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FRANCE, CULTURE,INDUSTRY, RESEARCHOlivier Teytaud --- olivier.teytaud@inria.fr1) France   I just *love* Taiwan. I will try...
FRANCE HISTORY IN A NUTSHELL:       Humans arrived in -1 800 000  Old days:           阿斯泰利克斯历险记Greeks, Romans,Celts, Gauls
FRANCE HISTORY IN A NUTSHELL:       Humans arrived in -1 800 000  Old days:            阿斯泰利克斯历险记Greeks, Romans,Celts, Gaul...
FRANCE HISTORY IN A NUTSHELL:         Humans arrived in -1 800 000  Old days:              阿斯泰利克斯历险记Greeks, Romans,Celts, ...
FRANCE HISTORY IN A NUTSHELL:         Humans arrived in -1 800 000  Old days:              阿斯泰利克斯历险记Greeks, Romans,Celts, ...
FRANCE IS EVERYWHERE
FRANCE GEOGRAPHY IN A NUTSHELL:First country in terms of number of time zonesThe sun is 24/24 above France (only Franceand...
FRANCE HISTORY IN A NUTSHELL:After world war II:- France was destroyed by two     successive wars on its land- very strong...
FRANCE HISTORY IN A NUTSHELL:After world war II:- France was destroyed by two     successive wars on its land- very strong...
FRANCE IS WELL KNOWN FOR:   - Very good health system        - Not very expensive        - Very efficient==> Taiwan very i...
FRANCE IS WELL KNOWN FOR: Babies!  嬰兒 ! ~ 2 babies per     womanMuch (much!) more than Taiwan             (why ? 為什麼呢? ).
FRANCE IS WELL KNOWN FOR:Melting pot: we haveall colors and itsbeautiful!
(Stinky) tofu replaced by     (stinky) cheese.Less rice, bread instead.        Pastries.  Espresso (best food    in the wo...
th        5 largest nominal GDPThanks to massive dirigisme after WW II  Something in the middle between US and USSR       ...
th        5 largest nominal GDPThanks to massive dirigisme after WW II  Something in the middle between US and USSR- Air F...
th        5 largest nominal GDPThanks to massive dirigisme after WW II  Something in the middle between US and USSR- Air F...
th        5 largest nominal GDPThanks to massive dirigisme after WW II  Something in the middle between US and USSR- Air F...
th        5 largest nominal GDPThanks to massive dirigisme after WW II  Something in the middle between US and USSR- Air F...
th        5 largest nominal GDPThanks to massive dirigisme after WW II  Something in the middle between US and USSR- Air F...
th        5 largest nominal GDPThanks to massive dirigisme after WW II  Something in the middle between US and USSR- Air F...
th        5 largest nominal GDPThanks to massive dirigisme after WW II  Something in the middle between US and USSR- Air F...
th        5 largest nominal GDPThanks to massive dirigisme after WW II  Something in the middle between US and USSR- Air F...
th        5 largest nominal GDPThanks to massive dirigisme after WW II  Something in the middle between US and USSR- Air F...
THE MAIN  INDUSTRIES IN FRANCE.FRANCE IS WELL KNOWN FOR:                    HIGH SPEED                  WHEELED TRAIN     ...
The French organization of work:  - Working efficiently, saving up time       Real GDP per hour of work: France ranks 1st ...
The French organization of work:  - Working efficiently, saving up time       Real GDP per hour of work: France ranks 1st ...
The French organization of work:  - Working efficiently, saving up time       Real GDP per hour of work: France ranks 1st ...
The French organization of work:  - Working efficiently, saving up time        Real GDP ( 国内生产总值 ) per hour: France ranks ...
Other differences, quickly:- Much more hierarchy in Taiwan    <==      difficult to- Far more privacy concerns in France <...
Other differences, quickly:- Much more hierarchy in Taiwan     <==       difficult to- Far more privacy concerns in France...
Other differences, quickly:- Much more hierarchy in Taiwan        <==    difficult to- Far more privacy concerns in France...
