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  • Here are indicated the detailes which refer to concrete proverb, there is a list with numbers and proverbs as an appendix.
  • For example, I found…
  • Now to the
  • Validity
  • Testowe

    1. 1. <ul><ul><li>Proverb : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonness of the phenomenon of ”p roverb thinking ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Gibbs 1995) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ari sto tle: gr. par-oimía = to express in another [ para ] way [ óimos ] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A proverb is an expression of some basic truth [gr. apoftegmata ] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A proverb about work is an inductive generalisation of human experience of work/nonwork, imprinted in language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a proverb: what is concrete, becomes general and the general is seen in the concrete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- ge ne ric is specific through metaphors in proverbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A proverb is a popular phrase, accredited by custom, accepted by the general opinion, expressing a truth that has been proved genuine (Bautier 1984) </li></ul></ul>
    2. 2. <ul><li>Most proverbs are metaphoric or metaphoric-metonymic. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive approach: </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphor is a mental device, a tool of the mind </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphor is based on a mental mapping of a source domain on a target domain – as a result, one concept is understood in terms of another concept. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; the way we think, what we experience, and what we do every day is very much a matter of metaphor.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>(Lakoff and Johnson, 1980, p.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Only 2-5% linguistic structures used in communication are to be understood in their literal sense (Krzeszowski 1988,) </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>A lot has been written on what metaphor is and how it works. Lakoff and Johnson (1980) introduced an approach where metaphors are an expression of the key factors of a culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphors are not a mere literary figure or rhetorical ornament. They are inevitable to understand culture. (Ortony 1995) </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphors de te rmine the way we perceive the world which is the object of our experience; they also determine our activity. (Gibbs 1987) </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>What is the carrier of culture? </li></ul><ul><li>Fl e mish culture described by 118 metaphoric proverbs </li></ul><ul><li>Customs, values, norms, tools, artefacts of 16th ce. Fl e mish culture </li></ul>
    5. 5. The world upside down ( De Blauwe Huyck ) Peter Bruegel
    6. 6.
    7. 7. <ul><li>Mapping from a source domain ( concrete experience , </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. that work requires motivation /effort) </li></ul><ul><li>onto a target domain (the conceptual domain , </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. that work requires motivation/effort) </li></ul><ul><li>in sample proverbs: </li></ul><ul><li>Kiepskiej baletnicy przeszkadza rąbek u spódnicy; [A poor ballerina is disturbed even by the edge of her dress] </li></ul><ul><li>Dla leniwego robotnika każdy młot jest ciężki; [For a la z y worker every hammer is heavy] </li></ul><ul><li>Leniwemu baranowi ciąży jego wełna; [To a la z y ram his own wool is a burden] </li></ul><ul><li>Dobry krawiec to i patykiem zeszyje; [A good tail o r can saw even with a stick] </li></ul><ul><li>Leniwego i mąka w ręce kole. [For a la z yhead even flour makes his hands sore] </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Proverbs carry universal truths. </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete experiences (e.g. observing birds in the nature or people in the fields) are used as the source domain to express some universal or deeper truths about work as the target domain (such as rising early or using the opportunity), as in: </li></ul><ul><li>Make hay while the sun shines./ Early bird catches the worm . </li></ul><ul><li>Some proverb exists paralelly in various cultures. For example, the rule work is human vocation is expressed by the following proverbs of various languages: </li></ul><ul><li>Polish </li></ul><ul><li>Człek do pracy stworzon, ptak do lotu </li></ul><ul><li>[Man is created to work as a bird is created to fly] </li></ul><ul><li>German </li></ul><ul><li>Der Mensch ist zur Arbeit geboren wie der Vogel zum Fliegen </li></ul><ul><li>[Man is born to work as a bird is born to fly] </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Presentation of the questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Process of construction </li></ul><ul><li>Research results </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of the method </li></ul>
