9 Key Elements of Instructional DesignMorrison, Ross, & Kemp InstructionalDesign Model
9 Key Elements 1. Instructional Problem 2. Learner Analysis 3. Task Analysis 4. Instructional Objective 5. Content Sequencing Schemes 6. Instructional Strategies 7. Designing the Message 8. Development of Instruction 9. Evaluation Instruments
1) Instructional Problem Define a performance problem Analyze and identify the instructional problem Examine whether instruction is the solution to the problem and why we need instruction
Define a PerformanceProblem e.g.) Learners frequently make errors in the use of JP case particles -wa and -ga . Accuracy rate among intermediate to advanced students – as low as a little over 30% . Russell, R.A. (2005). Acquisition and attrition of -wa and -ga in Japanese as a second language. ISB4: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism , 2020-2036.
Analyze and identifythe instructionalproblem e.g.) Learners are using improper grammar rules for selection of the two particles. e.g.) This approach doesn’t work, but that’s what is that conventional method of teaching it and that’s who it is taught in school.
Learner Analysis You might want to consider: General characteristics Specific entry characteristics Learning styles (?) Personal and social characteristics Characteristics of unconventional learners
A Thought aboutLearning Styles "Think Youre An Auditory Or Visual Learner? Scientists Say Its Unlikely." -- NPRs Health Blog, August 29, 2011. http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2011/08/29/139973743/think-youre-an- auditory-or-visual-learner-scientists-say-its-unlikely A huge gap Change and mix learning styles Also, prior knowledge, learning environment, individual strengths, physical condition, etc. Not essential to or dictating how we approach our learning Examples?
2) LearnerCharacteristics General Characteristics Specific Entry Characteristics Personal and Social Characteristics Learning Methods/Approaches Unconventional Learners
3) Task Analysis What skills and information are necessary to address the instructional problem? What knowledge does the expert have that is essential to the task? What related subject matter should be taught? How can subject content be organized? How is a task analyzed to identify its components and then to sequence the actions required?
3) Task Analysis Brainstorm Tips: Outlining the content (topic analysis) Identifying fact, concepts, principles and rules, procedures, interpersonal skills and attitudes, etc. (content structure) Walking through the steps in a process (procedural analysis) Examining what happens in a learning situation (critical incident method)
4) InstructionalObjectives Specify what behavior the leaner will be able to demonstrate to indicate that he or she has mastered the knowledge or skills. Specify learning in specific measurable terms Types of objectives: Cognitive, psychomoter, affective, etc.
5) Content SequencingScheme Learning-related sequencing World-related sequencing: consistent with the real word Concept-related sequencing
6) InstructionalStrategies Gaining attention Inform the learner of the objective Stimulate recall of prior learning Present the stimulus Provide feedback Assess performance Provide examples Make representation more concrete Focus the attention of the learner Apply generative strategies such as....
Generative Strategies Recall by repetition, rehearsal, review, nmemonics Integration by paraphrasing, generating examples, generating questions Organization by analyzing key ideas, outlining, categorizing and interpreting new information Elaboration by generation of mental images, creating physical diagrams, sentence elaborations, etc.
Consider… What is the nature of what is being learned? How do your strategies match the type of learning? Recall ApplicationFactConceptPrinciples and RulesProcedureInterpersonalAttitudes
7) Designing theMessage Types of activities and Formats Informative Presentation? Discussion? Demonstration? Group Project? Research Paper? Video?
8) Development ofInstruction What materials? Formats? Tools? Delivery Methods
9) EvaluationInstruments Key aspects to be avaluated? How? Tools?