Other differences, quickly:- Much more hierarchy in Taiwan        <==    difficult to- Far more privacy concerns in France...
Other differences, quickly:- Much more hierarchy in Taiwan        <==     difficult to- Far more privacy concerns in Franc...
UNIVERSITE PARIS-SUD + INRIA    Olivier Teytaud --- olivier.teytaud@inria.fr    1) France    2) Université Paris-Sud & Inr...
FRENCH UNIVERSITIES    Widely said: the French educative system is “elitist”.    Top 5%, 10% are very good.    But average...
FOCUS ON MATHS ?  THE FIELDS MEDALS “NOBEL OF MATHS”  United States  France  USSR/Russia  UK  Japan  Belgium  Great perfor...
OTHER DOMAINS ?Nobel prizes per habitant ~ good, but less surprisingNUTN, Tainan, 2011
UniversitéParis-Sud + Inria       In Université Paris-Sud           Largest campus in France           But small becaus...
UniversitéParis-Sud + Inria       In Université Paris-Sud           Largest campus in France           But small becaus...
Université Paris-Sud    Goes back to research in nuclear power and     chemistry after world war II ==> France wanted its...
Université Paris-Sud  Sorry, its in Ile-De-France (Paris suburbs)       ==> life is expensive       ==> but ph.D. salary c...
Université Paris-Sud  For internships or ph.D., English is ok.  For master, French requested (sorry for that), except  som...
Most influential languages.Moreover, Spanish and French are very related.                               These statistics g...
ALREADYCOLLABORATIONS WITHNUTN: GAME OF GOWe did plenty of good stuff   with NUTN around    the game of Go.This will stay ...
UNIVERSITE PARIS-SUD + INRIAOlivier Teytaud --- olivier.teytaud@inria.fr1) France2) Université Paris-Sud & Inria3) My labo...
MY LAB: LRI                   (115 permanent staff) Depends on:- CNRS                 (best research institute in         ...
INRIA- dedicated to computer-science and automation- full-time researchers- highly selective- youve done great things in r...
MY TEAM: TAO http://tao.lri.fr●   Artificial intelligence / operations research / optimization●   No protocol: no invading...
Executive summary● I like both Taiwan and France, for differentreasons      ●   Taiwan has a great educative system for al...
A BIT MORETECHNICAL NOW
COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE Helping computers to   make decisions   ( 人工智能 )
Contains: - statistics ( 统计学 )- optimization ( 最优化 )
My research containsmaths, methodologies (algorithms),          applications.      I think applications are          easie...
French energy company EDF:- world’s largest utility company.- 120,000+ megawatts in Europe,      Latin America, Asia,     ...
ELECTRICITY GENERATIONin FRANCE  France =world champion  of nuclear power plant  ( 核电站 )
ELECTRICITY GENERATIONin FRANCE – also hydroelectricity
FUTURE EXTENSIONS:  CONNECTIONS TO THE NORTH OF EUROPE ?  CONNECTIONS TO AFRICA ?      Using North-Euope wind in winter ? ...
A RISK: SOMETHING LIKETHE 2003 BLACK OUT IN USWe had similar stuff (smaller)
ANOTHER RISK: LACK OF WATER(DROUGHT)                            (nuclear power plants                              cooled ...
Consider a power grid.       There are on the grid:       - electricity producers;      - electricity consumers.    First,...
If production > demand,the rotor is too fast, possible destruction.          If production < demand,the rotor is too slow,...
This was infra-day.Longer term: which power plants should     I switch on / off these days ?==> optimization problem==> mi...
Annual and pluri-annual.When should I organize maintenance ?     When should I use my stocks          (which stocks ?).Sho...
Annual and pluri-annual.           Should I pump ?          ==> storing electricity             by pumping when           ...
Annual and pluri-annual.==> Optimization with big uncertainties:- energy prices- inflows (rain, snow) for hydroelectricity...
Long term (50 years)                  ==> developing renewables ?      (requires smart grids, for helping production=deman...
