Where do people fit within enterprise architecture?
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Where do people fit within enterprise architecture?

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Slide-deck from talk at BAEA EA Cafe, Heverlee, Belgium, 26 September 2013 ...

Slide-deck from talk at BAEA EA Cafe, Heverlee, Belgium, 26 September 2013

Where do people fit within enterprise-architecture? This slidedeck explores why we need to include people-issues and people-themes in our EA, and gives a set of practical exercises on how to do this, using standard EA methods.

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  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
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  • Many thanks, Kai, Leo - much appreciated!

    Glad it helps - perhaps let me know how you use this?
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  • Thanks for sharing these slides Tom. Very helpful.
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  • Great representation. I will use something similiar to land a story. Thanks for sharing.
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  • A quick note on use: This slidedeck was used as the content for a one-hour practical session, aimed in part to show that useful enterprise-architecture work could indeed be done within that short amount of time.

    There are four 'practicals', represented by the four dark-blue 'Step 1' to 'Step 4' instructions-images (slides 39, 79, 82 and 85). These 'practicals' are timed for around ten minutes each.
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  • Slide 23 has managed to lose its graphic during processing... It's meant to show the TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM) 'crop-circles' diagram - see Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Open_Group_Architecture_Framework - with the highlight centred on Phase B, 'Business Architecture'.
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Where do people fit within enterprise architecture? Where do people fit within enterprise architecture? Presentation Transcript

