TESOL for Business Course Book

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  • 1. TABLE OF CONTENT PageINTRODUCTION 5CHAPTER I:Course Organizational Activities ………………………………………........... 12Assignments ……………………………………………………………………… 14CHAPTER II:Preparing the TESOL Business Teacher (a Micro- Professional Approach).. 16 A. Ethics and the Teaching of TESOL …………………………………….. 16 B. Basic Knowledge of Areas of Study in Business Education ………… 19 C. Knowledge of the Structure of the English Language ………………… 25 D. Diagnostic Test of Basic English skills ………………………………….. 27 E. Knowledge of the Impact of Communications on Business …………… 28 F. Guidelines for Teaching Adults and the Relationship to Business English ……………………………………………………………. 29Assignments ………………………………………………………………………… 34Recommended Readings …………………………………………………………. 36CHAPTER IIITeacher’s Knowledge of Pedagogy and Procedural Aspects ………………… 39 A. Students’ Needs Assessment and Proficiency in Language ………….. 41 a) Listening comprehension ………………………………………… 43 1
  • 2. b) Speaking …………………………………………………………… 43 c) Reading …………………………………………………………….. 43 d) Writing ……………………………………………………………… 44 B. Criteria for Selecting a Teaching Method ……………………………… 44 1. Lexical Method ……………………………………………………. 47 2. Audio-lingual Method ……………………………………………. 48 3. Communicative Method or Approach …………………………… 48 C. Teaching Techniques and Instructional Aids …………………………… 49 D. Business TESOL Lesson Planning …………………………………….... 50 1. Example of a Business Lesson Plan …………………………….. 52Assignments ……………………………………………………………………….. 56Recommended Readings ………………………………………………………… 57CHAPTER IVGlobal Factors Driving Business TESOL………………………………………. 59 A. The Human Expansion of Economic and Social Interactions ………. 59 B. Multinational Corporations as Drivers of Business TESOL ………….. 60 C. Supranational, Non- Governmental and Government Organizations as Drivers and Actors in the TESOL World ……………………………. 63 D. Other International Users of Business English ………………………… 64Assignments ……………………………………………………………………… 64Recommended Readings ………………………………………………………... 66 2
  • 3. CHAPTER VCommunication and Language Skills Key Elements forBusiness Success ………………………………………………………………… 67 A. Importance and requirements for good communication ……………… 67 B. Different forms of Viewing Communications …………………………… 68 C. Selecting appropriate forms and medium of communication in business ………………………………………………………………….. 70 D. Purposes of Business Communications ………………………………… 72 E. Developing Effective Communication in Business ……………………… 74 F. The Importance of Business Etiquette ………………………………….. 77Assignments ………………………………………………………………………… 79Recommended Readings ………………………………………………………….. 80CHAPTER VICultural Aspects for Effective Business TESOL ……………………………….... 81 A. The Role of Intercultural Communications in Business ………………… 81 B. The Relationships between Culture and Language …………………….. 84 C. Organizational Culture ……………………………………………………… 85 D. Nonverbal Communications as Cultural Elements Related to Business …………………………………………………………. 86 E. Functions of Non- verbal Communications ……………………………….. 87 3
  • 4. F. Significance of Verbal Communications in the Business Environment........................................................................................ 89 G. The Role of the United States’ Business Culture as related to Business TESOL ………………………………………………………… 91Assignments ……………………………………………………………………… 94Recommended Readings …………………………………………………………. 95CHAPTER VIITechnological Development and Characteristics of Useful Information............ 98 A. Suggestion for using Fax ………………………………………………….. 100 1. Voice mail …………………………………………………………… 101 2. E-mail ………………………………………………………………… 101 B. Remember the five e-mail commandments ……………………………… 102 C. Characteristics of Quality Information for Business …………………….. 102Assignments ………………………………………………………………………… 103Recommended Readings …………………………………………………………. 104CHAPTER VIIIElements of Structure and Style for Effective Business Writing …………….. 105 A. Some Elements Required for Appropriate Writing …………………….. 105 B. Some Grammatical Elements to Observe in the use of TESOL Business …………………………………………………………... 106 4
  • 5. 1. Sentence Fragments ……………………………………………….. 109 2. Comma Splice ……………………………………………………….. 110 3. Fuse Sentence ………………………………………………………. 111C. Function Of Words ………………………………………………………. . 115D. Word order ………………………………………………………………… 115E. Types of Sentences ………………………………………………………. 116 1. Interrogative Sentences ………………………………………….. 117 2. Imperative Sentences ……………………………………………. 118 3. Negative Sentences ……………………………………………… 118 4. Exclamatory Sentences …………………………………………. 118F. Guide to Correct Sentence Structure …………………………………… 118G. Consistent Sentence Structure …………………………………………. 119H. Working with plural nouns ………………………………………………. 120I. Agreement Of Pronoun And Antecedent In Gender ………………….. 121J. Pronouns / Antecedent Agreement in Number ………………………... 122K. Pronouns That Are Always Plural ……………………………………… 123L. Agreement Of The Pronoun With A Compound Antecedent ………… 124M. The Importance of Vocabulary Development ………………………… 125N. The Importance of Diction in Written Communications ……………… 128 a) Conciseness ………………………………………………………. 129 b) Concreteness ……………………………………………………… 129 c) Punctuation ………………………………………………………… 130O. Guide to Correct Spelling ………………………………………………… 130 5
  • 6. Assignment ……………………………………………………………………….. 132Recommended Readings ……………………………………………………….. 135CHAPTER IXDevelopment of Language Skills for Business Applications …………………. 137 A. Developing Speaking Skills ……………………………………………… 142 B. Writing Skills ……………………………………………………………….. 151 C. Reading Skills for Business ………………………………………………. 158 D. Overcoming Language Problems ………………………………………… 168Assessment ………………………………………………………………………… 170Recommended Readings …………………………………………………………. 172 6
  • 7. Introduction This guide has been prepared for prospective or practicing TESOL teachers withlittle or no business background and teaching experience, but with a strong desire toteach Business TESOL. It follows the principles of virtual learning. As such it seeks tohave learners take an active participation in their learning by developing online researchto complement the topics presented in each chapter. In preparing the guide, the basic assumption consisted in considering the mainclient for Business TESOL training in the world is the multinational organization. Thepotential learners, however, maybe current and perspective employees of thesemultinational companies, owners and employees of local companies and professionalsdealing with multinationals, government workers and supranational organizations, aswell as business travelers. All these individuals are or will be somehow linked to themultinationals internal or external communications network. That is, they will need tolearn some fundamental things related to communication and language in general, andthe use of English Language for communication in the business context as the morespecific challenge. Since multinational companies are the main force driving the need for BusinessTESOL, this guide recognize multinationals are ultimately shaping the type ofknowledge and abilities that Business TESOL teachers need to master. That is, thisguide provides a framework to understand the global environment of business and amodel to support teachers work in the field of business communications as well as basicbusiness management issues related to the use of English. 7
  • 8. However, does not develop in detail any specific topics related to functional ororganizational areas of business, business professions or occupations such asaccounting, business law, management and others; neither is this guided oriented toany specific economic activity or industry such as hospitality, banking, shipping etc.Thousands of interesting business topics can be developed for use in TESOL, but mostare best suited for specific guides developed for specific purposes and context-situations directed at specific audiences and using the corresponding methodology andformats. The focus here, therefore, is much broader in scope, it relates to thefundamental language of business upon which all ideas, relations and interaction rest inthe business environment. That is, some elements of internal business communicationsas a tool to increase productivity and external business communication to obtaincheaper economic resources for use in the organization and increasing market shareswith appropriate accountability to the business owners. For perspective TESOL teachers, this document is useful; it provides insights,that help those without any international or national business experience; it is also veryhelpful to those without any teaching experience who find the traditional academic textson pedagogical issues very complicated. The highly specialized vocabulary of theteaching and business professions, more suited for high level academic studies, arereplaced with more concrete and practical terms in this document. We have strived tomake it learner- centered as we hope all teachers will do for their students. Again, ourmain audience is the non- college graduate that is seeking to teach business TESOL. The guide provides TESOL teachers with some insights about the real world ofbusiness education and the demand for these services worldwide. Nevertheless, 8
  • 9. teachers should continue doing TESOL research as a permanent way of learning andimproving on their own abilities to face different situations in the field. The student-teacher must take the main responsibility for his/her learning with the guide of a helpingand friendly training program. The course focuses on practical problems that teachers may face while teachingTESOL. The emphasis is on learning to do informal and formal assessments, lessonplanning and delivering instruction in line with what the skills that the business worlddemands from workers. Consequently, this work seeks to present materials in ways thatTESOL teachers, around the world, can understand and relate to their local contextwithout the use of highly technical terminology or professional jargon that is typical of inmost texts related to the business field. Most important in this context, therefore, is to provide TESOL business teachersthat don’t have a background in business with some information about the world ofbusiness as it is evolving in the international arena. TESOL business teachers must firstunderstand the grand scene of global business and their role in it, before they can reallyappreciate the value of their commitment and their potential contributions to this calling. Some information and activities, of course, are directed to the future teacherswith the purpose of awakening their interest in making the connections between the useof the English language as a tool for global business expansion and increasing leanersstandards of living around the world. This implies that teachers without businessbackground will picture a business organization and the vital role that English skills playin today’s society. Teachers should also reflect on the many aspects of the business 9
  • 10. world that relies on adequate communication. Self- assessment and reflective questionscarried out by teachers and learners are cornerstones in this system. The content of the course can also be adapted to classroom environments bymaking the corresponding methodological and contextual adjustments. While privateand public educational institutions are struggling to respond to the market demands forqualified workers that can communicate in English, the study of businesscommunications techniques, has been largely neglected. Knowledge of specialized vocabulary or occupational lingo is of little valuewithout proper grammar, pronunciation, writing and communication skills. L2 learnersneed to have a solid foundation in the basic language skills and communicationtechniques. Business communication techniques and specialized vocabulary in contextmust be taught together in order to achieve effective communication for differentbusiness purposes. The first chapter reminds the teacher of the need to establish goodcommunication and rapport with the learners. There is also a need to provide generalorientations and aspects related to method, interactions and course evaluation. The next two chapters deal with issues related to the teacher’s professionalconduct and basic knowledge of teaching procedures. These are foundational issuesthat all TESOL teachers should know of his/ her benefit. These are more teacheroriented information; generally, this information is not transferred to the learners. It is forthe teacher’s own professional development, use and reflection in professional practice. 10
  • 11. The following three chapters analyze factors out of the immediate control of theteacher, but having an enormous impact on TESOL such as the role of multinationaland their English communications needs as well as cultural factors related to languageteaching and business customs. The final three chapter deals with the impact oftechnology and characteristic of information to meet the quality requirements of users,the importance of form and style to maintain good business relationships with internaland external business associates and finally the development of language skills toenhance business communications. With this road map as guide and the suggested assignments and readings, theAmerican TESOL Institute offer those interested in teaching Business TESOL in theUnited States and abroad an interesting way not only to get started in a satisfyingenterprise beside current and future business leaders that without doubt shouldappreciate the teachers’ efforts and his/ her language and culture, but also equallyimportant be a valuable person in the struggle to provide new knowledge andtechnologies to the rest of the world. 11
  • 12. CHAPTER I 3.0 hours Course Organizational Activities Instructional Objectives: - Define the type of teacher- student interaction for the course. - Establish an environment of trust, friendship and cooperation in the classroom. - Explain the importance of team work in business organizations and class environments. - Establish the learner’s and teacher’s responsibilities in the virtual learning process. - Describe the course methodology and evaluation system. Teacher’s Questions to Elicit Interest 1. Why is it important for students and teachers get to know each other? 2. What activity can be designed to help develop friendship and cooperation in the class? 3. What benefits will cooperation produce for classroom participants? 4. How will the student’s grade be determined in this course?Introduce yourself to the students; they might be waiting to know about the person thatwill lead the training and interact with them.  The most important way to begin this constructive relationship is to take the lead by sharing something about your background. 12
  • 13. Note: The teacher should welcome the students to the course and give clear introductory encouragement and definitions related to concepts such as the differences between General English and Business English as well as some key differences between online teaching and face- to face teaching. The best and easiest way to do this is to have an online link to which the students can see a picture of the teacher and listen to a taped material with this introductory material. The program should have a link for contacts. The students should use this link to contact the teachers for all communications. The student must listen and read all introductory materials for the course and contact the teacher with any question or concern before starting the first content unit. Explain the course methodology, expectations for students and course evaluationsystem. It is critical for students to understand that with online courses there are manybenefits, but also the student’s role is different than in traditional classroom settings.Here the student assumes greater responsibility for his active learning, and the teacherrole is to guide the learning. This methodology implies that the student will have to domany online researches, read materials presented by the instructor and present criticalfeedback as well as demonstrate understanding by making application of Englishcommunication skills to the business context. Present the course outline as part of the taped introductory module that youhave prepared. Explain that there is no fixed schedule for this course. Each studentwill complete the course according to his/ her performance and speed convenience. 13
  • 14. However, in order to stimulate activity and learning, the student will only have twoweeks, after accessing each material, to complete the respective assignments. Explain the procedures for evaluation and completion of the course. Thisintroductory chapter will not be graded, but it remains a preparatory requirement beforethe student can gain access to any business content unit. All other chapters and unitswill be graded according to the weight established for the respective section inaccordance to its significance as related to the overall goals of the course and thestudent’s performance.Assignments - 2 .0 Points 1. The student must present, in writing, a brief description of his background including knowledge of English and business skills. The student should also indicate his/ her expectations about the course in order to guide the instructor’s assistance. 2. Have each learner research online the meaning of the following concepts and provide a prediction about how he/ she thinks the respective term relates to this course: a. Business TESOL b. Business Communications. c. Business Functional Areas. d. Business Organizational Areas e. English Language Skills f. Learner- centered environment 14
  • 15. g. Business Organizations.h. Team work in business organizationsi. Culturej. Virtual Learning 15
  • 16. CHAPTER II 6.0 hoursPreparing the TESOL Business Teacher (a Micro- Professional Approach)Instructional Objectives: - Describe the importance of ethical behavior for TESOL teachers. - Explain the importance of ethics in business education and professions. - Discuss the main characteristics of TESOL Business learners. - Describe the pedagogical and environmental factors to be considered when planning and implementing TESOL Business.Questions to Elicit Students’ Interest 1. What are the most important topics to teach in Business TESOL and how to teach them? 2. Which conducts and behaviors should TESOL teachers observed and how are they related to the business environment. 3. What are the characteristics of the typical Business TESOL student and how to deal with this reality? 4. Which methods are most appropriate for teaching Business TESOL? A. Ethics and the Teaching of TESOLThe relationship of ethics to TESOL can be viewed in two ways; 1) As it related to the TESOL profession and 2) As it relates to business environments. 16
  • 17.  TESOL teaching needs to be regulated and guided on moral and ethical grounds to ensure honesty and fairness in the profession.  TESOL teachers must elevate the image of the profession anywhere they have been called to practice.  TESOL Business teachers need to understand the characteristic of the type of learners that take these courses and the environmental factors that make this king of teaching special.  TESOL teachers must know the basics related to pedagogical rules, techniques and procedures about of how best to approach their teaching mission. Ethics also call for teachers to know their subject matter in order to be effective in helping learners reach expected goal. Business ethics is fundamentally an attempt to make the moral life specific andpractical. The reason why the norms of business ethics in particular cultures often differfrom those of another culture is that universal guidelines [moral] are simple notappropriate instruments to determine practice or policy or to resolve conflicts that arerelated to specific economic, social or political circumstances of different group ofpeople. (Beauchamp & Bowie 2001) The distinction between moral and ethics is important. Moral rules are ofuniversal application. They are respected in all cultures. However, ethical rules aredifferent according to each culture. Differences in culture, language, dialects orterminology may result in miscommunications and posse significant barriers tointernational business relations. (Dobler, 1990) 17
  • 18. Because of these cultural and political differences among countries, it isimportant for teachers to be aware of conducts that might be illegal or unethical indifferent parts of the world. Teachers should make an effort to understand each culture.Teachers should also study the code of ethics prepared by different professionalorganization as guide for their behaviors. On the other hand, ethical considerations are also critical to business leaders.Given the sensitive nature of internal and external information in businessorganizations, teachers must help learners understand and observe written ethical rulesand common business practices to avoid conflicts and even legal controversies. Businesses establish ethical rules because they invest a lot of resources andtime in their operations that are subjected to numerous risks. Therefore, they need toprotect that investment from both outsiders and insider’s actions. This observation iseven more important for middle and top managers that have access to sensitivebusiness information. Often, the managers with access to sensitive information represent the mostlikely candidates for TESOL business training in countries where English is not themain language since they manage the type of information that is required for marketingor monitoring and reporting purposes. Ethics plays a crucial role in communication. The nature of businessorganizations with different individuals constantly interacting in various capacities andsituations through different forms language represent opportunities for both positive andnegative developments and emotions. Words and actions carry meanings and values. 18
  • 19. Therefore, by communicating verbally and nonverbally in different ways we shapemessages that impact others in distinct ways. Ethical communication must include allrelevant information, in every sense, and is not deceptive in any way. (Bovee & Thill,2000) Ethical issues are so important to business that many business and professionalorganizations have established written codes of ethics for guidance in some businesssituations. Ethical concerns are central to many accounting issues that may affect theentire world. For instance, less than a decade ago when Enron, a giant US corporation,failed to convince the public that its ‘audited’ financial statements were reliable, manyother large corporations suffered as consequence of the public’s poor perception aboutexternal auditors and corporate behaviors. (Kimmel. et.al, 2004) As a result, of these unethical practices, the US stock market declined and othermarkets linked to the US financial system around the world also felt the impact. In 2007another financial crisis surfaced in the US with unethical lending practices to thehousing sector as an important contributing factor. This also led to a global financialcrisis and international recession. Misleading business communications, therefore, canlead the world to severe economic crisis. B. Basic Knowledge of Areas of Study in Business Education Although the TESOL business teacher does not need to be an expert in anybusiness profession, having some basic knowledge in the following subject areas canbe helpful. Obtaining a general view of these and other business areas is relativelyeasy. The perspective TESOL business teacher can purchase online any introduction to 19
  • 20. Business textbook; other online resources under the heading of introduction to Businessmight also be helpful.  Tell learners that TESOL teaching is a very complex, but interesting task. The list of topics and behaviors that a TESOL Business teacher must keep in mind and practice is almost unlimited. Nevertheless, at the micro- level or professional level, focus must be placed on some critical aspects for ensuring success. Here, then, are the main issues of this level:  Basic knowledge about the structure of all businesses from the organizational point of view: human resources, production, marketing, finance, and information. The teacher must understand how each function relates to the other as part of an integral system.  Basic understanding about the structure of managerial functions such as: planning, organizing, controlling, and directing as well as the interrelationship between them in all areas of business organization.  Clear, Concise and Correct English Communications skills with special focus on speaking and writing; especially spelling, mechanics and corrections of wordiness.  Proper forms and structure of writing business correspondence, including e-mails. (Almost all Business Communications Textbooks have chapters on these topics)  Basic knowledge of Accounting (The universal language of business), especially as it related to merchandizing concerns, international trade and financial statements analysis. 20
  • 21.  Basic concepts of corporate finance, economics, stock market indicators and banking terminology and international trade.  Useful travel and tourism terminology. Common business phrases and protocols of the United States business culture.  Protocols for spoken communication (telephone, teleconferencing etc.)  Learning the vocabulary and jargon is important in all these cases but for the L2 learner, the appropriate word order, meaning and usage according to context together with his non-verbal communication skills in accordance with the targeted LI country is critical.  For English teachers of business courses, it is also important to know how to read and interpret graphs, charts, tables, and other visual materials used in descriptive statistics as well as general notions of sampling techniques from inferential statistics. The use of financial mathematics tables and formulas might also be useful in some cases.  Writing and Reading is very important to business people. Anyone planning to teach Business English should go over the glossary of an introduction to business textbook as well as the glossary to financial accounting textbook and chapter of a business communication textbook. Consulting these three basic types of materials online can also be very helpful. Although the TESOL business teacher does not need to be an expert in anybusiness profession, having some basic knowledge in the following subject areas canbe helpful. Obtaining a general view of these and other business areas is relatively 21
  • 22. easy. One particular area of business that is fundamental to all business concern ismanagement. The Business TESOL teacher must know the meaning and activities of managementfunctions such as planning, organizing, directing and controlling. These activities arecarried out to move organizations toward goal accomplishment. (De Bravo, 1999)According to (Wood, 1996) the study of business is an exciting, rewarding field thatinvolves a global landscape that is always changing. She points out five major issuesconsidered to be crucial: ethical/ social responsibility, multicultural diversity, productivity,quality, and global competitiveness. While these issues remain important in recentyears business are also giving great importance to the development of communicationstechnologies and the use of the English language as a vehicle for understanding andgaining new technologies in the global context. And non- profit organizations areanalyzing the advantages and disadvantages of operations carried out by largemultinational companies. On a more specific level related directly to the professional areas of study(Brown & Clow, 1997) mention that the National Business Education Associationstandards for a model of National Business Curriculum established the following areas: 1. Accounting 2. Business law 3. Career Development 4. Communication 5. Computation 6. Economics and Personal Finance 22
  • 23. 7. Entrepreneurship 8. Information Systems 9. International Business 10. Marketing 11. Management 12. Interrelationship of Business Functions. Awareness that above categories of business courses is important. Specificbusiness courses, for professions, occupations, industries, business types,organizational or managerial segments and general macroeconomic issues such asnational and/ or international events in productive and financial markets with directincidence on these microeconomic units constitute the virtually unlimited scope ofBusiness TESOL. Although all these aspects are important to business management and learnersof business functions, we must select an area to focus training of L2 students forbusiness purposes. Business communications, seems to be the most comprehensive subject; itprovides the opportunity to learn how to express messages effectivly for use in anyother subject and lays the foundation for understanding the social interactions that takesplace in the business world even when the world is becoming much more connected bymeans of information, and communications technologies and the growth of multinationalcompanies and other international institutions using the English language. This expansion of multinational companies and the development of new 23
