Even better than good error messages is a careful design which prevents a problem from occurring in the first place.
If user is asked to spell something, e.g. file names, it might be easier to give them a menu from which they can choose the files.
When the same action leads to different consequences in different states. For example in older word processors, there was an insert and edit modes. The same key press in the different modes would lead to different outcomes.
Tasks are the specific steps that the user has to go through in order to accomplish his goals. Asks include the usage of the software.
Find information about various restaurants
Decide on the one based on factors such as price, cuisine, serves alcohol or not/ distance from location
Get to the restaurant
Pay for meal
Development of Scenarios Primary Persona: Joe, the executive Make him happy 100% of the time
Scenario: Joe’s company has tied up with some Delhi IT company, and he is visiting Delhi for the first time.
He is staying somewhere near South Ex.
He needs to find a restaurant to eat at.
He is not feeling adventerous, so not Dosa! Just some safe Burger and Fries.
So Joe turns to his trusted Palm
Development of Scenarios Joe needs to input his location into his palm. Input what kind of food he wants or the program can use defaults The information returned: list of possible restaurants along with their relevant details, kinds of food etc. More details about each on request: details such as the availability of beer, if they take credit cards, links to reviews etc.
Development of Scenarios The information returned to Joe needs to be broad (offer a number of options) and deep (offer more details upon request) Location Information is another concern of Joe’s. Ideally he wants exact distance & directions to restaurant. Not possible, not live website
Development of Scenarios What else does Joe need? To mark restaurants that he liked. Lets think more… Compromise : Tag restaurants in terms of neighborhoods. Joe can give current neighborhood. Can be shown map with neighborhoods marked out & approximate distances.
Our secondary Persona Does this design make Dan happy? Designing for one specific user often makes other users happy as well.
the structure of categories can be similar across cultures, though content of categories might not be.
Enough similarity for successful design.
The net generation shares a lot of culture
Cross-cultural design has been happening anyway.
Free-listing methods for understanding scope and boundary of domain
Free-listing to explore domain scope and boundaries
Explore boundaries and scope of domain across a group of people.
Gain familiarity with user vocabulary for the domain.
Use as a precursor to card-sorting, to define and limit the domain, and frame card items in the user’s language.
Can be conducted as part of interview, or as written exercise
Ask respondent, “Name all the x's you know.” Give sufficient time to do so.
How many respondents?
Depends on how much agreement there is about the domain. more agreement > fewer respondents.
Free-listing menu for Mc Donald’s User No 1 French fries Cheese burger Shake Hamburger French fries Chicken sandwich Chicken Mcnuggets Fish sandwich Shake Hamburger User No 2 French fries Chicken Cheese burger Shake User No 4 Chicken Mcnuggets Cheese burger Bacon cheese burger French fries User No 5 Hamburger Quarter pounder Big mac Chicken fajita French fries Apple pie User No 3 Hamburger Cheese burger French fries Mc rib Chicken sandwich
Create a list of all items, sorted by their average rank (of being listed by a respondent). Examine how that rank order changes with the addition of each new respondent. If the ranks are relatively stable, then you can stop adding new respondents.
60% 70% 40% 40% 100% 30% Cheese burger Chicken Mcnuggets Chicken sandwich Fish sandwich French fries Shake Listed by % participants Items