Gaskins 1Taylor GaskinsMs. LesterAdvanced Composition11 October 2011                                          Research Pap...
Gaskins 2Department of Labor, “Civil engineers use methods, techniques, and principles of civilengineering technology” (De...
Gaskins 3the requirements for the geometry of a building is to rely on standards such as the DIN-18202”(Schwieger 1). CM 1...
Gaskins 4now the strong focus of professionals” (Schwieger 1). Having professionals focus more onquality is very good for ...
Gaskins 5incorrect then time and money are wasted. If other issues such as rework and cycle time can befixed, then more mo...
Gaskins 6solution because there is no better way to insure that rising engineers will be the best possiblethan to begin te...
Gaskins 7very promising outlook for civil engineering. It also hints at what is to come; by sayingenvironmental stewards s...
Gaskins 8have already been required for all future engineers to take. Overall, Civil engineering presents avery promising ...
Gaskins 9                                       Works Cited        Ahem, A, University College Dublin “Problem Based Learn...
Gaskins 10      Morrison, Dennis, American Society of Civil Engineers. “Vision of Civil Engineering in                    ...
Gaskins 11Schwieger, Volker, University of Stuttgart.“Modeling Quality for civil engineers”.Nd.            http://web.ebsc...
Gaskins 12
Gaskins 13
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Research paper

  1. 1. Gaskins 1Taylor GaskinsMs. LesterAdvanced Composition11 October 2011 Research Paper Civil engineering has been one of the most promising engineering fields available today.Despite the fact, have the economic times affected the outlook for this career, and if so havemeasures been taken to help support this vital occupation? This career is important because it’sresponsible for the design, construction, and maintenance of projects. Such projects wouldinclude the building of roads, bridges, buildings. Infrastructure in America is crumbling whileour greatest competition as a world power, china is building high class roads, bridges andbuildings. If America is to regain its world dominance in infrastructure, civil engineering mustimprove education, work efficacy, and product quality. Civil engineering in the 21st century involves working with difficult machinery andproblems in a busy work area.As stated best from Volker Schwieger, the author of modelingquality for civil engineers, “Civil engineering is a multi complex field that is defined by thebasis of characteristics and parameters” (Schwieger 1). Engineers face complex problems withno definite answers on a daily basis, such as how to construct an arched bridge out of stone thatwill support the weight of constant activity and be protected from the element. The majordifferential between engineering fields and other occupational fields is that engineers are neverfaced with the same problem day after day.William LeMessurier, for example, designed theCiticorp building, the Boston City Hall, and the Dallas Main Center. As stated by the American
  2. 2. Gaskins 2Department of Labor, “Civil engineers use methods, techniques, and principles of civilengineering technology” (Dept. of Labor). Since the world is becoming more advanced everyyear, civil engineers have to be able to work with and understand the new technologies andmethods that are being produced.This can require engineers to go back to school in order to“update” their skills every two to three years. These skills allow engineers to be able to design long lasting functional projects, just likethey were doing hundreds of years ago. A great example of this is Francois Hemebique, “ InParis, Francois Hemebique designed and built the first reinforced concrete frame that is still inuse today” (Aldea 2).Little did Francois know at the time that he would still be rememberedtoday as one of the first civil engineers. The planning that he put forth to create a project that getsthe job done and still be in functional use today are the main procedures that all civil engineerstry to achieve still. Francois was as great of a civil engineer as he was, because of all themathematical contributions he published in his life, “His activity was remarkable, by publishing21 papers and 21 notes on algebra, 7 papers and 12 notes on geometry and proposed 626problems” ( Aldea 2). All disciples of engineering have a core of math and science. In order tobecome a good civil engineer it is important to learn and understand everything that will bebeneficial. While the amount of information that Francois put forth is on an extreme, it provesthe fact that mathematics is a required skill for this profession. By having a firm understandingof the math behind engineering, it will be much easier to visualize the project as a grid. As statedby Modeling quality for engineers, “The size and shape of a building component and its locationwithin a coordinate system are represented by nominal sizes in plans” (Schwieger 1). Our greaterunderstanding of mathematical processes today allows us to draw out an accurate. On civilengineering projects today, engineers have to work with a different set of standards, “Defining
  3. 3. Gaskins 3the requirements for the geometry of a building is to rely on standards such as the DIN-18202”(Schwieger 1). CM 1: The DIN -18202 is a guide line for the procedures civil engineers mustfollow during construction. These standards are put into place to try and improve theproductivity of civil engineering, as well as improve the safety of all workers present on the jobsite. New standards, like the DIN-18202, are put in to place more frequently now because of themore complex projects being undertaken. Stephen Ressler explains this the best, “ Engineers willbe expected to be able to work in large number teams, as well as be up to date on all newtechnologies” ( Ressler 1). People are always trying to build things bigger and better; thereforethey are going to need a lot of skilled people to work on a project at one time. Over time civilengineers have progressed from being able to build a wooden bridge to constructing a 250 storysky scraper that holds thousands of people and is resistant to almost everything