An academic discipline – a body of knowledge given to or received by that an individual has chosen to specialized in. A field of science – widely recognized category of specialized expertise within science. Such a field will usually be represented by one or more scientific journals, where peer reviewed research is published.
An interdisciplinary field- a field that crosses traditional boundaries between academic disciplines or schools of thought, as new needs and professions have emerged.
A Greek word “geographia” “Earth describe-write”Geo – a prefix taken from Greek word meaning “earth” usually in the sense of “ground or land” . Geo is a prefix for many words dealing in some way with the earth.Graphein – an English suffix. “to write” or “to draw”.Words that includes this suffix usually are about a work, an art or a field of study.
Geography is the study of the aerial differentiation of the Earth’s surface. Geography is the study of the natural relationships between people and their environment Geography is the study of the physical features of the Earth’s surface and the various human activities that take place on it.
1)Geography helps us understand the world. Geography teaches students important skills. Geography helps students learn about the world. Geography contributes to international understanding.2)Geography helps us understand our own country. Geography and citizenship.
Reading and interpreting maps. Interpreting and understanding photographs Analyzing data such as graphs and statistics Conducting research and fieldwork.
One of the most important tools that a geographer uses is a map. There are many different types of maps and each contains different information. Various maps show physical features, political boundaries, patterns, migration flow, weather, to name a few. A map must contain the key elements with which it interprets the given information. Every map should include all or most of the following elements: a title, cardinal (compass) directions, lines of longitude and latitude, scale and a legend or key.
•A person who makes maps iscalled a cartographer•Maps are important as a tool for geographybecause we can show so much information aboutthe earth on one document.•There are parts to maps, types of maps, and evenmap projections that are very important as a basisfor all of geography.
Cartographers today use many sources of data collected for their maps.1) GIS (Geographic Information Systems) is the most accurate to date: GIS is using computers to plot points and other information on maps.
2)Images can help gather information to then be placed on Air Photography and Satellite maps. Cartographers can interpret what they see and plot it on a map.3)GPS (Global Positioning Systems) use satellites around the world to plot the exact point of location from an electronic receiver.
Political Map-this is a map that shows political boundaries, borders, area of political entities (countries, states, territories, districts, zones, counties, provinces, etc) These types of maps may a.lso show capitals/ other cities
Physical Map- This type of map uses colors to show elevation and other land/water features of the earth. This map may also show any physical feature such as mountains, oceans, rivers, valleys, etc
Thematic Map- This type of map shows “themes” or subjects on a map- basically any information. Anything can be shown on a map using symbols, colors, pictures, numbers, contour lines, etc. ALL THEMATIC MAPS MUST HAVE A KEY- this tells the reader what each picture/symbols/color/etc represents on the map i.e. + represents a hospital
Any collection of maps, graphs, and charts is called an atlas. We use atlases as a geographic resource for looking up all kinds of information From where places are located To population and economic information To topographic information about the surface of the earth.
Remember to use the INDEX to help locate the location of cities, states, and countries around the world. Use the KEY on the maps to read information Use the SCALE of the map to find distances Use the COMPASS ROSE to locate and pinpoint orientation or direction.
Reading coordinates is very important in finding location in geography. Remember that you read the “x-axis” (latitude) first and then read the “y-axis” (longitude) second X,Y.
The Earth is divided by latitude and longitude lines. There are several important lines to know on the earths surface: #1 is the ARCTIC CIRCLE found at 66 ½ o NORTH of the Equator #2 is the TROPIC OF CANCER found at 23 ½ o NORTH of the Equator
#3is the EQUATOR which splits the earth into two hemispheres at 0o Latitude #4 is the TROPIC OF CAPRICORN found 23 ½ o SOUTH of the Equator. #5 is the ANTARCTIC CIRCLE found at 66 ½ o SOUTH of the Equator
LOCATION “Where are we” is the question that the theme location answers. Location may be absolute or it may be relative. An Absolute location is a latitude and longitude (a global location) or a street address (local location) Relative locations are describe by landmarks , time, direction or distance from one place to another and may associate a particular place with another.
What kind of place is it? What do you think of when you imagine China? Japan? India? Russia? Places have both human and characteristics, as well as images. Physical characteristics includes mountains, rivers, soil, beaches, wildlife. Places have human characteristics also. These are derived from the ideas and actions of people that result in changes to the environment such as buildings, roads, clothing and food habits.
The image people have of a place is based on their experiences both intellectual and emotional. People’s description of a place reveal their values, attitudes and perceptions.
How do humans and the environment affect each other? We change the environment and then sometimes Mother Nature changes it back. There are three key concepts to human/environmental interaction Humans adopt on the environment. Humans depend to the environment.
The movement of people, the import and export of goods and mass communication have all played major roles in shaping our world. People everywhere interact. They travel from place to place and they communicate. People interact with each other through movement. Humans occupy places unevenly on Earth because of the environment but also because we are social beings.
A region is the basic unit of study in Geography. A region is an area that displays a coherent unity in terms of the government, language, or possibly the landform or situation. Regions are human constructs that can be mapped and analyzed There are three basic types of regions.
FORMAL REGIONS are those defined by governmental or administrative boundaries. FUNCTIONAL REGIONS are those defined by a function. VERNACULAR REGIONS are those loosely defined by people’s perception.
1)Draw the outline of your world. Using a pencil, lightly draw the primary features of your map. For this article, well look at a large-scale map of a fantasy world. If youre making a continental-scale map, differentiate between land and sea. If youre making a local-scale map, pencil in geographic or political boundaries. Consider using a high quality paper for your map.
2) Fill it in. Fine tune your pencil outline, and then with ink, draw over it If this is to be a color map, fill in the land and sea areas with appropriate basic colors. Add a compass rose to denote orientation of the map.
