0
Matter- Properties and Changes Chapter 3 Review
Ch 3 Objectives <ul><li>Distinguish between physical and chemical properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate among the ph...
Demo Step 1 <ul><li>Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is dissolved in water to a concentration of 1.5 Molar.  </li></ul><ul><li>Abou...
Describe HCl (aq) <ul><li>Water is a  liquid </li></ul><ul><li>HCl and H 2 O form a  homogeneous mixture   or  solution   ...
A =  Physical Property B =  Chemical Property <ul><li>HCl is soluble in water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>physical property </li...
Homework Check #2 A = physical property  B = chemical property <ul><li>2a) </li></ul><ul><li>2b) </li></ul><ul><li>2c) </l...
What are elements and compounds? <ul><li>HCl  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>made of H and Cl on periodic table </li></ul></ul><ul>...
What is matter? <ul><li>Element </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zn  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cannot be separated </li></ul></ul><u...
Demo Step 2 <ul><li>Measure the mass of a piece of zinc. </li></ul><ul><li>Add the piece of zinc metal to a   balloon. </l...
What are metals? <ul><li>Metals  are elements on the left side of the periodic table </li></ul><ul><li>Physical properties...
<ul><li>Mass of zinc = ___________________ g  </li></ul><ul><li>This is an extensive  physical property  – depends on amou...
Demo Step 3 <ul><li>Take the mass of the system = ________ g </li></ul><ul><li>Add Zn to HCl (aq) </li></ul><ul><li>Retake...
What are chemical changes? <ul><li>A  chemical change  occurred… </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of chemical change and new sub...
What happens to mass? <ul><li>Mass does not change during a reaction ; although substances do change </li></ul><ul><li>Mas...
Homework Check #6 <ul><li>10.0 g </li></ul><ul><li>69.4 g </li></ul><ul><li>79.4 g </li></ul><ul><li>89.4 g </li></ul><ul>...
Homework #7    B or better! <ul><li>Chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>15.6 g </li></ul><ul><li>24.1 g </li></ul><ul><li>39.7 g <...
Demo Step 4 <ul><li>Check to see if hydrogen gas IS in balloon… </li></ul><ul><li>HOW? </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen gas is E...
Ch 3 Objectives <ul><li>Distinguish between physical and chemical properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate among the ph...
Properties <ul><li>Distinguish between physical and chemical properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Property  – a characte...
States of Matter <ul><li>Differentiate among the physical states of matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Solid  = a form of matter th...
Physical Changes <ul><li>Physical change  = a change which alters a substance without changing its composition </li></ul><...
Chemical Changes <ul><li>Define chemical change and list several indications that a chemical change has taken place. </li>...
Law of Conservation of Mass <ul><li>Apply the law of conservation of mass to chemical reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Mass is...
Mixtures vs. Substances <ul><li>Contrast mixtures and substances. </li></ul><ul><li>Substance  – matter that has a uniform...
Mixtures <ul><li>Classify mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous. </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous mixture  – one that do...
Homework Check #17 <ul><li>A = heterogeneous mixture </li></ul><ul><li>B = homogeneous mixture </li></ul><ul><li>17. a) </...
Mixture Separation Techniques <ul><li>List and describe several techniques used to separate mixtures. </li></ul><ul><li>Fi...
Mixture Separation Techniques (cont’d) <ul><li>List and describe several techniques used to separate mixtures. </li></ul><...
Homework #19    B or better! <ul><li>Filtration </li></ul><ul><li>Distillation </li></ul><ul><li>Crystallization </li></u...
Substances <ul><li>Distinguish between elements and compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Element  – a pure substance that cannot b...
Elements <ul><li>Describe the organization of elements on the  periodic table . </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic Table  – organi...
Homework #29    B or better <ul><li>Potassium </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium </li></ul><ul><li>Calci...
Compounds <ul><li>Explain how all compounds obey the laws of definite and multiple proportions. </li></ul><ul><li>Law of d...
What? <ul><li>Definite Proportions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water is always 2 g hydrogen to 16 g oxygen  </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Homework Check #23 <ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul>
Homework Check #28 <ul><li>Compounds containing the same elements </li></ul><ul><li>Compounds containing different element...
