Healthy Living - Chapter 9 - Nutrition


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Terry L. Patterson

Director of Distance Learning

South Arkansas Community College

PO Box 7010

El Dorado, Arkansas 71731

(870) 864-8406 - 800-955-2289 ext. 406

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  • If you are planning to conceive then you should change to a healthy lifestyle immediately and continue throughout your pregnancy and post pregnancy. After all a healthy mother is a happy mother and will produce a happy, healthy baby. Recommended supplements for moms to be is CALCIUM. Very important,
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Healthy Living - Chapter 9 - Nutrition

  1. 1. Nutrition
  2. 2. Diet <ul><li>A diet is one’s usual pattern of food choices. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor diet is a risk factor for serious chronic diseases that are major killers of Americans, such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain cancers </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Nutrients and Non-Nutrients <ul><li>Nutrients are substances in food needed for growth, repair, and maintenance of cells. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some nutrients regulate cellular activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some nutrients supply energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-nutrients are substances in food that are not needed by the body. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some provide health benefits. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some can be toxic. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Phytochemicals <ul><li>Non-nutrient substances produced by plants that may provide health benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>Fruits and vegetables are rich sources of antioxidant phytochemicals, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beta-carotene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lutein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthocyanin </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Antioxidants <ul><li>Antioxidants prevent or reduce the formation of free radicals, which are unstable and highly reactive atoms or compounds that can cause cellular damage. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Such damage may contribute to heart disease and certain cancers. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Natural and Health Foods <ul><li>Natural foods are not necessarily more nutritious than foods that are not described as “natural.” </li></ul><ul><li>Health foods such as honey, herbal teas, and cider vinegar provide nutrients, but there is little or no scientific evidence to support claims they prevent or treat various health conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Regardless of whether it’s natural or manufactured, a healthy food contributes to nutrient needs and is safe to eat. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Organic Foods <ul><li>Technically, any substance that contains the element carbon is organic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and vitamins contain carbon; therefore foods that consist of these nutrients are organic. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To be labeled “organic,” a food must meet certain standards. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, fruits and vegetables labeled organic must be grown without the use of synthetic pesticides or fertilizers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Organic foods are not nutritionally superior to foods grown using conventional farming methods. </li></ul>
  8. 8. What Happens to Food in Your Body? <ul><li>Digestion is the process of breaking down large food molecules into nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption is the passage of nutrients through intestinal walls and eventually into the blood. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Metabolism <ul><li>Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions that take place in the body. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These reactions are necessary to power muscular movements, synthesize and repair tissues, release and use energy, and produce enzymes and hormones. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of energy in food is commonly expressed as a number of “calories.” </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Energy Supplying Nutrients: Carbohydrates <ul><li>Plants supply most of the carbohydrates in the diet. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The simplest carbohydrates are sugars (monosaccharides). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruits, vegetables, and corn syrup are rich sources of monosaccharides. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose is blood sugar, a major energy source. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fructose is the sugar in fruits. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Starches are complex carbohydrates. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During digestion, starch is broken down into glucose molecules. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grains, beans, and certain vegetables are rich sources of starch. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Carbohydrates (continued) <ul><li>In the United States, carbohydrates constitute about 44% to 47% of the typical person’s caloric intake. </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended total carbohydrate intake is 55% to 65% of calories, primarily from starchy foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations for simple carbohydrate intake range from 10% to 25% of calories. </li></ul><ul><li>Health problems associated with carbohydrates include diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and lactose intolerance. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Myths About Carbohydrates <ul><li>Sugar does not cause hyperactivity, mental illness, or criminal behavior. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tooth decay is the only health problem clearly associated with sugar consumption. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Honey is not nutritionally superior to sugar, and it should not be given to infants. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Honey may contain bacterial spores that produce toxins and can be life threatening to infants. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Energy Supplying Nutrients: Fiber <ul><li>Plants make certain carbohydrates that the human body cannot digest. </li></ul><ul><li>This material is called fiber. </li></ul><ul><li>Soluble forms of fiber swell or dissolve in water. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich sources include apples, bananas, citrus fruits, carrots, kidney beans, and oats. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insoluble forms of fiber remains fairly unchanged in water. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich food sources include brown rice, wheat bran, and whole grain products. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Fiber and Health <ul><ul><li>Fiber helps prevent constipation, hemorrhoids, and diverticulosis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It may reduce the risk of colon and rectal cancers, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The average American does not consume enough fiber-rich foods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At least 25 grams of fiber are recommended each day. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Diabetes <ul><li>Diabetes mellitus ( diabetes ) is a group of chronic diseases characterized by the inability of the body to metabolize carbohydrates properly. </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin helps glucose (“blood sugar”) enter cells where it is metabolized for energy. </li></ul><ul><li>People suffering from diabetes produce no insulin, produce insufficient amounts of insulin, or respond abnormally to insulin. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a result, blood glucose levels rise to unhealthy levels. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Diabetes Mellitus (continued) <ul><li>Chronic high blood glucose levels can lead to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerve damage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the United States, poorly controlled diabetes is a major cause of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kidney failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blindness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower limb amputations </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Diabetes Mellitus (continued) <ul><li>Additionally, having diabetes greatly increases one’s risk of cardiovascular disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the most prevalent forms. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People with type 1 diabetes require daily injections of insulin. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although it can develop at any age, most cases are diagnosed in childhood. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Diabetes Mellitus (continued) <ul><li>Common signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listlessness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent urination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive thirst </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruity odor in breath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased appetite with weight loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision problems </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Diabetes Mellitus (continued) <ul><li>Most people with diabetes have type 2. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The typical type 2 diabetic is overweight, older than 40 years of age, and has a family history of the disease. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Since 1990, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased dramatically in the United States, particularly among black Americans and Hispanics. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The disease is also becoming more common among children and adolescents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity, physical inactivity, and poor diet contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes in children and adults. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Diabetes Mellitus (continued) <ul><li>Common signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive thirst </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive urination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In women, recurrent vaginal infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin sores that do not heal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Type 2 diabetes can often be controlled by making changes in diet and regular exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>Many diabetics, however, need to take medications to increase the production of insulin. </li></ul><ul><li>Routine health checkups are essential to lessening the long-term damaging effects of diabetes. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Metabolic Syndrome <ul><li>A condition that increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Signs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess abdominal fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slightly elevated fasting blood glucose levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevated blood lipid levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cause: poor dietary habits </li></ul>
  22. 22. Lactose Intolerance <ul><li>Condition that involves the body’s inability to metabolize the sugar in milk </li></ul><ul><li>Lactose intolerant people experience: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intestinal bloating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cramps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diarrhea, after consuming milk or milk products </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Lipids <ul><li>Lipids include cholesterol and triglycerides (fat). </li></ul><ul><li>Some fat is necessary for health. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each triglyceride has three fatty acids. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fatty acids can be saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Saturated fat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal foods generally contain more saturated fat than plant foods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palm and coconut oils are exceptions; they are rich plant sources of saturated fat. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Lipids (continued) <ul><ul><li>Monounsaturated fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Olives, peanuts, and canola oil are rich sources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyunsaturated fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corn, safflower, cottonseed, and walnut oils are rich sources </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Cholesterol <ul><li>Cholesterol is necessary for cell membranes and the production of vitamin D, bile, and certain hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>It is found only in animal foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Human body makes cholesterol. </li></ul><ul><li>High blood cholesterol levels associated with increased risk of heart disease. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Lipids and Health <ul><li>High-fat diets often result in unwanted weight gain. </li></ul><ul><li>Diets that supply too much saturated fat are associated with increased risk of heart disease. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In general, diets high in saturated fat raise blood cholesterol levels to a greater extent than diets that contain cholesterol. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Lipids and Health (continued) <ul><li>Omega-3 fatty acids are certain unsaturated fats that are associated with lower risk of heart disease and may improve joint mobility in people with rheumatoid arthritis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich food sources are canola and soybean oils, walnuts, flax seeds, and fatty fish from cold water (i.e., wild salmon, herring, tuna, and mackerel). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fish oil supplements are generally not recommended (high intakes of omega-3 fatty acids can lead to problems with clotting). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Hydrogenated Fat <ul><li>Hydrogenation process hardens liquid oils into more solid forms, such as margarine and shortening. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process makes unsaturated fat in oil more saturated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also produces an unhealthy type of fat called trans fatty acid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Saturated fat and trans fatty acids are harmful to health as they raise blood cholesterol levels. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Recommendations for Lipid Intakes <ul><li>Healthy adults should reduce total fat intake to 20% to 35% of calories. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No more than 10% of calories from saturated fat. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adults should limit cholesterol intake to no more than 300 mg per day. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Proteins <ul><li>Proteins are needed to build, maintain, and repair cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Comprised of 20 amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Nine amino acids must be supplied by diet (essential amino acids). </li></ul><ul><li>Complete proteins have all 9 essential amino acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete proteins lack one or more essential amino acids. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Protein Needs <ul><li>The average American consumes about twice the amount of protein needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Excess protein does not build more muscle. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the body needs energy, the extra amino acids are used for energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the body does not need energy, the extra amino acids is converted to fat and stored. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Vegetarian diets are based on plant rather than animal foods. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegans (total vegetarians) eat only plant foods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacto-vegetarians include dairy products. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacto-ovo-vegetarians consume eggs and dairy products. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vegetarian diets require careful planning to obtain all the essential amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. </li></ul>Vegetarian Diets
  33. 33. Nonenergy Supplying Nutrients: Vitamins <ul><li>Regulate growth, maintain tissues, and release energy from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats </li></ul><ul><li>Provide no calories (energy) </li></ul><ul><li>Needed in very small amounts </li></ul>
