, as well as many other types of harmful software, collectively referred to as malware. Identification methods  Signature-based detection  Suspicious behavior monitoring  Heuristics 57
  • 58. 58
  • 59. 10. Conclusion Acknowledge 59
  • 60. 10. Conclusion Anxious 60
  • 61. 10. Conclusion Fact 61
  • 62. 10. Conclusion iOS is Not Secure 62
  • 63. 10. Conclusion Process 63
  • 64. 10. Conclusion Password 64
  • 65. 10. Conclusion Did you See? 65
  • 66. 10. Conclusion Deal With Devil 66
  • 67. 10. Conclusion Too Much Anxious? 67
  • 68. 10. Conclusion Is This Right? 68
  • 69. 10. Conclusion Don’t be pirate 69
  • 70. 10. Conclusion Defend Yourself 70
  • 71. 10. Conclusion You cant defend. You cant prevent. The only thing you can do is detect and respond. – Bruce Schneier 71
  • 72. 72
  • 73. Appendix Issues 73
  • 74. Appendix Issues 74
  • 75. Appendix Problem 75
  • 76. Appendix Risk Management 76
  • 77. Appendix Social Engineering Book 77
  • 78. Appendix Information Security Directions 78
  • 79. Appendix Social Engineering Example 79
  • 80. Appendix VB100 Anti-Virus Test 80
  • 81. Appendix Apple’s Security Issue 81
  • 82. Appendix Infection/Attack 82
  • 83. Appendix X-large Password 83
  • 84. Appendix Google’s Technique 84
  • 85. Appendix Example of Steganography 85
  • 86. 86
  • 87. References Papers Hacking : The Art of Exploitation The Art of Deception Social Engineering Authorized translation of the English of Information Security : Principles and Practice(WILEY) Hacking : The Next Generation(O’REILLY) Practical : Cryptography(WILEY) Rootkits : subverting the windows kernel (Addison-Wesley) Malware Forensic(SYGRESS) Professional Penetration Testing(SYGRESS) Botnet Detection(Springer) Malware Detection(Springer) 87
  • 88. References Keyword Information Security Virus Bulletin Malware Trojan Worm Botnet Steganography DES,3DES,AES,RSA DoS, DDoS Hacker Cyber Attack Lulz Sec, Anonymous(Hacker Group), Anti-Sec RSA 88
  • 89. 89