    10. 10. Questionnaire in two equivalent language versions (What is work/Was ist Arbeit) : 111 proverbs = 37 semantic dimensions (3 proverbs per each): i.e. work requires motivation, work has its time, work brings health, work requires reason, organisation, etc. Instruction – (dependent variable measured): „up-to-dateness” of proverbs measured on a 5-grade scale Research group: 296 respondents of various employment /unemployment experience f rom Poland (Lublin) and Germany (Berlin), 148 of each nationality, conducted in 2005
    11. 11. <ul><li>S proverb – O mental representation of work culture – R up-to dateness of proverbs </li></ul><ul><li>(stimulus) --------------------------- (reaction) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S – metaphorical proverbs as stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stimulus control: semantic categorisation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O – mediating variable: indirect method (metaphoric) of research of the mental representation of work culture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>R – reaction: assessing the up-to-dateness of proverbs </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>    </li></ul>Questionnaire in Polish language Jaka jest praca Questionnaire in Polish language Was ist Arbeit
    13. 13. <ul><li>Praca nie zając, w las nie ucieknie </li></ul><ul><li>[work is no hare, it will not escape into the forest] </li></ul><ul><li>Arbeit ist ja kein Hase, dass sie davonläuft </li></ul><ul><li>[work is no hare, it will not run away] </li></ul><ul><li>Arbeit ist ja kein Vogel, dass sie davonfliegt. </li></ul><ul><li>[work is no bird, it will not fly away] </li></ul><ul><li>Arbeit ist ja k e in Fro sch , dass się davonspringt </li></ul><ul><li>[work is no frog, it will not jump away] </li></ul>
    14. 14. Semantic categories of proverbs Od słowa do uczynku tak daleko, jak od liścia do korzenia Praca nie jest samą mową, [work is not just talking] Von Worten zu Werken ist ein weiter Weg Krowa, która dużo ryczy mało, mleka daje Guter Schwätzer, schlechter Arbeiter U złego robotnika siła trzasku, a roboty mało Je schlechter das Werk, desto lauter die Posaune Lenistwo rodzi chorobę Praca daje zdrowie [work gives health] Auf Faulheit folgt Krankheit Kto pracuje, ten nie choruje Gesundheit ist eine Tochter der Arbeit Praca, umiar i spokój zamykają drzwi przed lekarzami Arbeit und Ruh schliesen dem Arzt die Türe zu
    15. 15. <ul><li>Validity of the questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability of the questionnaire </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Cultural invariables which are the subject of research (work) are imprinted in metaphorical proverbs ( generalised experience and petrified rules in the culture of a given group). </li></ul><ul><li>Proverbs about work were selected according to key words/meaning in German and Polish (equivalents of nouns: work, laziness, deed; verbs: to work; adjectives/ participles: working, hardworking, lazy, etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>Other selected proverbs semantically referred to various aspects of work culture. </li></ul><ul><li>” Proverbs about work are about work”, and thus are more appropriate than other statements or e.g. adjectives, as in SD, ACL used on psychometry </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>Analysis and semantic categorisation of a set of proverbs – by competent judges – according to 37 conceptualisations of work </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical analysis of factor analysis, Ward concentrations by Ward </li></ul><ul><li>(determining 4 domains of the concept of work – the culture of work) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equivalents of proverbs in Polish and German were used (cultural internationalism of proverbs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(proverbs were not directly translated) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– hence , it is a ” culture free” idea of test – adjustable to a given culture of work and organization </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>Reliability of the questionnaire estimated by split half reliability Cronbach Alfa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for the Polish version 0.872 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for the German version 0.867 </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><ul><li>It was checked if the proverbs are understandable : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I e liminat ed proverbs whose meaning was unclear by asking the respondent to mark them in a separate rubric in the questionnaire) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>=> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>V arious persons similarly understood the sense of a given proverb (Invariability in recognising the meaning of metaphors in proverbs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>=> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The graphs of up-to-dateness of the proverbs in the two language versions run parallel: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an indirect marker of reliability – it is not a matter of accident </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. C 28 : Work has its time: on a workday, not on holiday C 18 : Work gives innocence/sinlessness, develops spiritually C4: Work is a human vocation C 32: Work gives health C 36: Work gives satisfaction
    21. 21. <ul><ul><li>Lying-key indicator – Pearson r correlation: 0.85; 0.67; 0.65 </li></ul></ul>r Reliability indicators in the Polish version of the questionnaire p <0.05 Pairs of Polish proverbs 0.615 Lenistwo przedłuża czas, pracowitość go skraca. [Laziness extends the time, work shortens it] Praca dzień skraca. [Working shortens the day] 0.672 Praca jest osłodą życia. [Working sweetens life]] Praca i najcięższy smutek rozwieje. [Working can blow away the hardest sorrows] 0.672 Będziesz zbierał w starości, coś zasiał w młodości. [In the old age you harvest what you sow in the youth] Co człowiek za młodu zapracuje, to na starość znajdzie. [What you work out in your youth you will find in your old age] r Reliability indicators in the German version of the questionnaire p <0.05 Pairs of German proverbs 0,72 Arbeit gibt den speisen guten geschmack . [Work gives sweet taste to food] Des arbeitenden brot ist süß . [The worker’s bread is sweet] 0,70 Des arbeitenden brot ist süß. Des arbeitenden schlaf ist süß. [The worker’s sleep is sweet] 0,74 Arbeit macht reich. [Work makes you rich] Selber arbeiten macht reich. [Your own work makes you rich]
    22. 22. <ul><li>The proverb is a promising tool for cross-culture research, although it requires taking into account some limitations: </li></ul><ul><li>Proverbs are culturally and socially defined – represent basic culture features </li></ul><ul><li>They are an indirect method basing on the natural phenomenon of proverb thinking, which gives some insight to the hidden cognitive implications of culture scripts. </li></ul><ul><li>They enable t o bridg e the gap between quantitative-experimental and qualitative approaches in cc psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Proverbs are context -s ensitive </li></ul><ul><li>The questionnaire must be very well-designed, with preliminary consultations and evaluation of competent judges (to select the most appropriate +understandable proverbs), and a thorough pilot studies. </li></ul><ul><li>In cross-cultural research one must be careful, as it might be difficult to find appropriate parallel proverbs. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Józef Chełmoński, Babie lato [email_address]
    24. 24. <ul><li>Polish work culture is more traditional than the German one: </li></ul><ul><li>The up-to-dateness of proverbs was assessed higher among Poles in all 37 dimensions. </li></ul><ul><li>Universality of rules. </li></ul><ul><li>There exist universal dimensions of work culture, common to Poles and Germans. </li></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>The lowest-evaluated proverbs in the Polish group: </li></ul><ul><li>work gives health (C32) </li></ul><ul><li>Kto pracuje, ten nie choruje </li></ul><ul><li>[Who works, will not be ill] </li></ul><ul><li>Praca, umiar i spokój zamykają drzwi przed lekarzami </li></ul><ul><li>[Work,restraint and peace keep the doctor away] </li></ul><ul><li>Lenistwo rodzi chorobę </li></ul><ul><li>[Laziness brings illness] </li></ul><ul><li>work requires organisation (C28) </li></ul><ul><li>Pracując nocą, zarabiasz trzy złote, gdy wstaniesz wczesnym rankiem – pięć </li></ul><ul><li> [Working at night you earn three pence, early in the morning – five] </li></ul><ul><li>Kto w niedzielę pracuje, wnet biedę poczuje </li></ul><ul><li>[Who works on a Sunday will soon be poor] </li></ul><ul><li>Praca nie zając, w las nie ucieknie </li></ul><ul><li>[Work is not a rabbit, it won’t run away] </li></ul>