Beer 101


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A short, accessible boot camp course on the process of making beer, as told through its primary components. Explore the various steps required for crafting all beer, while gaining fundamental insight into each characteristic-defining ingredient.

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Beer 101

  1. 1. BEER 101<br />presented by BEN SHELLHORN • SEPTEMBER 2011<br />
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION<br />TASTING GUIDE<br />PART 1: BEER<br />• Fermentation<br />• Ingredients<br />PART 2: BOURBON<br />• Definition <br />• Law<br />• Distillation<br />• Localization<br />• Aging<br />• Mash Bill<br />CONCLUSIONS<br />& QUESTIONS<br />OVERVIEW<br />
  3. 3. WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?<br />PRAGMATIC REASONS<br />• Understand Culture<br />• Become a savvy consumer<br />PROFESSIONAL REASONS<br />• Better Sales<br />• Confident Service<br />• Create Raving Fans<br />INTRODUCTION<br />
  4. 4. VISUAL <br />What does it look like? <br />Color? Clarity? Etc?<br />2. OLFACTORY<br />How does it smell?<br />3. GUSTATORY <br />What does it taste like?<br />Does it taste like it smells?<br />4. MECHANORECEPTION<br />How does it feel in the mouth?<br />5. DEDUCTION<br />What is it not? <br />What could it be?<br />TASTING IS A<br />PROCESS<br />TASTING GUIDE<br />
  5. 5. UNDERSTANDING BEER<br />Is as easy as understanding its ingredients<br />FOUR INGREDIENTS<br />• Grain<br />• Water<br />• Hops<br />• Yeast<br />BEER<br />
  6. 6. GRAIN<br />GRAIN<br />
  7. 7. MAJOR TYPES OF GRAIN<br /><ul><li>Barley
  8. 8. Wheat
  9. 9. Oat
  10. 10. Rye</li></ul>GRAINS ARE MALTED<br /><ul><li> Converting starch into sugar
  11. 11. Soaked in water
  12. 12. Allowed to germinate
  13. 13. Air dried in a kiln</li></ul>GRAIN<br />GRAIN<br />
  14. 14. MILLING<br />Grinding of malted grain into usable material ideal for sugar and flavor extraction<br />HEINEKEN BREWERY<br />MILLING<br />GRAIN<br />
  15. 15. MASHING<br />Addition of supplemental grains & heating of contents using enzymes to break down starches.<br />The point when beer gets its color.<br />HEINEKEN BREWERY<br />MASHING<br />GRAIN<br />
  16. 16. WHERE DOES COLOR ORIGINATE?<br />Primarily from the grain<br />HOW DOES COLOR AFFECT FLAVOR?<br />Light-colored beers tend to have more expressive flavors related to the raw characteristics of the grains<br />Dark beer tends to have more roasted flavors<br />(think chocolate & coffee)<br />Amber & Brown beers tend to have more nuances that exist between the dark and light beers, but generally have a caramelized flavor<br />MASHING<br />GRAIN<br />
  17. 17. WATER<br />WATER<br />
  18. 18. TOTAL VOLUME<br />Responsible for up to 97% of the Beer’s total volume<br />CONTRIBUTES TO FLAVOR<br />• Contributes to flavor<br />ASSISTS IN FERMENTATION<br />• Assists in fermentation<br />SLIGHTLY ALTERS COLOR<br />• Slightly alters color<br />WATER<br />WATER<br />
  19. 19. WORLD OF WATER<br />PILSEN: World’s softest water with an average calcium content of 7 mg/L. Bohemian pilsner style tastes very malty, despite its higher hop presence, unlike German pilsner.<br />DORTMUND: The style of Dortmunder has calcium levels second only to Burton-on-Trent. This water accents hops and presents a dry maltiness that is incredibly prized. Lingering hop bitterness, despite low IBUs is directly attributed to the mineral content.<br />VIENNA: Vienna lager, long prized for its malty character, should have a relatively dry finish balanced with subtle hops. Ironically, this water profile is similar to the water profile of central Mexico, like in Mexico City, where similar styles of beer at still made today.<br />WATER<br />WATER<br />