Ch 3 Objectives <ul><li>Distinguish between physical and chemical properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate among the ph...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Chem Hapg1 Matter Properties And Changes

2,806

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,806
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
58
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Chem Hapg1 Matter Properties And Changes"

  1. 1. Matter- Properties and Changes Chapter 3 Review
  2. 2. Ch 3 Objectives <ul><li>Distinguish between physical and chemical properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate among the physical states of matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Define physical change and list several common physical changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Define chemical change and list several indications that a chemical change has taken place. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply the law of conservation of mass to chemical reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast mixtures and substances. </li></ul><ul><li>Classify mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous. </li></ul><ul><li>List and describe several techniques used to separate mixtures. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between elements and compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the organization of elements on the periodic table. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how all compounds obey the law of definite and multiple proportions. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Demo Step 1 <ul><li>Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is dissolved in water to a concentration of 1.5 Molar. </li></ul><ul><li>About 10 mL of the HCl solution is placed in a flask. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Describe HCl (aq) <ul><li>Water is a liquid </li></ul><ul><li>HCl and H 2 O form a homogeneous mixture or solution - written as HCl (aq) </li></ul><ul><li>When HCl mixes with water to make a solution, HCl and H 2 O still have their original chemical properties and composition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore this is a physical change ! </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. A = Physical Property B = Chemical Property <ul><li>HCl is soluble in water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>physical property </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HCl is corrosive to metals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chemical property </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HCl burns skin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chemical property </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Homework Check #2 A = physical property B = chemical property <ul><li>2a) </li></ul><ul><li>2b) </li></ul><ul><li>2c) </li></ul><ul><li>2d) </li></ul><ul><li>2e) </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul>
  7. 7. What are elements and compounds? <ul><li>HCl </li></ul><ul><ul><li>made of H and Cl on periodic table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H and Cl are both nonmetallic elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H and Cl combine to form a compound </li></ul></ul><ul><li>H 2 O </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a compound (pure substance) also </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>made of the nonmetals H and O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always in ratio of 2:1 to form water </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. What is matter? <ul><li>Element </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cannot be separated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>made of atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>separate by chemical change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>made of molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mixture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HCl(aq) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>separate by physical change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>made of atoms/molecules </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Demo Step 2 <ul><li>Measure the mass of a piece of zinc. </li></ul><ul><li>Add the piece of zinc metal to a balloon. </li></ul><ul><li>Stretch the balloon over the mouth of the flask. </li></ul>
  10. 10. What are metals? <ul><li>Metals are elements on the left side of the periodic table </li></ul><ul><li>Physical properties – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shiny </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malleable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ductile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These are intensive properties – independent of amount </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Mass of zinc = ___________________ g </li></ul><ul><li>This is an extensive physical property – depends on amount </li></ul><ul><li>Zinc </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is an element (which is a pure substance) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is a metal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is a solid </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Demo Step 3 <ul><li>Take the mass of the system = ________ g </li></ul><ul><li>Add Zn to HCl (aq) </li></ul><ul><li>Retake the mass of the system = ________ g </li></ul>
  13. 13. What are chemical changes? <ul><li>A chemical change occurred… </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of chemical change and new substances formed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gas given off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>color change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>heat evolved </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Notice HCl still had the ability to corrode metals even though in solution with water </li></ul>
  14. 14. What happens to mass? <ul><li>Mass does not change during a reaction ; although substances do change </li></ul><ul><li>Mass reactants = Mass products </li></ul><ul><li>Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq)  ZnCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen gas should be formed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New substance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different properties from reactants! </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Homework Check #6 <ul><li>10.0 g </li></ul><ul><li>69.4 g </li></ul><ul><li>79.4 g </li></ul><ul><li>89.4 g </li></ul><ul><li>Not enough info </li></ul>
  16. 16. Homework #7  B or better! <ul><li>Chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>15.6 g </li></ul><ul><li>24.1 g </li></ul><ul><li>39.7 g </li></ul><ul><li>55.3 g </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium </li></ul><ul><li>15.6 g </li></ul><ul><li>24.1 g </li></ul><ul><li>39.7 g </li></ul><ul><li>55.3 g </li></ul>
  17. 17. Demo Step 4 <ul><li>Check to see if hydrogen gas IS in balloon… </li></ul><ul><li>HOW? </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen gas is EXPLOSIVE!!!!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a chemical property… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So we’ll have to carry out the chemical change to test! </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Ch 3 Objectives <ul><li>Distinguish between physical and chemical properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate among the physical states of matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Define physical change and list several common physical changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Define chemical change and list several indications that a chemical change has taken place. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply the law of conservation of mass to chemical reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast mixtures and substances. </li></ul><ul><li>Classify mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous. </li></ul><ul><li>List and describe several techniques used to separate mixtures. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between elements and compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the organization of elements on the periodic table. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how all compounds obey the law of definite and multiple proportions. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Properties <ul><li>Distinguish between physical and chemical properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Property – a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the sample’s composition </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Property – the ability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more other substances </li></ul>
  20. 20. States of Matter <ul><li>Differentiate among the physical states of matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Solid = a form of matter that has its own definite shape and volume </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid = flows, has its own volume, but takes shape of container </li></ul><ul><li>Gas = flows to conform to the shape of its container AND fills the entire volume of its container </li></ul>
  21. 21. Physical Changes <ul><li>Physical change = a change which alters a substance without changing its composition </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Melting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freezing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condensing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaporizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boiling </li></ul></ul>Define physical change and list several common physical changes.