Taiwan: HVDC connections to other countries ?                                Scientists and engineers                     ...
DesertTec – a supergrid (         超級電網 )DESERTEC officials say the project could one day deliver 15 percentof Europes elec...
Optimization: finding x such that f(x) is             minimum and x in D           Statistics: modelizing climate, elastic...
We also work on      the game of Go ( 围棋 ).               Why ?  Go (and other games) are similar to decision making in po...
We also work on the game of Go.                Why ?- because people trust us when we do abig performance in Go; whereas n...
The game of Go is a part of AI (artificial intelligence).Computers are ridiculous in front of children.                   ...
The game of Go is a part of AI.Computers are ridiculous in front of children.                                          800...
The game of Go is a part of AI.Computers are ridiculous in front of children.                                       A 6 ye...
I just love my job.     Research. Big applications.   I work on this mainly in France.Maybe a future for this work in Taiw...
I have spent 1 year in Taiwan,  but Taiwan still surprises me a lot.  For example, I was very surprisedby recent contests ...
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The game of Go and energy; two nice computational intelligence problems (with presentation of France as an introduction)

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1st part: introduction to France for Taiwanese people

2nd part: two nice computational applications

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Transcript of "The game of Go and energy; two nice computational intelligence problems (with presentation of France as an introduction)"

  1. 1. FRANCE, CULTURE,INDUSTRY, RESEARCHOlivier Teytaud --- olivier.teytaud@inria.fr1) France I just *love* Taiwan. I will try to convince you that you can love France as well :-)2) Université Paris-Sud & Inria3) My laboratory4) My researchNUTN, Tainan, 2012
  2. 2. FRANCE HISTORY IN A NUTSHELL: Humans arrived in -1 800 000 Old days: 阿斯泰利克斯历险记Greeks, Romans,Celts, Gauls
  3. 3. FRANCE HISTORY IN A NUTSHELL: Humans arrived in -1 800 000 Old days: 阿斯泰利克斯历险记Greeks, Romans,Celts, Gauls Middle-age
  4. 4. FRANCE HISTORY IN A NUTSHELL: Humans arrived in -1 800 000 Old days: 阿斯泰利克斯历险记Greeks, Romans,Celts, Gauls Middle-age <= Modern history
  5. 5. FRANCE HISTORY IN A NUTSHELL: Humans arrived in -1 800 000 Old days: 阿斯泰利克斯历险记Greeks, Romans,Celts, Gauls Middle-age <= Modern history Contemporary era => ( 現代史 )
  6. 6. FRANCE IS EVERYWHERE
  7. 7. FRANCE GEOGRAPHY IN A NUTSHELL:First country in terms of number of time zonesThe sun is 24/24 above France (only Franceand UK have this property).Big ocean surface thanks to small French islandseverywhere in the world.
  8. 8. FRANCE HISTORY IN A NUTSHELL:After world war II:- France was destroyed by two successive wars on its land- very strong dirigism decided for: - military independence - energy independence - strong industrialization- strong welfare mecanism: for good health, good education.
  9. 9. FRANCE HISTORY IN A NUTSHELL:After world war II:- France was destroyed by two successive wars on its land- very strong dirigism (state influence) decided for: - military independence (nuclear weapons, no more military service) - energy independence - strong industrialization- strong welfare mecanism: for good health, good education.
  10. 10. FRANCE IS WELL KNOWN FOR: - Very good health system - Not very expensive - Very efficient==> Taiwan very impressive for this! - Healthy food ( 绿色食品 ) * Less obesity than western countries (16.9%, vs US 33.9%) nd st * 2 best (1 =Japan) / heart disease death (US=80/100000; France 29/100000) - Great life expectancy ( 预期寿命 --- 4th among countries with >10M)
  11. 11. FRANCE IS WELL KNOWN FOR: Babies! 嬰兒 ! ~ 2 babies per womanMuch (much!) more than Taiwan (why ? 為什麼呢? ).
