Chem Hapg1 Matter  Properties And Changes
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Chem Hapg1 Matter Properties And Changes

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Chem Hapg1 Matter  Properties And Changes Chem Hapg1 Matter Properties And Changes Presentation Transcript

  • Matter- Properties and Changes Chapter 3 Review
  • Ch 3 Objectives
    • Distinguish between physical and chemical properties.
    • Differentiate among the physical states of matter.
    • Define physical change and list several common physical changes.
    • Define chemical change and list several indications that a chemical change has taken place.
    • Apply the law of conservation of mass to chemical reactions.
    • Contrast mixtures and substances.
    • Classify mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous.
    • List and describe several techniques used to separate mixtures.
    • Distinguish between elements and compounds.
    • Describe the organization of elements on the periodic table.
    • Explain how all compounds obey the law of definite and multiple proportions.
  • Demo Step 1
    • Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is dissolved in water to a concentration of 1.5 Molar.
    • About 10 mL of the HCl solution is placed in a flask.
  • Describe HCl (aq)
    • Water is a liquid
    • HCl and H 2 O form a homogeneous mixture or solution - written as HCl (aq)
    • When HCl mixes with water to make a solution, HCl and H 2 O still have their original chemical properties and composition
      • Therefore this is a physical change !
  • A = Physical Property B = Chemical Property
    • HCl is soluble in water
      • physical property
    • HCl is corrosive to metals
      • chemical property
    • HCl burns skin
      • chemical property
  • Homework Check #2 A = physical property B = chemical property
    • 2a)
    • 2b)
    • 2c)
    • 2d)
    • 2e)
    • Chemical
    • Physical
    • Chemical
    • Physical
    • Physical
  • What are elements and compounds?
    • HCl
      • made of H and Cl on periodic table
      • H and Cl are both nonmetallic elements
      • H and Cl combine to form a compound
    • H 2 O
      • Is a compound (pure substance) also
      • made of the nonmetals H and O
      • Always in ratio of 2:1 to form water
  • What is matter?
    • Element
      • Zn
      • cannot be separated
      • made of atoms
    • Compound
      • H 2 O
      • separate by chemical change
      • made of molecules
    • Mixture
      • HCl(aq)
      • separate by physical change
      • made of atoms/molecules
  • Demo Step 2
    • Measure the mass of a piece of zinc.
    • Add the piece of zinc metal to a balloon.
    • Stretch the balloon over the mouth of the flask.
  • What are metals?
    • Metals are elements on the left side of the periodic table
    • Physical properties –
      • Shiny
      • Conduct electricity
      • Malleable
      • Ductile
      • Solid
    • These are intensive properties – independent of amount
    • Mass of zinc = ___________________ g
    • This is an extensive physical property – depends on amount
    • Zinc
      • is an element (which is a pure substance)
      • is a metal
      • is a solid
  • Demo Step 3
    • Take the mass of the system = ________ g
    • Add Zn to HCl (aq)
    • Retake the mass of the system = ________ g
  • What are chemical changes?
    • A chemical change occurred…
    • Evidence of chemical change and new substances formed:
      • gas given off
      • color change
      • heat evolved
    • Notice HCl still had the ability to corrode metals even though in solution with water
  • What happens to mass?
    • Mass does not change during a reaction ; although substances do change
    • Mass reactants = Mass products
    • Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq)  ZnCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g)
    • Hydrogen gas should be formed
      • New substance
      • Different properties from reactants!
  • Homework Check #6
    • 10.0 g
    • 69.4 g
    • 79.4 g
    • 89.4 g
    • Not enough info
  • Homework #7  B or better!
    • Chlorine
    • 15.6 g
    • 24.1 g
    • 39.7 g
    • 55.3 g
    • Sodium
    • 15.6 g
    • 24.1 g
    • 39.7 g
    • 55.3 g
  • Demo Step 4
    • Check to see if hydrogen gas IS in balloon…
    • HOW?
    • Hydrogen gas is EXPLOSIVE!!!!!
      • This is a chemical property…
      • So we’ll have to carry out the chemical change to test!
  • Ch 3 Objectives
    • Distinguish between physical and chemical properties.
    • Differentiate among the physical states of matter.
    • Define physical change and list several common physical changes.
    • Define chemical change and list several indications that a chemical change has taken place.
    • Apply the law of conservation of mass to chemical reactions.
    • Contrast mixtures and substances.
    • Classify mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous.
    • List and describe several techniques used to separate mixtures.
    • Distinguish between elements and compounds.
    • Describe the organization of elements on the periodic table.
    • Explain how all compounds obey the law of definite and multiple proportions.
  • Properties
    • Distinguish between physical and chemical properties.
    • Physical Property – a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the sample’s composition
    • Chemical Property – the ability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more other substances
  • States of Matter
    • Differentiate among the physical states of matter.