  • 24. communication and office automatation equipment have open opportunities to linknumerous branches and subsidiaries around the globe with their main offices, thusstimulating the need for a constant flow of information that must be communicated andshared among units and participants; the English language has increasingly become themost useful tool for communication of the business community worldwide. Businessinformation, however, must be formal and follow some rules of uniformity andacceptable quality for it to be useful to decision makers, particularly for control andaccountabilty to owners and investors. Today’s TESOL teachers must also receive some business training for twoadditional reasons: 1) Increasingly language institutes prefer to deal with people that understand how business work. They need people that can understand the important roles of their clients at home and abroad, including very importantly the students that receive training. The new responsibility of perspective TESOL teachers includes not only to teach TESOL to business people or for business purposes, but also to take into account business factors and behaviors in the planning and delivery of services of the training institutions. 2) The knowledge of macroeconomic factors and the impact on businesses in different countries is becoming increasingly important to understand the world we live in; most private institutions and schools that do the hiring of foreign and local TESOL teachers are seeking individuals with these 24
  • 25. broad perspectives and understanding of global interdependence on its impact on businesses including TESOL. TESOL institutions and schools, like any other private business are concern withtwo interrelated aspects of their business:  The operational part or quality of the production and delivery of teaching (technical aspects), and  The economic concern related of how best to combine resources for obtaining the maximum benefits in the short and long- term. Both factors are so closely related that TESOL teachers need instructional goals that are economically feasible and technically appropriate for learners. Some teaching, such as most business communication and general accountingtopics, might be general in nature; attempting to satisfy the needs of a wide audiencewith broad range of backgrounds and occupations. Typically the industry specific orfunctional business English courses, develop more narrow and specialized topics oftenusing more technical vocabulary, professional conventions, and updated research andsophisticated techniques that are within the comprehension zone of these audiences.However, in both cases, the teacher that likes to deal with fictional work must make theadjustments to the more informational driven, facts and data-building enterprise ofTESOL business in its different contexts. C. Knowledge of the Structure of the English Language Verbal communication is very important in business. Words are used in standards ways of speaking and writing so that people can understand each 25
  • 26. other. Grammar is the way we build sentences out of words.( Crystal, 2011) The main requirement to be a good teacher is that he must know is subject; the teacher must never stop learning about what he teaches.(Highet, 1989) The structure of English is the foundational structure of the language, includingBusiness English usages. Most functional writing, like in business, employs words at aliteral level of meaning. The structure of English is based on principles from morphology, a classificationof words according to their function and structural relationships, and syntax,conventional word patterns and relationships. Teacher must understand the distinction in morphological analysis betweenwords that might have changes due to inflections or by means of affix alternations suchas nouns, personal pronouns, adjectives and verbs. Other parts of speech such as:adverbs, prepositions, articles and conjunctions are not subject to changes. They areused in the organization of word sequences, phrases, and sentences. Teachers must also understand that on the other hand, syntax is the structure ofword relationships that convey meaning in categories as such: word order, sentencepattern, function words, inflections, formal contrasts, concord, and stress intonation.(Michaelis, et.al. 1967) The teacher’s knowledge of these grammatical rules and patterns are importantwhen preparing and grading student’s diagnostic test prior to the preparation andimplementation of lessons. 26
  • 27. D. Diagnostic Test of Basic English skills 1) You should prepare a diagnostic test for each student. An important aspect to measure, giving the structured/ formal nature of the business world, is the student’s knowledge of grammar. This is an important element of standardization to enable all business people to communicate in the “same language”. 2) You may present the questions in a multiply choice format.Your duties are journalizing, posting transactions, and also to prepare financialstatements. Select the letter with the right answer from the choices below: a. Too many phrases/clauses strung together b. Structure not parallel c. Modifying elements misplaced (dangling modifier) d. Incomplete sentence. The student should have selected the letter “b” from the options above.A similar approach could be followed for identifying the parts of speech for the wordin bold in each sentence that you decide to present.The teacher will present several different parts of speech for the student to select thepart of speech that corresponds to the word in bold.Example: The accountant prepared a trial balance. a. Noun 27
  • 28. b. Adjective c. Verb d. AdverbIn the example above the learner should have select the letter “c” which correspondsto verb as the right part of speech. E. Knowledge of the Impact of Communications on Business Effective Communication for customer satisfaction is critical for business success ina competitive environment. Quality products and services depend on effective listeningto consumer’s needs. Improved internal and external communications can help achievethe goals of any customer-satisfaction program. Customer satisfaction depends oncustomers’ expectations and experience as well as the company’s image in relation tothe products and services offered. (Bergman & Klefsjo, 1994) a) Communication of a quality policy from top management throughout all levels of the organization is an important procedure for all competitive companies. Improving quality means being able to communicate up, down, and across the organization to share whatever information is needed to get the job done. Information systems that allows information, particularly for quality performance measurements in relation to customer needs is crucial.(George & Weimerskirch 2000) b) Globalization, with reduction in transportation cost and trade barriers, is also allowing for global sourcing of raw materials and parts. Increasing understanding of different cultures and uses of common languages also tend to increase 28
  • 29. international sourcing that help reduce production cost and improve the quality of products and related services. Suppliers typically produce goods and services to satisfy the needs of others. Using language skills to find out the needs of others create values in the forms of useful information for marketing purposes and corporate image. Time is a valuable resource in the business world. Efficient oral and written communications save time and cost to both producers and users of information. F. Guidelines for Teaching Adults and the Relationship to Business EnglishTell the students that the method of teaching business English must take into accountthe general characteristics of adult and near adults.  Teachers can use important adults’ qualities as leverage to propel the teaching learning process. Adults ability to reason, analyze, and systematize is a powerful force in learning environments. It is important to make use of their rational capacities, and abilities to think about language and business. These characteristics are even more important for adults since many have onlythe opportunity to progress through distance learning or online courses in which thelearner becomes an active participant with the teacher playing the role of an advisor andguide. Adults bring their lifelong experiences and often invaluable practical businessexperience to the table. These specific assets must always be put to produce use withthe help of an intelligent teacher in order to put the whole business into perspective. 29
  • 30. There are some principles of teaching which may help you do this. (Laubach etal. 1991) present numerous considerations for working with adults. Here are someguidelines as applied to TESOL business to keep in mind for planning and teaching: 1. An adult’s mind has developed. That is, he can reason and judge. 2. An adult has a larger speaking vocabulary than a child even as related to business vocabulary. An adult may have working experience and even prior training in business related situations in a LI Language. 3. An adult is independent. That is he usually assumes responsibility for himself. He may also have greater motivation and interest, for personal reasons, in learning business English. 4. An adult usually has developed self-respect and has made a place for himself in his family and community. Generally an adult would respect the teacher and avoid problems of indiscipline. 5. An adult is busy with work and other responsibilities. 6. An adult expect to see tangible results and concrete applications of materials to his work environment. 7. An adult’s experience of failure and success will determine his attitude towards new attempts. 8. An adult has a responsibility to his company, community and country. Explain that Business English often is taught at a company’s premise. Thelearners can be a selected group of high ranked employees or a broader audiencedepending on the company’s purpose for introducing the English course. In the latter 30
  • 31. case it often involves on the job training in the LI country in order for non-white collarworkers of L2 background assimilate into the LI culture and increase their productivity. In some cases large multinational companies with operations in the United Statesor other L1 may also develop an immersion type program where white-collar workersfrom subsidiaries and branches around the world are brought to a location in the LI fortraining in the English Language. Finally, the business English course could berequested by students or business people in a L2 country; they could be planning animportant business trip to the L1 country or preparing to do advance studies. In all these cases, the teacher will need to know exactly the students’ mainsubjects of interest and tailor the classes specifically to those needs. Students ofBusiness English are learning the language for practical business purposes and for themost part they have other important business activities to attend; they need highproductivity for their time and investment in taking English classes. Often the companypays and the learners are accountable for their output that is a company need. Some TESOL business courses are general in nature in that they can be to thebenefit of anyone, not a specific group of people. For example a course in businesscommunications focusing on US business protocol, intercultural interactions, or resumewriting. On the other hand, most occupational and professional development and/ orindustry sponsored courses related are of the second type. Example a TESOL courseon “Accounting for quality cost and long-term profitability” would be meet more specificneeds of companies. 31
  • 32. Furthermore, the current status of TESOL development, still in the initial stagesat the global level, generates a broad base for this type of TESOL training even fromindividuals seeking personal and social mobilization in their societies. The morespecialized TESOL business courses seem more convenient for some professionalsalready with some recognition and seeking to obtain more expertise in specific areas,some university students seeking to do advance studies in English or multinationalscompanies with specific needs of local specialist to fit in specail roles in an internationalnetwork for expanding industries where the jargon is important for communicationamong members. This expansion of multinational companies and the development of newcommunication and office automatation equipment have open opportunities to linknumerous branches and subsidiaries around the globe with their main offices, thusstimulating the need for a constant flow of information that must be communicated andshared among units and participants; the English language has increasingly become themost useful tool for communication of the business community worldwide. Businessinformation, however, must be formal and follow some rules of uniformity andacceptable quality for it to be useful to decision makers, particularly for control andaccountabilty to owners and investors. Today’s TESOL teachers must also receive some business training for twoadditional reasons:  First, language institutes prefer to deal with people that understand how business work. They need people that can understand the important roles of their clients at home and abroad, including very importantly the students that receive training. 32
  • 33. The new responsibility of perspective TESOL teachers includes not only to teach TESOL to business people or for business purposes, but also to take into account business factors and behaviors in the planning and delivery of services of the training institutions. (White, 2001)  Second, the knowledge of macroeconomic factors on the impact on businesses in different countries is becoming increasingly important to understand the world we live in. Most private institutions and schools that do the hiring of foreign and local TESOL teachers are seeking individuals with these broad perspectives and understanding of global interdependence on its impact on businesses including TESOL.TESOL institutions and schools, like any other private business are concern with twointerrelated aspects of their business:  The operational part or quality of the production and delivery of teaching (technical aspects), and  The economic concern related of how best to combine resources for obtaining the maximum benefits in the short and long- term. Both factors are so closely related that TESOL teachers need instructional goals thatare economically feasible and technically appropriate for learners. Some teaching, such as most business communication and general accountingtopics might be general in nature, attempting to satisfy the needs of a wide audiencewith broad range of backgrounds and occupations, while typically the more industryspecific or functional business English courses develop more narrow and specialized 33
  • 34. topics typically using more professional jargon, conventions and updated research andsophisticated techniques that are within the comprehension zone of these audiences.However, in both cases, the teacher that likes to deal with fictional work must make theadjustments to the more informational driven, facts and data-building enterprise ofTESOL business in its different contexts. Currently, the balance seems to favor TESOL business teachers’ prepartionoriented to general business courses such as basic computers, general accounting andespecially business communications with emphasis on the output skills such asspeaking and writing. In some L2 countries there is a high demand for these type ofservices at private vocabulary and procedures for internal as well as externalcommunication with important clients. Awareness that above four categories of business courses is important. Specificbusiness courses, for professions, occupations, industries, business types,organizational or managerial segments and general macroeconomic issues such asnational and/ or international events in productive and financial markets with directincidence on these microeconomic units constitute the virtually unlimited scope ofBusiness TESOL.Assignments - 12.0 points 1. Define the following terms: - Operational Planning - Strategic Planning - Organizational Functions - Employee Induction 34
  • 35. - Total Quality Management - Leadership - Systems Approach - Management - Business Finance - Investments - Marketing - Sales - Net Income - Assets - Liabilities - Shareholders - Business Segments - Operations Research2. Have students go online to find a code of Ethics for the TESOL profession.3. Provide a summary of the most relevant parts as it relates to the learners’ expectations about TESOL.4. Have learners make a list of seven things to remember when working with Adults.5. Have the learner assume the role of a human resource officer recruiting employees for a multinational. Explain what skills and behaviors would be required for any position. 35
  • 36. 6. Have learners research and describe which illustrative examples why accounting is called the language of business? 7. Have the learners list the most important businesses in their community that exports goods or services .and connect that information to the need for teaching TESOL business English? Suggested ReadingsBeauchamp, Tom L. & Bovée, Norman E. Ethical Theories and Business. Sixth Edition.Pearson Education Company. Upper Saddle River, NJ 2001.Bergman, Bo & Klesfsjo, Bengt. Quality: From Customer Needs to CustomerSatisfaction. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Lund, Sweden 1994.Bovée, Courtland L. and Thill, John V. Business Communication Today. Six Edition.Pearson Education Prentice Hall. Hupper Saddle River, New Jersey 2000.Brown, Betty J. & Clow, John E. GLENCOE. Introduction to Business. Our Businessand Economic World. Teacher’s Wraparound Edition. McGraw-Hill. Westerville, OH,1997.Carter, Ronald & Nunan, David ( 2001). Introduction. In R. Carter& D. Nunan, TeachingEnglish to Speakers of Other Languages, 12th printing. Cambridge U.K. CambridgeUniversity Press. 36
  • 37. Crystal, David. A Little Book of Language. Yale University Press. New Haven,Connecticut. 2011De Bravo, M. Technical English for Business. Second Edition. McGraw Hill. Mexico1999.Dobler, Donald W. Burt, David N. & Lee Lamar Jr. Purchasing and MaterialsManagement. Text and cases. Fifth Edition. McGraw-Hill Inc. New York, NY 1990George, Stephen & Weimerskirch, Arnold. The Portable MBA Series. Total QualityManagement. Strategies and Technique Proven at Today’s Most SuccessfulCompanies. John Whiley & Sons, Inc. New York, NY 1994.Highet, Gilbert. The Art of teaching. Vintage Books. New York, NY 1989.Kimmel, Paul D., Weygandt, Jerry & Kieso, Donald. Financial Accounting. Tools forBusiness Decision Making. Third Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken, NJ 2004Laubach Literacy Action. Teaching Adults. An ESL Resource Book. New ReadersPress. Syracuse, NY 1996Laubach, Frank C., Kirk, Elizabeth M. & Laubach Robert S. Laubach Way To Reading.Teacher’s Manual for Skill Book 1. New Readers Press. Syracuse, NY 1991Michaelis, John, Grossman, Ruth & Schott, Loyd F. New designs for the ElementarySchool Curriculum. McGraw-Hill, Inc. New York, NY 1967. 37
  • 38. White, Ron ( 2001). Programme Management. In R. Carter& D. Nunan, TeachingEnglish to Speakers of Other Languages, 12th printing. p. 194 -200. Cambridge U.K.Cambridge University Press.Wood, Nancy. College Reading and Study Skills. Fifth Edition. Harcourt Brace &Company. Orlando, FL 1996. 38
  • 39. CHAPTER III 5.0 hoursTeacher’s Knowledge of Pedagogy and Procedural AspectsInstructional Objectives: - Identify appropriate procedures and sequence for assessing, planning, delivering and evaluating business TESOL instruction. - Demonstrate diagnostic skills that assist teachers in approximating L2 learners’ proficiency levels for lesson planning purposes. - Match Business learners’ needs with appropriate elements of teaching methods. - Discuss the importance of applying knowledge and use of modern technologies in Business TESOL as a work requirement in the global economy.Questions to Elicit Students Interest 1. How do teachers know where to start from in a course? 2. What do teachers need to do before beginning to deliver instruction? 3. Which are some methods that might be helpful when working with L2 business learners? 4. Why are some teachers more effective than others when dealing with business TESOL? Explain to learners that teachers not only need to know their subject matter, butalso equally important to teaching is the knowledge of how to effectively teach. Manyexperts in different subject don’t know how to teach. Teaching in general requires skillsin many areas: 39
  • 40.  The teacher must assess his own strengths and weaknesses,  Diagnose the learners needs,  Know the background and abilities,  Understand the cultural and physical environment,  Be aware of the potential benefits and dangers of using each technology for assisting teaching,  Understand the pro, and contra of different learning and teaching strategies and methods, lesson planning, delivering instruction and evaluating student’s performance as well as other non- subject specific aspects. Moreover, L2 teaching has its own subject specific as related to the generallypoor supportive context for out of class practice; teacher’s requirement to assimilate andadapt to foreign culture; interference in learning form LI language; materials and textsinapplicable to local realities; students fear of making mistakes that undermine theirdevelopment etc. In addition, TESOL Business teachers after facing all thecomplexities of both general teaching and L2 teaching, must also face the manyaspects related specifically to the business fields such as: business ethics and legalresponsibilities; information quality in communications; business organizations structureand communications network; business etiquette and protocol; professional jargon andvocabulary in context; use and security of office equipment and technology in businessetc. Yet, interestingly enough, all these knowledge and requirements must focus onone central aspect; that is, the need to implement a learner’s center philosophy ofteaching; just as how businesses need to focus their attention on the clients to be 40
  • 41. successful. Effective teaching can only take place when teachers really know theirstudents and make continuous efforts to satisfy their students’ needs. A. Students’ Needs Assessment and Proficiency in Language  Explain to students that teachers need to learn about students’ through initial assessments because it serves as a baseline from which to plan and judge the progress made. Effective teachers learn as much as they can about their students in order to provide adequate help. These teachers used several methods to obtain information such as students’ previous records, observations, different types of test etc. These forms of assessments must indicate to the teacher what the students already has learned and what the teacher still needs to help the student with. Teachers must assess the learners’ interest, current skills, and aims. This information then guides the structuring of a learning atmosphere and selection of methods most satisfying and effective for the learners.  Like in other forms of TESOL teaching learners assessment of proficency levels and needs must be determined before planning and instruction. However, in TESOL business the needs assessment is crucial since, with the exception of academic settings, the principal reason for these training is to satisfy a corporate or individual’s need as a urgent necessity related to the business world, instead of merely academic preparation for the future. People engaged in business don’t have much time for studying and often want to see cost-effective, transferable uses and results results in short time. 41
  • 42. The key defining feature of English for Specific Purposes, of which BusinessEnglish is a branch, is that its teaching and materials are founded on the results of“need analysis”. (Dudley-Evans 2001). The most important thing that teachers need toknow is what the learners need to do with English. This information is generally suppliedby the company or individuals paying or sponsoring the course; therefore, it generally isnot a problem at the level of broad goals. Other aspects such as which skills and genres the learners need to master forunderstanding of concepts or performance outcomes fall more under the teachersdecision in the lesson planning activity and may have a lot to do with institutional factorssuch as the flexibility given to the teacher and/ or the support of facilities, materials andmedia equipment that can enhance or limit the viability of some instructional activities.According to many experts learners’ initial assessment is vital to teaching since it helpsto:  Identify the learner’s goals and needs, the abilities the learners already has, and the abilities he or she needs to develop.  Plan instruction and identify teaching methods and materials most appropriate for the learner  Have a baseline that can be used later to measure learner progress and ability to use literacy to meet. Consequently, the teacher will need to obtain information about the studentsbefore instruction begins. Further assessment can be done by having students read andwrite for purpose of teacher’s evaluation. 42
  • 43. The Laubach Literacy Action Teaching Adults Literacy Resource Book (1994 :) identifiesseveral practical ways for doing initial assessment: a) Listening comprehension  Read to the learner an interesting passage, for example from a business journal that is appropriate for his or her knowledge and experience. Discuss the passage with the learner and ask questions to check understanding. b) Speaking  Have a conversation to get a sense of the learner’s ability to express thoughts and feelings orally. This conversation can be related to any topic. The purpose is only to diagnose the learners’ oral abilities in the English language. c) Reading  Show the learner several business articles. Then ask the learner to select one and try reading it. Afterward, ask the learner to describe what the selection was about.  Ask how he or she felt about the level of difficulty and why. Ask if he or she wants to try any other article.  If the learner seems to have difficulty talking about the reading, ask him or her to read it aloud. Note the kinds of problems the learner has. For example, literal comprehension of facts and details, relationship between ideas; order of events; identify reasons or causes; identify similarities and contracts etc. 43
  • 44.  On the other hand, the teacher may also diagnose the learners’ inferential comprehension in areas where the learner must combine prior knowledge with passage information in order to show abilities in areas such as: identification of main ideas, drawing conclusions, application of ideas from the passage to situations not mentioned in the passage etc.  Moreover, the teacher can also assess the learner’s fluency. Ability to keep the pace, use of punctuation cues, and expression are important indicators of the learner’s needs in this area. d) Writing  Ask the learner to write a brief summary of the article already read.  Ask the learner to guess all the spelling of any words that seemed difficult to write. Then ask the learner to read the word aloud to you. Evaluate the legibility, spelling, punctuation, grammar, organization, and content of the written material. - For example, an apparently simple thing as the use of the letter “s” for LI individuals can become a very complicated issue for some L2 learners. The “s” is an important element when teaching subject- verb agreement, forming plurals and in the formation of many other words and functions in the English language. (Geffner, 1998) After implementing the assessment strategies, it is important to determine theindividual and class classification according to a system that establish commonbehaviors corresponding to learners different levels of language acquisition. Thissystem is based on the level of abilities that the students bring to the learning 44