  12. 12. FRANCE IS WELL KNOWN FOR:Melting pot: we haveall colors and itsbeautiful!
  13. 13. (Stinky) tofu replaced by (stinky) cheese.Less rice, bread instead. Pastries. Espresso (best food in the world :-) )
  14. 14. th 5 largest nominal GDPThanks to massive dirigisme after WW II Something in the middle between US and USSR (and with moderate pollution!)- Air France (1st airline company in the world in terms of income)- EDF = largest utility company- GDF-Suez = largest energy company- Veolia = largest environment and water company- Vinci, Bouygues, Eiffage = 1st ,2th,4th building / public work companies- Areva = world leader of nuclear power- Michelin = world pneumatic leader- Lafarge = world largest cement company- EADS = 2nd aerospacial company- Renault-Nissan = leader of electric cars
  15. 15. th 5 largest nominal GDPThanks to massive dirigisme after WW II Something in the middle between US and USSR- Air France (1st airline company in the world in terms of income)- EDF = largest utility company- GDF-Suez = largest energy company- Veolia = largest environment and water company- Vinci, Bouygues, Eiffage = 1st ,2th,4th building / public work companies- Areva = world leader of nuclear power- Michelin = world pneumatic leader- Lafarge = world largest cement company- EADS = 2nd aerospacial company- Renault-Nissan = leader of electric cars
  16. 16. th 5 largest nominal GDPThanks to massive dirigisme after WW II Something in the middle between US and USSR- Air France (1st airline company in the world in terms of income)- EDF = largest utility company- GDF-Suez = largest energy company- Veolia = largest environment and water company- Vinci, Bouygues, Eiffage = 1st ,2th,4th building / public work companies- Areva = world leader of nuclear power- Michelin = world pneumatic leader- Lafarge = world largest cement company- EADS = 2nd aerospacial company- Renault-Nissan = electric cars
  17. 17. th 5 largest nominal GDPThanks to massive dirigisme after WW II Something in the middle between US and USSR- Air France (1st airline company in the world in terms of income)- EDF = largest utility company- GDF-Suez = largest energy company- Veolia = largest environment and water company- Vinci, Bouygues, Eiffage = 1st ,2th,4th building / public work companies- Areva = world leader of nuclear power- Michelin = world pneumatic leader- Lafarge = world largest cement company- EADS = 2nd aerospacial company- Renault-Nissan = electric cars
  18. 18. th 5 largest nominal GDPThanks to massive dirigisme after WW II Something in the middle between US and USSR- Air France (1st airline company in the world in terms of income)- EDF = largest utility company- GDF-Suez = largest energy company- Veolia = largest environment and water company- Vinci, Bouygues, Eiffage = 1st ,2th,4th building / public work companies- Areva = world leader of nuclear power- Michelin = world pneumatic leader- Lafarge = world largest cement company- EADS = 2nd aerospacial company- Renault-Nissan = electric cars
  19. 19. th 5 largest nominal GDPThanks to massive dirigisme after WW II Something in the middle between US and USSR- Air France (1st airline company in the world in terms of income)- EDF = largest utility company- GDF-Suez = largest energy company- Veolia = largest environment and water company Bouygues, Eiffage = 1st ,2th,4th- Vinci,We have nuclear weapons. building / public work companiesWe have nuclear- Areva = world leader of nuclear power power plants.- Michelin = world pneumatic leader- Lafarge = world largest cement company- EADS = 2nd aerospacial company- Renault-Nissan = electric cars
