Modern Latin America


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Modern Latin America

  1. 1. Modern Latin America by Terrance Finley-Moore
  2. 2. Latin American Independence Movement <ul><li>This early 19 th century movement (1807-1824) resulted in the end of colonial rule in Mexico, South America, and Central America. </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish colonies and Portuguese-controlled Brazil complained about taxation, economic restrictions, and limited voice in government. </li></ul><ul><li>The distraction of the Napoleonic Wars caused the Iberian Empires to lose control over their American territories, and this contributed to the colonies' victories. </li></ul><ul><li>A critical victory was won by the colonists over the Spanish in Peru at the battle of Ayacucho. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>After the colonies gained independence, they were not well structured politically. </li></ul><ul><li>The colonial economies were not diversified and political leaders were not experienced with representational government. Citizens were generally not interested in government or revolutions, and many were illiterate. </li></ul><ul><li>The decade of the 1820s had a wave of reform activity almost everywhere. However, these reforms were often impulsive and superficial. </li></ul><ul><li>The nations slowly began to stabilize but there was still great political strife. The War of the Pacific and the War of the Triple Alliance were the most brutal wars of this time. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Great Britain used the revolutions as a way to gain trading opportunities with the independent republics. George Canning wrote essays urging British investors to negotiate trade with the newly developed republics. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain began to involve itself with every aspect of Latin American economy except politics. </li></ul><ul><li>The Latin American countries grew rapidly due to a large increase in international trade. </li></ul><ul><li>In the middle of the century about one-third of Britain's trading was in Brazil. Near the end of the century Britain's interest in trading with Latin America peaked. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>During World War I Britain's trade with Latin America had diminished. By the end of the war Brazil's main foreign investment came from New York. </li></ul><ul><li>Europe and the US have culturally influenced Latin America in many ways; the spreading of technology throughout the nineteenth century was one of the biggest influences. </li></ul><ul><li>The colonization of Latin American focused on modeling the colonies after European and US society and culture, and this trend continued after the colonies gained their independence and entered the global market. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Venezuela <ul><li>In the 1950s foreign corporations and local oligarchs elevated Venezuela into the third world with oil development. But oil became the country's primary source of wealth, and agriculture was abandoned. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1980s oil prices dropped and the country did not have reliable sources of income to maintain itself and its corporations. </li></ul><ul><li>In Venezuela the government leadership is unbalanced. The distribution of the country's oil wealth is unequal, and important public institutions such as hospitals are underfunded. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Venezuela <ul><li>Oil producers including Alaska, Norway, and Kazakhstan have developed permanent funds to redistribute oil profits. </li></ul><ul><li>Khanna criticizes Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez for not redistributing oil funds among his citizens, but instead spending the profit to serve political ends. The majority of Venezuelans live on less than two dollars per day. </li></ul><ul><li>Chávez's irresponsible spending has quadrupled the country's internal and external debt. If he continues to lead in the way he is now, the Venezuelan economy will be vulnerable to price fluctuations. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mexico <ul><li>When Mexico signed NAFTA it was expected to pull Mexico out of its second world status. </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico used to primarily be an oil exporter, but now almost 80% of its exports are manufactured goods. Mexico has lost hundreds of thousands of jobs to international competition. </li></ul><ul><li>Up to half the population is impoverished. This is because the wealth of the country is distributed so unequally. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Mexico <ul><li>Illegal immigration is helpful for the American labor market, but it also puts a strain on underfunded health services and education. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite the fact that illegal Mexican immigrants transfer $16 billion back into Mexico annually (a primary source of Mexico's national income), poverty in Mexico is not declining. </li></ul><ul><li>Khanna asserts that Mexico's problem will continue to be America's problem as well if it is not fixed. Illegal immigration continues because of the perpetual poverty in Mexico, caused by its inequality and national disunity. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Jorge Luis Borges <ul><li>He was an internationally renowned Argentine writer and poet. </li></ul><ul><li>His poems and stories presented complex philosophical and psychological themes. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of his works explored the fantastical side of reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Borges' collection of short stories entitled Ficciones is considered his masterpiece. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Oscar Niemeyer <ul><li>He is a world renowned Brazilian architect who specializes in international modern architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>His works focus on spacious, graceful, curved forms. He uses the look and texture of reinforced concrete as a design element. </li></ul><ul><li>His works can be found across the globe. He helped design the UN Headquarters in NYC. </li></ul><ul><li>At age 102 he is still a practicing architect. </li></ul>