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Tesfu fekensa

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Biodiversity

Biodiversity

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  • 1. Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity Discussion Held with Stakeholders on Biodiversity and Ecosystem management Tesfu Fekensa (M.Sc.) December, 2013 Samara
  • 2. Outline 1) What is Biodiversity? 2) Components of Biodiversity 3) How many species are there worldwide? 4) Distributions of Biodiversity 5) Why we conserve Biodiversity ? 6) Conservation and the Law 7) Trends in biological resources uses 8) Responses to unsustainable use 9) Conclusion
  • 3. 1. “Biodiversity” Biodiversity, or Biological diversity The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), agreed at the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio De Janeiro, defines biodiversity or ‘biological diversity’ as: ‘the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.’
  • 4.  The sum of an area’s organisms, considering the diversity of species, their genes, their populations, and their communities.  Comprised of Plant, Animal & Microbial diversity  Resources of actual or potential value for humanity Cont’ 4
  • 5.  As all organisms and ecosystems are interconnected, the presence or absence of an organism may affect the overall ecological communities and the ecosystem processes as a whole. Cont’ 5
  • 6. 2. Components of Biodiversity o Biodiversity exists on several levels :can be expressed as genetic, species, ecosystem diversity. Genetic diversity Species diversity Ecosystem diversity 6
  • 7.  Genetic Diversity: Includes the differences in DNA composition among individuals within a given species. Species Diversity: the number or variety of species in a particular region.  Ecosystem Diversity: Includes diversity above the species level. It might comprise: Community diversity, Habitat diversity Landscape diversity etc 7
  • 8. 3. How many species are there?  It is estimated that there are 11 million species currently living on earth, with only 2 million of this number actually documented (Chapman 2009). This implies that most of the species are still unknown to researchers.
  • 9.  Some organism groups are relatively well inventoried: Mammals 5,500 species; Birds 10,000 species; Fish 30,000 species; Plants 310,000 species.  Other groups, such as Insects, remain largely underrepresented. Estimates of insect diversity range between 2 and 7 million species. Cont’ What about in our prospective? Artemia salina, salinity and high temperature tolerant fish spp.?? 9
  • 10. Size of each organism is scaled to its number of species. Mammals are located in front of the insect’s mandibles. 4. Distribution of biodiversity 10
  • 11. 5. Why we Conserve Biodiversity ?  Biodiversity play an important role in the functioning of ecosystems (i.e. the activities, processes or properties of ecosystems, such as decomposition of organic matter, soil nutrient cycling and water retention), and consequently in the provisioning of ecosystem services. i.e. ‘the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems’. 11
  • 12.  Ecosystem services have been categorized into four broad categories: 1. Provisioning services such as food, water, timber, and fiber; 2. Regulating services that affect climate, floods, disease (Biological control ), wastes, and water quality; 3. Cultural services that provide recreational, aesthetic, and spiritual benefits; and 4. Supporting services such as soil formation, photosynthesis, Pollination, and nutrient cycling (MEA, 2004). Cont’ 12 THE VALUE OF GLOBAL ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IS ESTIMATED AT $16-$64 TRILLION.
  • 13.  The most important legal framework in the conservation of biodiversity is The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), agreed at the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio De Janeiro, which came into force on December 29th 1993. 6. Conservation and the law 13
  • 14.  It has 3 main objectives: 1) the conservation of biological diversity; 2) the sustainable use of the components of biological diversity and 3) the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources. The convention is one of the most widely ratified (193 parties) including Ethiopia. 14
  • 15. 7. Trends in biological resources uses 15  Biological use was harmonious with ecological system  Growing population, increased demand, mismanagement, etc (until 60s). changed the use type o stressful to ecosystem o forests decimated beyond recovery level o loss and migration of wild animals o soil seed banks exposed to dehydration o loss of soil moisture o Invasive Alien Species expansion etc
  • 16. 8. Responses to unsustainable use 16 • After 1970’s, Gene Banks were beginning to be established • In 1976 Ethiopia’s PGRC was established • Then after, the concept of international agreements on genetic resources was born. Ethiopia Ratified the convention in 1994 Promoted PGRC to the Institute level catering for Plants, Animals and Microbial Genetic Resources.
  • 17. Thus, EIB is the mandated institute in implementing those legal framework. Mission of EIB  Promote the vital contribution of biodiversity to socio economic growth and development, and environmental improvement through: 1. Conservation, 2. Sustainable use of biological resources & IK 3. Ensure equitable sharing of benefits 17
  • 18. EIB 6. Accomplishments Conservation Sustainable utilization Access and Benefit sharing In situ Ex situ Cold room Field Gene bank Accessions distributed to research institutions Agreements EIB 18
  • 19.  Biodiversity is the foundation of ecosystem services to which human well-being is intimately linked. 9. Conclusion  Biodiversity is necessary to: - improve sustainability development, - Poverty reduction and - cope with climate change 19
  • 20.  Biodiversity is one of the important cornerstone of sustainable development and represents the biological wealth of a given nation.  We still have little idea of how many species inhabit our planet. 20  Thus, collaborative work is vitally needed with cross - sectoral bodies.
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