  • 45. experience. Following this procedure, the development of instructional objectives andlesson plans can be develop using appropriate methodologies and approaches to fit theneeds of students and their proficiency levels in each English language skill. Although initial assessments and all other forms of assessments are essentialfor determining the route to follow for teachings and measuring progress, the vehicle ormethod used for this journey is also essential to reaching the expected goals. Withoutappropriate combination of methods that facilitate learning, the experience might bevery frustrating with little or no progress. In addition to measuring English language skills proficiency, asking questionsof students’ background, experience with business situations and interest in the topicsuch as the following can be useful:  What is your major?  What career are you preparing for?  If you have a job, what field is it in?  How long have you been in that field?  What king of business communications have you already been engage in? B. Criteria for Selecting a Teaching MethodEffective teaching depends on many factors. Therefore, the best practice is to select orcombine elements of different methods in practical, sensible ways to fit the needs ofeach context- specific situation. 45
  • 46.  Teachers may use textbook or online guides to serve as reference when selecting or combining methods. TESOL Business teacher should concentrate on the following main points: 1) The students’ proficiency level in each language skill, especially in the output skills such speaking and writing. 2) Individual and group test will be necessary to determine the most important needs and the strategies and methods most applicable. 3) The teacher can expect that most TESOL business students should be beyond the beginner’s stage of English; between low- intermediate and low- advance should be typical. 4) Very advance students would not require these courses since they would be able to study independently with their advanced metacognitive and language skills. 5) Background experience related to the content area is important. The amount of student’s prior experience and exposure to general business environment and the specific content issues to be analyzed is crucial. 6) For learners already working in a business organization and familiar with certain vocabulary it would be easier to use methods that focus on group exchanges of ideas. 7) Learners without any practical business experience and limited business vocabulary in English, as generally is the context when working with high school students both in LI and L2 situations, would require methods that 46
  • 47. allow for more teacher guided exercises and individual attention to individual students. 8) The nature of the subject matter is another important factor. Some subjects like accounting, corporate finance, business statistics and others are better taught with the help of much visual aid and practice of step-by step- procedures to show the mastering of skills in the subject. 9) Some subjects like business law and economics are more suitable for methods like case studies and group discussions based on either inductive or deductive reasoning. Another critical aspect to be considered in selecting methods is the goals ormandates established by the institution and the time frame allocated for that purpose. Business teaching sponsored by corporations might require that the teacherprepare a very specific plan with measurable achievements in short periods, andlearners might also be anxious to show practical, rapid results; thus, leading to theselection of methods that emphasize performance skills more than general knowledge. Since many learners worldwide are already working in businesses or studyingbusiness careers at universities and high schools, we can assume with someconfidence that they have already mastered the initial phases of learning generalEnglish. Based on this assumption of students’ profile, in teaching TESOL business, thefollowing methods seem most useful: 1- Lexical Method 47
  • 48.  The lexical approach teach units that are alike such as groups of scientific words, measurement words, or words commonly used in business that create a schematic world that is very clear to see. These categories include: business people, companies, institutions, money, business events, places of business, time, modes of communications and lexis concern with technology. Core component of the lexical approach is the teaching of words to students in units that are alike such as groups of scientific words, measurement words, or words commonly used in business that create a schematic world that is very clear to see. These categories include: business people, companies, institutions, money, business events, places of business, time, modes of communications and lexis concern with technology.2- Audio-lingual Method  Structural pattern is taught using repetition drills so material is over-learned  Teaching points based on contractive linguistics  Student errors preventive and correct forms reinforced  Grammar thought inductively3- Communicative Method or Approach  Understanding occurs through dynamic student interaction and communication. Use of texts based on real communicative functions and usage.  Strategies for understanding are taught together with language. 48
  • 49.  Learners’ personal experiences constitute important inputs to the content of the lesson.  Applications of the new language in unplanned conversations produce learning experiences anywhere. C. Teaching Techniques and Instructional Aids The preparation of lesson plans required initial students’ assessment, and selectionof appropriate method to interact with students. But these efforts might be ineffective ifattention is not placed upon the medium, instructional aides and materials that bestsupport each type of lesson. Teachers need to learn how to design strategies using these tools for enhancinglearning. These tools can be linguistic, visual, auditory or kinesthetic, and they can bepresented in print, including diverse technologies and their application to the businessenvironment. Often, these tools are combined to bring better efficiency or effectivenessin applications. The challenge therefore, is not only to know what they are, but also tounderstand to use them in teaching and business environments. Many materials andtechnologies can be used together with instructional techniques that form approaches ormethods for teaching. According to (Cruickshank, 1985) there are numerous techniques that can be helpfulwhen delivering instruction. The following have been selected based on the potential foruse in business situations: 1. Problem solving 2. Reflective teaching 49
  • 50. 3. Audiovisuals 4. Drills 5. Discourses 6. Demonstrations 7. Discussions 8. Displays and exhibits 9. Guided Reading Having analyzed the students needs, technical methods, materials and resourcesavailable to the teacher, it is now time to turn our focus on the crucial aspect ofdesigning the type of vehicle capable of taking us to learning objectives. That is, lessonplanking in the context of corporate requirements and therefore as requirements forlearners in the business field. D. Business TESOL Lesson PlanningThe planning of specific lessons takes place within the context of the overall goals of theprogram, the age and cognitive development and interest of the learners, the resourcesavailable, and the specific ways in which the lesson can contribute to the developmentof skills. The teacher has to ascertain the extent of the group’s cohesiveness, thereadiness of the group to participate in activities that involve cooperative learning, thelearners who are leaders and those who are followers, and which ones seem to have 50
  • 51. difficulty staying on task. This information enables the teacher to plan instructionaccordingly. This part of the process also entails making a check of the available instructionalmaterials and techniques. Deciding how instruction will take place requires that theteacher be aware of the alternatives available and of their potential for achieving thedesired learning outcomes. There is no one best forms for a lesson plan, nor is there a consensus on the level ofspecificity that should be included. However, the following of some basic componentsthat should be included in any lesson plan: 1. Purpose 2. Instructional objectives to be achieved. 3. Preliminary readiness activities, interest building, and lesson plan development; specific the work- study activities that will occur during the lesson. 4. Summary and assessment, indicating the closing activities designed for the lesson and the assessment method that will be used in terms of the stated purposes. 5. Instructional materials. 6. What is to be taught? What concepts, skills, and attitudes are to be learned? How can it be determined that they have been learned? 7. How should the teaching and learning be analyzed and evaluated? 51
  • 52. The planning in business TESOL courses is best done as a cooperative activity withlearners. Teachers must keep in mind that unlike general English learners mostbusiness courses are characterized by adult individuals with some working experienceand ideas of the specific communicative or functional needs expected from the trainingas well as the timeline for achieving specific progress towards the goals. This ispossible even with online courses provided the teacher is capable of being a respectfulguide and willing facilitator. Learner involvement may provide greater authenticity ofsituational and contextual activities and often additional experiences and opportunitiesfor incorporating technological tools the teaching- learning interactions. The following isan example of a business lesson plan developed through the cooperative efforts of aATI teacher- learner interactions. Example of a Business Lesson PlanClass time: 45 minutesObjective : - Teach English to Taiwanese Adult Learners who are Business Executives and in level 4 proficiency. Level 4 Proficiency is described as: students who speak and understand English with acceptable proficiency. Reading and writing skills are low but approaching appropriate age/grade levels. These executives are primarily focused in traveling to the United Stated, specifically Orlando. Their business is to import oranges to mix with other fruits in Taiwan in the process of preparing juices which will be sold to other businesses in Taiwan and other Asian Countries. The business executives are particularly interested in writing emails to 52
  • 53. their potential American suppliers as well as visiting the area and learning about the American business culture. The student will be visiting the plantations and processing facilities as well socially interacting with the Americans over the course of five days.Introduction: 5 mins.This is a group of 8 Executives who will be travelling to America. Introductions will be aninduction to the American Greeting. Eye to eye contact from the Teacher to each of thestudents will be assured. This will be followed by a smile and a firm handshake withconfidence. Names are exchanged between the two parties as will be prompted by theteacher. Every student will get a change to make introductions in this very familiarAmerican greeting culture.Warm up: 5 minutes:A review of the class activity will be done immediately after introductions are made. Thereview is approximately 5 mins.Overview of Lesson: 25 minsThe lesson will comprise of specific words in English geared towards their businessvocabulary. Some examples of new words presented to meet their needs would be :company, investments, time, money, prices, stocks, products, ship, shipments, port,currency, exchange rate, markets, spot market, future market, container, bank, letter ofcredit, date, arrival, departure, laws, capital, quality, quantity, and contract to name afew. They will learn to pronounce these words and learn their meaning by using a 53
  • 54. translation dictionary. As this is a business communication with emphasis on speaking,concepts and theoretical definitions of these words will not be necessary to betaught/explained. They will practice/drill using and pronouncing these business wordsand phrases in the first ten minutes of the lesson.The second part of the activity will be to use the words in sentences.(e.g). How muchwill it cost to produce the product? How long will it take to process? Tips on what to doand what not to do when dealing with the American business community will also bepresented. The executives will also become familiar with general American phrases andidioms for the social aspect of their visit.(e.g). Let’s go party! Let’s close the deal. Let’scall it a day. During the lesson they will role play asking questions as a TaiwaneseExecutive and the other role play as the American Executive.Resources:Resources will be mostly using a translation dictionary specifically a Mandarin/Englishdictionary. Printouts will be provided of American idioms and phrases with an emphasison asking business questions to meet their needs during the email exchanges and visitto the US.Lesson Procedure: - Introduction : 5 minutes - Review of lesson plan for students to meet their objectives: 5 minutes - Main Activity: 25 minutes - Closure: 10 minutes 54
  • 55. The closure will be to keep the business executives alert and aware of theirpronunciations. The TESOL teacher will again stress the important tips in greetingAmericans, eye contact, how to make comments and questions as to not offend whilevisiting the new world. Answer any and if possible all questions the students will haveafter the activity is practiced. Ask executives if they understood the activity and make anassessment of their role play.Assessment of students’ understanding: 1. The learners will be asked to write an email to their American TESOL teacher. Review material will be given to them with phrases from what they practiced in class. The assignment will be for the students to email questions and concerns about the business trip. Emails will be comprised of preliminary research questions about the background of the American Company and also the business of the company. Questions in the email will also include a potential visit see operations on site and final contract negotiations to close the deal. Times schedules will also be included in the emails for a visit. The email will be graded. 2. The teacher will ask the students to practice role playing in order to demonstrate to the entire class what is expected for homework and this will also be used as an assessment for the TESOL teacher. 3. The students will be using this as an example of being a Tourist in the United States. This scene is at the Airport. - Tourist: Excuse me, where can I get a taxi? - Native: Over there. 55
  • 56. - Tourist: I would like to go to the hotel Radisson Grand Plaza. - Native: It will be $29.00 - Tourist: (now at hotel) I would like to check into the room. I have reservations. - Native: What is your name? - Tourist: Kim song Long - Native: Your Room is #535 - Tourist: Thank you! - Native: Enjoy your stay and Welcome. - The student will also practice new vocabulary with food and drinks for ordering food from hotel.Now that we have dealt with the most important issues from the procedural aspect ofthe art of teaching, let us turn our attention to some aspects of the subject matter ofTESOL Business as related fundamentally to language and the communicative process;that is, the study of Standard English used internationally as the main instrument forbusiness communications.Assignments - 12.0 points 1. Explain why is it more important to have a clear idea of learners need in Business TESOL than in General English? 2. Describe the difference between an organization’s need or occupational goals and the cognitive needs of an individual? 56
  • 57. 3. Why is it important to consider the learners cultural background and interest when planning a class? 4. How can online sources and other electronic tools play important roles when designing and delivering a business class? 5. How can the lexical method be use to teach grammar points with business vocabulary in context. Give an example of this approach. 6. Prepare a lesson plan for business learners interested in learning about the use of the capital letters in English. Give an example of an online source that you would suggest to search for enhancing the points made in class. 7. Explain how the preparation of a lesson plan can contribute to make teachers must effective in reaching their instructional objectives in relation to the learners occupations? Recommended ReadingsBergman, Bo & Klesfsjo, Bengt. Quality: From Customer Needs to CustomerSatisfaction. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Lund, Sweden 1994.Bovée, Courtland L. and Thill, John V. Business Communication Today. Instructor’sResource Manual Six Edition. Prentice Hall. Hupper Saddle River, New Jersey 2000.Brown, Betty J. & Clow, John E. GLENCOE. Introduction to Business. Our Businessand Economic World. Teacher’s Wraparound Edition. McGraw-Hill. Westerville, OH,1997. 57
  • 58. Cruickshank, Donald R. Models for the Preparation of America’s Teachers. The PhiDelta Kappa Educational Foundation. Bloomington, Indiana 1985.Crystal, David. A Little Book of Language. Yale University Press. New Haven,Connecticut. 2011Dobler, Donald W. Burt, David N. & Lee Lamar Jr. Purchasing and MaterialsManagement. Text and cases. Fifth Edition. McGraw-Hill Inc. New York, NY 1990Evans-Dudley, Tony ( 2001). English for Specific Purposes. In R. Carter& D. Nunan,Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages, 12th printing. p. 131-136.Cambridge U.K. Cambridge University Press.Geffner, Andrea B. ESL Guide to American Business English. Barron’s EducationalSeries, Inc. New York, NY 1998.George, Stephen & Weimerskirch, Arnold. The Portable MBA Series. Total QualityManagement. Strategies and Technique Proven at Today’s Most SuccessfulCompanies. John Whiley & Sons, Inc. New York, NY 1994.Highet, Gilbert. The Art of teaching. Vintage Books. New York, NY 1989.Michaelis, John, Grossman, Ruth & Schott, Loyd F. New designs for the ElementarySchool Curriculum. McGraw-Hill, Inc. New York, NY 1967.The Laubach Literacy Action Teaching Adults Literacy Resource Book (1994:pp.33-34)Travers, Paul D. & Rebore, Ronald W. Prentice Hall. Englewood Cliffs, NJ 1990 58
  • 59. CHAPTER IVGlobal Factors Driving Business TESOL - 7.0 hoursInstructional Objectives: - Discuss the functions of multinational companies as vital elements in the global system. - Describe the growing importance of quality information for controlling and directing the global system and its corporate units towards specific goals. - Explain the role of business communications in the global economic system. Questions to Elicit Students Interest 1. What is the main goal of multinational corporations? How is this goal related to the teaching of Business English? 2. Why is TESOL Business important in today’s world? 3. What are the main factors that are stimulating the use of English as the main business language in the world? A. The Human Expansion of Economic and Social Interactions.Point out to learners that today, more than ever before, we live in a world that is globallyintegrated. This phenomenon creates the need for more communications. Therefore,TESOL Business should continue to grow in line with the emerging needs of the globalcommunity. 59
  • 60. The long history of mankind shows the human need for social interaction as ameans for cooperation to fight against dangers while developing ways and instrumentsfor survival. Early families, clans, tribes, kingdoms, cities, and nations developed theirown non-verbal, spoken, and eventually written codes for understanding in differentregions or cultural settings. Language developed to help increase economic productionand ensure property rights. Every historical period has been distinguished by the use of common ways ofcommunication to facilitate the exchange of goods and services. Each period alsodeveloped specific forms of social organization and technology. The English language,multinational organizations (for profit and non- profit) and the developments intransportation and telecommunications technologies expresses the vital elements of thecurrent global business environment. B. Multinational Corporations as Drivers of Business TESOLExplain to students that:  A corporation is a legal entity, distinct and separate from the individuals who create and operate it. Public corporations trade their stocks in public markets. Private corporations keep their stocks in a small, closed group of investors. Public corporations have the distinct advantage and ability to raise large amounts of capital through the sales of stocks to meet growing needs. (Warren, Reeve & Feese, 1999)  Corporations operate through systems with elements of both organizational and managerial functions. The principal organizational functions are: human 60
  • 61. resources, information, production, marketing, and finance. Each organizational function must also have its elements of managerial functions for: planning, organizing, directing and controlling. (Mastretta, 1982).  Large corporations, with their systematic organization, have the greatest global impact on the production and distribution of goods and services.  Large corporations such as many multinationals generate the greatest flows of communication and information processing that requires the use of the English language in the global context.  The term multinational corporation is applied to any organization that develops international profit seeking activities, operating in more than one country. Multinationals share internal information to meet their needs and produce external information for outside users. Both types of communications are important to different strategies and operational activities. (Brighman, 1999).  The growth of multinationals and their information needs make necessary larger flows of information through a common language code that is convenient for most multinationals. The power of English is almost unchallenged as the most common language in both the non-business as in the business world. (Carter, 2001) Therefore, teaching business English has become a global need. This demand hasbecome evident in the school systems. In some countries, students in high school arerequired to learn business English subjects such as accounting, marketing, hospitalitymanagement, tourism, shipping, merchandizing, and real estate businesses amongothers. Moreover, the direct presence of multinational organizations in many countries 61
  • 62. constitutes another important source of demand for business English in support of theiroperations. English skills remain an imperative for functions such as generalmanagement, controllership, auditing, logistics, information technology and internationalbusiness regardless of the industry or economic sector or form of business organization. Multinationals are becoming aware of the need to address local needs andculture both with internal as well as external business communications strategies. Usinglocal employees that understand the culture might be an effective way of reaching out tothe local population, but communication of this information in a recognizable code bypeople in the home office would still need to be done in a lingua franca such as Englishin order for the corporate decision makers to be able to take advantages of the potentialbenefits of centralized information and communication systems. Multinationals seek to maximize profits on a global basis without distinctions ofany specific country. For operational convenience and the potential of sharinginformation on a global basis, using English has become a policy of many multinationalsregardless of their country of origin. (Eiteman. et.al.,1998). Furthermore, the growthand expansion of multinational companies has prompted other institutions andorganization to set up offices in many parts of the world; thus, creating additionaldemand for use of the English language related to organizational needs ofcommunication. C. Supranational, Non- Governmental and Government Organizations as Drivers and Actors in the TESOL World 62
  • 63. The growth of multinationals has contributed to the activation of non- profits aroundthe world. New forms of multinational economic integration have generated the need forsupranational institutions dedicated to the governance of these agreements, andexisting global governance agencies now maintain resident missions in numerouscountries.(Scholte, 2000). Business associations, non- governmental associations, foundations, think tanks,civic groups, unions, and other forms of organizations have joined the multilateral andbilateral government agencies in using trans-world communication networks in order tomonitor the activities of multinationals seeking profits around the world. Theseorganizations also, in large part, people with English skills to carry out their functions ofplanning, organizing, controlling and directing as they seek to achieve their goals. Typical of these institutions is the significance presence of native speakers from theAnglo- Saxon countries, and the tendency to developed local trained individuals in boththe technologies and language that would enable access to governments andmultinationals in the efforts to gain cooperation on the respective issues and concerns.Regardless of the way they are organized or their views on how to obtain and useinformation for decisions, to be successful in the long- run, they must recognize that thegreatest sources of funds and technology in the Anglo- American world.E. Other International Users of Business English The growth of multinational organizations, supranational institutions and non-profit organizations has also created a derived demand for many enterprises of national 63
  • 64. origin in numerous countries. Multinationals not only invest and contract humanresources in foreign countries, but they also purchase raw and semi- elaboratedmaterials. They also outsource part, or all of many activities. Furthermore, manymultinationals are minority shareholders or partners in local business. In addition,multinationals participate in local financial markets. All these relationships generatedemand for Business TESOL in the internal environment. Other sources of demand for Business English are the local commercial sectorsprofiting from sales related to speaking visitors. Students seeking to study in Englishspeaking countries or via the Internet, often look at English as a useful tool. A moresignificant demand, however, is represented by high school and university studentspreparing to enter the job market in the new global environment.Assignments - 12.0 points 1. Describe a multinational company. Give an example of three companies in this category and explain how Business TESOL could be of use to these companies. 2. Describe the following functions in a multinational organization. Indicate what you think each do, and why is information important for integration of organizational efforts. 3. Define: Finance, accounting, purchasing, human resources, operations, research, development, Planning, Organizing, Controlling and Directing. 4. Describe the main reasons for the expansion of multinational companies and why TESOL teachers should understand their role in the global economy? 64
  • 65. 5. List 3 supranational organizations, and 3 non-governmental organizations that are working at the international level. Indicate the goals of each. Describe three non- English speaking countries where you think TESOL services could be of help to these organizations. 6. Describe what are some of your aptitudes and abilities that can be useful for teaching Business TESOL in a transnational corporate environment?Define the following terms: 1) Multinational 2) Transnational 3) Supranational Organizations 4) Non- Governmental Organizations. 5) Trade Agreements 6) E- Commerce 7) Joint ventures 8) Exports 9) Imports 10) Product Adaptation 11) Customs 12) Freight Forwarders 13) Labeling 14) Branding 15) Shipping Documentation 16) Letter of Credit 65
  • 66. Recommended ReadingsBrighman, Eugene et.all. Financial Management. Theory and Practice. Ninth Edition.Orlando, FL 1999.Eiteman, David. Stonehill, Authur & Moffett, Michael. Multinational Business Finance.Eight Edition. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Reading, Massachusetts, 1998.Eiteman, David. Stonehill, Authur & Moffett, Michael. Multinational Business Finance.Eight Edition. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Reading, Massachusetts, 1998.Mastretta Velazquez, Gustavo. Admistración de los Sistemas de Producción. CuartaEdición. Editorial Limusa. Mexico 1982.Scholte, Jan Aart. Globalization A Critical Introduction. Palgrave Macmillan. London2000Warren, S Carl. Reeve, James. & Fess, E. Philip. Financial Accounting 7th Edition.South- Western College Publishing. Cincinnati, Ohio, 1999. 66