mother earth canthrow at it. Having a firm understanding of the meaning behind civil engineering makes it lesscomplex to examine the impact that recent changes have played in this career field. Civil Engineering is in the decline today because of the lack of education and sloppinessin communication flow. In order to keep up with the fast growing use of technology, it has beenput on to the teachers to educate the youth with problem based learning, “Teacher’s role tomotivate and facilitate learning in the classroom, but at the same time, it is the role of the studentto learn and participate” (Ahem 1). This is a positive change in that problem based learning is avery vital skill not only to engineering, but also to everyday life. By teaching kids this skillearlier on in their educational career, they will be more confident to handle unknown situations.Being able to look at situations with a problem based view allows one to find most if not allpotential errors with a finished product. This is explained best by modeling quality for civilengineers, “Due to increasing complexity of products and customer attention, quality issues are
  4. 4. Gaskins 4now the strong focus of professionals” (Schwieger 1). Having professionals focus more onquality is very good for the consumer because it means that all finished products will have beenreviewed more thoroughly to insure satisfaction.The one fault with this statement is that becausemore focus is being put on to quality the longer it will take to complete the project and moneythat is wasted while a project is being surveyed. While the labor behind Civil engineering isbecoming better, the field as a whole has become less diverse, “Engineering majors in generalhad the highest concentration of men, 84%”(Landers 1). Civil engineering has always had ahigher percentage of men than women, since it is a very physically challenging career as well.This is seen as a negative impact by some people in that civil engineering gets the reputation as a“men only job”.A positive impact to this career is that mathematics is now more highlyrecognized, “Mathematics is a key point for civil engineering that now has a fundamentalposition in the admission exam” (Aldea 1).By making math a more main focus on the admissionexam, narrows down the people who will be able to get into the field.This is found to be apositive impact in that the bar has been raised for civil engineering. Future engineers now haveto work harder and train better in order to get accepted.The increase in standards has led to civilengineers becoming the 4th highest trained engineer, “On average Civil engineers are the 4thhighest trained, behind nuclear, aerospace, and mechanical engineers” (Landers 1). This is threeplaces higher on the list compared to the 2007 ranking of 7th. It is apparent that, for the most part,civil engineering is looking to be a very promising engineering field. One major negative impactto civil engineering is the un-continual flow of information, “Achieving smooth flow ofinformation among teams of designers is a central difficulty. Lean flow such as bottlenecks,rework, and cycle time are major issues” (Sacks 1).The continual flow of information is one ofthe most important steps of any construction project. If information is passed in a late manor or is
  5. 5. Gaskins 5incorrect then time and money are wasted. If other issues such as rework and cycle time can befixed, then more money will be saved from not having to remove installed products for repair.Allin all, Civil engineering is taking the right steps to remain a vital importance to our society. For the few problems that have been found in civil engineering, multiple solutions havebeen given to the public. Modeling quality for civil engineers provides a very good example ofmeasures that are being taken to improve the civil engineering field, “This new two-level modelhas: accuracy, correctness, completeness, reliability, timeliness and specialized applicationparameters” (Schwieger 1).The two level models allow training engineers to be as accurate andprecise as modern technology can allow them to be.This solution provides the best possibleanswer to the problems facing civil engineering.As according to the department of labor, “It isimportant for engineers to continue work in their field, even during an economicdepression”(Department of Labor 1).This is a very understandable solution because it is veryeasy to become dull at a skill if one isn’t using it. Working during an off season allows one tostill be up to date on recent changes, as well as still having all processes still fresh in theirhead.Another solution posted by Schwieger is, “areas pertaining to research in physics, algebraor geometry are vital in hopes of landing another engineering related occupation” (Schwieger2).This quote isn’t so much as a solution as it is a protective matter.By insuring that one has abackground in at least one of the fields listed greatly increases the chances of being hired byanother company, if the work force is still in a slow pace. The “Raise the Bar” application isbeing put into use to try to boost education standards for civil engineering. Best explained byStephen Ressler, “The analysis of Policy statement 465…is still contributing to the strength ofthe profession” (Ressler 1). Raise the Bar first began 8 years ago in Massachusetts. It is designedto stress the importance of math and science in children’s education.This is a very valuable
