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Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 2
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Chapter 2


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  • 1. Psychological Health
  • 2. Psychological Health
    • Psychological health is the ability to deal effectively with psychological challenges of life.
      • Becomes more positive or negative as one responds to a constantly changing environment
  • 3. Characteristics of Psychologically Healthy People
    • Psychologically healthy people:
      • Accept themselves
      • Have realistic/optimistic outlooks on life
      • Function independently
      • Form satisfying interpersonal relationships
      • Cope effectively with change
  • 4. Characteristics of Psychologically Healthy People (continued)‏
      • Resolve problems without resorting to substance abuse or violence
      • Assert themselves appropriately in social situations
  • 5. The Nervous System
    • Central nervous system (CNS)‏
      • Consists of the brain and spinal cord
    • Peripheral nervous system (PNS)‏
      • Consists of nerves that relay information to and from CNS
  • 6. Major Functions of the Nervous System
    • The nervous system
        • Receives, sends, and interprets messages by means of electrical and chemical signals
        • Produces thoughts, emotions, and physical responses
          • Emotions are a way of communicating moods.
  • 7. The Mind
      • Parts of the brain, collectively referred to as the mind , process information received from the rest of the body and the environment.
  • 8. The Mind (continued)‏
      • The mind:
        • Thinks about what takes place
        • Finds meaning in events
        • Considers actions
        • Makes decisions
        • Directs responses
        • Evaluates and remembers consequences
        • Plans for the future
  • 9. Personality
    • A set of distinct thoughts and behaviors, including emotional responses, that characterize how one responds to situations
      • Many factors, such as biological, cultural, social, and psychological forces, influence personality.
  • 10. Personality (continued)‏
        • Temperament is the predictable way a person responds to the environment
        • Interactions with family members and learning from experiences also mold a person’s psychological development
  • 11. Theories of Personality Development
    • Freud’s Framework of Personality
    • Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages of Development
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs
  • 12. Freud’s Framework of Personality
    • The unconscious mind influences behaviors.
      • Defense mechanisms are ways of thinking and behaving that reduce or eliminate anxiety and guilt by altering a person’s perceptions of reality.
      • Defense mechanisms protect the mind against psychological conflicts and threats.
  • 13. Common Defense Mechanisms
      • Repression —blocking unpleasant thoughts or feelings
      • Projection —attributing unacceptable thoughts, feelings, or urges to someone else
      • Rationalization —making up false or self-serving excuses for unpleasant situations or behaviors
  • 14. Common Defense Mechanisms (continued)‏
    • Denial —refusing to acknowledge unpleasant situations or feelings
    • Displacement —redirecting a feeling or response to a less threatening target
    • Avoidance —taking action to prevent situations that produce powerful feelings
    • Regression —reducing anxiety by acting immature to feel more secure
  • 15. Erickson’s Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development
    • Social influences shape personality.
    • Individuals progress through eight psychosocial stages throughout their lifetimes.
      • In order to achieve emotional well-being, one must resolve conflicts associated with each stage
  • 16. Erickson’s Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development (continued)‏
    • Trust vs. mistrust
    • Autonomy vs. doubt/shame
    • Initiative vs. guilt
    • Industry vs. inferiority
    • Identity vs. identity confusion
    • Birth to 1 year
    • 1 to 3 years
    • 3 to 6 years
    • 6 to12 years
    • 12 to 18 years
  • 17. Erickson’s Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development (continued)‏
    • Intimacy vs. isolation
    • Young adulthood
    • Generativity vs.stagnation
    • Middle age
    • Integrity vs. despair
    • Old age
  • 18. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs
    • Individuals behave in response to their values rather than unconscious drives.
    • Human needs include basic biological needs and more complex psychological needs.
    • Personality development is driven by the need to achieve psychological fulfillment or self-actualization .
  • 19.  
  • 20. Psychological Adjustment and Growth
    • Adjustment occurs when a person learns that certain coping responses meet the demands of life more effectively than others.
    • Growth occurs when a person learns that certain adjustment strategies enhance his or her sense of freedom and control over self and the environment.
  • 21. Psychological Adjustment and Growth (continued)‏
    • Interpersonal conflicts can hinder psychological adjustment and growth.
      • Aggressive reactions often injure others physically or emotionally.
      • Assertive reactions maintain one’s rights without interfering with the rights of others or harming them.
    • Psychological growth fosters the development of autonomy (self-control), which is associated with self-esteem.
  • 22. Self-Esteem
    • Self-esteem is a key component of personality.
      • Influences one’s thoughts, actions, and feelings
      • Begins to develop early in childhood
      • Remains fairly constant over time
  • 23. People with Positive Self-Esteem
    • Have a high degree of autonomy
    • Are self-confident and have self-respect
    • Are satisfied with themselves
    • Accept challenges
    • Work well with others
    • Seek supportive and loving relationships
    • Adjust easily to change
    • Accept responsibility for their actions
  • 24. People with Low Self-Esteem
    • Have difficulty making decisions
    • Resist changing behavior
    • Resent any form of criticism
    • Put down others to make themselves look or feel better
  • 25. Improving Self-Esteem and Psychological Health
    • Make positive lifestyle changes, such as exercising regularly, obtaining adequate sleep, and eating a nutritious diet.
