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Education   Elaine Foster Allen   Accountability In Jamaican Education
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Education Elaine Foster Allen Accountability In Jamaican Education


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  • 1. Accountability in Jamaican Education: the state of play Caribbean Policy Research Institute October 29th 2008 Presented by Elaine Foster-Allen 1
  • 2. Perspectives on Accountability in Education The term –accountability- traditionally linked to managerial and accounting practices in both private and public sectors, and, politically, to neo-conservatism in the UK of the 1980 and US of the 1990s. Presented by Elaine Foster-Allen 2
  • 3. Perspectives on Accountability in Education In education the term made popular throughout the 1980’s and into the 90’s through government reforms of Conservative Governments - UK, US Gathered momentum during later 90’s and into 21st century via work of School Improvement and Effectiveness Researchers – UK, Canada and US Presented by Elaine Foster-Allen 3
  • 4. Perspectives cont’d Introduced into the language of international funding agencies, as part of their strategic policy guides, late 1990’s early 2000. Presented by Elaine Foster-Allen 4
  • 5. Accountability, an IDB Strategy “and provides a set of objectives and  strategies to guide the IDB in its support of primary and secondary education over the next decade. The paper defines five critical areas of reform— making teachers partners in reform, providing more and better textbooks and teaching materials, selectively supporting the use of technology in education, decentralizing educational management and increasing accountability of key stakeholders,” Presented by Elaine Foster-Allen 5
  • 6. Miller, E. - IDB cont’d The IDB will support analytical work and  programs to improve teacher incentives and accountability at the school level. Reforming Primary and Secondary Education in Latin America and the Caribbean, An IDB Strategy Inter-American Development Bank Washington, D.C. Sustainable Development Department, Sector Strategy and Policy Papers Series, March 2000 Presented by Elaine Foster-Allen 6
  • 7. Errol Miller, 1999, for World Bank Introduced into discourse and language of educators in the Caribbean in the late 1990’s: “Equalization of public resources goes hand in hand with the need to strengthen school based management. Enhanced monitoring and supervision of schools, clear standards of accountability for schools, training of school board members and management training for principals will all help to strengthen education financing.” Miller, E. Presented by Elaine Foster-Allen 7
  • 8. Errol Miller, 1999, for WB -1 “Further steps are needed to build up the  assessment program for secondary education for monitoring and diagnostic uses, and also to lay the foundation of an accountability system.” Report No.19069-JM “Jamaica Secondary Education:  Improving Quality and Extending Access”, Volume 1: Main Report December 17, 1999 Document of the World Bank  Presented by Elaine Foster-Allen 8
  • 9. Former Minister of Education The White Paper 2001 Among the seven strategic objectives of  the MOEC are: Literacy for all; access, equity and relevance throughout the education system; accountability and performance management in order to improve performance and win public confidence and trust; effectiveness and efficiency of staff; and greater use of information and communication technology. Presented by Elaine Foster-Allen 9
  • 10. Former Minister of Education The Ministry of Education, Youth and  Culture is ensuring closer supervision and monitoring of the system to achieve a higher degree of accountability. This school year, the new performance evaluation system designed to improve professionalism of our teachers will be rolled out system-wide. JIS, Sunday, September 05, 2004 Presented by Elaine Foster-Allen 10
  • 11. Task Force Report, 2004 The country now has a validated National  Shared Vision for Education, which highlights: • full stakeholder participation • equitable and accessible education for all • accountability, transparency and performance at all levels of the system We believe that accountability for performance is a fundamental issue at all levels of the system Presented by Elaine Foster-Allen 11
  • 12. “Managerial Accountability” investment in education is most efficiently  allocated using students as the focus rather than institutions. It is to this end that the Task Force is recommending that Government fund students to a fixed amount at whatever school they choose while providing the policy and quality support to ensure proper operation and accountability for performance at all institutions. Presented by Elaine Foster-Allen 12
  • 13. “Democratizing Accountability” TFR, 2004 Accountability, Transparency and  Performance of the Education System “Critical stakeholders of our education system—parents, students, teachers and all staff, Ministry of Education, school boards, civil society—are all answerable to one another within a framework of sanctions.” Presented by Elaine Foster-Allen 13
  • 14. Value for Money TFR, 2004 The improved systems of accountability  discussed under Accountability for Performance at all levels are critical pre- requisites for the ability of the system to absorb and provide the anticipated returns on the levels of increased investment in education that is required. Presented by Elaine Foster-Allen 14
  • 15. “Managerial and Moral” Accountability He said the education ministry was holding itself accountable for  the outcomes in the system. Minister of Education, Andrew Holness: quot;A challenge is to get our leaders in  education, our education administrators, instructors, teachers to be accountable for the outcomes of the Education Ministry. For too long in our education system, we have not had a strong spirit of accountability,quot; he stated. Jamaica Observer 24September 04  Presented by Elaine Foster-Allen 15
  • 16. “Professional Accountability” quot;If it is, that after we analyse the Grade Four  Achievement Test and we see that in 1999 nearly 60 per cent were not reading at the Grade Four level, somebody should be held accountable and accountability doesn't mean punishment or sanctions. Accountability really means that someone must find a solution,quot; the Education Minister pointed out. KINGSTON (JIS): Thursday, September 25, 2008 Presented by Elaine Foster-Allen 16
  • 17. Holding the System Accountable through Inspections in Jamaica In the Jamaican context, the following issues have come to the fore:  The performance and educational outcomes our children is unsatisfactory  Teacher Performance – when linked to student outcomes, in many cases, this leaves much to be desired  Funding of Education expensive on national pocket, are we getting value for money? Presented by Elaine Foster-Allen 17
  • 18. Holding the System Accountable through Inspections in Jamaica Compliance with regulations – financial  and other Governance matters in relation to -  interpretation and implementation of educational legislation Reliability and probity, to a lesser extent,  can educators be trusted – extra lessons, marking and assessment - bumping up grades Presented by Elaine Foster-Allen 18
  • 19. Types of Accountability Observed “In the field of education there are three  main types of accountability systems: a) compliance with regulations, b) Adherence to professional norms, and c) results driven” Jo Anne Anderson, Accountability in Education, IIEP, UNESCO,  2005 Presented by Elaine Foster-Allen 19
  • 20. Preferred Jamaican Model of Accountability Self Evaluation by schools, REA’s, TTI  Inspections undertaken by an independent  and autonomous body – National Education Inspectorate School or institutional improvement –  emphasis on the profession taking responsibility for improvement of the sector with strong support from decentralized REA Presented by Elaine Foster-Allen 20
  • 21. Components of the Accountability System ~ Being interrogated are the following:  “What do we expect students to know and be able to do?  How satisfied are we that students have mastered the established content standards? (What about values, morals and spirituality? EFA)  How are teachers prepared to be effective in their classrooms with all their students? Presented by Elaine Foster-Allen 21
  • 22. Components of the Accountability System ~ How and to what degree is the public  informed about school results and the contributors to those results? How does society respond to the  information they receive about the performance of the school?” Jo Anne Anderson, Accountability in Education, IIEP, UNESCO,  2005 Presented by Elaine Foster-Allen 22
  • 23. Inspections and Accountability Will inspections have any causal effect on the  quality of school performance? Will schools be driven to “window dressing”?  How do we avoid, the profession collectively,  feeling that accountability is about “the witch- hunting”? How do we get the profession to consolidate  their professional responsibility and accountability to themselves, parents, students and wider society, rather than seeing accountability as an external and unnecessary evil demand? ( Beista, G.J.J., 2004) Presented by Elaine Foster-Allen 23