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Appendix.
Differentiating Instruction. Workshop by Inspector Mr. Mohamed Salah ABIDI Regional Summer School 2008/2009 (docs)

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  • 1. Differentiating Instruction by Inspector Mr. Mohamed Salah ABIDI Regional Summer School 2008/2009 (docs) APPENDIX Word doc.1 Text1: Not all students are alike. Based on this knowledge, differentiated instruction applies an approach to teaching and learning so that students have multiple options for taking in information and making sense of ideas. The model of differentiated instruction requires teachers to be flexible in their approach to teaching and adjusting the curriculum and presentation of information to learners rather than expecting students to modify themselves for the curriculum. Classroom teaching is a blend of whole-class, group and individual instruction. Differentiated Instruction is a teaching theory based on the premise that instructional approaches should vary and be adapted in relation to individual and diverse students in classrooms. To differentiate instruction is to recognize students varying background knowledge, readiness, language, preferences in learning, interests, and to react responsively. Differentiated instruction is a process to approach teaching and learning for students of differing abilities in the same class. The intent of differentiating instruction is to maximize each student’s growth and individual success by meeting each student where he or she is, and assisting in the learning process. Text2: Differentiating Instruction: Meeting Students Where They Are No two students enter a classroom with identical abilities, experiences, and needs. Learning style, language proficiency, background knowledge, readiness to learn, and other factors can vary widely within a single class group. Regardless of their individual differences, however, students are expected to master the same concepts, principles, and skills. Helping all students succeed in their learning is an enormous challenge that requires innovative thinking. What is differentiated instruction? Differentiated instruction is an instructional theory that allows teachers to face this challenge by taking diverse student factors into account when planning and delivering instruction. Based on this theory, teachers can structure learning environments that address the variety of learning styles, interests, and abilities found within a classroom. Text3: On a simple level, differentiated instruction is teaching with student variance in mind. It means starting where the kids are rather than adopting a standardized approach to teaching that seems to presume that all learners of a given age or grade are essentially alike. Thus differentiated instruction is “responsive” teaching rather than “one-size-fits-all” teaching. A fuller definition of differentiated instruction is that a teacher proactively plans varied approaches to what students need to learn, how they will learn it, and/or how they can express what they have learned in order to increase the likelihood that each student will learn as much as he or she can as efficiently as possible. (Tomlinson, 2003, p. 151) Text4 : Differentiating instruction means creating multiple paths so that students of different abilities, interest or learning needs experience equally appropriate ways to absorb, use, develop and present concepts as a part of the daily learning process. It allows students to take greater 1
  • 2. Differentiating Instruction by Inspector Mr. Mohamed Salah ABIDI Regional Summer School 2008/2009 (docs) responsibility and ownership for their own learning, and provides opportunities for peer teaching and cooperative learning. Differentiating is not new, the concept has been around for at least 2 decades for gifted and talented students. However, it is now recognized to be an important tool for engaging students and addressing the individual needs of all students. Differentiating instruction is also an essential tool for integrating technology into classroom activities. The most difficult and least effective way to integrate technology is to consistently take all students in to the computer lab to work on the same activities at the same time, and this may well be true for many other subjects. This is not to say that some activities are not appropriate for all students at some times. In the interest of expediency, it is sometimes most appropriate to conduct some whole group instruction. What is important is to recognize that this is just one of many strategies and it is most effective when used at the appropriate time for common needs such as the introduction to a new learning unit. There are generally several students in any classroom who are working below or above grade level and these levels of readiness will vary between different subjects in school. It is important to offer students learning tasks that are appropriate to their learning needs rather than just to the grade and subject being taught. This means providing 3 or 4 different options for students in any given class (not 35 different options). Readiness (ability), learning styles and interest vary between students and even within an individual over time. In a differentiated classroom all students have equally engaging learning tasks. In preparation for differentiating, the teacher diagnoses the difference in readiness, interests and learning style of all students in the class, using a variety of performance indicators.For the teacher who is beginning to differentiate learning in the classroom, differentiation may begin by varying the content, processes or product for each group in the class. As the teacher becomes more proficient using these techniques, differentiation can occur at all 3 stages of the process for some students. This is especially appropriate for the more able students. The essential curricula concepts may be the same for all students but the complexity of the content, learning activities and/or products will vary so that all students are challenged and no students are frustrated. Students with specific needs/weaknesses should be presented with learning activities that offer opportunities for developing needed skills as well as opportunities to display individual strengths. More advanced students may work on activities with inherently higher level thinking requirements and greater complexity. 2