  • Where do people fit within enterprise-architecture? Tom Graves, Tetradian Consulting BAEA Architect-Café, Heverlee, September 2013 the futures of business
  • Hi. (yeah, I’m that guy.) (that’s the PR done, now let’s get straight to it?)
  • How many people here work for an enterprise that consists only of information? Question…
  • If you answered ‘I do!’ you’ve just cancelled your own job… (a gentle hint…)
  • If there’s more to an enterprise than only information… then why does anyone assume that enterprise-architecture is only about IT? In which case…
  • Hmm… CC-BY-ND-SA ores2k via Flickr
  • …need to think about this one… CC-BY-ND alexsemenzato via Flickr
  • …or, in this case, right at the bottom… Let’s start this again, right from the top…
  • Yes, this is EA… (well, part of it, anyway…) CC-BY-SA MysteryBee via Flickr …and yes, IT-infrastructure is where current EA started (back with frameworks like TOGAF versions 1-7)
  • CC-BY-SA MysteryBee via Flickr Yet to understand the IT-infrastructure (TOGAF versions 1-7) we need to understand the applications and the data in those applications… (TOGAF version 8)
  • CC-BY-SA MysteryBee via Flickr …to understand the applications and data (TOGAF version 8) we need to understand the business use and meaning of the data… (TOGAF version 8.1)
  • CC-BY-SA MysteryBee via Flickr …to understand the business use of data (TOGAF version 8.1) we need to understand quite a bit more about the business itself… (TOGAF version 9)
  • CC-BY-SA MysteryBee via Flickr …and to understand the business (TOGAF version 9) we need to understand the broader context in which the business operates… (TOGAF X, we hope?)
  • CC-BY-SA MysteryBee via Flickr …because, in short, everything in the enterprise depends on everything else (yes – even the IT)
  • CC-BY-SA MysteryBee via Flickr …which gives us the real reason for enterprise-architecture: things work better when they work together, on purpose. (A lot simpler and more straightforward than most definitions for EA…)
  • …what is enterprise? Yet to understand enterprise-architecture, we also need to ask…
  • …enterprise is… In classical economics…
  • …“the animal-spirits of the entrepreneur” CC-BY-ND archaeon via Flickr
  • …it’s about people, doing things, together… CC-BY-SA Nationalmuseet via Flickr
  • …but where are the people in this business-story? CC-BY-SA MysteryBee via Flickr
  • Zachman has a ‘Who’ column… CC-BY-NC-SA knnkanda via Flickr …but it’s mainly about ‘users’…
  • …who somehow seem to look like this. CC-BY justin pickard via Flickr
  • TOGAF does talk about… Graphic: © The Open Group …but again, people here are mostly described as ‘users’… ‘Business Architecture’…
  • …who somehow seem to look like this. CC-BY justin pickard via Flickr
  • In Business Model Canvas… CC-BY Alex Osterwalder / Alan Smith et al …we do have ‘Customer Segments’…
  • …who can even look like real people… CC-BY Fretro via Flickr
  • …but inside the organisation… CC-BY Alex Osterwalder / Alan Smith et al …in ‘Key Activities’ and ‘Key Resources’…
  • …we’re back to ‘users’ again… CC-BY justin pickard via Flickr
  • …at best, possibly-human… CC-BY Vlima.com via Flickr
  • …or maybe not… CC-BY aleutia via Flickr
  • In any case, a lot more like this… CC-BY justin pickard via Flickr
  • …than like this. CC-BY andré luís via Flickr
  • So how come it’s so different to outside when they’re often the same people? from inside
  • Hmm… CC-BY-ND-SA ores2k via Flickr
  • …gonna hafta think about this one… CC-BY-ND alexsemenzato via Flickr
  • How does your enterprise engage with its people - its employees? (in other words, you!) An EA challenge…
  • 1. As-is 2. Drivers 3. To-be 4. Roadmap Let’s do this as an everyday-EA exercise:
  • “What’s the story?” Step 1: As-is
  • Step 1: As-is What name for the ‘people-service’? What does it do? (people, process, technology) What is its structure? (what, how, where, who, when, why) Create a sketch-diagram of this service and its structures, content and actions
  • “What’s the story?” Step 2: Drivers
  • …or, why do we need people, anyway? A question of skill…
  • A question of skill SCRIPTED (simple rules and checklists) TRAINEE / machine-automation CC-BY The-Vikkodamus via Flickr CC-BY-SA seeminglee via Flickr IMPROVISED (guidelines and principles) MASTER (can’t automate) ANALYSED (complicated algorithms) APPRENTICE / IT-analysis ADAPTED (complex patterns) JOURNEYMAN / pattern-IT
  • “Let’s do a quick SCAN of this…” Making sense of skills
  • “Insanity is doing the same thing and expecting different results” (Albert Einstein) ORDER (IT-type rules do work here) Take control! Impose order!
  • “Insanity is doing the same thing and expecting different results” (Albert Einstein) “Insanity is doing the same thing and expecting the same results” (not Albert Einstein) ORDER (IT-type rules do work here) UNORDER (IT-type rules don’t work here) Order and unorder
  • A quest for certainty: analysis, algorithms, identicality, efficiency, business-rule engines, executable models, Six Sigma... SAMENESS (IT-systems do work well here) UNIQUENESS (IT-systems don’t work well here) Same and different An acceptance of uncertainty: experiment, patterns, probabilities, ‘design- thinking’, unstructured process...
  • THEORY What we plan to do, in the expected conditions What we actually do, in the actual conditions PRACTICE Theory and practice
  • Why we need skills order unorder fail-safe (high-dependency) safe-fail (low-dependency) plan actual Waterfall (‘controlled’ change) Agile (iterative change) analysis (knowable result) experiment (unknowable result)
  • Machines and people order (rules do work here) unorder (rules don’t work here) fail-safe (high-dependency) safe-fail (low-dependency) analysis (knowable result) experiment (unknowable result) MACHINES PEOPLE Waterfall (‘controlled’ change) Agile (iterative change)
  • Why skills are needed… What is always going to be uncertain or unique? (‘Messy’ – politics, management, wicked- problems, ‘should’ vs ‘is’, etc.) What will always be ‘messy’? Wherever these occur, you’re going to need human skill…
