Teaching grammar


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Teaching grammar

  1. 1. Teaching Grammar Topic based curriculum
  2. 2. Teaching Grammar <ul><li>There are many different methods for teaching grammar and in this lecture we will be discussing a practice that incorporates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>grammar and functions in a topic-based curriculum </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Practice <ul><li>Practice involves speaking, reading, writing and listening </li></ul><ul><li>The beginning-level students learn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>basic grammar, vocabulary, and functional expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More advanced students use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an expanded vocabulary and more complex grammar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>varied functional expressions </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Communicative Practice <ul><li>Communicative practice uses real-life situations and presents the language in context </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar is introduced according to what is needed to communicate in these particular situations </li></ul>
  5. 5. Functions <ul><li>Functional communication includes everyday topics such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>meeting and greeting people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>giving and understanding directions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>describing family members and family relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>apologizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>saying how you feel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>telling about activities in the past, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Examples <ul><li>The verb “to be” can be introduced into a lesson about meeting people </li></ul><ul><li>The present continuous tense can be useful when talking about everyday activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Describing people and things will show how the verb “to be” is used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in yes/no questions and short answers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when teaching adjectives and possessive nouns </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Examples continued <ul><li>The imperative command is presented when following a recipe </li></ul><ul><li>The future is needed when discussing plans to visit the museum </li></ul><ul><li>The past tense is used when talking about vacation last year </li></ul>
  8. 8. MAJOR COMPONENTS OF SYNTAX AND GRAMMAR   <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1. The principle elements of the sentence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbs and verb phrases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct and indirect object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complements with verbs that express feeling, appearing, being and seeming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modifiers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clauses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phrases </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Syntax and Grammar <ul><li>2. Parts of speech and their functions within sentences: Nouns and nominals (infinitives, gerunds, etc.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pronouns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adverbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepositions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conjunctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interjections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  10. 10. Grammar and Syntax <ul><li>3. Types of sentences and their syntax: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic & variations on basic sentence patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sentence structure: Complete, incomplete, run-on, coordination of verb tenses </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Grammar and Syntax <ul><li>4. Verb Usage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active or passive voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequence and consistency of tenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phrasal verbs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  12. 12. Syntax and Grammar <ul><li>5. Word usage or lexicon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Idiomatic constructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulaic expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of phrases within sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  13. 13. Specific Points of Grammar <ul><li>Subject pronouns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I, you, he, she, we, they </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forms of verb to be; Fill in the appropriate subject pronoun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>_____ are running down the hill. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>_____ is going to school. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>_____ was at the school play. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>_____ were not at the school play. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Points of Grammar <ul><li>Changes in verb tense </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bill is sitting down. Bill will sit down. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mary walks too fast. Mary walked too fast. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Points of Grammar <ul><li>“When&quot; clauses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mr. Black will sit down. Mr. Black will take off his coat. When Mr. Black sits down, he will take off his coat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The girls will arrive at school. The bell will be ringing. When the girls arrive at school, the bell will be ringing. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Points of Grammar <ul><li>Relative Clauses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The book is on the desk. The book is red. The book that is on the desk is red. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The girl is in the kitchen. The girl is my sister. The girl who is in the kitchen is my sister. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Points of Grammar <ul><li>Negatives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He likes to go for a walk after dinner. He doesn't like to go for a walk after dinner. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mary likes to go for a walk after dinner. She isn't thinking about her homework. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Points of Grammar <ul><li>Interrogatives: (Is/Are) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John is running away from the wolf. Is John running away from the wolf? </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Points of Grammar <ul><li>Interrogatives: (Do/Does) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We walk to the market every afternoon. Do we walk to the market every afternoon? </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Points of Grammar <ul><li>Interrogatives: (Modals-Can) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Can) My brother can ride his bike to school. Can my brother ride his bike to school? What can your brother do on his bike? </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Teaching Grammar in Situational Contexts <ul><li>There are plenty of resources in textbooks and on the internet with examples and strategies for teaching grammar in context </li></ul><ul><li>Here are just a few to give you an idea of how creative and interesting teaching grammar can be </li></ul>
  22. 22. Situational Contexts <ul><li>Situation or Context Points of Grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Follow a recipe Imperative verb </li></ul><ul><li>How to bake a cake Present continuous </li></ul><ul><li>Plans for field trip Future, if clauses, conditional </li></ul><ul><li>Describe vacation Simple past, question formation forms of verb “to do” </li></ul>
  23. 23. Conclusion <ul><li>When selecting texts and activities for your class, it is most helpful to first consider your students’ needs and abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Language becomes meaningful for students if they are able to communicate effectively in their everyday lives </li></ul><ul><li>This increases motivation and participation from the students and creates a more interesting classroom </li></ul>
  24. 24. Works cited: <ul><li>Jill Kerper Mora San Diego State University </li></ul>