  22. 22. Chemical Changes <ul><li>Define chemical change and list several indications that a chemical change has taken place. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical change – involves a change in a substance’s composition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical reaction – alternate name! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactants  Products (  = “form”) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evidence of chemical change: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light, heat or sound given off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color or odor change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitate (solid) or gas formation </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Law of Conservation of Mass <ul><li>Apply the law of conservation of mass to chemical reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Mass is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Mass is conserved! </li></ul><ul><li>Mass reactants = Mass products </li></ul>
  24. 24. Mixtures vs. Substances <ul><li>Contrast mixtures and substances. </li></ul><ul><li>Substance – matter that has a uniform and unchanging composition </li></ul><ul><li>Mixture – a combination of two or more pure substances (in any proportion) in which each pure substance retains its individual chemical properties; can be broken down by physical means (changes) </li></ul><ul><li>SEE FIG 3-17 </li></ul>
  25. 25. Mixtures <ul><li>Classify mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous. </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous mixture – one that does not blend smoothly throughout and in which the individual substances remain distinct </li></ul><ul><li>Homogeneous mixture – has constant composition throughout; always has a single phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solutions – alternate name! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SEE FIG 3-17 </li></ul>
  26. 26. Homework Check #17 <ul><li>A = heterogeneous mixture </li></ul><ul><li>B = homogeneous mixture </li></ul><ul><li>17. a) </li></ul><ul><li>17. b) </li></ul><ul><li>17. c) </li></ul><ul><li>17. d) </li></ul><ul><li>17. e) </li></ul><ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>A </li></ul>
  27. 27. Mixture Separation Techniques <ul><li>List and describe several techniques used to separate mixtures. </li></ul><ul><li>Filtration – a technique that uses a porous barrier to separate a solid from a liquid (fig 3-15) </li></ul><ul><li>Distillation – a separation technique based on differences in the boiling points of the substances involved  “distilled water” </li></ul>
  28. 28. Mixture Separation Techniques (cont’d) <ul><li>List and describe several techniques used to separate mixtures. </li></ul><ul><li>Crystallization – a separation technique that results in the formation of pure solid particles of a substance from a solution containing the dissolved substance  ex) making sugar candy </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatography – a technique that separates the components of a mixture (called the mobile phase) on the basis of the tendency of each to travel or be drawn across the surface of another material (called the stationary phase)  your minilab! </li></ul>
  29. 29. Homework #19  B or better! <ul><li>Filtration </li></ul><ul><li>Distillation </li></ul><ul><li>Crystallization </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatography </li></ul><ul><li>None of the above </li></ul><ul><li>19. a) </li></ul><ul><li>19. b) </li></ul><ul><li>19. c) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Substances <ul><li>Distinguish between elements and compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Element – a pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means </li></ul><ul><li>Compound – a chemical combination of two or more different elements with properties of its own; can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means </li></ul><ul><li>SEE FIG 3-17 </li></ul>
  31. 31. Elements <ul><li>Describe the organization of elements on the periodic table . </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic Table – organizes the elements into a grid of horizontal rows called periods and vertical columns called groups (families) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metals – on the left side of the stairstep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonmetals – to the right of the stairstep </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elements are organized in repeating patterns of properties; elements in the same group have similar properties </li></ul>
  32. 32. Homework #29  B or better <ul><li>Potassium </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur </li></ul><ul><li>Krypton </li></ul><ul><li>Bromine </li></ul><ul><li>Arsenic </li></ul><ul><li>Boron </li></ul><ul><li>Argon </li></ul>
  33. 33. Compounds <ul><li>Explain how all compounds obey the laws of definite and multiple proportions. </li></ul><ul><li>Law of definite proportions – a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportion by mass </li></ul><ul><li>Law of multiple proportions – when different compounds are formed by a combination of the same elements, different masses of one element combine with the same relative mass of the other element in a ratio of small whole numbers </li></ul>
  34. 34. What? <ul><li>Definite Proportions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water is always 2 g hydrogen to 16 g oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also can think of as 2 H atoms to 1 O atom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple Proportions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>H and O can combine to make 2 different compounds: water and hydrogen peroxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water = H 2 O Hydrogen Peroxide = H 2 O 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same elements, but different WHOLE number ratios; mass of oxygen in H 2 O:H 2 O 2 is 1:2 </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Homework Check #23 <ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul>
  36. 36. Homework Check #28 <ul><li>Compounds containing the same elements </li></ul><ul><li>Compounds containing different elements </li></ul><ul><li>Mixtures containing the same elements </li></ul><ul><li>Mixtures containing different elements </li></ul>
  37. 37. Ch 3 Objectives <ul><li>Distinguish between physical and chemical properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate among the physical states of matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Define physical change and list several common physical changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Define chemical change and list several indications that a chemical change has taken place. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply the law of conservation of mass to chemical reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast mixtures and substances. </li></ul><ul><li>Classify mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous. </li></ul><ul><li>List and describe several techniques used to separate mixtures. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between elements and compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the organization of elements on the periodic table. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how all compounds obey the law of definite and multiple proportions. </li></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×