Race, Gender and Media<br />Dr. Tracy Everbach<br />
OVERVIEW<br />Methods course<br />We will be discussing ways to study the media<br />Patterns in the media<br />Stereotypes<br />Influence of media on audiences<br />
Media research<br />Study media content, processes, effects on audiences.<br />Both quantitative and qualitative<br />Measurement or rich description<br />Both can be employed to show a full picture<br />
Creating a study<br />Define what you are studying<br />Research question or hypothesis<br />Decide how it will be measured or described<br />Choose your method<br />
Mass communication methods<br />Content analysis: qualitative and quantitative<br />Surveys/questionnaires<br />Textual analysis<br />Historical analysis<br />Ethnography (field research)<br />In-depth Interviews<br />Participant observation<br />
Stereotypes and schemas<br />Schemas are “organized knowledge … abstracted from prior experiences” used to process new info and to retrieve stored info (Graber, 1988)<br />Related is stereotyping” “An ordered, more or less consistent picture of the world, to which our habits, our tastes, our comforts and our hopes have adjusted themselves. They may not be a complete picture of the world, but they are a picture of a possible world to which we are adapted.” (Walter Lippmann in “Public Opinion.”)<br />
Groups and communication<br />Norms<br />People are dependent on others for guidance<br />Social identity, social affiliation<br />Opinion leaders, source credibility, and personal influence<br />
Agenda setting<br />Long-held theory which states that media don’t tell people what to think, but rather, tell people what to think about. (McCombs and Shaw, 1972)<br />
Media effects research<br />Effects are limited (Klapper, 1960)<br />Media are part of influence, which includes selective processes, group processes/norms, opinion leadership<br />Cultivation theory (Gerbner, 1980)<br />“The television set has become a key member of the family, the one who tells most of the stories most of the time.”<br />
Cultivation and social learning theories<br />George Gerbner and other researchers postulated that heavy exposure to cultural products (media) affects a person’s concept of reality.<br />Social learning theory (Bandura) says that people model behavior that they see in others or from television/film.<br />
Symbolic annihilation<br />Absence in the media of certain groups, which leads to their marginalization in society. Lack of coverage and representation in media symbolically dismisses these groups as important. Usually refers to minorities, women, disabled people, gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered people, people of different religions and cultural groups. (Tuchman, 1978)<br />
Uses and gratifcations theory<br />The latest and greatest in communication theory<br />Understands media from viewpoint of audience, rather than from power of media or communicator<br />What do people do with media?<br />Audience is active, and media compete with other sources of need satisfaction<br />
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