  34. 34. Classes of Vitamins <ul><li>Water-soluble vitamins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eight B vitamins and vitamin C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not stored in body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fat-soluble vitamins are A, D, E, and K </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excesses are generally stored in body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin A and D are the most toxic </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Nonenergy Supplying Nutrients: Antioxidants <ul><li>Antioxidants are compounds that protect cells by reducing or preventing free radical formation. </li></ul><ul><li>Include various phytochemicals, such as beta-carotene and vitamins E and C. </li></ul><ul><li>Antioxidant supplements are not recommended. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High doses may promote cancer cell growth. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be obtained by eating a variety of fruits, vegetables, and other plant foods. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Nonenergy Supplying Nutrients: Minerals <ul><li>Minerals are a group of elements that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulate chemical reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others are structural components contained in organic molecules (i.e. iron in hemoglobin and calcium in bone and teeth) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Small amounts are needed for health. </li></ul><ul><li>Excesses can create imbalances with other minerals or toxicity. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Calcium <ul><li>Calcium is the most plentiful mineral in the body. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium is needed for strong bones and teeth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is involved in regulating blood pressure, clotting blood, and muscular movements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bones store and release calcium as needed. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Osteoporosis <ul><ul><li>As people age, bones lose mineral density and strength. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a result, bones break easily. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bones in hip, spine, and wrist are most likely to break. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An estimated 10 million Americans over 50 years of age suffer from osteoporosis, especially menopausal women. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium-rich diet, weight-bearing exercise, vitamin D, and magnesium help maintain strong bones. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Iron <ul><li>Most of the body’s iron is in hemoglobin, which is in red blood cells. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The iron in hemoglobin picks up oxygen in the lungs and transports it to cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional disorders in the United States. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In severe cases, iron deficiency results in iron-deficiency anemia. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hemochromatosis (iron storage disease) can be deadly. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A simple blood test can detect this condition. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Water <ul><li>Essential to life—one would die within days without water. </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolves and transports material in the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lubricates joints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is involved in many chemical reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water is lost through perspiration, urination, breathing, and bowel movements. </li></ul><ul><li>Plain water, other beverages, and most foods, especially fruits and vegetables, supply water. </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol and caffeine act as diuretics, compounds that increase urinary loss of water. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Water (continued) <ul><li>Current recommendations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food and beverages should supply about 16 cups of water daily for men and 11 cups for women. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dehydration can be deadly. </li></ul><ul><li>Sports drinks replenish minerals and water that are lost during prolonged, heavy exercise in which considerable sweating occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Eating a variety of foods and drinking plain water before and during regular exercise meets the water needs for most people. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Planning a Nutritious Diet <ul><li>The key features of a nutritious diet are nutrient adequacy and nutrient balance. </li></ul><ul><li>By selecting a wide variety of foods you can usually obtain the essential nutrients you need. </li></ul><ul><li>“Everything in moderation” is the best approach to planning a well-balanced and nutritionally adequate diet. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>The Dietary Guidelines are a list of general recommendations that focus attention on the association between diet and chronic disease. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The key recommendations are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manage your weight at a healthy level. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be physically active daily. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consume a nutritionally adequate diet. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consume fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat dairy foods. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep foods safe to eat. </li></ul></ul></ul>The Dietary Guidelines: 2005
  44. 44. The Dietary Guidelines 2005 (continued) <ul><li>Consume 20% to 35% of calories from fat and limit your cholesterol intake to 300 mg daily. </li></ul><ul><li>Consume fiber-rich foods and limit your intake of sugary foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Restrict salt intake to less than 1 teaspoon daily. </li></ul><ul><li>If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation. Avoid alcohol if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, under 21, driving, or operating other machinery. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Using Nutritional Labeling <ul><li>The FDA requires nearly every packaged food to have a nutritional label, allowing consumers to determine the nutritional value of most packaged foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional labels provide information about: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cholesterol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. Across the Life Span <ul><li>Nutrition During Pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>From conception until birth, the developing embryo/fetus depends on its mother for nutrients. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A woman’s diet before conception has a significant impact on the health of her infant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women who are undernourished during pregnancy have a high risk of miscarrying, having premature or underweight babies, and delivering babies with birth defects. </li></ul></ul>
  47. 48. Across the Life Span (continued) <ul><li>Current Infant Feeding Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Provide breast milk and a supplement that contains vitamin D and iron for at least the first 12 months of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not feed solid foods before 4 months. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not feed fresh whole or reduced-fat cow’s milk before first birthday. </li></ul><ul><li>Iron-fortified formulas are acceptable, but women should consider benefits of breastfeeding. </li></ul>
  48. 49. Across the Life Span (continued) <ul><li>Child Nutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most children eat enough food to maintain normal growth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents serve as role models as children establish food preferences and eating habits. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eating breakfast is an important habit to develop early in life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor eating habits can result in: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty concentrating on school work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral problems </li></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 50. Across the Life Span (continued) <ul><li>Elderly Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Physical, social, psychological, and economic factors often influence the quality and quantity of an elderly person’s food intake. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result of aging, absorption of calcium, iron, and vitamins D and B 12 declines. </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin/mineral supplement may be needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Many communities offer feeding programs for the elderly such as Meals-on-Wheels and congregate meals. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to providing nutritious food, such programs offer social contact that can reduce the risk of depression. </li></ul>