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Classification of Textiles
G.Santhana Krishnan
Training Division
The South India Textile Research
Association
Textile
• Textile is a process of converting fiber or
polymer into sheet.
• Earlier it was just full fill the basic needs ...
Manufacturing
technique

Application
areas

Type of raw
material

Finishing
Classification
of Textiles
Origin of Fibre
Two origins
Natural resources( non Thermo
Man Made fibers(thermo plastic, thermo set)
Natural fibers there...
Natural fibers
According to the source
• Plants (seeds, stem, leaf & seed)
• Animal (Hair, saliva)
• Mineral (basalt)
Natural Fibers and Textiles
The Bast fiber
•
Animal Fibers

Different stages in
the silk mill: brushing
(drawing out the end of
the thread), extracting,
Man Made Fiber
Manmade Fibers
• 1. Regenerated Fibers
• 2. Synthetic fibers
• 3. High performance fibers
Regenerated Fibers
High Performance Fibers
YARNS

CONTINUOUS
FILAMENT

FLAT

SPUN-STAPLE

FIBRE LENGTH

TEXTURED

SHORT STAPLE

RING SPUN

BIOCOMPONENT

LONG STAPLE
...
Different Spinning Systems
Roving

Siro
yarn
Ring Yarns
• Ring Yarns further classified as
1.Warp yarn
More even and Highly twisted for high strength
2.Hosiearnry
Soft...
Non Conventional Spinning
Open End Rotor Spinning
Rotor

Yarn Package

Feed Roll
Transport
Air Channel

Sliver
Condenser

Sliver
Combing Roll
Trash
...
Murata Air Jet Spinning
b
Murata Vortex
Fancy yarns
Fabric Manufacturing
Polymers
Fibers

Yarns

Woven Knitted Braided Non-woven
Fabrics
Application

It eliminates the yarn p...
Manufacturing Technic
•
•
•
•

Woven fabrics
Knitted fabrics
Non woven fabrics
Braided structures
Production Rate
Fabric production
method
Weaving

Rate of fabric
production
1 m/min

Knitting

2 m/min

Nonwoven

100 m/mi...
Woven Fabric
Knitted Fabric (weft Knitting)
Warp Knitting
Braided Structures
Nonwoven Fabric
There are normally two steps for
making non-woven products.
1. Web formation
2. Bonding systems
Parallel-laid web from carded fibers
Cross Laid Web
Parellel laid /cross laid web
• Card webs are arranged one over another in a
parellel manner
• Strength is high in length ...
Air laid Web
Airlaid web wet laid
• Opened fibers are suspended in air and
deposited on a perforated sheet or drum
• Fibers dispersed i...
Types of Bonding
– Needled felts
– Adhesives
– Heat bonding
– Stitch bonding
Needle Punching
Needle punching

Cross section of a needle-punched bonded
fabric.

Fibers held together by frictional
Cont...
Adhesive Bonding
• The strength of fabric increased by adding
adhesive. Where strength is not enough
Thermal Adhessive
• Melt-bonding at selected points to give extra stability to a spun bonded
geotextile

• Spun bond and M...
Stitch Bonding
.

Webs may also be given extra strength by stitching them
through with yarns.
Such structures are usually ...
Webs from filament
• It is possible to tangle filaments together to
form a web. Such webs are much stronger
than web made ...
Application of Textiles
• Domestic applications
• Shirting
• Intimate fabrics
• Vanity fabrics
• Technical Textiles
14 gro...
Build tech
GEO synthetics
• Geogrids - reinforce slopes beneath the waste, walls, cover soils
above geomembranes;
• Geonets - in-plan...
Marine application
Environmental Care
Finishing of Fabrics
• General surface finishes (mechanical finishes,
chemical finishes)

• Functional Finishes
Mechanical finishes
ffffff
Resistance to sunlight and UV degradation
Abrasion resistance
Reduced flammability
Soil resistance and easy cleanab...
ffffff
Controlled fragrance release
Anti Bacterial finish
camouflage

Non sensetivity by radors
Radiation Sheilding
Glow f...
Lotus leaf Effect
Smart Textiles
Incorporation of:
 Sensors and actuators
 MP3, GPS, GSM, Ipod, Iphone Ipad

 Energy harvesting systems
...
Classification of textiles
Classification of textiles
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Transcript of "Classification of textiles"