    • Improve intellectual health and attend to spiritual needs.
    • Foster social contacts.
    • Protect the quality of your environment.
  • 26. Psychological (Mental) Illness
    • Most Americans have one or more family member who suffers from a psychological illness.
    • Psychological illnesses are prevalent throughout the world, although these problems are often not treated adequately.
    • Mental illnesses takes a toll on those affected and their families and society.
  • 27. Defining Psychological (Mental) Illness
    • Having disturbing thoughts, unpleasant feelings, or inappropriate behaviors that:
      • Persist and are extreme
      • Interfere with daily life
      • Hinder psychological adjustment and growth
    • Two key features distinguish normal from abnormal emotional responses:
      • Intensity
      • Duration
  • 28. Causes of Psychological Disorders
    • Alterations of the normal chemical environment of the brain (may be genetic)‏
    • Brain damage from injuries, tumors, or infections
    • Drugs such as cocaine
    • Extremely stressful experiences, particularly in childhood
    • Pollutants such as pesticides and toxic minerals (e.g., lead, mercury, and arsenic)‏
  • 29. Treating Psychological Disorders
    • Treatment for psychological problems generally involves a combination of:
      • Counseling
          • Cognitive behavioral therapy
          • Group therapy
          • Support groups
      • Medications
  • 30. Common Psychological Disorders
    • Anxiety Disorders
      • Generalized Anxiety Disorder —uncontrollable chronic worrying and nervousness
      • Phobias —intense and irrational fear of objects or situation
      • Panic Disorder —panic attacks, unpredictable episodes of extreme fear and loss of emotional control
      • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder —persistent anxiety and reexperiencing of traumatic events
  • 31. Common Psychological Disorders (continued)‏
      • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder —repetitive thoughts that produce anxiety and obsessive behaviors that follow in order to reduce anxiety
    • Impulse Control Disorders
      • Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder —short attention span and/or hyperactivity that results in serious social impairment
      • Problem Gambling —compulsive and excessive gambling that disrupts personal, family, or vocational pursuits
  • 32. Common Psychological Disorders (continued)‏
    • Mood Disorders
      • Major Depressive Disorder
        • Persistent and profound feelings of sadness, hopelessness, helplessness, and worthlessness
        • Loss of interest in usual activities
        • Lack of energy
        • Insomnia
        • Inability to concentrate
        • Appetite disturbances
  • 33. Common Psychological Disorders (continued)‏
    • – Bipolar Disorder —episodes of depression followed by episodes or elevated mood (mania)‏
    • – Seasonal Affective Disorder — depression that is a result of lack of exposure to bright light (e.g., sunlight)‏
  • 34. Common Psychological Disorders (continued)‏
    • Eating and Eating Disorders
      • Anorexia Nervosa —disorder in which individuals refuse to eat enough food to maintain a healthy weight
      • Bulimia Nervosa —disorder characterized by a craving for food that is difficult to satisfy; often involves eating excessive amounts of food followed by purging (vomiting)‏
  • 35. Common Psychological Disorders (continued)‏
      • Binge Eating Disorder —pattern of excessive eating, without purging or exercise, in response to emotional distress
      • Female Athlete Triad —disordered eating affecting female athletes characterized by absence of menstruation and osteoporosis
      • Muscle Dysmorphia —condition that affects weightlifters/bodybuilders; characterized by dissatisfaction with body, disordered eating, excessive exercise, and abuse of steroids
  • 36. Common Psychological Disorders (continued)‏
    • Psychotic Disorders
      • Schizophrenia —mental disorder characterized by disorganized thoughts, hallucinations and delusions, strange behaviors, inappropriate emotions and disjointed speech
  • 37. Suicide
    • Although suicide is not a psychological disorder, it is usually preceded by other psychological problems such as depression.
    • Often, those who commit suicide:
      • Feel overwhelmed by the demands of life
      • Are unable to solve their problems or adapt to their situation
      • Abuse alcohol
  • 38. Suicide (continued)‏
    • Consider a person at high suicide risk when he or she:
      • Is preoccupied with thoughts of death
      • Communicates the intent to commit suicide to others
      • Has a history of suicide attempts
      • Has a family history of suicide
      • Grieves excessively over the death of a loved one
      • Has marital or financial problems
      • Has schizophrenia, an eating disorder, or a terminal illness
    • Take ALL signs of impending suicide seriously and immediately seek help for the suicidal person.
  • 39. Across the Life Span
    • ADHD is a common childhood behavioral disorder.
    • Affects more boys than girls
    • Characteristics:
      • Inability to focus or maintain attention to tasks such as homework
      • Short attention spans, difficulty following simple instructions
      • Impulsive behaviors such as interrupting conversations, talking when it’s inappropriate, and acting without thinking about consequences
  • 40. Across the Life Span (continued)‏
      • Excessive levels of physical activity or restlessness
      • Some children with ADHD are aggressive, argumentative, and defiant
      • Affected children frequently suffer from low self-esteem and have conflicts with family members
      • Treatment involves certain stimulant medications, behavioral and family counseling
      • ADHD can persist into adulthood