  • 67. CHAPTER V 8.0 hoursCommunication and Language Skills Key Elements for Business SuccessInstructional Objectives: - Identify key elements of Business Communications. - Explain important ways of Communication in Organizations. - Distinguish different ways of viewing communication in business. - Describe the purposes of Business Communications. - Explain the required elements for effective communication.Questions to Elicit Students Interest 1. What key elements most be considered in order to achieve effective communication? 2. In what ways can communication be viewed in business and why is this knowledge important to business people? 3. Why is understanding the communication process important to Business TESOL? 4. What strategies can be used to make communications effective in business environments? A. Importance and requirements for good communicationCommunication allows people to exchange ideas, goods and services. Yet,communication is only effective when senders and receivers of messages understand 67
  • 68. each other. Business organizations spend much resources and time either receiving orrequesting information for decision making. The ability to obtain and exchange usefulinformation is vital for the success of business organization. Successful businesses setup effective communication systems to help achieve their strategic and tacticalobjectives. They adapt messages according to the purpose and targeted audience;select the suitable channel and medium for each situation and strive to developappropriate language skills and pleasant form of presentation for viewers and listeners. B. Different forms of Viewing Communications  Communication can be viewed from different perspectives. When we look at communication according to the way the information is generated it can be classified in oral (speaking and listening skills), writing and information produced by non-verbal means.  Oral communication remains a common tool used for situations where personal interactions are important. It is also useful when instant feedback to messages is crucial for making adjustments or steering the course of events. When giving and receiving messages of routine nature, providing simple instructions and asking for additional information, for example, this form of communication might be effective and efficient.  In addition to face-to-face conversation, lectures, presentations and in- person oral reports and interviews, many other forms of oral communications are used in business environments with the help of modern technologies such as: telephone conversations, voice mail, online group discussions, chat- rooms, teleconferencing, videoconferencing, you tube, CDS, tape records, cell phones, 68
  • 69. blackberries, Radio and many other technological tools are now used for teaching and in the workplace. Oral language has also been supported by technological development like You Tube and Skype that allows for facial expressions to accompany utterances. Also, other internet application that allow for almost instant confirmation, or written clarifications represent innovation that use and support oral communications. On the other hand, with written communication the producer of the message has the benefit of checking to ensure quality before providing potential users with the message or information. Witten documents also provide more stability to organizations since records in this form can be used for revisions to make changes for quality improvement policies, training, documentation for compliance, classifications for system improvements, different evidences and records of performance as well as many other managerial tasks. Written communication continues to be the most useful form of communication when dealing with important issues with accountability requirements such as legal and accounting information. This form of communication is also useful for complicated documents that require much detail and illustrations to facilitate appropriate understanding of the subject. Even short, routine documents are often created in written forms to avoid misunderstandings or to keep track of events. 69
  • 70. However, business writing might adapt different formats depending on the purposesof the communication: numerous types of business letters, internal memorandums,reports to internal or external users, minutes of meetings, contracts, operationsmanuals, specialized journal and magazines, press releases, business articles innewspapers, business textbooks and workbooks as well as other supplementaryeducational materials, industry publications, training materials, statistical supplements,and government publications etc represent some important written materials related tothe business world. C. Selecting appropriate forms and medium of communication in businessThe business world has developed special formats for each type of businesscommunication in order to introduce convention and styles that help develop theefficiency when working in business communications. Each type of written document,for instance, has its own format and style for specific purposes. Even some documentsof social nature such as congratulations letters, that apparently may have no direct or inmediate business benefit, must be written with specific style and wording. (Geffner,1998) Communication can also be categorized according to the type of users for whichit has been produced: - Audience interest, - Size, - Educational level, - Background experience, 70
  • 71. - Age, - Available time, - Culture, and - Language Other factors may influence the form and content of the messages in order toachieve a positive response. Information about potential users characteristic and needsrepresents the key factor that business people use for tailoring communication to thepotential audience. Another way of looking at communication is according to the patterns ofinformation flows. Vertical flows, for example, may run from the leaders of theorganization, at the top of the entity’s organizational chart, down through the establishedformal channels until the lowest ranked workers or vice-versa form bottom to topaccording to the type of information involved and management style involved.Information flows may also be horizontal, for example, between as amongorganizational departments, service departments, profit centers, different segments andunits of an organization or even between different entities of a conglomerate. Internalpolicies and procedures may establish filters, at different levels, or ways for expeditingthe flow directly to those who need the information as priority and limiting access only toauthorized users for sensitive information. (Bove & Thill, 2000) Today, with the development of satellite communications and other technologiesthese forms of communication are impacting TESOL teaching around the world;particularly, in settings with adults and near adults like in most business courses. 71
  • 72. Learners are accessing the US media and the Internet to obtain information aboutbusinesses and background knowledge about other cultures. D. Purposes of Business CommunicationsCommunication can serve:  Internal purposes (within the organization) or  External purposes (outside the organization). The definition of insiders and outsiders, however, must be established by corporateleaders in businesses where large conglomerates pool economic resources in differentsectors and countries as they seek to reduce “transactions costs’ and take opportunitiesof business “synergies’. Regardless of the type of users, nevertheless, the mainpurpose of communication and language skills in business settings is to cultivatecooperative interactions and dealings that lead to the organization’s strategic goals orprofits. Business communications has to do with either the demand side or the supplyside of the organization:  On the demand side businesses seek resources: human resources, natural resources or raw materials, financial capital, machines and tools, information and technology.  On the supply side businesses offer raw materials, semi- elaborated products or services, finish goods and services, ideas, information and 72
  • 73. technology (including management). On both sides of the equation the business person needs to be a careful, skillful and convincing presenter of his views by means of (oral or written) texts. Most internal communication has to do with improving operational efficiency(improving productivity and reducing costs). Much of this information can be sensitiveand subjected to confidential uses and special monitoring. Often, ethical dilemmas mayarise in relation to information and decisions based on internal communications. On the other hand, most external communications have to do with obtainingeconomic resources and selling products or services. While internal communicationdoes not need to follow compliance rules from government agencies or industryregulators, it does however, need to follow the rules of quality information in accordanceto the needs of each internal user. External communications needs to comply with therules inherent to quality information and often is required for compliance withgovernment and industry regulators and as well as the general public.  Significant part of internal communication occurs via informal speaking  Significant part of formal internal communication is done in writing.  The main purpose of internal communication is to support managerial functions (planning, organizing, controlling and directing).  Internal communication is like the blood of an organization; it carries vital information that gives energy and efficiency to the organization.  The broad purpose of internal communication is to improve the company’s efficiency and control systems. 73
  • 74.  Internal communication can be very sensitive and confidential with accessibility controls.  External communication is the exchange of information and ideas with outsiders and encompasses both informal communications and formal programs. Organizations depend on informal external communication with customers,colleagues, competitors, suppliers, government officials, community representatives,and investors. Formal external communication programs include activities related closely to theorganizational functions such as: marketing, finance, supplies for production, corporateimage and external recruitment and training. The broad purpose of external communication is to minimize the cost of obtainingeconomic resources and increase the company’s market share. Despite coming in different templates and presentation styles, most businessdocuments seek to provide or request opinions and factual information, record businesstransactions, encourage ways of thinking and taking favorable actions, and reassuringcommitments to internal or external relationships. E. Developing Effective Communication in BusinessThe key to effective communication in business is for the producer of the message tounderstand that his message or signal must be constructed and delivered in ways thatmoves the users of information to respond as expected. The producer of the messagemust make sure that the text is clear, accurate, complete, and fitting to the level and 74
  • 75. interest of audience; interest and understanding of the message by those receiving it isvital for inducing a response in line with the intended purpose. Nevertheless, receivers of messages also have active roles in the process; theymust be trained in receiving skills such as listening, observing, and even feeling andtasting in some cases. Information produces perceptions by means of all five senses.The challenge consists in learning how to generate and shape perceptions into actionsconsistent with the business goals. This requires that every business person not onlypractice persuasive language, but also be a permanent trainer for others in theorganization on these topics. Constant learning and teaching business communicationcontinues to be a fundamental principle for total quality management.In the business world the most important goal is to obtain profits.  Every meaningful activity represents an investment of time and resources directed towards this main goal.  Efforts are carried out to reduce costs and increase incomes. Effective communication therefore, constitutes a key tool for entering the gates ofsuccess in business. The quantity and quality of information, like any other product orservice must have specific characteristics that the users are seeking in order for it to beof value to the potential users and consequently to the producers of the message. Inother words, the producer of the message must understand the individuals for whom themessage is being produced. The receiver must not only like the message, but also mustbelieve it. 75
  • 76.  Sensitivity, integrity and willingness to serve the user are fundamental behaviors for producing effective communications. Most business communications requires Standard English with sufficient informalregister that respect and takes in consideration the social position of the intended usersof the information. - Short, concrete, direct, simple and honest statements are the norms for effective business communications, both orally and in writing. - Acronyms, excessive abbreviations, business phrases, technical symbols and signs as well as the professional lingo must be clearly explained before embarking on other practical or academic tasks. The teacher or trainer must always remember to keep the technical language ata level that learners can effectively gain from the learning process. This principle isparticularly important when dealing with some vocational on- the- job training withemployees of lower academic and proficiency levels than higher professionals. The successful on- the- job training must provide employees with information andtechniques that allow them to learn appropriate ways of dealing with suppliers andclients. Transforming once “outsiders” into trusted “insiders” working as “partner” in thecompany’s business operation remains the main goal of these business courses. (Fritz,1995) - Efficiency and accuracy in business communications reproduce a multiplier effect in all other areas of business. The inverse situation is also applicable. 76
  • 77. - Inefficient and inaccurate information can quickly lead to multiple business problems and failures. Businesses rely on information for decision making, and quality information presented in a logical format that facilitates human or mechanical processing represents the standards for achieving profits and other organizational goals. Therefore, it is not just the content of the message that is important but the form alsocarries meaning to the receiver. Messages must be packaged in convincing ways, usingcarefully selected words, grammar, punctuation, appropriate formats and attractivepresentation styles. (Vetrano, et.al. 1995). The successful business man has to develop abilities for persuading others toprovide the inputs or resources (including information) at adequate prices, quality andtime; while on the other hand, he also needs to have the convincing skills for selling hisproducts and services (including information) at the best possible price and greatestpossible quantity and most convenient time to satisfied customers. These delicate andchallenging ways of communicating internally and externally with suppliers and buyersconstitute the keys for continual survival in competitive business environments.Information gathering constitutes the intelligence system that helps reduce risk andmake wise business decisions. (Smith, 1988) F. The Importance of Business EtiquetteBusiness people operate in different cultures and a practice of business in differentplaces has developed a specific business sub-culture for each place or what is known 77
  • 78. as business etiquette that draws on general common sense behaviors and specificcontext or situational variables. Nothing is as important in business as the first impression. Relationships that getstarted the right way stand a good chance of remaining on the right lane. It is importantto learn behaviors that may contribute to this early success in business before gettingdown into business. Learning some basic words and rules for greetings andintroductions in each country remains a fundamental requirement for business peoplemaking contact with other cultures. Appropriate order of introductions, customs forshaking hands, bowing, or other forms of greetings, use of titles and last names formales and females according to marital status, negotiations procedures andexpectations, decision making process , relationship between social and businessactivities etc. Written forms of communication, including emails must also follow someprinciples of courtesy and respect for others. Documents must reflect the sender’spersonality. Most people in the business world prefer to do business with serious,responsible and friendly counterparts. Use proper salutation; make your document lookgood, keep a personal touch or corporate image when necessary, accompanyimpersonal letters with a corresponding cover letter and keep the channels ofcommunication open and friendly with follow up and thank you letters (Sabath, 2002)., 78
  • 79. Assignments - Value 12.0 points 1. Go on line and research the relationship between communication and language skills. Write a three paragraph document explaining this relationship in your own words. 1. Describe how the business communication skills required in all companies are similar? 2. Explain why appropriate communication is vital in the world of business. Give an example of a problem that might originate because of a misunderstanding between a business organization and its clients. 3. Explain the characteristics that business communication must have in order to achieve effectiveness. 4. Explain the differences between managerial accounting and financial accounting. Indicate how the distinction affects the type of information and communication typical of each. 5. Research on line the meaning of the following terms and provide a definition for each: - Transaction costs - Business synergy - Operational efficiency - Information overload - Business Ethics. - Business Etiquette. 79
  • 80. 6. Write a one-page letter to a hypothetical manager of a multinational company indicating your interest in teaching Business TESOL for its employees in China.7. Assume that the company’s main challenge is to integrate a number of Chinese employees to the company’s global communications network related to on- the job training. Go on line and find seven elements of United States business etiquette. How would you do to teach these customs to learners in foreign countries?8. Mention four aspects that must be observed as part of email etiquette. Recommended ReadingsBovée, Courtland L. and Thill, John V. Business Communication Today. Instructor’sResource Manual Six Edition. Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 2000.Fritz, Roger. The Small Business Troubleshooter. Career Press. Franklin, NJ 1995Geffner, Andrea. ESL Guide to American Business English. Borron’s EducationalSeries, Inc. New Yor, NY 1998.Sabath, Ann Marie. Business Etiquette. Second Edition. Career Press. Franklin Lakes,NJ 2002.Smith, Frank. Understanding Reading. A Psycholinguistic Analysis of Reading andLearning to Read. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Hillsdale, New Jersey 1988.Vetrano, Joni. Whalley, Elizabeth & Blass, Laurie. Let’s Talk Business. Heinle & HeinlePublishers. Boston, Massachusetts 1995 80
  • 81. CHAPTER V I 10.0 hoursCultural Aspects for Effective Business TESOLInstructional Objectives: - Describe the impact of cultural factors on language and other forms of social behavior. - Explain the importance of cultural factors to effective communication - Discuss some cultural factors related to business communication - List and describe some elements of the United States business culture. - Define Organizational Culture and describe its significance to business communications. Questions to Elicit Students’ Interest 1. How do cultural aspects influence communications and language? 2. Why is culture important to business communications? 3. What role does non- verbal communication play in reaching understanding? 4. What is the most important language skill in business? 5. Why is the typical United States cultural behavior important to business communication around the world? A. The Role of Intercultural Communications in BusinessIntercultural or cross-cultural communication is interdisciplinary fields of research thatstudies how people understand each other across group boundaries of various sorts; 81
  • 82. national, geographical, ethnic, occupational class or gender (Kramsch, 2001. TheCambridge Guide to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) The expansion of multinational organizations into diverse geographical regionsand countries has resulted in increased international trade. Consequently, employmentof people with different mother tongue and cultural behaviors, growing numbers ofbusiness travelers and tourists, increased interest in foreign languages as well asintercultural aspects have also been stimulated. In recent times, with significantdevelopments in globalization, a single world culture has being introduced [based] onconsumerism, mass media, Americana, and the English language. (Scholte, 2000)However, TESOL teachers must pay attention to cultural differences.  Americans need to be aware of their own cultural practices in order to facilitate the rest of the world understanding of these customs. The understanding of these American ways will help people from other culture learn some expressions and phrases of American English in the business context.  On the other hand, TESOL teachers also need to understand other cultures since non- familiarity with the business practices, social customs, and etiquette of a country can represent significant disadvantage for any organization or [individual] in competitive markets. (US Department of Commerce, 2008). Since Business TESOL teachers are really trainers of individuals that are working or often planning to do so in multinational organizations this aspect of teachers, training is vital to their future success. 82
  • 83.  Business teachers must recognize that culture controls behaviors in deep and persisting ways. Indeed, practice may lead individual to perfectly perform actions even without awareness. And these actions may become deeply entrenched with consequences for individuals and societies. Corruption, in business for example, can be the result of cultural practices with a long history in some parts of the world. Multinational companies are discovering that they must carefully investigate and understand the culture where they intend to do business and modify their approaches appropriately. (Hodgetts & Luthans, 2003). Learning to adapt to different cultural requirements has become part of globalization, and an important tool to be successful in an increasingly competitive business world. Different people have different languages and different values, beliefs, patternsof behavior, skills, habits, and the like – that is, different cultures. The culture traits ofone people are not necessarily right or wrong, nor are they better or worse than those ofothers; they are simply different. (Smith, 1988). Even the definition of the world culturein a specific language may have different meaning. This makes it important todistinguish different meanings of the world culture for practical and functional reasonsrelated to the business world.  One definition of culture relates to the artistic heritage in areas such as the music, literature, art, religion, sports and other aspects that show the creativity and capacity for expressing the emotions and entertainment of a group of people often from the same geographic area or their descendants. 83
  • 84.  Culture can also be understood another way. That is, when it is viewed as model of people’s behavior in daily interaction with one another and over time. For successful communication this view of culture becomes indispensable. (Noble & Lacasa, 1991)  The word culture is also used to describe the behaviors that are typical of different groups and their corresponding status in society. This often is accompanied with references to intellectual and economic achievements. Many forms of marketing campaigns, including the language used and timing of theactivities (promotions, advertisements, publicity etc) are guided by these culturalelements. Still, in the business environment, leaders may also establish corporatepolicies and required behaviors that form the accepted organizational culture. B. The Relationships Between Culture and LanguageLanguage makes up part of each culture. Yet, efforts to understand a culture might evenbe more important than learning a language if the purpose is to do business; in manyparts of the world getting along with the customs and understanding the local behaviorstakes precedence over the ability to speak in the language. Therefore, it is also important for teachers and students to learn the structure ofthe English language and its relation to other cultures. This process provides knowledgeand power in a world that is becoming increasingly closer through modern technologicalcommunication systems and conventional forms of nonverbal and verbalcommunication. 84
  • 85. Language is the powerful channel through which communication takes place.Language, then, make it possible for things to happen. The way language is used tomake things happen, however, are reached through agreements for achievingunderstanding. We must first agree on the rules of the game before start playing so thateveryone can understand what is going on. That is, every game has its own rules andevery language also have it own rules so that users can enjoy it as a social activity. C. Organizational CultureOrganizational culture represents unique ways of thinking and acting that a groupdevelops and maintains as core values related to problems of external adaptation andinternal integration. It becomes a code of conduct with standards of behavior in areassuch as language terminology, cooperation between management and employees;productivity, product and services quality, customer relations and other operationalguidelines that ensure a common culture in the organization. Nevertheless, the society’s culture, that remains so set in the minds of manyindividuals may continue to have significant impact on their organizational performance.Organization and proper training constitutes critical elements that can help encourageindividuals to get a feel for the desired organizational culture. (Hodgetts & Lutherans,2003). Since cultural aspects are so significant inside and outside organizations, itseems necessary to observe some helpful guidelines on the topic. The following are some selected actions from (Laubach Literacy Action, 1996)which has developed a long list of recommendations to help develop cultural awarenessaround the world and bring people of different culture in closer relationships: 85
  • 86.  Learn as much about the learner’s culture as you teach about your own.  Examine similarities between the cultures as well as differences.  Explore cultural meanings found in words, phrases, and gestures.  Strive to accept other behavior as different, rather than right or wrong.In fact, among the important cultural elements that learners need to consider are thefunctions of non- verbal communications and the meaning of these forms ofcommunication in each culture. D. Nonverbal Communications as Cultural Elements Related to BusinessTell the learners that:  Information is transmitted through different forms of communication.  Communication can be nonverbal and/or verbal.  Communication can happen in a business context or outside of it.  Nonverbal communication does not require words to express meaning.  Non- verbal communication also requires code interpreting coming from cultural conventions or assimilation to them.  Non- verbal communication is spontaneous and deeply authentic in meaning. The nonlinguistic features of the English language are very important in thecommunicative process. When speakers project their nonverbal cues correctly and thereceivers have interpreted them correctly, understanding is facilitated. The major reasonfor studying nonverbal communication continues to be the cultural differences that give 86
  • 87. rise to different ways and codes for interpreting the actions. Interestingly enough, foreffective communication, of the English language can be accompanied with theappropriate nonverbal cues of a foreign culture or those of universal meaning in order tofacilitate understanding. The reverse is also valid. That is, English language speakerscan learn a foreign verbal language with the help of universally clear nonverbal clues orthose learned from any foreign culture. The important point to keep in mind is thatnonverbal communication must be used in correspondence with their meanings in eachculture in order to profit from the use of this type of communication. Unfortunately, very few nonverbal cues have the same universal meaning. For thenonverbal communication to be effective speakers and listeners most know what thesenonverbal cues mean and that they are often used in support of what is said. (Bushman,2000) E. Functions of Non- verbal CommunicationsAlthough nonverbal communication can occur in any context, it is especially important tounderstand its significance in international business environment. Great businesssuccess or failures may develop between companies from different cultures dependingnot only and verbal communications, but also the meaning of non- verbalcommunications particularly in most non- Western societies. The nonverbal component of communication is essential to full and adequateunderstanding of the person speaking. Although nonverbal communication can standalone, it usually blends with speech, carrying part of the message. Together, the two 87