  • algorithm guideline rule principle We can’t manage uncertainty or uniqueness without real people making human judgements Why we need people
  • …why would anyone want to be involved in this enterprise? Motivations…
  • CC-BY quaziefoto via Flickr “Money makes the world go round”?
  • Research: money-alone only motivates for ‘robotic’-type (non-skilled) work… CC-BY justin pickard via Flickr
  • …for skilled-work, relying on money alone as a motivator can often make things worse. CC-BY andré luís via Flickr
  • To motivate skills-work… What research shows will work, for individuals: • Autonomy (decision-making at the point of action) • Mastery (development of personal skill) • Purpose (guidelines to assess personal achievement) (Note: in Taylorism, all of the above are explicitly blocked or forbidden) …and at the collective level: • Fairness (socially-determined) • Shared-purpose (vision/values etc ‘greater than self’)
  • …whose story is this, really? - who can have impact on the enterprise? - what could their impacts be? (direct, or indirect?) Stakeholders…
  • “An organisation is bounded by rules, roles and responsibilities; an enterprise is bounded by vision, values and commitments.” Tom Graves, Mapping the Enterprise, Tetradian, 2010 Whose enterprise? Organisation aligns with structure, enterprise with story. We need a balance of both for the architecture to work.
  • A useful guideline: “The enterprise in scope should be three steps larger than the organisation in scope.” Tom Graves, Mapping the Enterprise, Tetradian, 2010 Whose enterprise?
  • Whose enterprise? If the organisation says it ‘is’ the enterprise, there’s no shared-story - and often, no story at all.
  • Whose enterprise? The minimum real enterprise is the supply-chain - a story of shared transactions.
  • Whose enterprise? The organisation and enterprise of the supply-chain take place within a broader organisation of the market.
  • Whose enterprise? The market itself exists within a context of ‘intangible’ interactions with the broader shared-enterprise story.
  • A stakeholder in the story is anyone who can wield a sharp-pointed stake in your direction… CC-BY-NC-SA evilpeacock via Flickr Stakeholders in the enterprise (Hint: there are a lot more of them than you might at first think…)
  • …what story would be a ‘guiding star’, to bring all of these stakeholders together? Vision and values… What works best is a three-part ‘story’ : -shared-concern (‘What’) -action (‘How’) - qualifier (‘Why’)
  • A myriad of ‘guiding stars’ out there… …choose one that looks right to you. Use it as your guiding-star. Everywhere. Example (TED conferences): “Ideas worth spreading”
  • Concern: the focus of interest to everyone in the shared-enterprise “Ideas worth spreading” CC-BY UK DFID via Flickr
  • “Ideas worth spreading” Action: what is being done to or with or about the concern CC-BY US Army Africa via Flickr
  • “Ideas worth spreading” Qualifier: the emotive driver for action on the concern CC-BY HDTPCAR via Flickr
  • We can view employees in many ways: - resource - customer - supplier - investor - associate Perspectives…
  • Perspective: ‘Resource’ Viewing employees as ‘resources’ or ‘production-units’ may well block their access to motivation and skill.
  • Perspective: Customer Employees are actually the ‘customers’ for the organisation’s ‘people-unit’ services.
  • Perspective: Supplier Viewing employees as suppliers enables access to skill, but without link to enterprise-story, motivation may be lost.
  • Perspective: Investor Viewing employees as investors – stakeholders in the shared-story – is useful but often politically-problematic.
  • Perspective: Associate For an employee-engagement model that works well, most organisations will need some mix of all perspectives.
  • …names can be important! - a misplaced metaphor can have very unfortunate unintended-consequences… Choose the right name for it…
  • is when they are slaves… CC-BY-NC-ND littlejoncollection via Flickr Choose metaphors wisely… - the only time that people are ‘assets’ “Our people are our greatest asset!”
  • Choose metaphors wisely… (probably best not to show a literal image for ‘Human Resources’…) “Human Resources” CC-BY-SA shockinglytasty via Flickr
  • Step 2: Drivers In what ways do all of these themes - skills, motivation, stakeholders, story, perspectives, name - apply in your enterprise? What do they imply for your ‘as-is’ systems for employee-engagement?
  • “What’s the story?” Step 3: To-be
  • The ‘as-is’ tells you what you have… …your choice of how to respond to the drivers tells you what you need… …where do you go from here? Design the ‘to-be’ systems…
  • Step 3: To-be What name for the ‘people-service’? What does it do? (people, process, technology) What is its structure? (what, how, where, who, when, why) Create a sketch-diagram of this service and its structures, content and actions
  • “What’s the story?” Step 4: Roadmap
  • This is where things tend to get really, uh, interesting… From here to there…
  • Step 4: Roadmap What are the gaps between as-is and to-be? How will you bridge those gaps? What change-projects will you need? Over what time-scales? How will you tackle all the politics of this…?
  • What do you see differently now? CC-BY Gulltaggen via Flickr
  • It’s all about the experience! What can you do in your enterprise-architecture to create engagement in the ‘people-side’ of the enterprise?
  • “What’s the story?” Thank you!
  • Contact: Tom Graves Company: Tetradian Consulting Email: tom@tetradian.com Twitter: @tetradian ( http://twitter.com/tetradian ) Weblog: http://weblog.tetradian.com Slidedecks: http://www.slideshare.net/tetradian Publications: http://tetradianbooks.com Books: • The enterprise as story: the role of narrative in enterprise- architecture (2012) • Mapping the enterprise: modelling the enterprise as services with the Enterprise Canvas (2010) • Everyday enterprise-architecture: sensemaking, strategy, structures and solutions (2010) • Doing enterprise-architecture: process and practice in the real enterprise (2009) Further information: