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Chapter 9 - Healthy Living - Nutrition

Chapter 9 - Healthy Living - Nutrition






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    Chapter 9 - Healthy Living - Nutrition Chapter 9 - Healthy Living - Nutrition Presentation Transcript

    • Nutrition
    • Diet
      • A diet is one’s usual pattern of food choices.
      • Poor diet is a risk factor for serious chronic diseases that are major killers of Americans, such as:
        • Cardiovascular disease
        • Diabetes
        • Obesity
        • Certain cancers
    • Nutrients and Non-Nutrients
      • Nutrients are substances in food needed for growth, repair, and maintenance of cells.
        • Some nutrients regulate cellular activities.
        • Some nutrients supply energy.
      • Non-nutrients are substances in food that are not needed by the body.
        • Some provide health benefits.
        • Some can be toxic.
    • Phytochemicals
      • Non-nutrient substances produced by plants that may provide health benefits.
      • Fruits and vegetables are rich sources of antioxidant phytochemicals, including:
        • Beta-carotene
        • Lutein
        • Anthocyanin
    • Antioxidants
      • Antioxidants prevent or reduce the formation of free radicals, which are unstable and highly reactive atoms or compounds that can cause cellular damage.
        • Such damage may contribute to heart disease and certain cancers.
    • Natural and Health Foods
      • Natural foods are not necessarily more nutritious than foods that are not described as “natural.”
      • Health foods such as honey, herbal teas, and cider vinegar provide nutrients, but there is little or no scientific evidence to support claims they prevent or treat various health conditions.
      • Regardless of whether it’s natural or manufactured, a healthy food contributes to nutrient needs and is safe to eat.
    • Organic Foods
      • Technically, any substance that contains the element carbon is organic.
        • Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and vitamins contain carbon; therefore foods that consist of these nutrients are organic.
      • To be labeled “organic,” a food must meet certain standards.
          • For example, fruits and vegetables labeled organic must be grown without the use of synthetic pesticides or fertilizers.
      • Organic foods are not nutritionally superior to foods grown using conventional farming methods.
    • What Happens to Food in Your Body?
      • Digestion is the process of breaking down large food molecules into nutrients.
      • Absorption is the passage of nutrients through intestinal walls and eventually into the blood.
    • Metabolism
      • Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions that take place in the body.
        • These reactions are necessary to power muscular movements, synthesize and repair tissues, release and use energy, and produce enzymes and hormones.
        • The amount of energy in food is commonly expressed as a number of “calories.”
    • Energy Supplying Nutrients: Carbohydrates
      • Plants supply most of the carbohydrates in the diet.
        • The simplest carbohydrates are sugars (monosaccharides).
        • Fruits, vegetables, and corn syrup are rich sources of monosaccharides.
        • Glucose is blood sugar, a major energy source.
        • Fructose is the sugar in fruits.
      • Starches are complex carbohydrates.
          • During digestion, starch is broken down into glucose molecules.
          • Grains, beans, and certain vegetables are rich sources of starch.
    • Carbohydrates (continued)
      • In the United States, carbohydrates constitute about 44% to 47% of the typical person’s caloric intake.
      • Recommended total carbohydrate intake is 55% to 65% of calories, primarily from starchy foods.
      • Recommendations for simple carbohydrate intake range from 10% to 25% of calories.
      • Health problems associated with carbohydrates include diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and lactose intolerance.
    • Myths About Carbohydrates
      • Sugar does not cause hyperactivity, mental illness, or criminal behavior.
        • Tooth decay is the only health problem clearly associated with sugar consumption.
      • Honey is not nutritionally superior to sugar, and it should not be given to infants.
        • Honey may contain bacterial spores that produce toxins and can be life threatening to infants.
    • Energy Supplying Nutrients: Fiber
      • Plants make certain carbohydrates that the human body cannot digest.
      • This material is called fiber.
      • Soluble forms of fiber swell or dissolve in water.
        • Rich sources include apples, bananas, citrus fruits, carrots, kidney beans, and oats.
      • Insoluble forms of fiber remains fairly unchanged in water.
        • Rich food sources include brown rice, wheat bran, and whole grain products.
    • Fiber and Health
        • Fiber helps prevent constipation, hemorrhoids, and diverticulosis.
        • It may reduce the risk of colon and rectal cancers, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes.
        • The average American does not consume enough fiber-rich foods.
            • At least 25 grams of fiber are recommended each day.
    • Diabetes
      • Diabetes mellitus ( diabetes ) is a group of chronic diseases characterized by the inability of the body to metabolize carbohydrates properly.
      • Insulin helps glucose (“blood sugar”) enter cells where it is metabolized for energy.
      • People suffering from diabetes produce no insulin, produce insufficient amounts of insulin, or respond abnormally to insulin.
        • As a result, blood glucose levels rise to unhealthy levels.
    • Diabetes Mellitus (continued)
      • Chronic high blood glucose levels can lead to:
        • Hypertension
        • Loss of vision
        • Nerve damage
      • In the United States, poorly controlled diabetes is a major cause of:
        • Kidney failure
        • Blindness
        • Lower limb amputations
    • Diabetes Mellitus (continued)
      • Additionally, having diabetes greatly increases one’s risk of cardiovascular disease.
      • Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the most prevalent forms.
        • People with type 1 diabetes require daily injections of insulin.
        • Although it can develop at any age, most cases are diagnosed in childhood.
    • Diabetes Mellitus (continued)
      • Common signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes:
        • Lack of energy
        • Listlessness
        • Frequent urination
        • Excessive thirst
        • Fruity odor in breath
        • Increased appetite with weight loss
        • Vision problems
    • Diabetes Mellitus (continued)
      • Most people with diabetes have type 2.
        • The typical type 2 diabetic is overweight, older than 40 years of age, and has a family history of the disease.
      • Since 1990, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased dramatically in the United States, particularly among black Americans and Hispanics.
        • The disease is also becoming more common among children and adolescents.
        • Obesity, physical inactivity, and poor diet contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes in children and adults.
    • Diabetes Mellitus (continued)
      • Common signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes:
        • Excessive thirst
        • Excessive urination
        • Vision problems
        • In women, recurrent vaginal infections
        • Skin sores that do not heal
      • Type 2 diabetes can often be controlled by making changes in diet and regular exercise.
      • Many diabetics, however, need to take medications to increase the production of insulin.
      • Routine health checkups are essential to lessening the long-term damaging effects of diabetes.
    • Metabolic Syndrome
      • A condition that increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes
      • Signs:
        • Excess abdominal fat
        • Slightly elevated fasting blood glucose levels
        • Elevated blood lipid levels
        • Hypertension
      • Cause: poor dietary habits
    • Lactose Intolerance
      • Condition that involves the body’s inability to metabolize the sugar in milk
      • Lactose intolerant people experience:
        • Intestinal bloating
        • Cramps
        • Diarrhea, after consuming milk or milk products
    • Lipids
      • Lipids include cholesterol and triglycerides (fat).
      • Some fat is necessary for health.
        • Each triglyceride has three fatty acids.
          • Fatty acids can be saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated.
      • Saturated fat
        • Animal foods generally contain more saturated fat than plant foods.
        • Palm and coconut oils are exceptions; they are rich plant sources of saturated fat.
    • Lipids (continued)
        • Monounsaturated fat
          • Olives, peanuts, and canola oil are rich sources
        • Polyunsaturated fat
          • Corn, safflower, cottonseed, and walnut oils are rich sources
    • Cholesterol
      • Cholesterol is necessary for cell membranes and the production of vitamin D, bile, and certain hormones.
      • It is found only in animal foods.
      • Human body makes cholesterol.
      • High blood cholesterol levels associated with increased risk of heart disease.
    • Lipids and Health
      • High-fat diets often result in unwanted weight gain.
      • Diets that supply too much saturated fat are associated with increased risk of heart disease.