  • 88. models of expressions are a powerful combination, augmenting, reinforcing, andclarifying each other. (Bovee, & Thill, 1995 ) Nonverbal cues function in five ways: to complement and illustrate, to reinforce and accentuate, to replace and substitute, to control and regulate, and to contradict. (Guffey, 2003). The effective teacher communicates non-verbally with students by using positivebody language, expressing warmth, concern, acceptance, and enthusiasm. Effectiveteachers augment their instructional presentations by using positive non-verbalcommunications such as smiles, open body posture, movement, and eye contact withstudents. The energy and enthusiasm of the effective teacher can be amplified throughpositive body language. (FTCE Professional Educator, 2004)Most of these functions can be achieved through: a) Movements of our hands, heads and eyes, or b) By making sounds that we all know what they mean used together with words or in response to other messages. Often, these movements may even improve the learners’ affective domain andinterpersonal communication with teachers. According to (Guffey, 2003) adequate eyecontact, facial expresions, posture, gestures, time, space, territory, business documentspresentation and personal appearance can be helpful as nonverbal signals in theworkplace. Many signs are international in that they can be read by the world community sinceno verbal language is use. Signs, then, are public displays that convey information 88
  • 89. about facts or qualities. They may help us for example to locate places like restaurant,lodging, service stations, bridges, etc. Another form of nonverbal communications is the symbol.  A symbol conveys information about something.  It also stands in representation of some quality or value that might be important to the reader or listener.Sometimes an object can be both a sign and a symbol. An important part is that whilemost symbols have some universal meaning, they may convey special meaning tosome individuals.  Symbols are used a lot in mathematics, for religious and patriotic meanings. Sometimes the meaning giving to symbols change just as the words change with time.  Signals also are used to communicate nonverbally a message from one individual to another. Horns, buzzers, bells, and arm gestures all signal important information to people.These signs, symbols and signals are outside the realm of the individual- they are for allto use; they are not personal. F. Significance of Verbal Communications in the Business EnvironmentVerbal communication relies on words organized and used following certain patterns.When we speak we use words to express ideas but we can give extra structure to ourideas by means of non- verbal communications. Oral communication could take the 89
  • 90. form of face-to-face conversation, interview, telephone conversations, voice mail,meetings, online group discussions, teleconferencing, videoconferencing, etc.Immediate feedback and clarifications in these cases can speed up understanding anddecisions.The following language skills are associated more directly with verbal communication: - Listening - Speaking - Writing - Reading In today’s business world, the most important form of communication is writing.Some forms of contracts, accounting information and other important information mustalways be recorded in writing. That is, then, writing remains indispensable for thesurvival of any business in a world of so many changes. Writing is also crucial for the survival of mankind. Most of our experiences,accumulated knowledge, and technologies are preserved for present and futuregenerations. Business writing, however, comes in many different formats and stylesaccording to the purposes. In business, valuable information must be transmitted to various internal andexternal users in forms that can be stored and made available whenever necessary.Writing is the most appropriate formal way of communication for the needs of businesspeople. Business writing must show meaning in ways that are complete, clear, directand communicative, in order to make the information useful to users. 90
  • 91. Written communication, can take the forms of business letters, memoranda, reports,minutes of meetings, written speeches, etc. Written communication has the advantagesof revision before transmission, permanence and accessibility for reference purposes. Italso reduces the risk of distortion in meaning. The main purpose of communication in business is to obtain valuable information inhelping to reduce different types of risks associated with decisions. In order to reducethe risk of misinterpretation in business written communication is the most effective tool.The value of written communication is enhanced when considering the differences inlanguages and culture worldwide. For these reasons, most oral communication are alsoput into writing in addition to those that are to be done exclusively in written form forfuture reference. Combining oral forms such as telephone with written forms such asemail communications have proved to be effective for both internal and externalcommunication systems. G. The Role of the United States’ Business Culture as related to Business TESOL After the two world wars, the United States remained the most importanteconomic power and trading partner to many nations in the world. Leading technologicalcapabilities, efficient stock markets, large effective demand (market size) and stability ofpolitical institutions combined to provide the United States with the benefit of holding themain offices and/or operations for numerous multinationals. This leading position in theinternational economy has led to increasing interest in learning about the U.S. cultureand “Standard American English”. (Eiteman, 1998) 91
  • 92. This leading US position in the world of business has been enhanced in recenttimes with the expansion of globalization. Reductions in different forms of transactioncost (transportation, telecommunications and other forms obtaining information, lessconstraint to access foreign markets, etc) have consolidated this tendency towardsincreased business world- wide and the leading role of the American variety of theEnglish language in the world system. Just as many schools and language institutes around the globe, especially inChina and other Asian countries continue to show preference for ‘Standard AmericanEnglish and native American accent’, it is also becoming critical for Business TESOLteachers to gain some insights into the ‘typical’ US non- verbal behaviors in order toportray a more complete picture of interactions between language and culture in theUnited States for those abroad who seek to understand these aspects to do business. The predominant culture in the United States places high value on materialisticachievements, individual rights and liberties, privacy, and scientific reasoning, hard-work, and the value of time. Many US business practices represent the materializationof these ideas. They remain so deep-seated in the American spirit, that often individualspractice these behaviors (verbally and non- verbally) even without thinking about theconsequences when dealings with people from other cultures. Teachers’ reflection onthis problem seems important, particularly for those planning to teach in foreign landswith significant cultural contrasts with the US. Teachers are human beings with all the defects and virtues practiced in theirenvironments. They often transmit these attitudes and behaviors to learners that listenand observe situations or behaviors that may differ culturally; thus, producing potential 92
  • 93. misunderstandings or damaging relationships in the affective domain. The TESOLteacher must, therefore, use non-verbal clues to enhance verbal communications notonly as a teaching aid, but also as reference tool of interpersonal relationships. Moreover, the TESOL teacher should remember that often people from otherculture don’t understand our verbal language; signs, symbols body language and othernon-verbal clues may become effective ways of providing meaning to ourcommunication provided the recipient can decode the meaning of the non- verbalmessages through association with background experiences or similar meaning in othercultures. Discovering aspects of one’s own culture that are “compatible” or similar toaspects of the local culture can produce cultural empathy that might lead to moreefficient and effective results than attempting to become fluent in the language of thetarget country.(Choi & Kelemen, 1995). Again, this is another opportunity or window forusing cultural affinities such as nonverbal communications that have the same meaning.Among the most common nonverbal variables commonly associated to each culture inthe business environment are the following: - Time - Space - -Distance - Body Language - Male and female relationships - Humor in business - Superstition - Taboos - Dress and appearance. (Chaney & Martin, 2004) On the other hand, cultural aspects can carry great influence in some forms of 93
  • 94. informal business speaking. In the United States, and increasingly in other parts of theworld some messages carry vivid expressions and usages related to body parts, sports,and other entertainments. Foreigner’s identification and understanding of these termsmay demonstrate some awareness of the “American culture” and facilitateunderstanding and create friendly relations even at the international level both forinternal and external communications. (Gast, 2010)Assignments - Value - 12.0 pointsDefine the following terms: 1. High context cultures. 2. Low context culture 3. Ethics 4. Superstition, 5. Taboos 6. Cultural affinities 7. Nonverbal communications 8. Background experiences 9. Grapevine 10. Organizational Culture 11. Effective demand 12. Discuss how good communication skills can be helpful for employees in large international organizations. 13. Identify three unintentional forms of nonverbal communication that could affect a teacher’s relationship with L2 Business English learners. 94
  • 95. 14. Describe what communication problems you anticipate with Business TESOL learners in high context cultures. 15. List seven major communication barriers between people and within organizations. 16. Compare and contrast the communication needs you had as student to those in a business context. 17. Describe your experience as it relates to communications with co-workers in any type of organization. Indicate how that experience can be helpful as a Business TESOL teacher. Recommended ReadingsBovée, Courtland L. & Thill, John V. Business Communication Today. Fourth Edition.McGraw Hill, Inc. New York, NY 1995Bushman, John. Teaching The English language. Second Edition. Charles C. ThomasPublisher, LTD. Springfield, Illinois 2000.Chaney, Lillian & Martin, Jeanette. Intercultural Business Communication. Third Edition.Pearson Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, NJ. 2000Choi, Chong Ju. & Kelemen, Mihaela. Cultural Competencies: Managing Co-operatively Across Cultures. Darmotmouth Publishing Company. Brookfield, USA. 1995 95
  • 96. Dawson, Ron et.al. FTCE Professional Educator. Florida XAM Teacher Certification,2004De Bravo Castro, Bertha. Technical English For Business. McGraw-Hill. Mexico 1984.Eiteman, David. Stonehill, Authur & Moffett, Michael. Multinational Business Finance.Eight Edition. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Reading, Massachusetts, 1998.Gast, Natalie. Perfect Phrases for ESL Everyday Business Life. McGraw Hill. NewYork, NY 2010Gerighty, T.J. (1984) Oral Practice- from dialog to discussion. In Selections fromModern English Teachers. Edited by H. Moorwood. p.1-3. Longman.Guffey, Mary Ellen. Business Communication. Process and Product. Fourth Edition.Thompson Publisher. South Western College. San Diego, California. 2003Hodgetts, Richard M. & Luthans, Fred. International Management. Culture, Strategy andBehavior. Fifth Edition. McGraw Hill Irwin. New York, NY 2003.Laubach Literacy Action. Teaching Adults. An ESL Resource Book. New ReadersPress. Syracuse, NY 1996Noble, Judith. Lacasa, Jaime. The Hispanic Way. Aspects of Behavior, Attitudes andCustoms in the Spanish-Speaking World. Passport Books. Chicago, IL 1991.Podnecky, Janet et.al LifePrints ESL for Adults. Teacher’s Edition. New Readers Press.2002.Scholte, Jan Aart. Globalization. Palgrave Macmillan. London. 2000. 96
  • 97. Smith, Frank. Understanding Reading. Fourth Edition. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Hillsdale, NJ. 1988US Department of Commerce. A Basic Guide to Exporting. 10th Edition. Washington,D.C 2008. 97
  • 98. CHAPTER VII 7.0 hoursTechnological Development and Characteristics of Useful InformationInstructional Goals: - Discuss how businesses can use technology to improve communications productivity. - Explain appropiate ways for using some technologies. - Discuss the importance of quality information to business decision making. - Identify some important characteristic for quality inforfmationQuestions to Elicit Students’ Interest 1. How can modern technology help teachers and business organizations? 2. What kind of information is important to business people? 3. What specific language is useful for use in business when dealing with technologies?Which are the most useful applications of technology in the business world today?Explain to students that:  The main purpose of communication, in the business context, constitutes the transmition of information; however, many characteristics must be observed in order for the information be of quality. In adddition, all communication and the corresponding information must be channeled through a medium. 98
  • 99.  Although some business communication continie to be expressed through natural mediums as face- to face spoken interactions and body languages, must business communications are carried out through the assistance of instruments created for these purposes.However, both the efectiveness and efficiency of the communication will depend amongother factors on the selection of the medium and information to be transmitted accordingto what the recievers may perceived as valuable. Communication and informationtechnology are being used extensively for these purposes including masscommunication or the media in oral and written forms. Useful information must be identified by conducting an information-needsanalysis, which takes a variety of considerations into account, including the needs anddesires of individual managers. The means selected to transmit the information is alsoan important decision. Many factors must be considered: 1) Distance 2) Type of audience 3) Speed required 4) Cost 5) Opportunity to make changes, 6) Storage capacity for future use, 7) Capabilities for dissemination of information for end users etc. 8) Technological developments like word processing, electronic mail, vioce mail, video conferencing, audio conferencing, facsimile transmission, 99
  • 100. cellular phones, cable televsion and other forms of modern communications have been serving effectively in recent times as mediums for message transmission between senders and recivers. 9) Conference call, allows more than two people to participate in a telephone conversation. (McLeod, 1995) 10) Audio conferencing has great appeal to businesses because of its relatively low cost, ease to set up, and the comfort of speaking on the telephone even at great distances without the In today’s business world, individuals are able to combine the use of more than one medium of communication in order to get a quick source of information while ensuring accuracy and the ability to store the information in permanent records. 11) The combination of oral with written forms is now standard procedure in most businesses. Therefore the teaching of techniques related to the use of different medium is more important than ever before. A. Suggestion for using FaxOur high-tech, high-speed business world demands to the-point writing that gets itsmessage across with no wasted words. Techological advancements in officeautomatization have further make it necessary to work with standard forms andprotocols in all four basic English Languaage skills.(listening, speaking, reading andspecially writing). When faxing or sending a document “overnight” or via courier, let the receiver know that you are a person of your words. Give the person a realistic time estimate 100
  • 101. of when the information will be received. Monitoring its progress is crucial. Ensurethat the communication was received. (Sabath, 2002)  Voice mail Voice mail is an extension of you and should reflect the same basic courtesy and regard for others that you would demonstrate in person. Keep your voice mail message updated regularly. This will let callers know when you are out of the office and/or when they might expect to get a call back from you. Your greeting should be professional and to the point. Provide a brief but detailed idea of what you are calling about: (Sabath, 2002)  E-mail Because e-mail is now a mainstream communication channel, messagesshould be well organized, carefully composed, and grammatically correct.Barbara Pachter, suggests eight guidelines for sending emails: 1) Keep your message short 2) Use short paragraphs. 3) Use a subject line 4) Don’t use all capital letters. 5) Limit each message to one subject area or purpose. 6) Proofread each message. 7) Remember that E-mails is not private.B. Remember the five e-mail commandments 101
  • 102. Are you making the best possible impression with your e-mail messages? By followingthe five easy-to-remember e-mail rules that follow, you can be assured that you are: E – mail only those to whom your messages actually pertain (rather than entire address groups). M- ake a point of responding to messages promptly. A- lways use spell-check and grammar-check before sending messages. I – nclude your telephone number in your messages. L – earn that e-mail should be used for business rather than personal use. (Sabath, 2002) C. Characteristics of Quality Information for Business Quality information for decision making on a global basis has become the mostvaluable assets in the battle between global competitors for market control in everysector (Hodgetts, 2003). As a result, multinational organizations increasingly seek tohomogenize most aspects related to information management; The English language,the most important tool used for transmitting information does not escape these effortsfor standardization. Large international organization may have the technical means toreach any part of the globe, but having the use of a common language andunderstanding of specific uses of terminology continues to represent an extraordinarychallenge to the business world. Immense profits remains in store for businesses tounlock with better control and integration of operations through language andtechnological harmonization. 102
  • 103. Valuble information is especially important for monotoring operations and makingcorrective decisions to reduce the risk of deviations from the corporate goals. The valueof information is directly related to its quality components. Large quantities ofinformation without certain qualities may be of no value in most decision making.Business TESOL teachers must be able to teach business people about informationqualities such as: relevance, accuracy, timeliness, conciseness, clarity, quantifiability,measurability (Wilkinson & Cerullo,1997). Assigments - Value 12.0 points 1. Discuss what is an Internet Glossary and how important is the ‘language of technology’ to the teaching of Business English in the L2 context. 2. Define the term intranet and explain how it relates to an organization’s internal information network. 3. Define the following terms: Information overload; Data security; Information privacy; Usenet, Multimedia, Spam, Attachment, Download. 4. Define the following terms as related to quality information: relevance, accuracy, timeliness, conciseness, clarity, quantifiability. 5. Discuss the term extranet and what benefits it brings to an organization. 6. Discuss how an intranet could be used for training purposes in an organization. 7. Compare and contrast Intranet and Extranet in terms of internal and external uses of information. 8. Will the use of technologies for presenting a Business TESOL course to all offices of a multinational in different countries be considered as internal 103
  • 104. communication or external communication? Explain your answer. Give an example of how technology could provide this opportunity? 9. Should technologies replace meetings and managers role as natural trainers in organizations? 10. What are the consequences for Business TESOL teachers that have limited experience and knowledge about management information systems and new technologies for office automation? Recommended ReadingsHodgetts, Richards. Luthans, Fred. International Management: Culture, Strategy, andBehavior. Fifth Edition. McGraw Hill, Irvin. New York, NY 2003McLeod, Raymond Jr. Management Information Systems. Six Edition. Prentice Hall.Englewood Cliffs, NJ 1995Sabath, Ann Marie. Business Etiquette : 101 Cays to Conduct Business with Charmand Savvy. Second Edition. Career Press, Inc. Franklin Lakes, NJ 2002).Wilkinson, Joseph W. & Cerullo, Michael J. Accounting Information Systems:EssentialConcepts and Applications. Third Edition. John Wiley & Sons Inc. New York, NY 1997 104
  • 105. Chapter VIII 26.0 hoursElements of Structure and Style for Effective Business WritingInstructional Objectives: - Illustrate the critical importance of business writing to organizational communications. - Describe and analyze the most essential elements for effective business writing. - Demonstrate ways in which business writing can be made clear and concise, complete and concrete. - Show the significance of vocabulary development, choice of appropriate words and styles in business writing.Questions to elicit students’ interest 1. Why are writing skills so important in business organizations? 2. What elements must be present to make business writing effective? 3. How can abilities in other language skills help develop writing skills? 4. What are the most common mistakes that must be avoided in business writing? A. Some Elements Required for Appropriate WritingIn Business communications both substance and appearance are important in judgingthe quality and effectiveness of the communication as well as the class of personsending the message. Vocabulary, diction, spelling, grammar and punctuation canproduce different understandings in the mind of the person receiving thecommunication. This is particularly important in business communication. Frequently, it 105
  • 106. is easy to get instant feedback and make clarifications with oral communication, but withcommunication there are no opportunities of this type. The risk of miscommunicationand its consequences becomes much greater and potentially impacting to a business.Therefore, strategies focusing on quality control of written documents are essential tocorporate communications: Larners and professionals in any economic field mustpractice using words correctly in well- presented format for each audience and purpose,revise and edit documents before sending the ‘product’ of their writing to anyone . B. Some Grammatical Elements to Observe in the Use of TESOL BusinessGrammar is the systematic description of the way words work together to form coherentlanguage; in this sense, it is an explanation of the structure of language. However,grammar is popularly taken to mean the set of “rules” that governs how a languageought to be spoken and written; in this sense, it refers to the usage conventions of alanguage. (Brushaw, 1987) To achieve clarity, writers need to know both grammar (as a description of theway words work together) and the conventions of usage.  Knowing the conventions of usage helps writers select the appropriate over the inappropriate word or expression. A knowledge of grammar helps them diagnose and correct problems arising from how words and phrases function in relation to one another. (Brushaw, 1987)  Making sure that the messages are correctly produced in line with the intended purpose always will remain critical to effective communication. 106
  • 107. Business messages must be clear. Participants in the communicative process must be able to understand exactly what is being communicated in order to avoid loss of time and resources. Like a teacher, the business man must convey a clear message to achieve his goals. This means using the rules of the English language applied to businessactivities; write short effective sentences, and avoid making sentence fragments.In addition to learning grammar rules and vocabulary, business teachers must learn andteach how to use those rules for listening, speaking, reading, and writing.(Semmelmeyer & Bolander, 1987) Many learners of business English are adults. Teachers can gain from takingadvance of the adult’s ability to reason, analyze, and systematize.  Often, these learners also have some experience, great motivation and interest and are beyond the beginning level in most English language skills.  Adults are more disciplined and ready for the understanding of grammatical rules used in context that most children see as uninteresting, The English language has thousands of words, but all of them fall into eightgroups called parts of speech. However, a word part of speech is based on how a wordis used in a sentence. Words can, therefore, be more than one part of speech. Thefollowing are the eight parts of speech: 1. Nouns 2. Pronouns 3. Adjectives 107
  • 108. 4. Verbs 5. Adverbs, 6. Prepositions 7. Conjunctions 8. Interjections  Tell the learners that only when a number of words (parts of speech) are put together in such a way that they express a complete thought, you have a sentence. The tendency in modern writing is to use short, effective sentences. In order toexpress a complete thought, a sentence must have both a subject and a predicate.These are two important grammatical terms used to describe the essential elements ofa sentence. 1) The subject is the word or group of words that tells us what or whom the speaker or writer is talking about. 2) The predicate usually tells what the subject is doing, or what is happening to the subject. Nouns are the names of person, places, and things.  Pronouns take the place of nouns.  Adjectives and adverbs modify or describe nouns, verbs, and other words. A word, however, might be used as a specific part of speech in one sentenceand as another part of speech in a different sentence.  Tell the learners that to produce effective English sentences the following common mistakes must be avoided:  Sentence fragments  Inconsistency in sentence structure 108
  • 109.  Fuse sentences  Comma splice  Inappropriate vocabulary and choice of words  Faulty spelling  Excessive wordiness  Vague sentences  Lack of logical organization and sequence etc .1. Sentence Fragments An incomplete group of words punctuated as if it were a sentence is called asentence fragment. This problem may arise when: 1) Word groups standing alone are missing either a subject or a verb. 2) Sentence fragment can also happen when word groups containing a subject and a verb and standing alone are actually made dependent because of the use of subordinating conjunctions or relative pronouns. (FTCE General Knowledge, 2005)  Tell your students be sure not to use fragment in business communications.Examples of fragments missing subject or verb: - Sold last year.( need a noun) - Transaction already ( need a verb)Example of a statement converted into fragment: 109
  • 110. - Until the information was received. In this case the word until converted the statement into a dependent clause. One way of correcting this error is by eliminating the word until. The remainingwords would make complete sense. - That is:” The information was received”.Another way of correcting the fragment is by adding a comma and an independentclause after the dependent clause as follows: - Until the information was received, we were unable to make a decision.Comma SpliceA comma splice is an error consisting of joining two independent clauses with only acomma. For example: - Managerial accounting is important for achieving efficiency in companies, financial Accounting is important for achieving effectiveness.In the above example there are two complete ideas of equal weight which are merelyseparated by a comma.The comma splice error can be corrected in several ways: 1. Use a period after the first statement and a capital letter at the beginning of the second. 2. Use a semicolon between the statements 3. Subordinate one of the statements and retain the comma 110