    • Solid = a form of matter that has its own definite shape and volume
    • Liquid = flows, has its own volume, but takes shape of container
    • Gas = flows to conform to the shape of its container AND fills the entire volume of its container
  • Physical Changes
    • Physical change = a change which alters a substance without changing its composition
    • Examples:
      • Cutting
      • Bending
      • Melting
      • Freezing
      • Condensing
      • Vaporizing
      • Boiling
    Define physical change and list several common physical changes.
  • Chemical Changes
    • Define chemical change and list several indications that a chemical change has taken place.
    • Chemical change – involves a change in a substance’s composition
      • Chemical reaction – alternate name!
      • Reactants  Products (  = “form”)
    • Evidence of chemical change:
      • Light, heat or sound given off
      • Color or odor change
      • Precipitate (solid) or gas formation
  • Law of Conservation of Mass
    • Apply the law of conservation of mass to chemical reactions.
    • Mass is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction
    • Mass is conserved!
    • Mass reactants = Mass products
  • Mixtures vs. Substances
    • Contrast mixtures and substances.
    • Substance – matter that has a uniform and unchanging composition
    • Mixture – a combination of two or more pure substances (in any proportion) in which each pure substance retains its individual chemical properties; can be broken down by physical means (changes)
    • SEE FIG 3-17
  • Mixtures
    • Classify mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous.
    • Heterogeneous mixture – one that does not blend smoothly throughout and in which the individual substances remain distinct
    • Homogeneous mixture – has constant composition throughout; always has a single phase
      • Solutions – alternate name!
    • SEE FIG 3-17
  • Homework Check #17
    • A = heterogeneous mixture
    • B = homogeneous mixture
    • 17. a)
    • 17. b)
    • 17. c)
    • 17. d)
    • 17. e)
    • A
    • B
    • B
    • B
    • A
  • Mixture Separation Techniques
    • List and describe several techniques used to separate mixtures.
    • Filtration – a technique that uses a porous barrier to separate a solid from a liquid (fig 3-15)
    • Distillation – a separation technique based on differences in the boiling points of the substances involved  “distilled water”
  • Mixture Separation Techniques (cont’d)
    • List and describe several techniques used to separate mixtures.
    • Crystallization – a separation technique that results in the formation of pure solid particles of a substance from a solution containing the dissolved substance  ex) making sugar candy
    • Chromatography – a technique that separates the components of a mixture (called the mobile phase) on the basis of the tendency of each to travel or be drawn across the surface of another material (called the stationary phase)  your minilab!
  • Homework #19  B or better!
    • Filtration
    • Distillation
    • Crystallization
    • Chromatography
    • None of the above
    • 19. a)
    • 19. b)
    • 19. c)
  • Substances
    • Distinguish between elements and compounds.
    • Element – a pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means
    • Compound – a chemical combination of two or more different elements with properties of its own; can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means
    • SEE FIG 3-17
  • Elements
    • Describe the organization of elements on the periodic table .
    • Periodic Table – organizes the elements into a grid of horizontal rows called periods and vertical columns called groups (families)
      • Metals – on the left side of the stairstep
      • Nonmetals – to the right of the stairstep
    • Elements are organized in repeating patterns of properties; elements in the same group have similar properties
  • Homework #29  B or better
    • Potassium
    • Nitrogen
    • Sodium
    • Calcium
    • Sulfur
    • Krypton
    • Bromine
    • Arsenic
    • Boron
    • Argon
  • Compounds
    • Explain how all compounds obey the laws of definite and multiple proportions.
    • Law of definite proportions – a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportion by mass
    • Law of multiple proportions – when different compounds are formed by a combination of the same elements, different masses of one element combine with the same relative mass of the other element in a ratio of small whole numbers
  • What?
    • Definite Proportions
      • Water is always 2 g hydrogen to 16 g oxygen
      • Also can think of as 2 H atoms to 1 O atom
    • Multiple Proportions
      • H and O can combine to make 2 different compounds: water and hydrogen peroxide
      • Water = H 2 O Hydrogen Peroxide = H 2 O 2
      • Same elements, but different WHOLE number ratios; mass of oxygen in H 2 O:H 2 O 2 is 1:2
  • Homework Check #23
    • Yes
    • No
  • Homework Check #28
    • Compounds containing the same elements
    • Compounds containing different elements
    • Mixtures containing the same elements
    • Mixtures containing different elements
  • Ch 3 Objectives
    • Distinguish between physical and chemical properties.
    • Differentiate among the physical states of matter.
    • Define physical change and list several common physical changes.
    • Define chemical change and list several indications that a chemical change has taken place.
    • Apply the law of conservation of mass to chemical reactions.
    • Contrast mixtures and substances.
    • Classify mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous.
    • List and describe several techniques used to separate mixtures.
    • Distinguish between elements and compounds.
    • Describe the organization of elements on the periodic table.
    • Explain how all compounds obey the law of definite and multiple proportions.