Nurturing (Chapter 3)


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Nurturing (Chapter 3)

  1. 1. Nurturing
  2. 2. <ul><li>Understand the stages of youth development. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how adults can help young people gain confidence through positive reinforcement. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how setting goals can help young people grow. </li></ul>Objectives
  3. 3. In a poll entitled “What Matters Most,” Newsweek asked 506 parents with children ages 0-3 what their most important goal was as a parent. Forty-eight percent of the parents who responded said they wanted their children to grow up with high moral values. (McDaniel, 1998)
  4. 4. <ul><li>Children learn good morals early in life. </li></ul><ul><li>As society becomes more complex, it becomes harder to teach good character traits to young people. </li></ul><ul><li>4-H and FFA focus on character education. </li></ul><ul><li>The Six Pillars of Character are fundamentals of character development. </li></ul><ul><li>Trustworthiness – Fairness </li></ul><ul><li>Respect – Caring </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility – Citizenship </li></ul>Why is character education important?
  5. 5. <ul><li>Erik Erikson’s eight stages of youth development describe how individuals develop their personalities in different stages of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Success is determined by how well one progresses through the stages of development. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical, emotional and intellectual growth vary at different stages of development. </li></ul><ul><li>The more adults understand about youth development the better character education they can provide. </li></ul>The Stages of Youth Development
  6. 6. <ul><li>Oral – Sensory </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular </li></ul><ul><li>Locomotor </li></ul><ul><li>Latency </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Young Adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Maturity </li></ul>Erikson’s Stages of Development
  7. 7. <ul><li>Age – 1 to 1 ½ years </li></ul><ul><li>Adult roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain trust from individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a loving and safe environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mother is typically the most important in a child’s life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help the child feel safe in his/her environment </li></ul></ul>Oral - Sensory
  8. 8. <ul><li>Age – 1 ½ to 4 years </li></ul><ul><li>Adult roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a balance of freedom and protectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support children as they experience trial and error in activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be firm but tolerant so the child will develop self-control and self-esteem </li></ul></ul>Muscular
  9. 9. <ul><li>Age – 4 to 6 years </li></ul><ul><li>Adult roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support initiative and exploration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow children to use imagination and avoid an excess of formal education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help children learn they are no longer babies, but are growing up </li></ul></ul>Locomotor
  10. 10. <ul><li>Age – 6 to 12 years </li></ul><ul><li>Adult roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep a balance between letting kids be kids and providing formal education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help children begin to “tame the imagination” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage children to keep trying regardless of their success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social sphere becomes much broader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All people in a child’s life have an influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4-H can begin at this age </li></ul></ul>Latency
  11. 11. <ul><li>Age – 12 to 18 years </li></ul><ul><li>Adult roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be a good role model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain young person’s respect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide information about career options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Society plays a big role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in a child’s life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach good character traits </li></ul></ul>Adolescence
  12. 12. <ul><li>Age – 20s </li></ul><ul><li>Adult roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage teamwork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support cultural and gender differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage involvement with friends and the community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help young adults weigh decisions based on the effect on society </li></ul></ul>Young Adulthood
  13. 13. <ul><li>Age – 20 to 50 years </li></ul><ul><li>Adult roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role reversal begins as young adults start their own families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help others at each stage of development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be a mentor and role model </li></ul></ul>Middle Adulthood
  14. 14. <ul><li>Age – 50 + years </li></ul><ul><li>Adult roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Share wisdom with young adults and children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be a mentor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grandparents can give excellent support to grandchildren </li></ul></ul>Maturity
  15. 15. Never Stop Learning <ul><li>We sometimes forget about the why’s and just concentrate on the how’s ! </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching young people why they should do something a certain way gives them a better understanding of how to do it. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Positive reinforcement encourages continued behavior by offering attractive consequences (rewards) for desirable performance. </li></ul><ul><li>It is very effective in helping young people progress through the stages of development. </li></ul><ul><li>Successful character education does not depend solely on giving rewards to promote good behavior. </li></ul>Building Confidence Through Positive Reinforcement
  17. 17. <ul><li>Emphasize the positive first, then talk about things that can be improved. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chris, you set up the back legs of your steer very well, but the front legs could be a little more square. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jenny, you swept up the aisles in the barn well, but the pens could use some more cleaning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christy, your showmanship skills have improved greatly, but there are still a few things we can work on to make them better. </li></ul></ul>Proper Use of Positive Reinforcement
  18. 18. <ul><li>Goal - the result or achievement toward which effort is directed </li></ul><ul><li>Goal statements are written by individuals, 4-H clubs and FFA organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Goals should be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attainable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committed to by the individual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goals must be written down! </li></ul>Goal Setting
  19. 19. <ul><li>Adults should: </li></ul><ul><li>give feedback to help young people write goal statements </li></ul><ul><li>help young people develop a vision for what they wish to accomplish </li></ul><ul><li>help young people identify their strengths and weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>have the following traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect (Let young people set their own goals.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patience (Give them time to make decisions.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouragement (Support their decisions and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>recognize their initiative.) </li></ul></ul>Goal Setting (continued)
  20. 20. <ul><li>Setting goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increases attention to the immediate task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increases the effort expended on activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increases persistence because there is less temptation to quit once a goal has been clearly established </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increases motivation and performance by encouraging the development of specific task strategies </li></ul></ul>Goal Setting (continued)
  21. 21. <ul><li>Understand Erikson’s Stages of Development. </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to identify the stages people are in. </li></ul><ul><li>Never stop learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Use positive reinforcement to teach young people. </li></ul><ul><li>Writing goal statements is an important part of youth development. </li></ul><ul><li>Goals statements should be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attainable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committed to by the individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written down </li></ul></ul>Summary