  1. 1. Classification of Textiles G.Santhana Krishnan Training Division The South India Textile Research Association
  2. 2. Textile • Textile is a process of converting fiber or polymer into sheet. • Earlier it was just full fill the basic needs of human being • To protect from weather • Then converted into 3d structures • Now it goes beyond in clothing science (comfort, vanity, functional)
  3. 3. Manufacturing technique Application areas Type of raw material Finishing Classification of Textiles
  4. 4. Origin of Fibre Two origins Natural resources( non Thermo Man Made fibers(thermo plastic, thermo set) Natural fibers there are limitation in properties and having more variations Manmade fibers produced according to our wish
  5. 5. Natural fibers According to the source • Plants (seeds, stem, leaf & seed) • Animal (Hair, saliva) • Mineral (basalt)
  6. 6. Natural Fibers and Textiles
  7. 7. The Bast fiber •
  8. 8. Animal Fibers Different stages in the silk mill: brushing (drawing out the end of the thread), extracting,
  9. 9. Man Made Fiber
  10. 10. Manmade Fibers • 1. Regenerated Fibers • 2. Synthetic fibers • 3. High performance fibers
  11. 11. Regenerated Fibers
  12. 12. High Performance Fibers
  13. 13. YARNS CONTINUOUS FILAMENT FLAT SPUN-STAPLE FIBRE LENGTH TEXTURED SHORT STAPLE RING SPUN BIOCOMPONENT LONG STAPLE ROTOR SPUN FILM (TAPE OR SPLIT) YARN CONSTRUCTION (COMPOUND) SPINNING METHODS TWISTLESS WRAP SPUN CORE SPUN FOLDED OR DOUBLED YARN CABLED YARN NOVELTY YARNS METALLIC YARNS FANCY YARNS
  14. 14. Different Spinning Systems Roving Siro yarn
  15. 15. Ring Yarns • Ring Yarns further classified as 1.Warp yarn More even and Highly twisted for high strength 2.Hosiearnry Soft bulkier yarn , Less twist
  16. 16. Non Conventional Spinning
  17. 17. Open End Rotor Spinning Rotor Yarn Package Feed Roll Transport Air Channel Sliver Condenser Sliver Combing Roll Trash Feed Plate
  18. 18. Murata Air Jet Spinning b
  19. 19. Murata Vortex
  20. 20. Fancy yarns
  21. 21. Fabric Manufacturing Polymers Fibers Yarns Woven Knitted Braided Non-woven Fabrics Application It eliminates the yarn production process and makes the fabric directly from fibers.
  22. 22. Manufacturing Technic • • • • Woven fabrics Knitted fabrics Non woven fabrics Braided structures
  23. 23. Production Rate Fabric production method Weaving Rate of fabric production 1 m/min Knitting 2 m/min Nonwoven 100 m/min
  24. 24. Woven Fabric
  25. 25. Knitted Fabric (weft Knitting)
  26. 26. Warp Knitting
  27. 27. Braided Structures
  28. 28. Nonwoven Fabric There are normally two steps for making non-woven products. 1. Web formation 2. Bonding systems
  29. 29. Parallel-laid web from carded fibers
  30. 30. Cross Laid Web
  31. 31. Parellel laid /cross laid web • Card webs are arranged one over another in a parellel manner • Strength is high in length wise direction than cross direction • By means of cross laper, delivery of web turned to right angle
  32. 32. Air laid Web
  33. 33. Airlaid web wet laid • Opened fibers are suspended in air and deposited on a perforated sheet or drum • Fibers dispersed in water and deposited on a perforated felt and drain (Paper, Tea bag technic)
  34. 34. Types of Bonding – Needled felts – Adhesives – Heat bonding – Stitch bonding
  35. 35. Needle Punching Needle punching Cross section of a needle-punched bonded fabric. Fibers held together by frictional Contact between fibers
  36. 36. Adhesive Bonding • The strength of fabric increased by adding adhesive. Where strength is not enough
  37. 37. Thermal Adhessive • Melt-bonding at selected points to give extra stability to a spun bonded geotextile • Spun bond and Melt blown systems
  38. 38. Stitch Bonding . Webs may also be given extra strength by stitching them through with yarns. Such structures are usually more flexible
  39. 39. Webs from filament • It is possible to tangle filaments together to form a web. Such webs are much stronger than web made from staple fibres. • The thermoplastic filaments are welded to each other to form a strong fabric suitable for curtains & tablecloths. • Sometimes, the filaments are textured before web formation. This allows greater extensibility of the fabric in use.
  40. 40. Application of Textiles • Domestic applications • Shirting • Intimate fabrics • Vanity fabrics • Technical Textiles 14 groups and 128 applications
  41. 41. Build tech
  42. 42. GEO synthetics • Geogrids - reinforce slopes beneath the waste, walls, cover soils above geomembranes; • Geonets - in-plane drainage; • Geomembranes – a barrier to liquids, gases and/or vapors and landfill caps; • Geocomposites –for separation, filtration or drainage; • Geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) - an infiltration/hydraulic barrier; used also for mine rehabilitation, tunnels, secondary containment • Geopipes - landfill applications to facilitate collection and rapid drainage of the leachate to a sump and removal system; • Geotextiles - filtration purpose or as cushion to protect the geomembrane from puncture.
  43. 43. Marine application
  44. 44. Environmental Care
  45. 45. Finishing of Fabrics • General surface finishes (mechanical finishes, chemical finishes) • Functional Finishes
  46. 46. Mechanical finishes
  47. 47. ffffff Resistance to sunlight and UV degradation Abrasion resistance Reduced flammability Soil resistance and easy cleanability Resistant to microbes and other bacteria Crease resistance Softer handle and touch Water proof (water proof & breathable)
  48. 48. ffffff Controlled fragrance release Anti Bacterial finish camouflage Non sensetivity by radors Radiation Sheilding Glow fabrics
  49. 49. Lotus leaf Effect
  50. 50. Smart Textiles Incorporation of:  Sensors and actuators  MP3, GPS, GSM, Ipod, Iphone Ipad  Energy harvesting systems  Plastic electronics Markets:  Personal protective garments  Medical systems  Sports and Leisure  Niches
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