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  • 1. Plagiarism Part 2:In-text Citations
  • 2. What we know so far:• Plagiarism violates academic honest codes.• Plagiarism can be avoided by paraphrasing.
  • 3. How else can we avoid Plagiarism?In-Text Citations!
  • 4. Citing sources in the text• In MLA style, references to sources are placed in the text of the paper to briefly identify sources for readers and enable them to locate the source of the cited information in the Works Cited list. These parenthetical references should be kept as brief and as clear as possible.
  • 5. Guidelines for Citations1. Give only the information needed to identify a source. Usually the authors last name and a page reference are all that is needed. - EX: (Author, page #)2. Place the parenthetical reference as close as possible to the material being documented and where a pause would naturally occur, preferably at the end of a sentence. -EX: We are “in the hands of an angry God” and must be careful with how we live our lives (Edwards, 6).
  • 6. Guidelines for Citations3. Parenthetical material should complement, not repeat, information given in the text. If you include an authors name in a sentence, you do not need to repeat it in your parenthetical statement. - EX: According to Edwards, we are all destined for hell unless we are born again as good Christians (8).
  • 7. Guidelines for Citations4. The parenthetical reference should precede the punctuation mark that concludes the sentence, clause, or phrase that contains the cited material. - EX: We are “in the hands of an angry God” and must be careful with how we live our lives (Edwards, 6).5. Electronic and online sources are cited just like print resources in references cited in the text. If an online source lacks numbering, omit numbers from the parenthetical references. If a source includes fixed page numbers or section numbering, such as numbering of paragraphs (pars.), cite the relevant numbers.
  • 8. Citation GuidelinesAuthors name in text Author has expressed this concern (page #s).Authors name in reference This concern has been expressed (Author, page #s).Multiple authors of a work This hypothesis (Author 1 and Author 2 page #s) suggested this theory (Author, Author, and Author page #s).Two locations Author alludes to this premise (first page #s, second page #s).Two works cited (Author 1 page #s; Author 2 page #s)
  • 9. Citation Guidelines Multivolume worksReferences to volumes and pages (Author volume#:page#s)References to an entire volume (Author, Vol. #)In text reference to an entire volume In volume ___, Author suggestsCorporate authors (Corporation, page#s)Works with no authorWhen a work has no author, use theworks title or a shortened version of the as stated by the presidential commissiontitle when citing it in text. (If (Title page#s).abbreviating a title, omit initial articlesand begin with the word by which it isalphabetized in the Works Cited list.):Online source with numbered (Author, pars. #s)paragraphs