        • In general, diets high in saturated fat raise blood cholesterol levels to a greater extent than diets that contain cholesterol.
    • Lipids and Health (continued)
      • Omega-3 fatty acids are certain unsaturated fats that are associated with lower risk of heart disease and may improve joint mobility in people with rheumatoid arthritis.
        • Rich food sources are canola and soybean oils, walnuts, flax seeds, and fatty fish from cold water (i.e., wild salmon, herring, tuna, and mackerel).
          • Fish oil supplements are generally not recommended (high intakes of omega-3 fatty acids can lead to problems with clotting).
    • Hydrogenated Fat
      • Hydrogenation process hardens liquid oils into more solid forms, such as margarine and shortening.
        • Process makes unsaturated fat in oil more saturated
        • Also produces an unhealthy type of fat called trans fatty acid
      • Saturated fat and trans fatty acids are harmful to health as they raise blood cholesterol levels.
    • Recommendations for Lipid Intakes
      • Healthy adults should reduce total fat intake to 20% to 35% of calories.
        • No more than 10% of calories from saturated fat.
      • Adults should limit cholesterol intake to no more than 300 mg per day.
    • Proteins
      • Proteins are needed to build, maintain, and repair cells.
      • Comprised of 20 amino acids
      • Nine amino acids must be supplied by diet (essential amino acids).
      • Complete proteins have all 9 essential amino acids.
      • Incomplete proteins lack one or more essential amino acids.
    • Protein Needs
      • The average American consumes about twice the amount of protein needed.
      • Excess protein does not build more muscle.
        • If the body needs energy, the extra amino acids are used for energy.
        • If the body does not need energy, the extra amino acids is converted to fat and stored.
      • Vegetarian diets are based on plant rather than animal foods.
        • Vegans (total vegetarians) eat only plant foods.
        • Lacto-vegetarians include dairy products.
        • Lacto-ovo-vegetarians consume eggs and dairy products.
      • Vegetarian diets require careful planning to obtain all the essential amino acids, vitamins, and minerals.
      Vegetarian Diets
    • Nonenergy Supplying Nutrients: Vitamins
      • Regulate growth, maintain tissues, and release energy from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
      • Provide no calories (energy)
      • Needed in very small amounts
    • Classes of Vitamins
      • Water-soluble vitamins
        • Eight B vitamins and vitamin C
        • Not stored in body
      • Fat-soluble vitamins are A, D, E, and K
        • Excesses are generally stored in body
        • Vitamin A and D are the most toxic
    • Nonenergy Supplying Nutrients: Antioxidants
      • Antioxidants are compounds that protect cells by reducing or preventing free radical formation.
      • Include various phytochemicals, such as beta-carotene and vitamins E and C.
      • Antioxidant supplements are not recommended.
        • High doses may promote cancer cell growth.
      • Can be obtained by eating a variety of fruits, vegetables, and other plant foods.
    • Nonenergy Supplying Nutrients: Minerals
      • Minerals are a group of elements that:
        • Regulate chemical reactions
        • Others are structural components contained in organic molecules (i.e. iron in hemoglobin and calcium in bone and teeth)
      • Small amounts are needed for health.
      • Excesses can create imbalances with other minerals or toxicity.
    • Calcium
      • Calcium is the most plentiful mineral in the body.
        • Calcium is needed for strong bones and teeth.
        • It is involved in regulating blood pressure, clotting blood, and muscular movements.
        • Bones store and release calcium as needed.
    • Osteoporosis
        • As people age, bones lose mineral density and strength.
        • As a result, bones break easily.
            • Bones in hip, spine, and wrist are most likely to break.
        • An estimated 10 million Americans over 50 years of age suffer from osteoporosis, especially menopausal women.
        • Calcium-rich diet, weight-bearing exercise, vitamin D, and magnesium help maintain strong bones.
    • Iron
      • Most of the body’s iron is in hemoglobin, which is in red blood cells.
