Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity
Discussion Held with Stakeholders on
Biodiversity and Ecosystem management
Tesfu Fekensa (M.Sc.)
1) What is Biodiversity?
2) Components of Biodiversity
3) How many species are there worldwide?
4) Distributions of Biodiversity
5) Why we conserve Biodiversity ?
6) Conservation and the Law
7) Trends in biological resources uses
8) Responses to unsustainable use
Biodiversity, or Biological diversity
The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity
(CBD), agreed at the UN Conference on Environment and
Development in Rio De Janeiro, defines biodiversity or
‘biological diversity’ as: ‘the variability among living
organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial,
marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological
complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity
within species, between species and of ecosystems.’
The sum of an area’s organisms, considering
the diversity of species, their genes, their
populations, and their communities.
Comprised of Plant, Animal & Microbial diversity
Resources of actual or potential value for humanity
As all organisms and ecosystems are interconnected, the
presence or absence of an organism may affect the
overall ecological communities and the ecosystem
processes as a whole.
2. Components of Biodiversity
o Biodiversity exists on several levels :can be
expressed as genetic, species, ecosystem diversity.
Genetic diversity Species diversity
Genetic Diversity: Includes the differences in
DNA composition among individuals within a given
Species Diversity: the number or variety of species
in a particular region.
Ecosystem Diversity: Includes diversity above the
It might comprise: Community diversity,
Landscape diversity etc
3. How many species are there?
It is estimated that there are 11 million species
currently living on earth, with only 2 million of this
number actually documented (Chapman 2009). This
implies that most of the species are still unknown to
Some organism groups are relatively well
inventoried: Mammals 5,500 species;
Birds 10,000 species;
Fish 30,000 species;
Plants 310,000 species.
Other groups, such as Insects, remain largely
underrepresented. Estimates of insect diversity
range between 2 and 7 million species.
What about in our prospective?
Artemia salina, salinity and high temperature tolerant fish spp.??
Size of each
scaled to its
in front of
4. Distribution of biodiversity
5. Why we Conserve Biodiversity ?
Biodiversity play an important role in the
functioning of ecosystems (i.e. the activities, processes
or properties of ecosystems, such as decomposition of
organic matter, soil nutrient cycling and water
retention), and consequently in the provisioning of
i.e. ‘the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems’.
Ecosystem services have been
categorized into four broad
1. Provisioning services such as food,
water, timber, and fiber;
2. Regulating services that affect climate,
floods, disease (Biological control ),
wastes, and water quality;
3. Cultural services that provide
recreational, aesthetic, and
spiritual benefits; and
4. Supporting services such as soil
formation, photosynthesis, Pollination, and
nutrient cycling (MEA, 2004).
THE VALUE OF GLOBAL ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IS ESTIMATED AT
The most important legal framework in the
conservation of biodiversity is The United Nations
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), agreed at
the UN Conference on Environment and Development
in Rio De Janeiro, which came into force on December
6. Conservation and the law
It has 3 main objectives:
1) the conservation of biological diversity;
2) the sustainable use of the components of biological
3) the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising
out of the utilization of genetic resources.
The convention is one of the most widely ratified
(193 parties) including Ethiopia.
7. Trends in biological resources uses
Biological use was harmonious with ecological system
Growing population, increased demand, mismanagement, etc
(until 60s). changed the use type
o stressful to ecosystem
o forests decimated beyond recovery level
o loss and migration of wild animals
o soil seed banks exposed to dehydration
o loss of soil moisture
o Invasive Alien Species expansion etc
8. Responses to unsustainable use
• After 1970’s, Gene Banks were beginning to be established
• In 1976 Ethiopia’s PGRC was established
• Then after, the concept of international agreements on
genetic resources was born.
Ratified the convention in 1994
Promoted PGRC to the Institute level catering for Plants,
Animals and Microbial Genetic Resources.
Thus, EIB is the mandated institute in implementing those legal framework.
Mission of EIB
Promote the vital contribution of biodiversity to socio
economic growth and development, and environmental
2. Sustainable use of biological resources & IK
3. Ensure equitable sharing of benefits
In situ Ex situ
to research institutions
Biodiversity is the foundation of ecosystem
services to which human well-being is intimately linked.
Biodiversity is necessary to:
- improve sustainability development,
- Poverty reduction and
- cope with climate change
Biodiversity is one of the important cornerstone
of sustainable development and represents the
biological wealth of a given nation.
We still have little idea of how many species inhabit our
Thus, collaborative work is vitally needed with
cross - sectoral bodies.