  • 3. Differentiating Instruction by Inspector Mr. Mohamed Salah ABIDI Regional Summer School 2008/2009 (docs) Word doc.2 The chart below shows general strategies that can be applied in most classrooms. Strategies for Differentiating Instruction Based on •Utilize pre-tests to assess where individual students need to begin study Content of a given topic or unit. •Encourage thinking at various levels of Bloom's taxonomy. •Use a variety of instructional delivery methods to address different learning styles. •Break assignments into smaller, more manageable parts that include structured directions for each part. •Choose broad instructional concepts and skills that lend themselves to understanding at various levels of complexity. Based on •Provide access to a variety of materials which target different learning Process preferences and reading abilities. •Develop activities that target auditory, visual, and kinesthetic learners. •Establish stations for inquiry-based, independent learning activities. •Create activities that vary in level of complexity and degree of abstract thinking required. •Use flexible grouping to group and regroup students based on factors including content, ability, and assessment results. Based on •Use a variety of assessment strategies, including performance-based Product and open-ended assessment. •Balance teacher-assigned and student-selected projects. •Offer students a choice of projects that reflect a variety of learning styles and interests. •Make assessment an ongoing, interactive process. 3
  • 4. Differentiating Instruction by Inspector Mr. Mohamed Salah ABIDI Regional Summer School 2008/2009 (docs) Word doc.3 The Strategies: Readiness / Ability Teachers can use a variety of assessments to determine a student's ability or readiness. Also, to learn new concepts students may be generally working below or above grade level or they may simply be missing necessary prerequisite skills. However, readiness is constantly changing and as readiness changes it is important that students be permitted to move between different groups (see flexible grouping). Activities for each group are often differentiated by complexity. Students whose understanding is below grade level will work at tasks inherently less complex than those attempted by more advanced students. Those students whose reading level is below grade level will benefit by reading with a buddy or listening to stories/instructions using a tape recorder so that they receive information verbally. Varying the level of questioning (and consequent thinking skills) and compacting the curriculum are useful strategies for accommodating differences in ability or readiness. Adjusting Questions During large group discussion activities, teachers direct the higher level questions to the students who can handle them and adjust questions accordingly for student with greater needs. All students are answering important questions that require them to think but the questions are targeted towards the student’s ability or readiness level. An easy tool for accomplishing this is to put posters on the classroom walls with key words that identify the varying levels of thinking. For example, put 6 posters on the walls (based on Bloom's taxonomy) one for Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis and Evaluation. These were useful cues for me when conducting class discussions and useful for my students when they were required to develop their own research questions. Different students may be referred to different posters at certain times depending on ability, readiness or assignment requirements. With written quizzes the teacher may assign specific questions for each group of students. They all answer the same number of questions but the complexity required varies from group to group. However, the option to go beyond minimal requirements can be available for any or all students who demonstrate that they require an additional challenge for their level. Compacting Curriculum 4
  • 5. Differentiating Instruction by Inspector Mr. Mohamed Salah ABIDI Regional Summer School 2008/2009 (docs) Compacting the curriculum means assessing a students knowledge, skills and attitudes and providing alternative activities for the student who has already mastered curriculum content. This can be achieved by pre-testing basic concepts or using performance assessment methods. Students who demonstrate that they do not require instruction move on to tiered problem solving activities while others receive instruction. Tiered Assignments Tiered activities are a series of related tasks of varying complexity. All of these activities relate to essential understanding and key skills that students need to acquire. Teachers assign the activities as alternative ways of reaching the same goals taking into account individual student needs. Acceleration/Deceleration Accelerating or decelerating the pace that students move through curriculum is another method of differentiating instruction. Students demonstrating a high level of competence can work through the curriculum at a faster pace. Students experiencing difficulties may need adjusted activities that allow for a slower pace in order to experience success. Flexible Grouping As student performance will vary it is important to permit movement between groups. Student’s readiness varies depending on personal talents and interests, so we must remain open to the concept that a student may be below grade level in one subject at the same time as being above grade level in another subject. Flexible grouping allows students to be appropriately challenged and avoids labeling a student's readiness as static. Students should not be be kept in a static group for any particular subjects as their learning will probably accelerate from time to time. Even highly talented students can benefit from flexible grouping. Often they benefit from work with intellectual peers, while occasionally in another group they can experience being a leader. In either case peer-teaching is a valuable strategy for group-work. Peer Teaching Occasionally a student may have personal needs that require one-on-one instruction that go beyond the needs of his or her peers. After receiving this extra instruction the student could be designated as the "resident expert" for that concept or skill and can get valuable practice by being given the opportunity to re-teach the concept to peers. In these circumstances both students benefit. 5
  • 6. Differentiating Instruction by Inspector Mr. Mohamed Salah ABIDI Regional Summer School 2008/2009 (docs) Learning Profiles/Styles Another filter for assigning students to tasks is by learning style, such as adjusting preferred environment (quiet, lower lighting, formal/casual seating etc.) or learning modality: auditory (learns best by hearing information) visual (learns best through seeing information in charts or pictures) or kinesthetic preferences (learns best by using concrete examples, or may need to move around while learning) or through personal interests. Since student motivation is also a unique element in learning, understanding individual learning styles and interests will permit teachers to apply appropriate strategies for developing intrinsic motivational techniques. What is Multiple Intelligence? (Word doc.5) What are the types of Multiple Intelligence? Visual/Spatial Intelligence Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence Logical/Mathematical Intelligence Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence Interpersonal Intelligence Intrapersonal Intelligence What is Multiple Intelligence? Conceived by Howard Gardner, Multiple Intelligences are seven different ways to demonstrate intellectual ability. What are the types of Multiple Intelligence? Visual/Spatial Intelligence ability to perceive the visual. These learners tend to think in pictures and need to create vivid mental images to retain information. They enjoy looking at maps, charts, pictures, videos, and movies. 6
  • 7. Differentiating Instruction by Inspector Mr. Mohamed Salah ABIDI Regional Summer School 2008/2009 (docs) Their skills include: puzzle building, reading, writing, understanding charts and graphs, a good sense of direction, sketching, painting, creating visual metaphors and analogies (perhaps through the visual arts), manipulating images, constructing, fixing, designing practical objects, interpreting visual images. Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence ability to use words and language. These learners have highly developed auditory skills and are generally elegant speakers. They think in words rather than pictures. Their skills include: listening, speaking, writing, story telling, explaining, teaching, using humor, understanding the syntax and meaning of words, remembering information, convincing someone of their point of view, analyzing language usage. Logical/Mathematical Intelligence ability to use reason, logic and numbers. These learners think conceptually in logical and numerical patterns making connections between pieces of information. Always curious about the world around them, these learner ask lots of questions and like to do experiments. Their skills include: problem solving, classifying and categorizing information, working with abstract concepts to figure out the relationship of each to the other, handling long chains of reason to make local progressions, doing controlled experiments, questioning and wondering about natural events, performing complex mathematical calculations, working with geometric shapes Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence ability to control body movements and handle objects skillfully. These learners express themselves through movement. They have a good sense of balance and eye- hand co-ordination. (e.g. ball play, balancing beams). Through interacting with the space around them, they are able to remember and process information. Their skills include: 7
  • 8. Differentiating Instruction by Inspector Mr. Mohamed Salah ABIDI Regional Summer School 2008/2009 (docs) dancing, physical co-ordination, sports, hands on experimentation, using body language, crafts, acting, miming, using their hands to create or build, expressing emotions through the body Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence ability to produce and appreciate music. These musically inclined learners think in sounds, rhythms and patterns. They immediately respond to music either appreciating or criticizing what they hear. Many of these learners are extremely sensitive to environmental sounds (e.g. crickets, bells, dripping taps). Their skills include: singing, whistling, playing musical instruments, recognizing tonal patterns, composing music, remembering melodies, understanding the structure and rhythm of music Interpersonal Intelligence ability to relate and understand others. These learners try to see things from other people's point of view in order to understand how they think and feel. They often have an uncanny ability to sense feelings, intentions and motivations. They are great organizers, although they sometimes resort to manipulation. Generally they try to maintain peace in group settings and encourage co-operation.They use both verbal (e.g. speaking) and non-verbal language (e.g. eye contact, body language) to open communication channels with others. Their skills include: seeing things from other perspectives (dual-perspective), listening, using empathy, understanding other people's moods and feelings, counseling, co-operating with groups, noticing people's moods, motivations and intentions, communicating both verbally and non-verbally, building trust, peaceful conflict resolution, establishing positive relations with other people. Intrapersonal Intelligence ability to self-reflect and be aware of one's inner state of being. These learners try to understand their inner feelings, dreams, relationships with others, and strengths and weaknesses. Their Skills include: 8
  • 9. Differentiating Instruction by Inspector Mr. Mohamed Salah ABIDI Regional Summer School 2008/2009 (docs) Recognizing their own strengths and weaknesses, reflecting and analyzing themselves, awareness of their inner feelings, desires and dreams, evaluating their thinking patterns, reasoning with themselves, understanding their role in relationship to others Multiple Intelligences Inventory Copyright 1999 Walter McKenzie, (Word doc.5) Note: This is not a test - it is a snapshot in time of an individual's perceived MI preferences. Part I Complete each section by placing a “1” next to each statement you feel accurately describes you. If you do not identify with a statement, leave the space provided blank. Then total the column in each section. Section 1 _____ I enjoy categorizing things by common traits _____ Ecological issues are important to me _____ Classification helps me make sense of new data _____ I enjoy working in a garden _____ I believe preserving our National Parks is important _____ Putting things in hierarchies makes sense to me _____ Animals are important in my life _____ My home has a recycling system in place _____ I enjoy studying biology, botany and/or zoology _____ I pick up on subtle differences in meaning _____ TOTAL for Section 1 Section 2 _____ I easily pick up on patterns _____ I focus in on noise and sounds _____ Moving to a beat is easy for me _____ I enjoy making music _____ I respond to the cadence of poetry _____ I remember things by putting them in a rhyme _____ Concentration is difficult for me if there is background noise 9
  • 10. Differentiating Instruction by Inspector Mr. Mohamed Salah ABIDI Regional Summer School 2008/2009 (docs) _____ Listening to sounds in nature can be very relaxing _____ Musicals are more engagingto me than dramatic plays _____ Remembering song lyrics is easy for me _____ TOTAL for Section 2 Section 3 _____ I am known for being neat and orderly _____ Step-by-step directions are a big help _____ Problem solving comes easily to me _____ I get easily frustrated with disorganized people _____ I can complete calculations quickly in my head _____ Logic puzzles are fun _____ I can't begin an assignment until I have all my "ducks in a row" _____ Structure is a good thing _____ I enjoy troubleshooting something that isn't working properly _____ Things have to make sense to me or I am dissatisfied _____ TOTAL for Section 3 Section 4 _____ It is important to see my role in the “big picture” of things _____ I enjoy discussing questions about life _____ Religion is important to me _____ I enjoy viewing art work _____ Relaxation and meditation exercises are rewarding to me _____ I like traveling to visit inspiring places _____ I enjoy reading philosophers _____ Learning new things is easier when I see their real world application _____ I wonder if there are other forms of intelligent life in the universe _____ It is important for me to feel connected to people, ideas and beliefs _____ TOTAL for Section 4 Section 5 _____ I learn best interacting with others _____ I enjoy informal chat and serious discussion _____ The more the merrier _____ I often serve as a leader among peers and colleagues _____ I value relationships more than ideas or accomplishments _____ Study groups are very productive for me _____ I am a “team player” _____ Friends are important to me _____ I belong to more than three clubs or organizations _____ I dislike working alone _____ TOTAL for Section 5 Section 6 _____ I learn by doing _____ I enjoy making things with my hands 1
  • 11. Differentiating Instruction by Inspector Mr. Mohamed Salah ABIDI Regional Summer School 2008/2009 (docs) _____ Sports are a part of my life _____ I use gestures and non-verbal cues when I communicate _____ Demonstrating is better than explaining _____ I love to dance _____ I like working with tools _____ Inactivity can make me more tired than being very busy _____ Hands-on activities are fun _____ I live an active lifestyle _____ TOTAL for Section 6 Section 7 _____ Foreign languages interest me _____ I enjoy reading books, magazines and web sites _____ I keep a journal _____ Word puzzles like crosswords or jumbles are enjoyable _____ Taking notes helps me remember and understand _____ I faithfully contact friends through letters and/or e-mail _____ It is easy for me to explain my ideas to others _____ I write for pleasure _____ Puns, anagrams and spoonerisms are fun _____ I enjoy public speaking and participating in debates _____ TOTAL for Section 7 Section 8 _____ My attitude effects how I learn _____ I like to be involved in causes that help others _____ I am keenly aware of my moral beliefs _____ I learn best when I have an emotional attachment to the subject _____ Fairness is important to me _____ Social justice issues interest me _____ Working alone can be just as productive as working in a group _____ I need to know why I should do something before I agree to do it _____ When I believe in something I give more effort towards it _____ I am willing to protest or sign a petition to right a wrong _____ TOTAL for Section 8 Section 9 _____ Rearranging a room and redecorating are fun for me _____ I enjoy creating my own works of art _____ I remember better using graphic organizers _____ I enjoy all kinds of entertainment media _____ Charts, graphs and tables help me interpret data _____ A music video can make me more interested in a song _____ I can recall things as mental pictures _____ I am good at reading maps and blueprints _____ Three dimensional puzzles are fun _____ I can visualize ideas in my mind _____ TOTAL for Section 9 1
  • 12. Differentiating Instruction by Inspector Mr. Mohamed Salah ABIDI Regional Summer School 2008/2009 (docs) Part II Now carry forward your total from each section and multiply by 10 below: 1
  • 13. Differentiating Instruction by Inspector Mr. Mohamed Salah ABIDI Regional Summer School 2008/2009 (docs) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 1 10 0
  • 14. Differentiating Instruction by Inspector Mr. Mohamed Salah ABIDI Regional Summer School 2008/2009 (docs) 1

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