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Chapter 3

Chapter 3






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    Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Presentation Transcript

    • Stress and Its Management
    • Stress Definitions
      • Stress —a complex series of reactions, both psychological and physical, in response to demanding or threatening situations
      • Stressors —events that produce physical and psychological demands on a person
    • Stress Definitions (continued)
      • Distress —events or situations that produce negative or unwanted outcomes and are difficult to control
      • Eustress —events or situations that create demands on a person that result in positive outcomes (e.g., becoming a new parent, accepting a desired job)
        • Eustress can still have negative effects on the body and mind because it requires physical and psychological adjustments.
    • Response to Stress
      • Each person appraises a situation according to previous experiences and personality.
        • Some situations can have positive, neutral, or negative outcomes for different people.
    • Physiological Stressors
      • Exercise
      • Illness
      • Injury
      • Exposure to pollutants
      • Exposure to extreme temperatures
    • Psychological Stressors
      • Extreme emotions
      • Difficult social situations
      • Troublesome thoughts and relationships
    • Physical Responses to Stress
      • Release of stress hormones
        • Cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine
      • Release of endorphins
      • Physical adaptations
        • Increased heart and breathing rates, blood pressure, sweating, blood clotting ability, and size of pupils
        • Decreased GI tract movements and saliva production
    • General Adaptation Syndrome
      • Three-stage response to stress
        • Alarm — adrenal glands release stress hormones
        • Resistance — body maintains protective reactions and recovers normal status
        • Exhaustion — occurs when stress persists; the body’s defense mechanisms weaken, leaving individuals more susceptible to infections
    • Psychological Responses
      • Typically, stressed out people feel:
        • Depressed and anxious
        • Frustrated
        • Irritable and angry
      • The “stressed out” person may:
        • Eat too much food
        • Abuse substances
        • Have difficulty focusing attention, making decisions, and sleeping
    • Psychoneuroimmunology
      • A field of medical research that studies the relationships between the nervous and immune systems.
      • Stress changes the normal balance and functioning of the immune system.
      • Certain chronic health conditions are linked to stress and may worsen or recur during periods of increased stress (e.g., ulcers, headaches).
    • Personality, Disease, and Stress
      • People who only see negative aspects of stressor may be more vulnerable to stress than those who make more positive appraisals of the situation.
      • People who are less vulnerable to stress have personalities that act as buffers.
      • - These individuals generally have
      • more positive outlooks on life.
    • Personality, Disease, and Stress (continued)
      • People who harbor feelings of anger, hostility, resentment, suspicion, and mistrust have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease than people who do not have these feelings.
      • “Type A” persons are not necessarily at risk.
      • Chronic stress increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly stroke.
    • Personality, Disease, and Stress (continued)
      • Stress responses can reduce effectiveness of immune system.
      • Most scientific studies, however, do not show association between personality and cancer onset.
        • Cancer patients with optimistic outlooks and fighting spirits tend to survive longer than cancer patients without these characteristics.
    • Coping Strategies
      • Coping strategies are behavioral responses and thought processes that people use to deal actively with sources of stress.
          • Problem-focused (e.g., planning, confronting, problem solving, time management, journal writing)
          • Emotion-focused (e.g., use of defense mechanisms, humor)
          • Social support (e.g., seeking assistance from friends, relative, support groups, spiritual help, pets)
    • Relaxation Techniques
      • Deep breathing
      • Progressive muscle relaxation
      • Meditation
      • Imagery
      • Self-talk
      • Physical exercise
        • Tai chi
        • Yoga
    • Across the Life Span
      • Common childhood stressors
        • Divorce of parents
        • Death or separation of close family member
        • Move to new neighborhood
        • Serious illness of close family member
      • Common adolescent stressors
        • Physical and social changes
      • Common stressors of the elderly
        • Financial situation
        • Social isolation
        • Death of spouse or friends