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Introduction to the Science of Genetics
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Introduction to the Science of Genetics

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  • 1. INTRODUCTION TO THE SCIENCE OF GENETICS Vitug, Jan Thea Marie O. AAPD 2E
  • 2. HISTORY ON THEDEVELOPMENT OF GENETICS AS A SCIENCE
  • 3. • GREGOR MENDEL - Father of Modern Genetics - experimented on the pea plant in 1866.• CHARLES DARWIN - Father of Evolution - Theory of Natural Selection; Origin of Species
  • 4. • ARISTOTLE – PANGENESIS There is a transmission of trait from one generation to another. There is a hereditary factor. *PREFORMATIONISM - “HOMONCULUS” in a sperm and egg cell • SUTTON - associated the behavior of chromosomes to genes
  • 5. • AVERY, MACLEOD & MACCARTHY -genetic material is DNA• MEISCHER -gave the idea to Avery, MacLeod And MacCarthy that there is a weak acid• ROSALIND FRANKLIN -able to give the idea of the structure of DNA using X-Ray
  • 6. • WATSON AND CRICK -gave the double structure of DNA which is helix• CORRENS, DE VRIES, TSCHERMAK (1900) -duplicated the study of Mendel
  • 7. BRANCHES /SCOPE / FIELDS
  • 8. • CYTOGENETICS -physical basis of heredity• MOLECULAR GENETICS -chemical basis of heredity -sub-branches: GENOMICS – study of genes – most advanced PROTEOMICS – study of proteins
  • 9. • CLASSICAL GENETICS - tools and techniques on genetics - way how traits are transmitted• POPULATION GENETICS - transmission of genes in a population - transmission of traits in large group of individuals through the passage of time• BEHAVIORAL -influence of varying genetics on animal behavior, effects of human disorders as well as its causes
  • 10. METHODS OFGENETIC STUDY
  • 11. • PEDIGREE ANALYSIS - uses pedigree to study the transmission of traits in a family*PEDIGREE – pictorial representation od the members of the family
  • 12. • KARYOTYPING - detect chromosomal abnormalities - uses karyotype or karyogram*KARYOTYPE – pictorial representation of chromosomes
  • 13. • PLANNED EXPERIMENTAL BREEDING - uses Punnet Square*PUNNET SQUARE - diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment
  • 14. • TWIN STUDY - Fraternal (Dizygotic twin) 2 zygote = 2 fertilized egg - Identical (Monozygotic twin) 1 zygote = 1 fertilized egg*POINT OF STUDY: - Concordance Twin Both posses a trait or both does not posses a trait One posses a trait and the other does not
  • 15. • STATISTICAL ANALYSIS - for data that are recorded - large number - used in Population Genetics
  • 16. APPLICATIONS OF GENETICS
  • 17. • LEGAL APPLICATION/ FORENSIC - for solving crimes ex. Fingerprints• AGRICULTURE - genetically modified plants and animals
  • 18. • FIELD OF MEDICINE/ MEDICAL APPLICATION - detecting diseases that are hereditary - gene therapy• GENETIC COUNSELING - to give counsel to prospective parents
  • 19. • INDUSTRY - drugs ex. Insulin• GENETIC ENGINEERING - modifying a particular plant or animal
  • 20. THE END 