  6. 6. Gaskins 6solution because there is no better way to insure that rising engineers will be the best possiblethan to begin teaching them key aspects of the skills at an early age. The Department of Labor’smain suggestion for engineers to do is to keep up to date with education, “Many engineers find ituseful to continue their education throughout the entire course of their career in order to staycaught up with technology and to ensure that mathematical practices don’t get forgotten overtime” (Department of Labor 2).Education is without a doubt the most important factor that playsinto civil engineering, as well as all other engineering professions. If a Civil engineer is not ableto retain the mathematical formulas they need to complete a job, then they are running high riskof miss calculations, danger to field workers, and project loss. After review it is clear that theonly solution to keeping engineers at the best is to have mandated sessions to review all theimportant functions they will need to carry out a project successfully and in a timely manner. Finally, the future outlook of this profession was determined with the help of manysources. As according to the civil engineering median, “Civil engineering tied with engineeringmechanics, physics, science for ninth- highest median income of $78,000” (Landers 3).78thousand is just the average income, even with a salary of 10 thousand less one would be able tolive comfortably and support a small family.This source provides a very good outlook for civilengineering.However, Landers provides a surprising statistic, “Whites have a median of 80k,compared with 72k for Asians, and 56k for Hispanics” (Landers 2). This is a very surprisingstatistic, because of the vast income difference between races. According to this outlook thefuture for white civil engineers is very good, an 80k salary a year would be more than enough tolive a comfortable life without worries. The American Society of Civil Engineering posted astatement proclaiming, “The world of 2025 will present more challenges, Civil engineers willserve as master builders, environmental stewards, etc…” (Mortenson 1).This statement gives a
  7. 7. Gaskins 7very promising outlook for civil engineering. It also hints at what is to come; by sayingenvironmental stewards suggests that civil engineers will soon have a role in constructinggreener or environmentally friendly buildings. A fault with this source is that it says civilengineers will be master builders. This is the same as they are today and have been since the firstorganized construction project took place.Stephen Ressler, the writer for “Raise the Bar”, posted,“Civil engineering is expected to have an 11% employment growth by the year 2018” (Ressler2). This is a very important piece of information for the outlook of civil engineering. An 11%growth in employment is 3% higher than what it was originally estimated to be back in 2010.According to this statistic, civil engineering will still be growing by the time that seniors in highschool are finishing college, which means that the market for well-trained civil engineers will bevery good.The department of labor also published a finding exclaiming, “Overall engineeringemployment is expected to be on the climb from 2008 to 2018” (Department of Labor 1).Havingtwo different sources publish very similar findings is great news. If the employment is rising,therefore other occupations will be on the rise to.Employment being on the rise is a great changefrom civil engineering employment being on a steady decline. On the other hand, modelingquality for engineering published, “Gender diversity in civil engineering stands with an 80% mento 20 % women” (Schwieger 1).This is either a good or bad fact, depending on the reasons forthe diversity.A good guess is that it is simply an occupation that the majority of women don’tfind fitting.Lastly, according to Alexandra Adea, author of Mathematics in Civil Engineering,“The new DIN-18202 is in part with the “Raise the Bar” initiative. The new requirements willforce engineers to take a minimum of 2 extra math courses” (Adea 3). Requiring all engineers totake these extra math courses will help ensure that everyone is more prepared to do the work.The classes given to take trig, and geometry III, and algebra III, are all vital courses that should
  8. 8. Gaskins 8have already been required for all future engineers to take. Overall, Civil engineering presents avery promising future for anyone who is willing to work hard and strive to be better. Civil Engineering is a career field that everyone who is interested in should try. Thecareer field involves working in both an office and outdoors on a project site. The increase ineconomic activity from the recession is beginning to provide a firm influx of work. Protectivematters, such as “Raise the Bar”, have been put into effect to insure that the U.S.A will remain asuperpower in civil engineering. The outlook for this career is expected to grow by another 8%in next five to seven years. Civil engineering is a back breaking career that helps improve thequality of life for everyone.
  9. 9. Gaskins 9 Works Cited Ahem, A, University College Dublin “Problem Based Learning in Civil Engineering”March 2010. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=8&hid=24&sid=6b7c2a16-607c-4a62-bc9397ae701d84f5%40sessionmgr15&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h& AN=49144341 Aldea, Alexandra, Technical University of CivilEngineering Bucharest.“Mathematics forcivil engineers”.Nd.http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=3&hid=24&sid=6b7c2a16-607c- 4a62-bc93-97ae701 Landers, Jay. “Civil Engineering Medain Earnings” United States. Bureau of the Census. May 24, 2011. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=3&hid=24&sid=6b7c2a16-607c-4a62bc997ae701d84f5%40sessionmgr15&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=a 9h&AN=630235
  10. 10. Gaskins 10 Morrison, Dennis, American Society of Civil Engineers. “Vision of Civil Engineering in 2025”. May 2010. http://www.asce.org/ Ressler, Stephen, U.S. Military Academy. “Application to civil engineering “Raise theBar””. July 2011. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=9&hid=24&sid=6b7c2a16-607c-4a62bc9397ae701d84f5%40sessionmgr15&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db= a9h&AN=62274970 Sacks, Rafael, Technion Campus.“Empirical Study of Information Flow in CivilEngineering”.Nd.http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=3&hid=24&sid=6b7c2a16-607c- 4a62-bc93-97ae701d84f5%40sessionmgr15&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d
  11. 11. Gaskins 11Schwieger, Volker, University of Stuttgart.“Modeling Quality for civil engineers”.Nd. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=3&hid=2 United States Department of Labor.“Occupational Outlook Hanbook”. 2010-2011. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos027.htm
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