  • 111. 4. Insert a conjunction between statements or as a substitute for the conjunctive adverb and retain the comma.Fuse SentenceA fuse sentence also called a run on sentence is one in which two independent anddistinct statement are blended without any mark of punctuation or without a connectingword between them. Here are a few examples of fuse sentences: 1. Business TESOL training has helped the company’s employees increase their 2. Productivity on a global scale it has also helped the company increase its market shares in many countries. 3. Internal auditors face many ethical challenges many accountants prefer to work as external auditors.There are many ways of correcting these sentences. - One easy way of correcting the second sentence is by placing a period after the word challenges. That would make it two sentences: Example: Internal auditors face many ethical challenges. Many accountants prefer to work as external auditors. - Another way of correcting this fused sentence is by using a semicolon. This procedure is useful when the two sentences are very close. Example: 111
  • 112. We just audited the company a week ago; our report will be ready next week.  Now it is time for you to show the learner examples of different parts of speech and their functions.Examples of articles: The finance department deals with the company’s bank.Example of adjective: An auditor is reviewing the internal controls related tomerchandize inventory account.Examples of nouns: The manager is preparing strategic plans for the next five years.Spain and Mexico are growing markets for TESOL activities.Examples of pronouns: - The purchasing manager and cost accountant are in the room; they are reviewing the standard materials variance. - The human resource manager has completed the interviews. She expects to present the report tomorrow.Examples of verbs: - The company also sells to South America. - Several Korean employees are now reading the Wall Street Journal.Examples of Adjectives: - The corporation has just installed a new accounting system. 112
  • 113. - Relevant information is important for decision making.Examples of adverbs: - The company reasonably expects profits international operations. - The balance sheet was carefully designed to show the book value of the company’s assets.Examples of prepositions: - After the sale the company will close. - Before the presentation review the charts.Examples of conjunctions: - Sellers and buyers are part of the market. - Managers or accountants can present the financial statements. Sometimes the adverb introduces the sentence. In this position it gives moreemphasis. At times the adverb is placed between the parts of the verb phrase. Studythe following sentences carefully. Note the position of the verb.Examples of Adverbs: - Usually, we invest in growing economies. - The accountant often reviews the ledgers before night. - The accounts were consolidated recently. 113
  • 114. A preposition is a word that is placed before some noun or pronoun. It shows therelationship that exists between that noun or pronoun and some other word in thesentence. - In two years the partnership made profits. - Of little value is outdated information. The word that follows a preposition is called the object of the preposition.The entire group of words, “of little value” in the second sentence is called aprepositional phrase. The word “of” is the preposition in that sentence.Conjunctions are joining words. Coordinating conjunctions join two equal elements,such as two nouns or two complete sentences. Example: The internal and external auditors are in the same room.On the other hand subordinating conjunctions join a dependent clause to anindependent clause. The words because, if and that are subordinate conjunctions inEnglish. Example: Internal controls are important because they help prevent problems.Adverbs are words that give more information about verbs, adjectives, other adverbs orclauses. An adverbial clause is made up by using words like although, because,when, or until to start a dependent clause. (Binkowski, 2009) Example: The accountant prepared the trial balance before leaving. 114
  • 115. Interjections are words used to express strong feeling or sudden emotion. Given thepolite, friendly and routine nature of business communications, these strong feelingsgenerally are avoided, especially for written communication to outside users ofinformation. Interjections have no grammatical relation to any word or group of wordsin the sentence. Words such as: Oh, Well, Hey! Wow! and Ouch! can be used forexpressing these deep feelings. In addition to such words, nouns, pronouns, adjectives,and other parts of speech are often used as interjections. Example: Wow! The production cost has more than doubled in just two days. C. Function Of WordsAdjectives are commonly used as nouns, and nouns are frequently used as adjectives.The same word may function both as an adverb and as a preposition. The followingsentences show words functions as different parts of speech:The accounting will take all day. (Accounting as a verb)Accounting is a great profession.( Accounting as a noun) D. Word in Order Words in English sentences have meaning largely because of their position:  They mean one thing in one position and another thing in a different position. Unlike other languages that are inflectional with word ending providing meaning, English requires specific words in special order according to the English rules of grammar, especially sentence structure and syntax. 115
  • 116.  In Spanish for example, the use of personal pronoun is almost unnecessary; it is limited to rare instances for emphasis or clarification. English subjects cannot be implied. The noun or pronoun must be in express form and usually preceding the predicate.The teaching of word order is one of the most fascinating and challenging aspects ofboth General English and Business English for L2 learners. Many L2 adults have somesignificant level of vocabulary, particularly in their professional area, yet they oftenpresent significant interference from their L1 language in terms of syntax rules. TheBusiness TESOL teacher must learn the English sentence patterns, syntax rules, lexicalchunks, and usages of idiomatic expressions as well as split grammatical constructionsin order to assist learners. Linguapress.com offers some useful guidelines in this area. E. Types of SentencesTell your learners that just as sentences are of different types according to thecommunicative purpose in their L1 Language, so too is the case in English as mostmight be aware.English sentence fall into four groups according to the purpose the sentence serves andthe manner in which the thought is expressed.Some sentences simply make statements. Some sentences ask questions. Anothertype of sentence gives a command or makes a request. Example: - This teacher is an accountant. (Declarative sentence) - Did production complete the last job order? (Interrogative sentence) 116
  • 117. - Send the report to the main office! (Imperative sentence – Command) - Please show each department’s contribution to total sales. (imperative sentence – request) - That was an excellent presentation! (Exclamatory sentence)  Remind the learners that every sentence has a basic structure which consists of the subject noun or pronoun and the predicate verb. Writers can change the position or order of these elements in the sentence the make emphasis on words for better meaning and effect.Example: On Friday everybody will see the annual report.In this sentence, the subject annual report is placed at the end to give the day Fridaymore prominence by placing it at the beginning.An adverb often introduces a sentence. The following sentence begins with an adverb,and not with the subject. - Suddenly the accountant spoke 1. Interrogative Sentence Patterns In asking a question, generally the sentence is presented in inverted order.Sometimes the interrogative sentence starts with a modal auxiliary verbs like can, could,may, might, must, shall, should, will, would before the subject. (Werner, et.al. 1996) Example: Should we classify this transaction as a long- term asset?For questions with open answers sometimes the sentence is introduced by an adverb. Example: Where did the finance department open the bank account? 117
  • 118. 2. Imperative Sentence PatternThe imperative sentence expresses a command; being logically only the second personin grammatical terms that can receive a direct command, it is understood that thesubject corresponds to that person. Example: Please give me the balance of each account at once. (The subject is not expressed; yet it is understood to be “you”) 3. Negative Sentences Example: She does not study English 4. Exclamatory Sentences The exclamatory sentence is often expressed in inverted order. Example: Great! Above our most optimistic expectations was this year’s Performance. F. Guide to Correct Sentence StructureAll words or group of words which make sense to a reader or listener can be callsentences. There are two requirements for a complete sentence: 1. All sentences must have an expressed or implied subject and a predicate. 2. On the other hand, a phrase is only part of a sentence.  A dependent clause is not a sentence. It may have a subject and a predicate but still depends on another clause to get complete meaning. 118
  • 119.  A dependent clause can function in a sentence as a noun, an adjective or an adverb. They can be effective instruments for writers when used for expressing thoughts that describe or explain another statement. However, the writer must be careful of overusing dependent clauses that may confuse readers.  Teachers can help learners avoid problems with excessive use of dependent clauses. The learner must avoid starting a sentence with one construction and then stopping or shifting to another before giving meaning to the opening words. In these cases the reader cannot determine where one sentence ends and the next one begins. Correcting a dependent clause fragment often involves no change in wording;sometimes changing a capital to a small letter and a period to a comma or to no mark atall will correct the error. Sometimes you may prefer to make a dependent adverbialclause into an independent clause by omitting a subordinating conjunction. G. Consistent Sentence StructureConsistency means avoiding shifts in tense, subject and voice, number, class or person ofpronouns, figures of speech, and mood. Tense indicates the time of a verb (pas, resent, future).The writer must show uniformity in the use of verb tenses. - Voice tells if the subject is acting (active) or being acted upon (passive). The active voice represents the preferred form for most business writing since it states the persons doing the actions in brief and direct ways. Writing must also be consistent in terms of agreement and use plurals or singulars; pronouns must agree in number with their antecedents. 119
  • 120. Sentences also express moods. - Words must be put together in ways that show the unity of the mood used to make the expressions. Mood is that grammatical term that indicates the state of mind or the manner in which a statement is made such as requests, commands or conditions. Because business writing involves many different purposes and types of documents, learners must practice different structures containing messages for each situation. Finally, it is important to keep in mind that each sentence should contain a single taught or a group of closely related taught. Excessive details into one sentence may divert the reader’s attention away from the essential point of the message. H. Working with plural nouns 1. Most nouns add the letter s to the singular to form the plural. Examples: manager = Accountant = Accountants; Leader = Leaders. 2. Nouns ending in a vowel add s. Examples: Radio = radios; audio = audios; house = houses; 3. Nouns ending in s, sh, ch, x, or z form the plural by adding es. The plural adds another syllable in the pronunciation. Examples: Business= Businesses; match= matches; mix= mixes; dish= dishes. Some nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant add s. Others add es. Some form the plural either way. 120
  • 121. Zero zeros hero heroes cargo cargos cargoes 4. Nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant, change the y to “i” and add es Examples: Subsidiary = subsidiaries; Machinery = machineries; utility = utilities. 5. Some nouns ending in f or fe change f or the fe to v and add es.( Guell, 2007) Example: wife= wives; life = lives; 6. Some nouns form the plural by a change in the vowel. Example: man = men; foot = feet. Some nouns form plural by a complete change of word Example: person = people; child = children. Some nouns have the same form for both singular and plural. Deer = deer; barracks = barracks. I. Agreement Of Pronoun And Antecedent In GenderIn grammar gender means the classification of nouns and pronouns according todistinctions in sex. In English there are four genders: masculine gender, femininegender, common gender, and neuter gender. A pronoun must correspond with thegender of the noun that is being replaced.Example of feminine gender: - My aunt mailed the partnership agreement to her friend. The feminine pronoun her corresponds with the feminine noun aunt. 121
  • 122. Example of masculine gender: - My father retained his position on the board of directors. The masculine pronoun his corresponds with the masculine noun father.Example of common gender: - Workers like their bosses to be of opposite sex. The pronoun “their” corresponds with the noun workers that is applied in a way that is common to both males and female workers.Example of neuter gender: - Time is a valuable asset; it represents money for lawyers. The pronoun it is neuter and corresponds with a neuter noun time. J. Pronouns / Antecedent Agreement in NumberNot only does a pronoun need to agree in gender with the noun it replaces, but also thepronoun needs to agree in number with its antecedent (noun or pronoun it replaces)  Tell the students that an indefinite pronoun can be recognize because it doesn’t point out a specific place, person or thing. They are many singular and plural indefinite pronouns in English. Often, they are used at the beginning of sentences, but sometimes we also find them in other order. Since these pronouns do not refer to a specific pronoun or noun, it is important not to confuse the plural with singular forms. Most indefinite pronouns correspond to the singular form: 122
  • 123. The following pronouns are always singular. A pronoun that is used in place of one ofthese indefinite pronouns must also be singular.Any, anything everything none, nothingAnybody everybody neitherAnyone everyone oneAnother many a one otherEach nobody someoneEither no one somebodyExamples of use: - Everybody has his role defined in this company. - Each account must have its title. - Somebody wants to be her accounts payable assistant. - Another of his mistakes may result in higher taxes. K. Pronouns That Are Always PluralMany both few several others, all,Examples: - All kept their working papers. - Several are planning to change their inventory methods. 123
  • 124. - Many use their tax refund for investments. L. Agreement Of The Pronoun With A Compound AntecedentSometimes the pronoun refers to two antecedents connected by and. If both of theseantecedents are singular and refer to different persons or things, the antecedent isplural. The pronoun that refers to these antecedents must also be plural.Example: - The finance manager and the accountant concluded their meeting.Collective nouns are singular when they designate a group acting as a unit. They areplural when the members who make up the group are acting independently. Thepronoun that takes the place of the collective noun must agree with it in number. - The quality assurance committee has presented its recommendations. (singular) - The members of the quality assurance committee are presenting the observations according to their established order.Tell the learner that the following are two common errors committed when attempting toproduce sentences; these errors must be avoided in order to achieve effectivecommunication: 1) Vague Antecedent 124
  • 125. A pronoun should not have two possible antecedents in the same sentence. If it is not clear which of two nouns a pronoun refers to, there will be two possible interpretations of the sentence. Observe the two possible interpretations in the following illustration: - Incorrect: The accountant told the auditor that he did not check- reference the transaction. - Correct: The accountant claimed that the auditor did not check- reference the transaction.2) Dangling Modifiers Verbal phrases (Gerund participle, infinitive) that do not clearly and logically refer to the proper noun or pronoun are called Dandling Modifiers. Dandling Modifiers usually appears at the beginning of a sentence as an introductory phrase; however, the can also appear at the end of a sentence.  Example: (Incorrect form) Before posting to the subsidiary ledgers, the transaction were referenced. The most common way of correcting a dandling modifier is by adding a noun or a pronoun for it to modify.  Example: (Correct form) The bookkeeper referenced the transactions before posting them to the subsidiary ledgers.M. The Importance of Vocabulary Development 125
  • 126. Vocabulary paves the way to understanding. All four language skills are benefited fromthe development of a strong vocabulary. Each person has a spoken vocabulary, alistening vocabulary, a reading vocabulary and a writing vocabulary.( De Mado,2008)  Constant reading helps development of vocabulary as the learner gets to see the use of words in context and make associations with meaning and effective ways of expressing ideas in written form. As learners read, they recognize that the printed words correspond to words theyhave encountered in spoken English. As the reading level increases, so does the needfor a larger vocabulary.  Writing also enhances vocabulary and plays a role in the literacy process because of the reciprocal relationship it has to reading. An important part of learning vocabulary is repeated exposure to a word. Someimportant vocabulary learning strategies and activities include using dictionaries,understanding word roots and word families and understanding affixes, predictingbefore looking at definitions, word list, collaborative activities, internet activities, andthematic reading and context clues. (Olsen, 2007)  The more oral discourse a learner practice, the more word meanings he acquires and can use in speaking and writing. Furthermore, learning how to pronounce words will make the learner more likely to use the learned word. Spelling out the word, sometimes can also be a powerful tool in this 126
  • 127. process together with the correct pronunciation to transmit the desired meaning in each situation. In business every activity must be evaluated in terms of its costs and benefits tothe organization in the long-run. Teaching business courses must also follow this rule.In the business world only production of something creates value. Translated tolinguistic terms what this means is that the productive skills such as speaking andwriting are the means for creating marketability of all four language skills. We can onlylisten to what have being actually spoken, and we can only read what has being written.For these reasons business people are more interested in knowing ‘what you bring tothe table’ or what you can produce- speak and write- in English to serve businesspurposes. Listening and reading skills are, however, important inputs to ensure qualityoutput in written and spoken forms. Nevertheless, in the final analysis risk reduction, themain purpose of most business decisions can most confidently achieved through writtencommunications. The Intranet with its use in global organizations has completelychanged the structure of business communications and the reach of corporate officesfor constantly controlling and directing global operations. Never before had businesswriting become so important than in our times. Knowing a language, today, is almost synonymous of having the ability to speakand write it; the more commercialized the world becomes, the more the educationalsystems and the training programs will tend to give priority to productive language 127
  • 128. skills. The ultimate value of business communications depends on the usefulness of thecommunicative outputs to its users. N. The Importance of Diction in Written CommunicationsUse of specific and appropriate words according to the right situation or contextremains a crucial skill.  Vocabulary and appropriate diction continue to be key links between producers and receivers of verbal communications. They ensure proper comprehension and understanding.  The producer of speech or written text must be careful to select the most appropriate tools or words for building his message in accordance with the specifications that meet the needs and levels of those to whom the communicative construction is intended to reach. According to each situation, there are many words to choose from and ideas canbe pictured in different fashions of meaning and importance. In the business world it isnot only significant what is said, but also equally important is how it is said to eachparticipating party. Knowing the different usages of a word is even more important thanknowing the literal meaning of the word. Moreover, Business TESOL teachers mustremember that what is acceptable in daily speech and conversation may not beacceptable in the business world. Business people expect to be approached with thecourtesy and respect according to their place in society.Common problems in choosing and using words maybe summarize as follows: 1. Word should be in current use 128
  • 129. 2. Words should be in international use 3. Words should be in reputable use 4. Words should be exact and emphatic (Shawn, 1986)a) ConcisenessConciseness helps develop brevity which gives more power to the fewer worlds. Thosereceiving a message can concentrate on short phrases or sentences rather than longermessages that require more mental processing. For example, the phrase:  “ I would like you to study the lesson’” This sentence could be reduced to fewer words as follows:  “Please, study the lesson”. Business writing remains specially focused on the economics of time, materialsused and reduced risk of mistakes or misunderstandings than can arise fromunnecessary wordiness and outdated expressions. Both writers and readers benefitfrom going directly to the point.b) ConcretenessMost Business TESOL learners and business people in general, like a clear picture ofeach situation or concept by means of specific and concrete words and examples thatthey can associate with past experiences and ideas in their minds. Specific words andconceptual categories also reduce the risks of confusions and misunderstandingswriters and readers that have little or no change for making clarification on the spot.For example, the phrase: “liquid asset’ defines a broad group of things used inbusiness, but it does not let the readers see a specific object such as: cash, accounts 129
  • 130. receivables or inventory in order to form meaningful relationships instead of broadapproximations that may not result in accurate conclusions derived from the messages.  Learners must be taught to use specific and concrete words and examples in the business context even when this principle might be difficult for some learners to get used to especially in cultures like many Hispanic countries where long prose is common in writing.  Audience- centered writing is a fundamental part of business writing because it is always convenient for business to maintain goodwill with all stakeholders including employees. Writing, therefore, must be considerate of the potential receivers’ situation and likely reaction to what is being read. The main purpose of business is to make profits. That signifies gaining and maintaining clients and cooperative suppliers above any other operational consideration; writing that keep customers and suppliers in cooperative relationships with business is a powerful tool to help achieve profits.  Business writing, consequently, must be formal enough to transmit the contractual nature of business transactions, but also at the same time friendly enough to show participant the social side of human interactions.c) Punctuation  In business affairs, proper punctuation constitutes an indispensable element for helping to achieve accuracy and conciseness for the intended messages. Improper punctuation can also unintended problems and cause misunderstandings. Therefore, proper punctuation remains important to any type of business writing. Furthermore, it is important for the teacher to keep in mind 130
  • 131. that many rules of punctuation are closely related to principles of sentence structure (Geffner, 1998)  In oral communications voice management through pauses, stresses and tone help produce specific meaning to the utterances. Body language and other non- verbal aids are also powerful elements in transmitting meaning. Similarly, in writing the various marks of punctuation help produce clear and complete meaning that the writer expects the reader to understand. Often, this is the greatest challenge in the teaching of reading and writing at the beginning and low intermediate levels for both L1 and L2 learners of any type of text. Yet, because of mistakes that can cause severe damages to relationships in the business environment, punctuation must occupy a central position in the Business TESOL curriculum. O. Guide To Correct SpellingCorrect spelling remains important because distraction, confusion, and misunderstanding mayresult from errors in spelling. Most English words are spelled in only one way. In a rapidlychanging world this substantial uniformity constitutes a significant element of stability to thelanguage. The more mental images the learner has of words, the better his spelling will become.Visual, auditory, and motor images can aid in recalling correct spellings. But learning to spellrequires attention and concentration. However, there is no one best method. The effectivenessof each method depends on its relation to each individual’s learning style and strengths that canbe applied to the learning process. 131
  • 132. According to (Shawn, 1986) the following practices can help learners improve theirspelling: 1) Mentally see words as well as hear them 2) Pronounce words correctly and carefully 3) Use a dictionary 4) Learn a few simple rules of spelling 5) Use memory devices 6) Spell carefully to avoid errors. There are numerous words, called homonyms that are identical in pronunciation, buthave different meanings and often different spellings. The best way to deal with these words isto study their meaning and spelling until mastering them. On the other hand, some vocabulary and word structure techniques includingderivations, prefixes, suffixes, plurals, apostrophes, hyphens, and capitalization can be learnedeasily can help learners improve their spelling.Assignment – value 12.0 points 1. Go online and research the meaning of the following words and phrases. 2. Obsolete words 3. Localisms 4. Colloquialism 5. Idiomatic usage 6. Specific and general words 7. Concrete words 8. Affectation 9. Euphemisms 132
  • 133. 10. Emotional meaning11. Jargon12. Cliché13. Wordiness14. Figures of speech15. Correct the punctuation in the following sentences. a. Will you please send us a check today so we can settle your account? b. I find it hard to believe that we could miss such a promising opportunity! c. His writing skills are excellent; however he still needs to polish his management style. d. We’d like to address the issues of; efficiency; profitability, and market penetration. e. During the highest level trials we will resume operations. f. Mark is a bright competent young man. g. The letter should be dated no later than April 14, 1999 if it is to prove the point. h. All along the production designers have insisted on using robots. i. My boss the most senior executive in the company is well known for her concern for employees. j. What is your career goal the interviewer asked? 133