        • The iron in hemoglobin picks up oxygen in the lungs and transports it to cells.
      • Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional disorders in the United States.
        • In severe cases, iron deficiency results in iron-deficiency anemia.
      • Hemochromatosis (iron storage disease) can be deadly.
        • A simple blood test can detect this condition.
    • Water
      • Essential to life—one would die within days without water.
      • Water
        • Dissolves and transports material in the body
        • Eliminates wastes
        • Lubricates joints
        • Is involved in many chemical reactions
      • Water is lost through perspiration, urination, breathing, and bowel movements.
      • Plain water, other beverages, and most foods, especially fruits and vegetables, supply water.
      • Alcohol and caffeine act as diuretics, compounds that increase urinary loss of water.
    • Water (continued)
      • Current recommendations:
        • Food and beverages should supply about 16 cups of water daily for men and 11 cups for women.
      • Dehydration can be deadly.
      • Sports drinks replenish minerals and water that are lost during prolonged, heavy exercise in which considerable sweating occurs.
      • Eating a variety of foods and drinking plain water before and during regular exercise meets the water needs for most people.
    • Planning a Nutritious Diet
      • The key features of a nutritious diet are nutrient adequacy and nutrient balance.
      • By selecting a wide variety of foods you can usually obtain the essential nutrients you need.
      • “Everything in moderation” is the best approach to planning a well-balanced and nutritionally adequate diet.
      • The Dietary Guidelines are a list of general recommendations that focus attention on the association between diet and chronic disease.
        • The key recommendations are:
          • Manage your weight at a healthy level.
          • Be physically active daily.
          • Consume a nutritionally adequate diet.
          • Consume fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat dairy foods.
          • Keep foods safe to eat.
      The Dietary Guidelines: 2005
    • The Dietary Guidelines 2005 (continued)
      • Consume 20% to 35% of calories from fat and limit your cholesterol intake to 300 mg daily.
      • Consume fiber-rich foods and limit your intake of sugary foods.
      • Restrict salt intake to less than 1 teaspoon daily.
      • If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation. Avoid alcohol if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, under 21, driving, or operating other machinery.
    • Using Nutritional Labeling
      • The FDA requires nearly every packaged food to have a nutritional label, allowing consumers to determine the nutritional value of most packaged foods.
      • Nutritional labels provide information about:
        • Fat
        • Cholesterol
        • Sodium
        • Total carbohydrates
        • Fiber
        • Sugar
        • Protein
    • Across the Life Span
      • Nutrition During Pregnancy
      • From conception until birth, the developing embryo/fetus depends on its mother for nutrients.
        • A woman’s diet before conception has a significant impact on the health of her infant.
        • Women who are undernourished during pregnancy have a high risk of miscarrying, having premature or underweight babies, and delivering babies with birth defects.
    • Across the Life Span (continued)
      • Current Infant Feeding Recommendations
      • Provide breast milk and a supplement that contains vitamin D and iron for at least the first 12 months of life.
      • Do not feed solid foods before 4 months.
      • Do not feed fresh whole or reduced-fat cow’s milk before first birthday.
      • Iron-fortified formulas are acceptable, but women should consider benefits of breastfeeding.
    • Across the Life Span (continued)
      • Child Nutrition
        • Most children eat enough food to maintain normal growth.
        • Parents serve as role models as children establish food preferences and eating habits.
        • Eating breakfast is an important habit to develop early in life.
        • Poor eating habits can result in:
          • Lack of energy
          • Difficulty concentrating on school work
          • Behavioral problems
    • Across the Life Span (continued)
      • Elderly Nutrition
      • Physical, social, psychological, and economic factors often influence the quality and quantity of an elderly person’s food intake.
      • As a result of aging, absorption of calcium, iron, and vitamins D and B 12 declines.
      • Vitamin/mineral supplement may be needed.
      • Many communities offer feeding programs for the elderly such as Meals-on-Wheels and congregate meals.
      • In addition to providing nutritious food, such programs offer social contact that can reduce the risk of depression.