DIFFERENTIATING
 INSTRUCTION

Mohamed Salah ABIDI

*Regional Summer School*
                           2008- 2009
Why should we raise the issue
  of DI?
        The trainer asks the following questions:
   1-What is your biggest challen...
What may a teacher in a
preparatory school expect
from this training?

   Answers may range from:
   “Learn (more) about...
Defining the concept
   The trainer asks each group (4 Groups)
    to read a text(Word doc.1) and provide
    an oral sum...
Is DI a new trend in pedagogy?
Trainer invites the participants to reflect on
  the following:
 The Kutteb: the tradition...
What is the rationale underlying
this instructional method?
Trainer leads the participants to answer the
   following set ...
Why Differentiate?
How diverse is your classroom in terms of the following
  characteristics?
 ♦ Cognitive abilities

 ♦...
HOW DIFFERENT ARE
STUDENTS IN A MIXED
ABILITY CLASS?
   Motivation
   Learning styles
   Types of intelligences
   Phy...
“ZPD”
How can you avoid boredom and/or frustration in your
  classroom?
 Psychologists tell us that a student learns only...
How can you moderate challenge
for the learners?
Brain research suggests that when tasks are too hard for a
  learner, the...
Do you build on prior-knowledge to
help your learners learn?
  Culture has an important bearing on how
 individuals learn....
How can you motivate all your
learners?
  Student motivation and task persistence increase
 when students can work with to...
What do we differentiate and what
strategies do we use to implement
in the classroom?

     Instruction can be differentia...
STRATEGIES FOR DI
(Word doc.3)
   Readiness / Ability
   Adjusting Questions
   Compacting Curriculum
   Tiered Assign...
Learning styles
  Visual Learners:
learn through seeing...              .
   These learners need to see the teacher's bod...
LEARNING STYLES2
Auditory Learners:
learn through listening...
   They learn best through verbal lectures,
  discussions, ...
LEARNING STYLES3
Tactile/Kinesthetic Learners:
learn through , moving, doing and touching...
  Tactile/Kinesthetic persons...
WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE?
 Visual/Spacial Intelligence
 Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence

 Logical/Mat...
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE
INVENTORY
   Participants fill in the inventory (Word
    doc.5)
   Recap.
   Evaluation of the t...
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Why Should We Raise The Issue Of Di

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Differentiating Instruction. Workshop by Inspector Mr. Mohamed Salah ABIDI Regional Summer School 2008/2009 (docs)

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Why Should We Raise The Issue Of Di