  20. 20. th 5 largest nominal GDPThanks to massive dirigisme after WW II Something in the middle between US and USSR- Air France (1st airline company in the world in terms of income)- EDF = largest utility company- GDF-Suez = largest energy company- Veolia = largest environment and water company- Vinci, Bouygues, Eiffage = 1st ,2th,4th building / public work companies- Areva = world leader of nuclear power- Michelin = world pneumatic leader- Lafarge = world largest cement company- EADS = 2nd aerospacial company- Renault-Nissan = electric cars
  21. 21. th 5 largest nominal GDPThanks to massive dirigisme after WW II Something in the middle between US and USSR- Air France (1st airline company in the world in terms of income)- EDF = largest utility company- GDF-Suez = largest energy company- Veolia = largest environment and water company- Vinci, Bouygues, Eiffage = 1st ,2th,4th building / public work companies- Areva = world leader of nuclear power- Michelin = world pneumatic leader- Lafarge = world largest cement company- EADS = 2nd aerospacial company- Renault-Nissan = electric cars
  22. 22. th 5 largest nominal GDPThanks to massive dirigisme after WW II Something in the middle between US and USSR- Air France (1st airline company in the world in terms of income)- EDF = largest utility company- GDF-Suez = largest energy company- Veolia = largest environment and water company- Vinci, Bouygues, Eiffage = 1st ,2th,4th building / public work inpollution? Paris-Tokyo 2.5 hours without CO2 companies- Areva = world leader of nuclear power- Michelin = world pneumatic leader- Lafarge = world largest cement company- EADS = 2nd aerospacial company- Renault-Nissan = electric cars
  23. 23. th 5 largest nominal GDPThanks to massive dirigisme after WW II Something in the middle between US and USSR- Air France (1st airline company in the world in terms of income)- EDF = largest utility company- GDF-Suez = largest energy company- Veolia = largest environment and water company- Vinci, Bouygues, Eiffage = 1st ,2th,4th building / public work companies- Areva = world leader of nuclear power- Michelin = world pneumatic leader- Lafarge = world largest cement company- EADS = 2nd aerospacial company- Renault-Nissan = one of the leaders for electric cars
  24. 24. THE MAIN INDUSTRIES IN FRANCE.FRANCE IS WELL KNOWN FOR: HIGH SPEED WHEELED TRAIN (fastest in the world) 574.8 km/h (357.2 mph). (commercial ~ 330km/h)
  25. 25. The French organization of work: - Working efficiently, saving up time Real GDP per hour of work: France ranks 1st among countries >20M Laws protecting employees; prevent bosses from wasting their employee time. Work is much more collective here in Taiwan (what do you prefer ?).
  26. 26. The French organization of work: - Working efficiently, saving up time Real GDP per hour of work: France ranks 1st among countries >20M - Strong trade unions + heavy contests ==> employees protection ==> often moderately hierarchic ==> good place for working
  27. 27. The French organization of work: - Working efficiently, saving up time Real GDP per hour of work: France ranks 1st among countries >20M - Strong trade unions + heavy contests ==> employees protection ==> often moderately hierarchic ==> good place for working - Massive unemployment (yes, sorry; not only good news...)
  28. 28. The French organization of work: - Working efficiently, saving up time Real GDP ( 国内生产总值 ) per hour: France ranks 1st among countries >20M ==> tougher professional relations (than in Taiwan) ==> strong separation from private life - Strong trade unions + heavy contests + strikes ==> employees protection ==> often moderately hierarchic ==> good place for working Recently Ive seen - Massive unemployment that big contests can take place in Taiwan :-) (yes, sorry; not only good news...) (==> Gender gap: better or worse than in Taiwan ?)
  29. 29. Other differences, quickly:- Much more hierarchy in Taiwan <== difficult to- Far more privacy concerns in France <= imagine ?The Boss is more the Boss in Taiwan.The teacher is more the Boss in Taiwan.The Boss can invade private life much more in Taiwan.==> for this I prefer France==> equality in personal or professional relations matters a lot for me==> my students can (must) tell me that I am wrong==> I can tell my boss that his job is not well done
  30. 30. Other differences, quickly:- Much more hierarchy in Taiwan <== difficult to- Far more privacy concerns in France <= imagine ?- French drivers drive faster- Taiwanese drivers drive more crazily (no rule :-) ) France Taiwan
  31. 31. Other differences, quickly:- Much more hierarchy in Taiwan <== difficult to- Far more privacy concerns in France <= imagine ?- French drivers drive faster- Taiwanese drivers drive more crazily (no rule :-) )- French women (slightly) taller (1 %)- French men (slightly) taller (1.5 %)- French women heavier (+8% BMI) (US: +23% than tw)- French men heavier (+6% BMI) (US: +16% than tw)
  32. 32. Other differences, quickly:- Much more hierarchy in Taiwan <== difficult to- Far more privacy concerns in France <= imagine ?- French drivers drive faster- Taiwanese drivers drive more crazily (no rule :-) )- French women (slightly) taller (1 %)- French men (slightly) taller (1.5 %)- French women heavier (+8% BMI) (US: +23% than tw)- French men heavier (+6% BMI) (US: +16% than tw)- Taiwanese people smile more (personal observation :-) )
  33. 33. Other differences, quickly:- Much more hierarchy in Taiwan <== difficult to- Far more privacy concerns in France <= imagine ?- French drivers drive faster- Taiwanese drivers drive more crazily (no rule :-) )- French women (slightly) taller (1 %)- French men (slightly) taller (1.5 %)- French women heavier (+8% BMI) (US: +23% than tw)- French men heavier (+6% BMI) (US: +16% than tw)- Taiwanese people smile more (personal observation :-) )- More criminality in France (but far less than US)- Taiwan has less very poor people (“poverty line”) (Taiwan is ranked 1st by wikipedia/ CIA factbook for this...)
  34. 34. UNIVERSITE PARIS-SUD + INRIA Olivier Teytaud --- olivier.teytaud@inria.fr 1) France 2) Université Paris-Sud & Inria 3) My laboratory & team 4) My researchNUTN, Tainan, 2012
  35. 35. FRENCH UNIVERSITIES Widely said: the French educative system is “elitist”. Top 5%, 10% are very good. But average not very good. Crucial difference (see PISA): - Top performance in France is very good. - Average performance in Taiwan is very good. ==> maybe this is why less criminality/unemployment in Taiwan ? Strong focus on maths in France (more than Comp Science). The “Prépas” system: the best students dont go to universities, except possibly for master / ph.D; they go to some elitist schools.NUTN, Tainan, 2012
  36. 36. FOCUS ON MATHS ? THE FIELDS MEDALS “NOBEL OF MATHS” United States France USSR/Russia UK Japan Belgium Great performance for just 60M inhabitants. Question: Is it a good idea to focus so much on maths ?NUTN, Tainan, 2011
  37. 37. OTHER DOMAINS ?Nobel prizes per habitant ~ good, but less surprisingNUTN, Tainan, 2011
  38. 38. UniversitéParis-Sud + Inria  In Université Paris-Sud  Largest campus in France  But small because French universities are small  Many Nobel Prize / Fields medals  Faculty of sciences: mathematics, computer science, physics, chemistry, biology, earth and space sciences ==> 12000 students Inria affiliation:  > 50 years old  Devoted to research in comp. science, with a focus on link with applications and society
  39. 39. UniversitéParis-Sud + Inria  In Université Paris-Sud  Largest campus in France  But small because French universities are small  Many Nobel Prize / Fields medals  Faculty of sciences: mathematics, computer science, physics, chemistry, biology, earth and space sciences ==> 12000 students Inria affiliation:  > 50 years old  Devoted to research in comp. science, with a focus on link with applications and society
  40. 40. Université Paris-Sud  Goes back to research in nuclear power and chemistry after world war II ==> France wanted its independence (De Gaulle and others)  30 000 students  Largest campus in France  But small compared to big universities because French universities are small (but good :-) )  Many Nobel Prize / Fields medals  Faculty of sciences: mathematics, computer science, physics, chemistry, biology, earth and space sciences ==> 12000 students
  41. 41. Université Paris-Sud Sorry, its in Ile-De-France (Paris suburbs) ==> life is expensive ==> but ph.D. salary clearly enough for living (...not if you have children with you...) ==> Many strong people in Ile-De-France. ==> Many great industries around there. Our most famous schools are in Ile-De-France. Those who want to do research often join our master. Excellent level in master and ph.D.