  • 134. 16. Research online the main rules of capitalization and write a sentence illustrating each situation. Remember to keep the example within the business context.17. Research online the main rules of punctuation and write a sentence illustrating each situation. Remember to keep the example within the business context.18. Explain what is the meaning of the word “mechanics” in writing?19. Explain what is the meaning of the word “diction” and why is it important in writing business documents?20. Define the following terms and indicate the purpose for each in business: - Abstracts, - Correspondences - Acceptance Letters - Acknowledgement Letters - Adjustment Letters - Application Letters - Collection Letters - Complaint Letters - Credit Letters - Dictations - Form Letters - Inquiry Letters and Responses - Memorandum - Order Letters - Reference Letters - Refusal Letters - Resignation Letter - Sales letters - Transmittal Letters - Descriptions - Executive Summaries - Forms Design - Instructions - Job Description - Journal Articles - Literature Reviews - Minutes of Meetings - Newsletter Articles 134
  • 135. - News Releases - Policies and Procedures - Process Explanation - Proposals - Internal Proposals - Sales Proposals - Questionnaires - Reports - Annual Reports - Formal Reports - Investigative Reports - Literature Reviews - Oral Presentations - Progress and Activity Reports - Trip Reports, Trouble Reports Suggested ReadingsBerman, Michael. On Business and For Pleasure. A Self-Study Workbook for AdvanceBusiness English. O Books Publishing. Washington, USA 2010Binkowski, Donna Deans. English Grammar Guide. Pearson Prentice Hall. UpperSaddle River, NJ 2009Brushaw, Charles, Alred, Gerald and Oliu, Walter. The Business Writers Handbook.Third Edition. Saint Martins’ Press. New York, NY 1987De Mado, John. Longman Keystone B Teacher’s Edition. Pearson Longman. WhitePlains. NY 2008FTCE General Knowledge. Lewis Nicole Edition. XAM, Inc. 2005 135
  • 136. Geffner, Andrea B. ESL Guide to American Business English. Barron’s EducationalSeries, Inc. New York, NY 1998.Guell, Francisco. Aprenda Ingles Con la Ayuda de Dios. Casa Creación. A StrangCompany. Lake Mary, Florida, 2007Kaluger, George & Kolson, Cliford J. Reading and Learning Disabilities. SecondEdition. Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company. Columbus, 1978.Olsen, Amy E. Active Vocabulary : General and Academic Words. Third Edition.Pearson Longman. 2007Semmelmeyer, Madeline & Bolander, Donald. The New Webster’s Grammar Guide.Berkley Publishing Group. New York, NY 1987Shaw, Harry. Errors In English And Ways To Correct Them. Third Edition. Harper &Row, Publishers. New York, NY 1986Shaw, Harry, Punctuate It Right!. Perennial Library. Harper & Row Publishers. NewYork, NY 1963.Werner, Patricia K, Church, Mary Mitchell, & Becker, Lida R. A CommunicativeGrammar. Third Edition. McGraw-Hill. Mexico 1996 136
  • 137. CHAPTER IX 18.0 hoursDevelopment of Language Skills for Business ApplicationsInstructional Objectives: - Describe the importance of each basic language skills to TESOL Business. - Explain how to prepare learners for developing the basic language skills. - Address special challenges in teaching Language skills related to the business environment. - Apply language skills appropriately when using different technologies for communication.Questions to elicit students’ interest 1. Which are the main challenges for learners and teachers of English language skills? 2. What tricks can be used for teaching English language skills? 3. What role does grammar play in learning English language skills? 4. How can abilities in a English language skills contribute to learning in other language skills?Tell the learners that:  In addition to learning grammar, spelling rules, vocabulary and diction, they must also learn how to use those rules and techniques for listening, speaking reading and writing. Many language teachers ignore the teaching of listening techniques. Yet, much teaching and learning activities are linked to effective listening. 137
  • 138.  Sounds are as important to language as they are to music. Listening to a language’s melody and words help guess some meaning. Learning, at all levels, frequently results from the efforts and techniques used in listening; they lay the foundations and reinforces the learning of the other language skills. Moreover, as (Finocchiaro, 1969 ) has explained, it is important to keep in mind thatlanguage activities- listening, speaking, reading, and writing- are integrated in actualcommunication. When teaching proceeds in ways that each language skill is advancedwith the use of other skills, learners realize the significant role played by each and allelements of the interesting language game. As a result, numerous teachers, institutions and organizations are finding thatinvestment of time and money in teaching listening skills that help improve workers’productivity is as important as other forms of language training. The importance of listening in classroom environment remains evident to almosteveryone.  Teachers must listen to learners’ questions, oral reading, and conversations etc.  Learners must listen to teachers’ instructions, audio- visual aids, and other students etc.  Furthermore, in TESOL courses, listening takes on added importance since the learners need to give more attention and concentration to be able to decipher many words and expression foreign to their natural language. Indeed, listening in business TESOL remains critical; not only is 138
  • 139. it necessary for learning words and concepts, but also it represents a skill of great functional use in the business word. Business people become more successful when they learn to listen to their clients’ needs and operate accordingly. Also, effective listening techniques remain important to the internal structure ofbusiness organizations. For example: - Workers in the production department must listen to their supervisors’ instructions in order to produce quantity and quality products on schedule; - Finance workers must listen to general managers’ plans related to funding needs and uses of excess funds; - Perspective and current workers need to listen to human resources staff during interviews for hiring or promoting actions; - Information processing workers must constantly listen to the needs of other departments that require information for decision making. - General Managers often have to listen to reports or presentations from committees, subordinates, clients, visitors, or other stakeholders. - Anyone who works in business or plans to work in business most learn to listen: this is particularly important to the leaders of business organizations; listening can be considered one of the most distinguishing qualities of good business practices embodied in the organizational culture and leadership of companies with great vision. 139
  • 140. Moreover, effective listening highlights the significance of oral communication. Itwould be a waste of time and other economic resources to engage in the ‘production’ oforal activities if no one would listen or respond to these efforts. Developing greaterinterest in effective listening techniques seems essential for producing thoughtfulnessand cooperation among different players in the world of business. Specifically, the development of new communications technology has vastlyenlarged the span of management control. Today, telephones, audio conferencing, andcomputer technologies combined with other forms audio-recording, data storage andlive conversations including satellite and cable conductions used by the media anddifferent industries have greatly stimulated the need for developing listening techniquesbeyond entertainment and cultural purposes into other types of activities in the world ofbusiness. On the other hand, the production of more written reports have also led to theexercise of more reading and listening in the global context, especially with the use ofthe English Language, for both L2 and LI individuals connected by businessrelationships. Furthermore, in addition to the constantly increasing global marketsopened up by modern technological tools, business TESOL teachers are being requiredto extend their instructional offering to include instructions on the best ways for usingthese technologies in the business context. Business TESOL in this regard must teachlistening techniques for different reasons than conventional classroom teaching. Ethical considerations, office automation, business vocabulary, organizationalvision, business structures, culture and policies are impacting in different ways all four 140
  • 141. basic language skills including that of listening practices particularly in areas such astraining, information gathering, production and operating instructions, marketing andcustomer services as well as inter- departmental and inter- company communications. Although business TESOL teachers need to be aware of the use and impact ofdifferent technologies on language skills development, instructors have an equallyimportant responsibility to explain that different audiences call for different listening skillsand the choice of media or equipment for each purpose. In this regard learner’s Englishproficiency level constitutes the controlling factor in deciding what instructional aid ormethod to use for effectively achieving the specific objectives and performance. While most beginning learners may need much scaffolding in phonetics,repetition and substitution drills with language labs, tape recorders, CDs and otheraudio technologies, the typical business TESOL learner has developed language skillsbeyond this level; Nevertheless, teaching some aspects of pronunciation such as stressand intonation may still be necessary with specific business words. But the focus shouldbe on understanding the meaning of words, concepts, phrases and expressionsassociated to the communicative needs of business people in general and each trade inparticular. Accordingly, the listener in business context must:  Listen to key words and associate or relate the meaning of the overall message, taken in account the cultural significance of the text (oral or written). 141
  • 142.  The teacher should recall that foreign language learners need as much exposure and practice of listening and understanding as possible before actual performance.  Learners must be taught to distinguish between functional words, with significant meaning, that receive the stress in sentence from other non-essential words.  Speaking slower and clear voice with emphasis on repetition of key words should help the learners become capable of identifying such words and isolating them for purposes of guessing the meaning in context or asking for explanations that should help build enough understanding for the learner to recognize the underlying business task. For all these reasons, teachers must not only learn how to teach how to speak, readand write, but they most start by teaching business TESOL learners that listening is afundamental skills to understand clients and co-workers in an organization as well asthe platform from where much language learning advances.A. Developing Speaking SkillsOral language constitutes an organized way of expressing sounds according toconventional patterns used for communications. However, for effective communicationto materialize, speaker and listeners must recognize the rules that govern different sub-systems like: vocabulary, structure, sounds, stress, rhythm, and intonation. (Johnson,1997) - Oral skills represent a valuable instrument for the development of language learners. 142
  • 143. - Oral skills are also the most efficient and cost- effective devise that humans have developed for social interaction. Yet, ironically, many teachers dedicate less energy and time to see learnersprogress in the production of these skills than what continues to be dedicated to skillssuch as reading and writing in formal school environments. Teachers generally remainmore concerned about their own evaluation as indirectly reflected in students’ writtentests. Additionally, many teachers find it more challenging to teach oral skills since manystudents are shy and reluctant to participate and others students may have severeEnglish pronunciation problems that require significant class time to see progress. Formany teachers these added burdens are better avoided in order to gain more time tocomply with other obligations. Nevertheless, not all business TESOL courses are done in school environments.The expectations for teaching speaking skills can be much greater in other settings.Many business functions require proficiency in speaking. Learners, therefore, needample opportunities to practice speaking as an instrumental part of their development tobecome more valuable to business organizations. Development of speaking skills can be achieved with the help of various methodsand technologies such as: - Language laboratories - Different types of drills - Oral reading - Class discussion points - Special vocabulary words - Conversations etc. 143
  • 144. But teaching speaking skills to business learners most always focus on persuasiveand respectful and friendly ways of communication information. Regardless of themedium or content of the communication courtesy forms are required. Oral communication which might be face- to- face situations, recorded messages, orthrough electronic medium generally adequate body language as complement and amore personal touch to reach out in warm ways to critical listeners that may be anxiousto provide their instant feedback. Teaching speaking skills in business TESOL,therefore, requires adequate planning to allow for an environment that combines thepedagogical requirement of flexibility that can lead to greater fluency in conversationwith the need for teacher’s guide in the direction of content and practice leading togreater comprehension of effective content and language in support of businessfunctions. According to (Folland & Robertson, 1984) the teacher should provide topics forconversation that are: 1) Related to the students’ needs, 2) Suitable to the subject matter 3) Level of students’ maturity and experience, and 4) Linguistic content 5) The topics should not be too diffuse or limited in scope. Often the teacher will have to lead the way on pronunciation. Teacher’s modeling ofthe correct pronunciation and explanation of the meaning of messages in the context ofrelated pronunciation variables and cultural significance are important for learners to 144
  • 145. attempt the emulation of sounds and accompanying body language especially in rolepaly or simulation of business dealings such as negotiations, internal meetings or givinginstructions to subordinates as well as oral reporting to other with higher authority in theorganization. Thus, teaching oral skills should emphasize that word choice, intonation and stresspatterns, tune, cultural context, degree of formality, quality of voice, word order, pauses,and body language are among the many factors that can impact the meaning andunderstanding of spoken language. Speaking well requires thinking logically andselecting the best words and ways and styles of using them to achieve the purposes.But speaking well not only has to do with word choice as related to literal meaning. Teachers must make students recognize that words also have values accordingto each culture and learner’s background. In this context speaking also requiresadequate pronunciation to facilitate understanding among users of the English languagefrom different backgrounds. An important goal of all TESOL teachers should be to helplearners around the world come to understand spoken English as a fundamental needfor international cooperation and business expansion. Vocabulary, spelling andpronunciation and conversation exercises are key elements to help achieve thesepurposes. Again, business is business. No one wants to lose money or time in business.  Teachers, therefore, must teach speakers to choose words and grammatical patterns that are useful to businesses. 145
  • 146.  Learners must also understand how important it is to shape their speech according to the potential users of the message or the listeners. No one can gain anything if the listeners can understand the words produced byspeakers. TESOL teachers can help the entire world system prevent enormous waste(of time and money) by teaching learners to look out for the key words and meaning inEnglish instead of attempting to understand and translate each English utterance totheir LI language. Learners must place emphasis on determining which should be the outstandingwords in an expression and which syllable of those words are being stressed. Besides,teachers must also show learners through dialogs and conversations how intonationspatterns play an important role in conveying meaning. (Hewings, 1993). Cooperation inan organization may depend not only on what those in authority tell the subordinates,but also the way these communications are transmitted with the tone and emphasisused for certain words and phrases. Similarly, intonation patterns are important in spoken communication. Just asinterrogatory and exclamatory sentences carry special punctuation marks in writtenlanguage to help readers distinguish the general purpose of these types ofcommunications, intonation patterns in spoken language may assist individual to guessthe general direction of meaning for utterances. Still, business TESOL teachers must keep in mind that both vocabulary anddiction (choice of words) should vary according to the type and purpose of each 146
  • 147. business communication. For example, the word capital has a different meaning ineconomics and accounting: 1) In economics the word capital means any good used to produce other goods; 2) In accounting capital means the difference between total assets and total liabilities. The word capital has yet other meanings in corporate finance depending on itsshort or long- term nature and its relationship to the financing of business operations. In some cases related to lending transactions, the word equity might be a betterchoice of word instead of capital; for instance, when dealing in real estatetransactions. This selection of most appropriate word produces clarity while improvingon the tone of messages and indicates a skillful use of diction to address differentaudiences and goals of the communication. Therefore, in business communications, vocabulary must be selective.Professional terminology must be used in accordance to specific context and needs.Carefully selected words and phrases for each audience is a must. These observationsare particularly important as training or teaching devices in conjunction with grammarpoints or lexical chunks. (De Bravo-Castro, 1984.). However, nowhere in languagecommunication is the appropriate choice of words more important than in the speakingmode since here the often personal and direct nature of the communication carriesmore emotional weight that can either impede or provide power to the speaker’s goals. 147
  • 148. On the other hand, teachers must keep in mind that the structure of language isthe relationship between words and parts of words, including the order of the wordsused to convey the intended meaning. For example we can understand the followingsentence because of the word order: 1. “The accountant prepares financial reports”.However, a word order as the following will make no sense: 2. “Financial reports the prepares account”. In the first example, we understand what is said because we know thevocabulary, and more importantly the word order that gives the sentence meaning,especially in the business setting. Moreover, written letters or words stand for spoken sounds. In some words eachletter stands for one sound; in other words there are more letters than sounds. Alllanguages have both consonants and vowels. Consonants are made with someobstruction of the vocal tract. Vowels are produced with the vocal tract more open andthey produce sonorous sound (De Mado, 2008) Again, teachers must remember to show students that the sounds in wordsconvey meaning. Depending on which word is stressed, a sentence can take ondifferent meaning. In the following examples each underlined portion of the samesentence place greater emphasis on a different group of words providing a differentmeaning in oral communication, especially when used with non- verbal cues forreinforcement. 148
  • 149. 1. This accountant was prepared for auditing. 2. This accountant was prepared for auditing. 3. This accountant was prepared for auditing. Despite this emphasis on individual words, it is important, however, to considerthat speakers usually produce their thoughts in word chains blended together by soundflows between words without stopping after each word. (Orion, 1997). For these reasons it is important when working in any TESOL environment,including intermediate and advance learners of business English, to speak at a slowenough and use simple vocabulary to help the listening and processing process ofthose learners. At the same time it is important to observe their body language to obtainclues of whether they understand the verbally communicated messages. Because of the increasing language capacities of most business communicationlearners (beyond the beginning level of English, especially in the other three languageskills the reinforce the speaking skill), teaching techniques can generally increase incomplexity, especially after some review and practice for recalling prior knowledge hasbeen completed.  Teachers should show students how to use new words in meaningful ways by participating in simulations of business related conversations, asking and answering questions(within the conversation) and otherwise, find different ways to express thoughts , request information from others and other creative ways for developing learners listening and speaking skills.( Brown, 1994) 149
  • 150. But business organizations employing must people in today’s fast communicatingworld are large multinationals that generally use American Standard English. TheAmerican sport- friendly culture has provided business communications with words andspeech patterns from sports, body parts, and even figurative language associated withanimals American Business English has incorporated and amplified lexical with phrasesand new expressions that learners from other cultures, the world over, are graduallyassimilating in order to keep up with their American business associates in moreapproachable terms. Business people in different countries understand the meaning of 1. A “bull market” or a “bear market” 2. Sports Idioms and Expressions Also, originating in the United States is a tendency to use sports idiomsand expressions in business. This practice is gradually being incorporated in thebusiness lexicon in other countries due to the cultural influence of the US mediaworldwide, and migratory movement of students and professional business people asNative Americans or assimilated to the US culture. Many expressions in the businessworld come from baseball, the US national pastime. For instance, to “touch base”, inthis form of informal communication, means “to contact someone. Sports such asfootball boxing, horseracing and others have also contributed interesting phrases ofcurrent uses in business and other settings. (Gast, 2010) presents an interesting list ofthese expressions that business TESOL teachers in the US and abroad should findinteresting. 150
  • 151. B. Writing SkillsHaving considered the oral skills of listening and speaking, it is now time for us to turnour attention to reading and writing. While the natural way of language acquisition (andschool teaching) focus on reading before writing, we will look at writing first since in thebusiness world read what already has been written.  The productive aspect of communication (writing comes first), and it must be done according to the demands of readers. In other words, business writing must be user friendly and based on the user’s reading needs.  The teaching of English writing for business purposes represents a greater effort than with the oral skills. Some business writing must be done in an informal tone while others require more formal formats. However, in both cases, much care must be taken to prevent mistakes and misunderstandings.  Teachers of business writing need to explain and show learners too that each type of business document has to be presented in its unique format or layout styles that help obtain efficiency in business operations. With standards formats businesses can resort to mechanization of systems and procedures for managing similar types of information and documents. Word processors and other computer programs can store these formats; information can be quickly emptied into each format and be transferred to different users.  Word processors are not only helpful in formatting business documents. Writers can also use these computer programs to check- spell words, correct grammar problems, make better word choice, highlight important ideas and facilitate revisions. 151
  • 152.  However, business writing teachers still need to show learners ways for observing and ensuring appropriate document appearance, tone, grammar, and punctuation rules, clarity and coherence, as well as persuasive techniques. In addition, business writing may be accompanied with charts, graphs, different types of models, technical symbols, drawings, or scales that serve to illustrate points made in writing. These are all additional burdens that are inherent to writing in general and especially significant for providing details in business writing. Nevertheless, the formal nature of business and the need to keep permanentrecords of communications make it necessary for all businesses, particularly largemultinationals with large flows of information and investments to make widespread useof writing. Multinational are the largest global businesses, and they do great amount ofinternal communication as well as external communications with other multinationalusing English language for writing and dissemination of information. Following thesurfacing of the Internet, business writing has become an increasingly important form ofglobal communication. The following are a few examples of documents that can betransmitted via the internet: - Business letters - Internal memo - Technical reports - E-books - Promotional materials - Contracts As a result, the production (supply of all types of business materials including thehighest level of technical journal for specialist in different subjects and topics must beproduced as demanded by actual and potential users in terms of content and style. 152
  • 153.  Business TESOL teachers must therefore show the different formats and styles required for each type of document. Clear presentation of the content in ways that facilitate understanding remains highly important too. Proper language use and grammar are relevant aspects that teachers need to instill in learners around everywhere. Multinational companies have found that market integration and productstandardization supports mass production that reduces information, production andmarketing costs. The use of a standard language for rapid, efficient communicationcontinues to be a powerful tool that reduces costs and produces extraordinary benefitsin all business areas from the global perspective. Some types of businesscommunication techniques and format are applicable to any type of business activity;their broad scope of use makes them indispensable in the business world. Business correspondence, for example, acquires an extraordinary importance givenits greater formality, accountability and usefulness for reviewing compliance withpolicies and standards. Again, the more cost-effective and flexible way for distributionand storage of valuable information is the written form; clarity, conciseness, andcoherence are requisites for good business writing. Writing style and business usage are also important:  Writers’ use of personal pronouns is important in letters and memorandums. In this type of personal communication it is appropriate to refer to yourself as “I” and to the reader as “You”. 153
  • 154.  In a report, however, you may be referring to a group of readers that are not communicating on a personal level with the writer. Use of personal pronoun it is not appropriate in such cases. Instead of the personal pronoun ‘YOU’, It might be more appropriate to use a phrase such as “the reader”.  When expressing your opinion, it is appropriate to use the personal pronoun I; but, when the statement represents a company policy or activity, use “We”. (Brusaw. et. al. 1987) A clear style can be achieved by following the steps of the writing process: 1. Preparation 2. Research 3.Organization 4. Writing the draft, and 5. Revision No element is so essential to business writing than clarity. The main elements thatcontribute to clarity are: 1. Logical development 2. Unity 3. Coherence 4. Emphasis 5. Subordination 6. Pace 7. Transition 8. Established point of view 9. Conciseness and word choice. 154