  1. 1. DIFFERENTIATING INSTRUCTION Mohamed Salah ABIDI *Regional Summer School* 2008- 2009
  2. 2. Why should we raise the issue of DI? The trainer asks the following questions: 1-What is your biggest challenge as a teacher in a prep? 2-How do you generally address the diverse needs of your learners? 3-How can you diagnose your learners' needs accurately and practically? 4-How can you provide learning opportunities that increase the likelihood of success for your learners: “No child is left behind at school.” The trainer leads the participants to deduce that the answers to the above questions are what DI is all about.
  3. 3. What may a teacher in a preparatory school expect from this training?  Answers may range from:  “Learn (more) about this teaching method”  to:  “develop techniques to make the job easier”
  4. 4. Defining the concept  The trainer asks each group (4 Groups) to read a text(Word doc.1) and provide an oral summary.At the end of the activity a clear definition of what differentiation in the classroom means is developed.
  5. 5. Is DI a new trend in pedagogy? Trainer invites the participants to reflect on the following:  The Kutteb: the traditional Kuranic School.  The two- level/ multi-level primary classroom.  The integration of learners with special needs in the “usual classroom”.
  6. 6. What is the rationale underlying this instructional method? Trainer leads the participants to answer the following set of questions: 1- Do you opt for a “one size fits all” in your teaching? -Today's classrooms are becoming more academically diverse and generally contain students with a range of exceptionalities and markedly different experiential backgrounds. These students almost certainly work at differing readiness levels, have varying interests, and learn in a variety of ways.
  7. 7. Why Differentiate? How diverse is your classroom in terms of the following characteristics?  ♦ Cognitive abilities  ♦ Confidence in learning  ♦ Cultural/ethnic influences  ♦ Gender influences  ♦ How students value learning  ♦ Interest in the subject you teach  ♦ Learning pace  ♦ Learning styles (visual, spatial, auditory, tactile, kinesthetic, etc.)  ♦ Readiness  ♦ Socio-economic and family characteristics
  8. 8. HOW DIFFERENT ARE STUDENTS IN A MIXED ABILITY CLASS?  Motivation  Learning styles  Types of intelligences  Physiological needs  Psychological needs  Speed  Maturity  World knowledge  Knowledge of and about English
  9. 9. “ZPD” How can you avoid boredom and/or frustration in your classroom?  Psychologists tell us that a student learns only when a task is a little too hard for that student. When a student can do work with little effort, and virtually independently, that student is not learning, but rather rehearsing the known. When a student finds a task beyond his or her reach, frustration, not learning, is the result. Only when a task is a bit beyond the student's comfort level, and the student finds a support system to bridge the gap, does learning occur. This optimum degree of difficulty for learning is referred to as a student's zone of proximal development. Considering today's diverse classrooms, it is unlikely that a teacher will be consistently able to develop one-size-fits- all learning experiences that are in the zones of proximal development of all students in a particular class.
  10. 10. How can you moderate challenge for the learners? Brain research suggests that when tasks are too hard for a learner, the brain "downshifts" to the limbic area of the brain that does not "think," but rather is designed to protect an individual from harm. Also, when tasks are too easy for learners, those learners do not show thoughtful brain activity, but rather display patterns that look more like the early stages of sleep. Only when tasks are moderately challenging for an individual does the brain "think" in a way that prompts learning. Once again, teachers will find it difficult to consistently find single tasks that are moderately challenging for all learners in a class that includes a range of readiness and experiential levels.
  11. 11. Do you build on prior-knowledge to help your learners learn? Culture has an important bearing on how individuals learn. While it is clearly not the case that all members of a given culture learn in similar ways, it is the case that learning environments and procedures that are comfortable for many members of one cultural group may not be so to many members of other cultural groups. Students whose classrooms are a cultural misfit often do poorly in school In classrooms where varied cultural groups are represented, a single approach to teaching and learning is unlikely to serve all students well.
  12. 12. How can you motivate all your learners? Student motivation and task persistence increase when students can work with topics that are of personal interest. Modifying instruction to draw on student interests is likely to result in greater student engagement, higher levels of motivation, higher student productivity, greater student autonomy, increased achievement, and an improved sense of self-competence. Encouraging students to link required learning to that which is personally interesting to them seems an important modification for teachers in most classrooms.
  13. 13. What do we differentiate and what strategies do we use to implement in the classroom? Instruction can be differentiated based on three general areas. These areas include:  the content of instruction  the processes and techniques used to help make sense of a given topic  the products produced by students that demonstrate their learning(Word doc.2)
  14. 14. STRATEGIES FOR DI (Word doc.3)  Readiness / Ability  Adjusting Questions  Compacting Curriculum  Tiered Assignments  Acceleration/Deceleration  Flexible Grouping  Peer Teaching  Learning Profiles/Styles
  15. 15. Learning styles  Visual Learners: learn through seeing... . These learners need to see the teacher's body language and facial expression to fully understand the content of a lesson. They tend to prefer sitting at the front of the classroom to avoid visual obstructions (e.g. people's heads). They may think in pictures and learn best from visual displays including: diagrams, illustrated text books, overhead transparencies, videos, flipcharts and hand-outs. During a lecture or classroom discussion, visual learners often prefer to take detailed notes to absorb the information.
  16. 16. LEARNING STYLES2 Auditory Learners: learn through listening... They learn best through verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening to what others have to say. Auditory learners interpret the underlying meanings of speech through listening to tone of voice, pitch, speed and other nuances. Written information may have little meaning until it is heard. These learners often benefit from reading text aloud and using a tape recorder.
  17. 17. LEARNING STYLES3 Tactile/Kinesthetic Learners: learn through , moving, doing and touching... Tactile/Kinesthetic persons learn best through a hands-on approach, actively exploring the physical world around them. They may find it hard to sit still for long periods and may become distracted by their need for activity and exploration.
  18. 18. WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE?  Visual/Spacial Intelligence  Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence  Logical/Mathematical Intelligence  Bodily/Kinaesthetic Intelligence  Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence  Interpersonal Intelligence  Intrapersonal Intelligence (Word doc.4)
  19. 19. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE INVENTORY  Participants fill in the inventory (Word doc.5)  Recap.  Evaluation of the training session

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