  42. 42. Université Paris-Sud For internships or ph.D., English is ok. For master, French requested (sorry for that), except some masters (molecular imaging, nuclear energy, astrophysics, nanosciences, www.u- psud.fr/en/index.html): But French can be helpful:  1. Mandarin Chinese (1.12 billion)  2. English (480 million)  3. Spanish (320 million)  4. Russian (285 million)  5. French (270 million) ==> and future is ensured by Africa; and Spanish is somehow close to French IMPORTANT: no use speaking French for ph.D. or for internships.
  43. 43. Most influential languages.Moreover, Spanish and French are very related. These statistics go back to 1990s... today Chinese would probably be much higher ranked!
  44. 44. ALREADYCOLLABORATIONS WITHNUTN: GAME OF GOWe did plenty of good stuff with NUTN around the game of Go.This will stay in computer science history. More France-Taiwan collaboration would be good :-)
  45. 45. UNIVERSITE PARIS-SUD + INRIAOlivier Teytaud --- olivier.teytaud@inria.fr1) France2) Université Paris-Sud & Inria3) My laboratory & team4) My researchNUTN, Tainan, 2011
  46. 46. MY LAB: LRI (115 permanent staff) Depends on:- CNRS (best research institute in the world for the SCImago Ranking)- INRIA (more focus on links with real world and Economy – this is less usual in France -Université Paris-Sud than in Taiwan)
  47. 47. INRIA- dedicated to computer-science and automation- full-time researchers- highly selective- youve done great things in research ==> join!- students: you have very good marks, apply for a ph.D. funding in Inria!- you dont have to speak French
  48. 48. MY TEAM: TAO http://tao.lri.fr● Artificial intelligence / operations research / optimization● No protocol: no invading hierarchy, not much time lost in boring useless meetings● Theory and applications● Many full-time researchers● Many ph.D. students, coming from famous schools● Already had students speaking Chinese● Great freedom for doing important research ===> dont comeif you dont like to decide yourself what you do==> the only drawback is that it is in Paris (life more expensive than everywhere else in France)
  49. 49. Executive summary● I like both Taiwan and France, for differentreasons ● Taiwan has a great educative system for all ● France has a great educative system for the best ● Both countries have big (distinct) strong industries ● Important cultural differences ● Taiwanese politeness = being friendly, asking questions ● French politness = respecting privacy/freedom (e.g. in France, dont touch children of people you dont know, dont ask too much questions on private life)● Taiwan and France have complementary qualities ==> double culture makes sense● You dont have to speak French for a ph.D. / internship● All questions/comments welcome (including flames :-) ), also email olivier.teytaud@inria.fr
  50. 50. A BIT MORETECHNICAL NOW
  51. 51. COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE Helping computers to make decisions ( 人工智能 )
  52. 52. Contains: - statistics ( 统计学 )- optimization ( 最优化 )
  53. 53. My research containsmaths, methodologies (algorithms), applications. I think applications are easier to discuss So Ill discuss one application here: electricity management. 輸電網路
  54. 54. French energy company EDF:- world’s largest utility company.- 120,000+ megawatts in Europe, Latin America, Asia, the Middle-East and Africa.- Controls companies in all continents.- France wants to increase energetic independence (Taiwan also ?)
  55. 55. ELECTRICITY GENERATIONin FRANCE France =world champion of nuclear power plant ( 核电站 )
  56. 56. ELECTRICITY GENERATIONin FRANCE – also hydroelectricity
  57. 57. FUTURE EXTENSIONS: CONNECTIONS TO THE NORTH OF EUROPE ? CONNECTIONS TO AFRICA ? Using North-Euope wind in winter ? Using Africas wind in summer ? MORE NUCLEAR POWER ? because currently coal / oil kill more people than nuclear power ? and because no earthquake and no tsunami ? OR NO MORE NUCLEAR POWER ? because we never know what could happen (terrorism ?)
  58. 58. A RISK: SOMETHING LIKETHE 2003 BLACK OUT IN USWe had similar stuff (smaller)
  59. 59. ANOTHER RISK: LACK OF WATER(DROUGHT) (nuclear power plants cooled by water) E.g. the terrible 2003 heat wave (15 000 died; 6.2 times more than 921 earthquake in Taiwan) (a night with no less than 25°C) ==> close to electricity breakdown!
  60. 60. Consider a power grid. There are on the grid: - electricity producers; - electricity consumers. First, you must ensure that Production = Demand, under constraint “no congestion”. This is short time unit commitment.Actions= increase or decrease power.
  61. 61. If production > demand,the rotor is too fast, possible destruction. If production < demand,the rotor is too slow, possible destruction.
  62. 62. This was infra-day.Longer term: which power plants should I switch on / off these days ?==> optimization problem==> minimize production cost, under constraint demand=production==> optimization==> weakly uncertain
  63. 63. Annual and pluri-annual.When should I organize maintenance ? When should I use my stocks (which stocks ?).Should I use hydroelectricity in spring ? Should I store electricity ? (pumping)
  64. 64. Annual and pluri-annual. Should I pump ? ==> storing electricity by pumping when low price
  65. 65. Annual and pluri-annual.==> Optimization with big uncertainties:- energy prices- inflows (rain, snow) for hydroelectricity- demand (economy)==> Multistage: my actions will depend on observations.
  66. 66. Long term (50 years) ==> developing renewables ? (requires smart grids, for helping production=demand)Taiwan seemingly very advanced ==> energy savings in smart grids (see elasticity to prices) ==> supergrids: connecting the world for smoothing peaks ? ==> building new power plants (Nuclear ? Coal ? Wind farms) Long term optimization with huge uncertainties
  67. 67. Taiwan: HVDC connections to other countries ? Scientists and engineers can certainly not decide if a connection should be built, but they can explain the technical consequences.
  68. 68. DesertTec – a supergrid ( 超級電網 )DESERTEC officials say the project could one day deliver 15 percentof Europes electricity and a considerable part of MENAs electricityDemand.Comment by an (anonymous :-) ) Taiwanese expert: it will never work.
  69. 69. Optimization: finding x such that f(x) is minimum and x in D Statistics: modelizing climate, elasticity (= to which extent demand decreases when prices increase) Multistage optimization: choosing a policy P so that we make decision P(x) when we observe state xExpertise in electricity: modelizing power plants, collecting possible scenarios for the future.
  70. 70. We also work on the game of Go ( 围棋 ). Why ? Go (and other games) are similar to decision making in power grids.Both involve decision making, several time steps, uncertainties.
  71. 71. We also work on the game of Go. Why ?- because people trust us when we do abig performance in Go; whereas nobody cares about results on complicated models of electricity. - because experiment on Go is great: nobody will die or lose 1 billion $ if we do a big mistake - because Go is a fascinating artificial intelligence challenge
  72. 72. The game of Go is a part of AI (artificial intelligence).Computers are ridiculous in front of children. Easy situation. Termed “semeai”. Requires a little bit of abstraction. 72
  73. 73. The game of Go is a part of AI.Computers are ridiculous in front of children. 800 cores, 4.7 GHz, top level program. Plays a stupid move. 73
  74. 74. The game of Go is a part of AI.Computers are ridiculous in front of children. A 6 years old child can solve it; and there are 11 years old professional players 74
  75. 75. I just love my job. Research. Big applications. I work on this mainly in France.Maybe a future for this work in Taiwan (electricity is important currently in Taiwan, and in all the world...). Like it ? Apply for internships / ph.D. in France. Dont have to speak French. 75
  76. 76. I have spent 1 year in Taiwan, but Taiwan still surprises me a lot. For example, I was very surprisedby recent contests in Taipei; I believedthat Taiwanese people did not contest.Sometimes Taiwan looks like a country with plenty of strict rules; but on road theres no rule. Comments on this talk are more thanwelcome. I am curious about Taiwan :-) olivier.teytaud@gmailcom 76
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