  • 155. Since business writing main concern is related to the production and use ofinformation, the elements required for quality information are closely related to theelements for quality business writing as can be observed in unit 1.  Teachers must emphasize these points because they are keys to business success in a competitive environment. As indicated in the previous chapter, conciseness can also enhance businesswriting. Effective writers make all words, sentences, and paragraphs count byeliminating unnecessary words and phrases. Similarly, as we have seen, coherence iswhen the writing moves logically and consistently from point to point. Many elementscontribute to smooth and coherent writing; however, the major components are:  A logical sequence of ideas, and  Clear transitions between ideas. Perhaps the most difficult part of business writing for many L2 learners is adapting tothe rules of direct, concise business writing. In many cultures elegant prose writing is acustom of educated people. Hispanic learners, for example, are not so familiarized withthe Standards American business protocol of brevity in business writing. Time is money.That is an important value in some parts of the world including the United States. Inbusiness writing an interesting code has been develop to speed up communications.Words such as ASAP meaning “as soon as possible” and many other acronyms areshown by (Gast, 2010) Although time is important in business, all writing will benefit from good use of timewhen revising and editing are done as part of the process. (Segal & Pavlik, 1996) it is 155
  • 156. always necessary to edit for content, organization, cohesion, style, grammar and form.This will ensure that your document has the proper content and presentationrequirements.  Business teachers should explain that it is better to re-write several drafts of a document until the message is well- sited to the audience and purpose than to risk significant cost due to mistakes and miscommunications or to lose clients and markets because of inadequate written expressions that easily could be edited using dictionaries and word processors. Writing is the most difficult language skill to learn for most L2 students. Writinginvolve the need to think logically and express the thoughts accurately and coherentlyaccording to specific rules, that if not observed by the writer, may make the writer lookas awkward as the writing that represents his language production.  Good writing, therefore, requires adherence to grammar, syntax, mechanics, spelling and punctuation rules as well as proper vocabulary or diction, consideration of the audience and purposes of the message.  Clarity, completeness and conciseness are key elements of good writing, as we have seen before, when dealing with the communication of diverse types of business information. Regardless of the type of business document the purpose and audience will havean impact on the words and templates used for presentation. Above all appropriateediting is critical to business writing since written communications remains as evidencenot only of what was expressed, but also how it was presented. It has the potentials of 156
  • 157. producing profitable outcomes as well as problems; moreover, writing can be used formultiple business purposes and in different environments. Among the most important business uses of writing (Brusaw et, al, 1987)mentioned: - Abstracts - Correspondences - Acceptance - Letters - Acknowledgement Letters - Adjustment Letters - Application Letters - Collection Letters - Complaint Letters - Credit Letters - Dictations - Form - Letters - Inquiry Letters and Responses - Memorandum - Order Letters - Reference Letters - Refusal Letters - Resignation Letter - Sales letters -Transmittal Letters - Descriptions - Executive Summaries - Forms Design - Instructions -Job Descriptions -Journal - Articles - Literature Reviews - Reports - Minutes of meetings - Newsletter Articles - News Releases - Policies and Procedures - Process Explanation - Internal Proposals - Sales Proposals - Questionnaires - Annual Reports - Formal Reports - Investigative Reports - Literature Reviews - Oral Presentations - Progress and Activity Reports -Trip Reports - Trouble Reports. To this list, many other business writing can be added. For example, business planwriting might be considered a special type of business proposal depending on the 157
  • 158. specific purpose and audience. (O’donnell, 1991.) Similarly, the preparation of a resumemight be considered a special type of proposal letter together with its correspondingcover letter. Many special purposes documents are also produced in written forms aspart of the accounting systems design and internal controls mechanisms. Consequently, in non-specialized business courses, the focus may be on someselected documents that represent the typical forms of communication betweenbusinesses and their clients. That is, different types of business correspondence.However, it is important to keep in mind that with the extended use of Internetnowadays, observing emails etiquette forms part of the of the requirements of formwhen dealing with correspondence. This is especially important to observe when writingdifferent types of business letters. When writing a business letter, be formal with your opening, especially if you arewriting to someone outside of the country. A proper, formal salutation is essential toany business correspondence. Letters that begin with an improper on nonexistentgreeting may offend the receiver. C.Reading Skills for BusinessTeaching reading skills for business can be one of the most fulfilling experiences inTESOL. Teachers and learners can discover treasured information that has direct,immediate application to concrete business situations. Teachers may see firsthand thereturns produced from investing time and efforts with learners as both get to understandways for increasing their productivity with new information. Significant productivityincrease is gained because the adult or near adult nature of most business students 158
  • 159. makes it possible for teachers and learners to use their experience and powers ofreasoning and judgment in reaching conclusions related to business operations andfunctions.(Laubach, et. al.,1991) Information gathering and use represent a fundamental aspect of all businesses.Reading is one of the most important ways of obtaining information. (Brown, 1997)teaches that an important business skills that can be developed from observations and[reading] is the ability to draw conclusions by piecing together what they know andanalyzing how these pieces of information fit together. Almost all teaching of business courses has to do with reading. The following arejust some examples of how important reading can be to teaching business courses ingeneral and business communication in particular:  Reading dialogs to simulate activities in real businesses  Biographies of business successful leaders  Real business cases  Market information,  Recent development in different industries from business sections in newspapers or journals. In some business fields reading is an important tool where case studies areemployed. Law studies, accounting and corporate finance, for example, (Brinham &Gapenski, 1992) Here each student is required to answer questions on each case.Group work is encouraged where students make presentations while other students and 159
  • 160. instructors serve as the Board of Directors asking questions much as the “real board”would do also takes place based on the reading of cases. Some business reading requires much more than merely literal reading. Justreading Financial Statements alone would be of little value. One can know how to readthe financial reports, but will also need specific tools to identify weaknesses, to spottrends, as well as to improve upon areas of strength. By using ratio analysis meaningfulcomparison and relationships between figures can be very helpful. (Tabet & Slater,1994) Reading is also an important skills in cases studies in areas like business law,and accounting. The reading selection may take the form of dialogues or narratives.Dialogues familiarize the student with common conversation patterns, and narrativesintroduce the student to office procedures. Each reading is followed by a series ofcomprehension and expansion exercises to give students ample opportunity for practiceand mastery. (Hoban, 1981) In addition to reading in classroom setting, reading techniques are also veryuseful in the business world. Business people constantly read publications such as:  The Wall Street Journal  Forbes Magazine  The Journal of Commerce  The Economist  Industries publications and others to obtain all type of information. 160
  • 161. Moreover, business people read numerous emails, memos, letters, reports andother business documents every day to gather information, follow instructions, makedecisions and obtain feedback from ongoing proposals and operations.  TESOL business teachers’ goal should be to help learners gain a proficiency in reading that allow the reading of an English text (book, newspaper, brochure, magazine, journal, report etc) and understand the meaning of the message as applied to a business situation. This may represent a great challenge for L2 learners, but the rewards are significantly high enough to warrant the effort in terms of the direct benefits to the participants and the potential external economies to the rest of the world. Although reading in a foreign language share some similarities with reading in anative language, second language business reading represent some special challengesand opportunities. On the positive side metacognitive strategies and skills used forreading in the native language are also useful in business English. Most students inthese courses can relate to these similarities given their age and background. Also the importance of their current work or future occupation creates greatinterest in reading to learn about issues of significance to them. On the other hand, thevocabulary and word order may represent some challenges learners faced with somewriting that may not have been adjusted to the cultural and academic level of eachparticular learner.  Teacher, then, have to pay special attention to these students specific needs. For example, business text commonly are presented for readers in 161
  • 162. LI countries at advance stages of English reading without much illustrations and graphic aid as often is the case with general English.  Teaching business reading may require greater teacher’s efforts in adapting foreign texts with diagrams, drawings and other representations based on experience in operating customs of business in the local context. This may also require additional information in the form of selected contextualized words to facilitate understanding, even if analogies have to be made with non- business concepts. (Pauk,1989) explains that L2 learners should not confuse translating withreading, and they must also learn to make intelligent guess. These recommendations are very important. Often, professionals and otherlearners with strong vocabulary or business background, resort to known words orphrases in the LI to associate as similar the meaning in both languages. This commonlyresult in significant departure from the meaning of the English text that causesdifficulties for adequate reading comprehension. The second recommendation relates to making intelligent guess. This is alsorelated to assuming vocabulary already known to be appropriate for any language anduses. In business, however, words and phrases have specific meaning according to thecontextual relation between those participating in the communication process as well asthe subject or occupation or what is known as professional jargon.  Teachers and learners must be aware of these technicalities in all languages and seek out the specific meaning accordingly by using tools 162
  • 163. such as encyclopedias, and specialized dictionaries to clarify the meaning before making a concluding inference. Also, it is important to keep in mind that the type of reading material and purposeof the reading will determine the kind of effort to details that is required for adequateunderstanding. Some documents such as external auditors report, for example, includefootnotes and supplemental information that constitutes integral part of the main reportand are important for complete understanding of the methods used for calculations andtechnical assumptions made in preparing some information. On the other hand a routineletter from an internal auditor reminding the departments heads about how follow a well-known company policy may not require the same amount of detailed attention as thefootnotes to financial statements. Furthermore, not all writing is produced with the same purpose or expecting thesame reaction from readers .For example, while most business letters with the purposeof persuading potential buyers to obtain a company’s product or services seek apositive response in a relatively short term, some social business letters do not promotebusiness; nevertheless, writing a letter of congratulation or appreciation can be a goodopportunity to build goodwill [and increase the accounting value of an organizationthrough its improved market image]. (Geffer, 1998)  Teachers must show readers how each type of reading materials imposes different requirements on the reader according to the complexity and purpose of the material. Of course, the strategies used for teaching reading also will depend both on the reader’s characteristic and the type of reading materials that characterized that reader’s need and interest. 163
  • 164. Given factors such as adult characteristic and the heavy dependence onspecialized professional vocabulary most business TESOL teachers find it appropriatethat make emphasis on both comprehension and production using whole word, lexicalchunks and grammar points instead of teaching based on phonics which seems moreuseful for teaching children and beginners level in general English courses . Focusingon the meaning of words in context provide business learners new ways to recognizeand to join with ideas related to business functions and ways of expressing typicalactivities in that environment. It also allows them to tap into their experience to helpachieve better understanding of the reading tasks. (Podnecky, 2002). A good way to facilitate comprehension of the textbook [ or other materialsspecially prepared by the business English teacher] is give ESOL learners the additionalsupport of knowing the meaning of difficult or technical vocabulary and key conceptsbefore they’re assigned to read the[material] ( Reiss, 2001) Also, teachers can show how chapter titles, section headings, subsectionheadings can help learners organize their thinking about the out the information thatfollows. Questions and outlines at the beginning of each chapter focus learners’thoughts on the concepts and ideas about to be presented. Chapter summaries,topics for review, and questions for reflection or discussion at the end of chapters allowlearners to do comprehension checks and engage in critical thinking. (Reiss, 2001) (De Bravo, 1984) applies an interesting method with students of businessEnglish in which she present reading topics followed by vocabulary, grammarstructure’s and exercises for writing and oral practice. This method allows students toget a general idea of the lesson with the help of reading to get initial interest and clues 164
  • 165. of the topics so that comprehension can be facilitated by first seeing the context inwhich the words and grammar structures are used. Fluency reading complemented withvocabulary in context, grammar points, lexical chunks, and opportunities for oral andwritten exercises using the materials already read work together for integrating all fourlanguage skills. (Wegmann & Knezevic, 1996) presents several reading skills that can be appliedto business teaching: reading for a specific purpose; selecting the main idea; guessingmeaning from context; reading statistical chart; identifying general and specificstatements; using heading as guides; stating key ideas; answering specific points ofarguments; identifying support for ideas; separating fact from opinion; analyzing theevidence in graphs; making comparisons; making inference and drawing conclusions.Reading specialist generally recognize eight comprehension skills that teachers need toshow their learners: 1. Ability to distinguish and locate relevant information; 2. Ability to follow a sequence; 3. Ability to grasp the main idea; 4. Ability to note details; 5. Ability to determine organization; 6. Ability to follow directions; 7. Ability to read critically; and 8. Ability to organize and summarize (Kaluger & Kolson,1978) 165
  • 166. Some business documents may be difficult to read. Reading teachers must beaware of some factors that might impact the degree of leaner’s comprehension. Sincethe main purpose of all forms of communication is adequate understanding ofmessages, in order to help readers achieved this useful goal, teachers should look atthe following factors: 1. The physical and emotional condition of the reader. 2. In school environments, 3. Timely and appropriate assessments, 4. Institutional procedures for referral to specialists, and 5. Corresponding accommodation These factors are necessary to help some readers with physical or emotionalproblems. Individual instruction or private tutors and teachers can prove helpful in casesof business people needing help with reading in other situations, particularly whendealing with professionals than can and would often prefer this type of services forobvious reasons. Business TESOL teachers will face these challenges andopportunities both in countries of L2 learners as well as in mostly English speakingcountries. Some of these challenges are:  The interest of the reader in what the reading matter is about. Fortunately, most business TESOL learners are very interested in the materials since it represents a significant source of information and knowledge gathering related to an important part of their daily activities. 166
  • 167.  The difficulty of the material. The nature of business reading can be difficult for L2 learners due to numerous text structures.  Use of vocabulary related to professional jargon, unfamiliar words with different cultural meaning, as well as complex sentence structures can produce difficulties for learners. Teachers may have to provide additional information and scaffolding to helpstudents understand many business texts in the appropriate context due to the differingbackground of most students in business TESOL courses and the fact that in manyschool environments the business text are prepared in foreign countries. On the otherhand, business courses done as on- the job training or private classes provide theopportunity for teachers to prepare their own materials that correspond to the needs andproficiency level of learners, following an initial assessment and continuously monitoringof progress and feedback takes place to ensure the business of teaching businessTESOL is moving in the right direction with students effective comprehension. Different types of learner’s evaluation can be used to help teachers measure theirstudents’ progress in different types of reading comprehension. This will dependsignificantly upon the institutional context. For most school environments, evaluationsystems follow specific patterns and rules and timing. In these cases, teacher’schecklists, rating scales, skill inventories, and anecdotal records together with informalclassroom questions, workbook assignments, learner’s report and teacher- learner’sconference are used for evaluation at the level of application. 167
  • 168. On the other hand, evaluation of application comprehension in the context of on thejob training can be used to apply new skills to functional problems (real or hypotheticalrelated to businesses. Oral discussions with immediate feedback from instructor’s andother participants as well as practice to measure performance in activities requiringmastery of mechanical skills are important for helping learners apply knowledgeacquired by reading texts to work related situations. Evaluating critical comprehension is a different issue. In this case, learners must:  Demonstrate that they agree or disagree with parts or the whole arguments presented in the reading.  Learners must also show why and how they reached their conclusions. Again, oral presentation and debates focusing on critical aspects of agreementand disagreement from the reader’s point of view is the basic test of criticalcomprehension. Yet, teachers- made tests, reports by learners and teacher-learner’sconference are also other effective techniques to measure readers analysis of texts(Michaelis. et. al., 1967). D. Overcoming Language ProblemsTeachers should be aware that variances in accent, vocal articulations and vocabularymay complicate understanding between people from other cultures; therefore, it isalways important to speak clear with plain words and adequate voice to help learnersgrasp. This also implies that teachers must show learners the best way (polite forms) forrequesting clarifications. This skill continues to be of great significance in face- to face 168
  • 169. interactions and speech using technological channels. Fortunately, the EnglishLanguage has specific means that are very helpful for these purposes. In these situations, English auxiliary words such as could, would and may,together with the word “please” in the same expression represent standard forms thattransmit the type of meaning most likely to generate a positive response from thelistener. Since most business learners are already familiar with the English alphabet,asking for clarification by spelling out words may also lead to better understanding. Keep in mind that sometimes the individual facing difficulties to transmit an oralexpression in English may know how to do it in writing since writing receives moresupport than speaking for L2 learners in many countries. Moreover, the foreigncommunicators may have an idea of the written form from the help of dictionaries,encyclopedia, books or other text containing the words or phrases. Further, L2 businesslearners have few opportunities to practice using business English terms andexpressions even in countries where English is commonly used in other situations. Therefore, it is always a good idea to try the usefulness of the followingexpression: “could you please spell that”? These expression can go a long way for clarifications, and best of all, it presentsa persuasive way of asking for the information without pointing the blame for the lack ofunderstanding on any side to the communication process. 169
  • 170. The more ways an individual learn for asking polite request when in need ofclarification, the better the communication process would be, and a likely positiveoutcome for both parties; even among fluent English speakers clarifications may benecessary. Numerous factors may cause misunderstanding, not just linguistic or culturalelements. Teaching polite ways of asking for clarifications is another significant way ofreducing global costs due to mistakes or misunderstanding while at the same timecontributing to cooperation and the expansion of global business.Assignments - Value 14.0 points 1. Read the following text and prepare a summary indicating the main points and supporting details. Explain what do you think is the purpose of the text? “All nations are coming closer each day, and the English language is playing an important role in this process. Other factors such as modern transportation and telecommunication systems, the Internet, and the expansion of world trade and international migration all depend significantly on the use of English. This language is a key element for the continual development of these and many other trends. English is by far the main instrument for communication among nations and the main language of the United States of America the world’s leading economic power. For these reasons, being a native English speaker represents a great advantage; it is one of the most valuable assets that any individual can display in today’s world. This asset, however, cannot be placed 170
  • 171. in effective use without the help of pedagogical instruments adapted to local conditions for making the inputs comprehensible and interesting to the English language learners from different cultures and backgrounds”2. Describe the importance of each basic language skills to TESOL Business.3. Explain three ways of helping learners to develop the basic language skills.4. What special challenges do you think an L2 Business English learners will face with learning listening skills?5. How can modern technologies help learners of language skills in the business environment?6. Research online how to write a persuasive business letter, and present an example of you trying to sell the teacher a product with discount. Remember that the letter must be formatted at the top with the date and the name and full address of the person to whom you are writing and your salutation line should be two spaces below the last line of the address.7. Research on line the appropriate words and style to use when preparing a resume. Following those guidelines write your resume to the American TESOL Institute. You must include a cover letter with the resume. Be sure to indicate the country of preference for the job and whether you’re looking to work with children, General or Business English.8. Research online the guidelines for writing a persuasive letter. Select any topic from your hard copy text (The ESL Guide to American Business English), and 171
  • 172. write a persuasive letter of approximately 300 to 400 words directed to a friend indicating why he/ she should study the selected topic. Suggested ReadingsBrigman, Eugene F. & Gapenski, Louis C. Cases in Financial Management Module C.Dryden Press. Orlando, Florida 1992.Brown, Douglas H. Teaching by Principles. An Interactive Approach to LanguagePedagogy. Prentice Hall Regents. Upper Saddle River, NJ.1994Brusaw, Charles T., Alred, Gerald G. & Oliu, Walter E. The Business Writer’sHandbook. Third Edition. Saint Martin’s Press. New York, NY 1987.Chamot, Anna Uhl, De Mado, John & Hollir, Sharroky. Longman Keystone B. Teacher’sEdition. Pearson. White Plain, NY 2008.De Bravo, M. Technical English for Business. Second Edition. McGraw Hill. Mexico1999.De Mado, John, Chamot, Anna Uhl & Hollie, Sharroky. Keystone B Teacher’s Edition.Pearson Longman. White Plains, NY 2008Finocchiaro, Mary. Teaching English as a Second Language. Harper and RowPublisher. New York, NY 1969.Folland, David & Robertson, David. 1984. The Conversation Class- It’s Goals and Form. 172
  • 173. Hellen Moorewood Ed. Selections from Modern English Teacher, p.12-14. Longman.Gast, Nathalie. Perfect Phrases for ESL Everyday Business life. McGraw Hill. NewYork 2010.Geffer Andrea. ESL Guide to American Business English. Barron’s Educational SeriesInc. New York. 1998.Hewings, Martin. Pronunciation Tasks. A course for pre- intermediate learners.Student’s Book. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. Great Britain. 1993.Hoban, Yvonne. English for the Secretary: Instrumental English. McGraw-Hill. TxJohnson, Ruth. Literacy Volunteers of America. Fourth Edition. 1997Kaluger, George & Kolson, Clifford J. Reading and Learning Disabilities. SecondEdition. Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company. Columbus, OH 1978Laubach Literacy Action. Teaching Adults AN ESL Resource Book. New ReadersPress. Syracause, NY 1996.Laubach, Frank C. Kirk, Elizabeth Mooney & Laubach, Roberts. Way to Reading.Teachers’ manual for Skill Book 1. New readers Press. Syracuse, NY 1991.Michaelis, John, Grossman, Ruth & Schott, Loyd F. New designs for the ElementarySchool Curriculum. McGraw-Hill, Inc. New York, NY 1967. 173
  • 174. Orion, Gertrude F. Pronouncing American English. Sounds, Stress, and Intonation.Second Edition. Heinle & Heinle Publishers. International Thomson PublishingCompany. 1997.O’donnell, Michael. Writing Business Plans that Get Results. A Step-by-Step Guide.Contemporary Books. Chicago, IL 1991Pauk, Walter. How To Study In College. Fourth Edition. Houghton Miffilin Company.Boston, 1989.Podnecky, Janet.et.al. LifePrints ESL for Adults. Teacher’s Edition. Second Edition.New Readers Press. Syracuse, N.Y. 2002Reiss, Jodi. ESOL Strategies For Teaching Content. Facilitating Instruction for EnglishLanguage Learners. Merrill Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, NJ 2001.Sabath, Ann Marie. Business Etiquette. Second Edition. Career Press. Franklin Lakes,NJ 2002.Tabet, Joseph & Slater, Jeffrey. Financial Essentials for Small Business Success.Accounting, Planning and Recordkeeping Techniques for a Healthy Bottom Line.Upstart Publishing Company, Inc. Dover, NH 1994Wegman, Brenda. A Reading Skills Book. The McGraw-Hills Companies, Inc. NewYork, NY 1996 174