3) Fill in features. This adds life to the map, helping the map reader get a better sense of place. On large-scale maps, this would include mountains, rivers, ocean depth, and other large features. On maps of a smaller scale, those might include streams, fences, and recognizable landmarks.
4)Notate the scale. This is an indicator of how many units on the map (inches/centimeters) are in a unit in the actual place (miles/kilometers). This allows distances to be determined from the map. Find a location on the map that wont be used for landmarks. That may be on the map itself, or you might need to locate it in the surrounding frame, depending on your maps detail.
5)Add latitude and longitude lines. Make them evenly spaced, and use a ruler to keep them straight.
6)Add place names. Include locations that help the map reader identify what theyre looking at. Include key geographic features such as mountains, rivers, and landmarks. If your map is a visual aid for a story or novel, also include places that are key plot points in the novel. If your map is a memento, include places that have meaning to you.
7)Create the legend. This will help the reader make sense of colors, symbols, and lines. Consider doing a gradation for land heights and sea depths. If you use icons for features, use them consistently.
Choose the right map. A wide variety of maps are available for a wide variety of uses For example, there are road maps for drivers with highways and byways. Tourist maps for sightseeing, with famous landmarks or conspicuous celebrities. Topo maps for hikers maps for hikers or back country, featuring paths and campgrounds.
•Sectionals, or maps for pilots that featureair routes, terminal areas, plus landmarksand tall things that planes would be wise toavoid.•A good general free online map for certainparts of the world is Google Maps.However, this may not be available to youwhen needed, so its important to learnhow to read printed maps too.
1Check the maps orientation. Most mapsare drawn with north located at the top.•Sometimes this may be depicted usinga compass rose. Or, it might simply bestated to be the assumption of the map. Ifthere is no indication to the contrary,presume it is north at the top.
Understand the scale of the map.The map scale shows you a ratio of map distanceto real distance. These differ in size from map tomap. Look for the scale, generally located on theside or bottom of the map. It will looksomething like 1:100,000, which denotes that 1unit on the map is the equivalent of 100,000units in real life
Note the latitude and longitude. If youre traveling to the next town, this isnt so important. But if you are sailing, flying, or touring long distances, this might be useful. The latitude refers to the distance in degrees north or south of the equator. The longitude refers to the distance in degrees east or west of the Greenwich Meridian Line. Each degree is divided into 60 minutes, with each minute representing a nautical mile (or 1.15 land miles/1.85km). This means that one degree is the equivalent of 60 nautical miles or 69 land miles/111km.
Learn to read contour lines. How high or flat the land is represented on the map with contour lines. Each line represents a standard height above sea level. When contour lines are close together, this means that the gradient is steep (the closer together, the steeper the gradient becomes). When the contour lines are further apart, the gradient is flatter, so the further apart they are located, the flatter the ground on the map.
Examine the legend. Most maps have a legend or key of symbols on the map itself. Get familiar with how your map represents data—that is key to understanding the rest of the map. In general, maps do the following: Lines in varying sizes, colors, and unbroken or broken lines depict roads, from lanes to freeways and all in between. Mountains tend to be shown as brown or green, and are height-dependent: darker at the bottom, lighter or white at the top.
Rivers, lakes, the ocean and other water bodies are generally shown in blue. Forests, woods, parks, golf courses, or other large bodies of trees or green space are usually depicted in green. Towns and city limits are often shown in a pastel pink or yellow, and the size and boldness of their names indicate relative population size or importance. Buildings tend to be shown in gray or black colors.
Figure out where you are. You have your map and youre ready to use it. Now you need to figure out where you are before you can plot where youre going. You can do so by matching what you can see in real life with what is on the map. Common features that help identify your location on a map includes road names, landmarks and prominent natural features, like rivers. If you have a compass, align the map with the direction shown on the compass. Or, use the sun or markers to help you do this.
A good way to find your location if you are unsure is to find two landmarks. For example, if you can see a prominent tower in front of you, and a city at 45 degrees to your left. Find those two landmarks on the map. Align the map so that the point in front of you is at the top of your map, and draw a straight line from that point down. Then draw a line from the diagonal landmark, till it intersects the first landmark. The point that they intersect is roughly your location. Look for closer landmarks to zero in on your position.
Find your destination. Now its time to figure out where you want to go .If you just want to go from one place to another, all you need to do is to plot that single route out. If there are several places you intend to go to, you may want to plan your route in such a way that you visit all the places in the shortest possible manner. You can do so by going to the nearest places first after which you will go to the further places.
Use the maps index. Some maps, such as a Thomas Guide, have indexes stating the location of certain places on a map. This location could be grid numbers or pages. Take note of a maps scale so that you can estimate your travel time, and if you are taking longer then you expected, you can stop to recheck your map. Dont forget to check the maps legend so will know what you are looking at.
If we had fully understand what geography is, at the same time we can also tell that we had also fully understand our history because for me, Geography is some what related to History. It is very important to study really Geography because as future responsible citizens of this country there are lots of careers and jobs out there waiting for us which really needs our knowledge with regards and prior to geography.
By merely studying our own geography we can fully understand the reasons behind as well as the causes of the extreme changing of climate that we are experiencing right now. If we already know and understand our own geography then I can tell that we could also fully understand and learn the different geographies of the different countries.
I have learned that: Geography enable us to know where we are. Geography enable us to differentiate one place to the other. Geography helps us to know what kind of map we are going to use . What causes the formation of typhoons and the like.GEOGRAPHY IS INDEED VERY SUBSTANCIAL IN OUR LIFE . To those who cannot appreciate Geography. well its your lost .
Geography has made us neighbors. History has made us friends.Economics has made us partners, and necessity has made us allies. Those whom God has so joined together, let no man put asunder. John F. Kennedy