INTRODUCTION TO THE SCIENCE OF GENETICS    Vitug, Jan Thea Marie O.             AAPD 2E
HISTORY ON THEDEVELOPMENT OF  GENETICS AS A     SCIENCE
• GREGOR MENDEL    - Father of Modern Genetics    - experimented on the pea plant in 1866.• CHARLES DARWIN    - Father of ...
• ARISTOTLE  – PANGENESIS    There is a transmission of trait from one     generation to another.    There is a heredita...
• AVERY, MACLEOD & MACCARTHY     -genetic material is DNA• MEISCHER      -gave the idea to Avery, MacLeod And        MacCa...
• WATSON AND CRICK    -gave the double structure of DNA which is helix• CORRENS, DE VRIES,  TSCHERMAK (1900)    -duplicate...
BRANCHES /SCOPE / FIELDS
• CYTOGENETICS     -physical basis of heredity• MOLECULAR GENETICS      -chemical basis of heredity      -sub-branches:   ...
• CLASSICAL GENETICS      - tools and techniques on genetics      - way how traits are transmitted• POPULATION GENETICS   ...
METHODS OFGENETIC STUDY
• PEDIGREE ANALYSIS       - uses pedigree to  study the transmission  of traits in a family*PEDIGREE – pictorial  represen...
• KARYOTYPING      - detect chromosomal abnormalities      - uses karyotype or karyogram*KARYOTYPE – pictorial representat...
• PLANNED  EXPERIMENTAL  BREEDING      - uses Punnet Square*PUNNET SQUARE -  diagram that is used to  predict an outcome o...
• TWIN STUDY     - Fraternal (Dizygotic twin)     2 zygote = 2 fertilized egg     - Identical (Monozygotic twin) 1 zygot...
• STATISTICAL ANALYSIS     - for data that are recorded     - large number     - used in Population Genetics
APPLICATIONS OF GENETICS
• LEGAL APPLICATION/ FORENSIC      - for solving crimes    ex. Fingerprints• AGRICULTURE     - genetically modified plants...
• FIELD OF MEDICINE/ MEDICAL APPLICATION    - detecting diseases that are hereditary    - gene therapy• GENETIC COUNSELING...
• INDUSTRY     - drugs   ex. Insulin• GENETIC ENGINEERING    - modifying a    particular plant    or animal
THE END 
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Introduction to the Science of Genetics

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Introduction to the Science of Genetics

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO THE SCIENCE OF GENETICS Vitug, Jan Thea Marie O. AAPD 2E
  2. 2. HISTORY ON THEDEVELOPMENT OF GENETICS AS A SCIENCE
  3. 3. • GREGOR MENDEL - Father of Modern Genetics - experimented on the pea plant in 1866.• CHARLES DARWIN - Father of Evolution - Theory of Natural Selection; Origin of Species
  4. 4. • ARISTOTLE – PANGENESIS There is a transmission of trait from one generation to another. There is a hereditary factor. *PREFORMATIONISM - “HOMONCULUS” in a sperm and egg cell • SUTTON - associated the behavior of chromosomes to genes
  5. 5. • AVERY, MACLEOD & MACCARTHY -genetic material is DNA• MEISCHER -gave the idea to Avery, MacLeod And MacCarthy that there is a weak acid• ROSALIND FRANKLIN -able to give the idea of the structure of DNA using X-Ray
  6. 6. • WATSON AND CRICK -gave the double structure of DNA which is helix• CORRENS, DE VRIES, TSCHERMAK (1900) -duplicated the study of Mendel
  7. 7. BRANCHES /SCOPE / FIELDS
  8. 8. • CYTOGENETICS -physical basis of heredity• MOLECULAR GENETICS -chemical basis of heredity -sub-branches: GENOMICS – study of genes – most advanced PROTEOMICS – study of proteins
  9. 9. • CLASSICAL GENETICS - tools and techniques on genetics - way how traits are transmitted• POPULATION GENETICS - transmission of genes in a population - transmission of traits in large group of individuals through the passage of time• BEHAVIORAL -influence of varying genetics on animal behavior, effects of human disorders as well as its causes
  10. 10. METHODS OFGENETIC STUDY
  11. 11. • PEDIGREE ANALYSIS - uses pedigree to study the transmission of traits in a family*PEDIGREE – pictorial representation od the members of the family
  12. 12. • KARYOTYPING - detect chromosomal abnormalities - uses karyotype or karyogram*KARYOTYPE – pictorial representation of chromosomes
  13. 13. • PLANNED EXPERIMENTAL BREEDING - uses Punnet Square*PUNNET SQUARE - diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment
  14. 14. • TWIN STUDY - Fraternal (Dizygotic twin) 2 zygote = 2 fertilized egg - Identical (Monozygotic twin) 1 zygote = 1 fertilized egg*POINT OF STUDY: - Concordance Twin Both posses a trait or both does not posses a trait One posses a trait and the other does not
  15. 15. • STATISTICAL ANALYSIS - for data that are recorded - large number - used in Population Genetics
  16. 16. APPLICATIONS OF GENETICS
  17. 17. • LEGAL APPLICATION/ FORENSIC - for solving crimes ex. Fingerprints• AGRICULTURE - genetically modified plants and animals
  18. 18. • FIELD OF MEDICINE/ MEDICAL APPLICATION - detecting diseases that are hereditary - gene therapy• GENETIC COUNSELING - to give counsel to prospective parents
  19. 19. • INDUSTRY - drugs ex. Insulin• GENETIC ENGINEERING - modifying a particular plant or animal
  20. 20. THE END 

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