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Radio lecture for Media and Communication Industries - QUT
 

Radio lecture for Media and Communication Industries - QUT

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Guest lecture for Media and Communication Industries QUT 27 August 2008

Guest lecture for Media and Communication Industries QUT 27 August 2008

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Radio lecture for Media and Communication Industries - QUT Radio lecture for Media and Communication Industries - QUT Presentation Transcript

  • Radio Media and Communication Industries Semester 2, 2008 Professor Terry Flew Guest Lecture
  • The Australian Radio Industry
    • 257 commercial AM/FM broadcasting stations
    • ABC: 58 metropolitan and regional radio stations + 4 national radio networks (Radio National, Classic FM, NewsRadio, Triple J)
    • Two SBS stations
    • 350+ community radio stations
    • 3500+ high power and low power narrowcasting radio services
  • Radio: When Do You Listen?
    • getting ready for work/uni?
    • going to work/uni?
    • at work/uni?
    • on your way home?
    • while studying?
    • while at home doing nothing?
    • when partying?
  • % of people using the media through the day (weekdays)
  • “Accidental History” of Radio
    • origins of radio in telegraphy (Raymond Williams)
    • radio initially dominated by experimenters: “sealed set” radio in Australia
    • radio in 1920s becomes broadcast medium and mass consumer durable
    • radio as listening or communicating?
  • Radio in the 1930s
    • 1924 legislation: ‘A’ and ‘B’ class stations massive growth
      • 1924 1 200 licences
      • 1932 370 000 licences
      • 1939 1 130 000 licences
    • ‘ A’ class stations becomes ABC in 1932: financed by licence fees
    • ‘ B’ class stations become commercial stations in 1930s
    • ABC listeners as “highbrow”//commercial listeners as “lowbrow”?
  • Commercial Radio in the 1930s and 1940s
    • important role of American advertising agencies (eg. J. Walter Thompson)
    • sponsorship and brand identification ( Wrigley’s Dad and Dave began in 1937)
    • emergence of ratings (McNair begins 1937)
    • push to national networks
  • Impact of Television - 1950s and 1960s
    • TV launched in Sydney and Melbourne in 1956 - radio audiences initially decline
    • Radio reinvented as a niche portable music and information medium
      • ‘ Top 40’ stations
      • Sports
      • Talk-back
    • Radio stations develop particular brands/personalities
  • Radio after TV: Why Radio Survives
    • low costs of technology and staff
    • immediacy and instant access
    • programs can target market segments
    • can treat issues in more depth
    • can be used in cars, when travelling etc.
    • diverse range of station types
    • can have strong local perspective
    • cheap for consumers to buy (38m radio receivers in Australia, or two for every one person)
  • Use of different media by age
  • Changes in 1970s and 1980s
    • increased Australian music quota: 25% 1976
    • public broadcasting, 2JJ and ethnic radio stations commence
      • 25 community stations by 1980
      • 65 community stations by 1985
    • FM radio commences 1980
  • Commercial FM Radio
    • commences in 1980
    • very successful and profitable
    • sophisticated audience research
    • male/female split in audiences
    • keeping a young audience:
      • event/stunt radio
      • “shock jocks”
  •  
  • Ratings shares 2008
  • Share by Age Group 2008
  • Talkback radio
  • The ‘Voice’ of Talkback
    • male
    • authoritative
    • opinionated
    • certain
    • familiar
    • intimate
    • populist
  • The Method of Talkback
    • Rewarding those who agree
    • Lampooning critics
    • Managed participation
      • Story selection
      • Call selection
      • Ordering
      • Interruptions
      • ‘ the dump’
      • After-call commentary
  • ‘ Cash-for-Comment’
    • John Laws (2UE) deal with Australian Bankers Association ($1.2m for ‘The Whole Truth’) revealed on ABC Media Watch 12 July 99
    • Australian Broadcasting Authority (ABA) announced intention to investigate Laws and other talkback announcers (eg. Alan Jones 2UE) 15 July 99
  • Talkback Radio and ‘Media Influence’ Debates
    • Tendency to treat radio as ‘less influential’ than newspapers and television
    • Characteristics of medium: immediacy, scope for interaction, diverse range of issues, strong listener loyalty
    • Characteristics of talkback hosts: loyal audiences, persuasive techniques, concentrated appeal to particular demographics
  • Triple J
    • Commenced in 1975 as Double Jay in Sydney
    • Went national in 1990 - gradual rollout across Australia
    • Proved very popular in Brisbane, Perth and regional areas (10% Brisbane audience share in mid-1990s)
    • Unearthed and festival circuit important to developing national reach
  • Community Broadcasting
    • First developed in mid-1970s
    • Has continued to grow over 1980s and 1990s
    • Intended to promote ‘access’ and ‘participation’
    • Governed by ‘community’ representatives
      • Geographical
      • Interest-based
  • Growth in Australian community broadcasters
  • Brisbane community broadcasters
    • 4RPH – radio for print handicapped
    • 4FRB – Christian (96.5)
    • 4EB – ethnic broadcasting
    • 4AAA – Indigenous media
    • 4ZZZ – alternative/politically radical
    • 4MBS – fine music
  • Internet Broadcasting
    • Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB)
    • Digitisation of radio
      • Production, storage, reproduction, editing
      • Online distribution of radio content
      • Use of Internet and wireless devices to receive radio
    • Why Internet radio?
      • Specialised services
      • Global reach
      • Availability
      • Multi-platform capabilities
    • U.S.: Growth of satellite radio
  • Podcasting
    • Generic term (derived from Apple iPod) for downloading of audio files onto PCs or personal music players
    • Popularised over 2004, as an extension of first-person blogs
    • Radio stations have picked up on the potential of podcasting e.g. BBC, ABC (Radio National, Triple J)
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Podcasting
    • http://www.abc.net.au/triplej/listen/podcast.htm
  • Conclusion
    • ‘ Death of radio’ gets predicted a lot
    • ‘ Unbundling’ of radio is happening
    • Podcasting gives new life to formats that haven’t rated highly e.g. documentary
    • Australia has been a world leader in community radio