  20. 20. WORLD OF WATER<br />BURTON-UPON-TRENT: The high levels of Gypsum in the water, has created the signature taste of Bass, the style-defining Pale Ale. The mineral level has been such a boon to its beer maker and so successfully shaped this category of beer that many brewers purposefully add mineral content to their brewing water to simulate the same conditions of this region, dubbed Burtonisation. <br />DUBLIN: The incredible hard water of Dublin is suited for the production of stouts, such as Guinness<br />LONDON: With low calcium levels, London has very soft water, which lowers the acidity of dark malts, leaving porters round and drinkable<br />WATER<br />WATER<br />
  21. 21. LAUTERING<br />Process of separating the solids from the sugar-rich, grain-infused liquid (called the “Wort”)<br />LAUTERING<br />WATER<br />
  22. 22. HOPS<br />HOPS<br />
  23. 23. HOPS<br />• Venous growing plant<br />• Related to cannabis<br />• First standard bittering agent in beer<br />• Really only good for making beer<br />HOPS<br />HOPS<br />
  24. 24. INDIA PALE ALE<br />• Style of beer within the broader category of Pale Ale<br />• First brewed in England in the 18th century<br />• First known marketing of IPA happened in 19th century<br />• Compared to many styles, this is a modern concoction<br />HISTORY<br />• British colonial citizens in India could not enjoy British Ale<br />• Temperatures and motion resulted in beer & product spoilage<br />• Via experimentation, brewers found Hops aided in preservation<br />• As a result, beer shipped to India was intensely hopped.<br />HOPS<br />HOPS<br />
  25. 25. BOILING BEER<br />• Ensures sterility<br />• Infuses hops<br />WHIRLPOOLING/HOPBACK<br />• Solids are removed<br />• Hops are continually infused<br />BOILING BEER, ETC<br />HOPS<br />
  26. 26. YEAST<br />YEAST<br />
  27. 27. YEAST<br />• Determines type and style of beer<br />• Only two types<br /> • Ales<br /> • Lagers<br />YEAST<br />YEAST<br />
  28. 28. FERMENTATION<br />LAGERS<br /> Top Fermenting<br /> Generally slow and cool<br />ALES<br /> Top Fermenting<br /> Generally quick and hot<br />LAMBICS (Surprise! A Third Type of beer!)<br /> Spontaneously Fermenting<br />FERMENTATION<br />YEAST<br />
  29. 29. CONDITIONING<br />• Once fermentation slows & sugar is exhausted, beer is chilled to near freezing, encouraging yeast to settle & proteins to coagulate. <br />• Will take 2 weeks to 6 months<br />FILTERING<br />• OR “Fining” is the <br />removal of solids, yeast, <br />etc., creating clarity<br />• Can use isinglass, gelatin,<br />moss, seaweed, etc<br />MATURATION<br />Can happen at a variety <br />of points during brewing<br />or not at all<br />FILTERING & MATURATION<br />YEAST<br />
  30. 30. PACKAGING<br />• Can<br /> • Bottle<br />• Draught<br />• Widget Can<br />• Cask<br />CARBONIZATION<br />• Forced<br />• 2nd Fermentation<br />FILTERING & MATURATION<br />YEAST<br />
  31. 31. THE FIFTH WHEEL<br />German Rheinheitsgebot (Purity Law):<br />• Originally beer could only use these four basic ingredients (well, yeast was a later addition. Thanks, Pasteur)<br />• In modern society, law is repealed in favor of creativity<br />• Other ingredients are classified as “Adjuncts”<br />ADJUNCTS<br />ADJUNCTS<br />
  32. 32. FILLER INGREDIENTS<br />• Rice<br />• Corn<br />• Orange<br />• Coriander<br />• Berries<br />ADJUNCTS<br />ADJUNCTS<br />
  33. 33. NUMBER ONE SELLING BEER?<br />Budweiser<br /> NOT A Pilsner<br /> “American Adjunct Lager”<br />ADJUNCTS<br />ADJUNCTS<br />