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Chapter 11
 

Chapter 11

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    Chapter 11 Chapter 11 Presentation Transcript

    • Physical Fitness
    • Physical Fitness
      • Most people can derive important health benefits by exercising regularly and becoming more physically active.
      • Each year, lack of regular physical activity contributes to thousands of American deaths, primarily from heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.
      • Physically fit people have the strength, endurance, and flexibility to perform daily living activities that require physical movement.
    • The Body in Motion: Musculoskeletal System
      • Physical movement involves the functioning of the muscular and skeletal system.
      • Skeletal muscles provide shape, support, and movement.
      • Skeletal muscle contains hundreds of muscle cells called muscle fibers .
      • When muscle fibers contract, they shorten, causing movement.
    • Musculoskeletal System (continued)
      • Tendons connect muscles to bones.
      • Joints are where bones come together.
      • Ligaments hold bones together at the joints.
      • Heart and lung function is interrelated.
      • The heart pumps blood to the lungs.
      • Oxygenated blood returns to the heart where it is pumped to rest of body.
      • Oxygen leaves blood and enters cells.
      • Waste products such as carbon dioxide leave cells and enter blood.
      • Blood carries waste products to kidneys and back to the heart.
      The Body in Motion: Cardiorespiratory System
    • Physical Activity and Exercise
      • Physical activity is movement that occurs when muscles contract.
      • Exercise is physical activity that is usually planned and performed to improve or maintain physical condition.
        • For example, biceps curls develop upper arm strength.
    • Health Benefits of Exercise
      • Reduces risk of chronic diseases.
        • Heart disease, certain cancers, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and osteoporosis
      • Reduces risk of obesity.
      • Improves immune system.
      • Improves and maintains muscle strength and joint function.
      • Improves balance.
      • Reduces risk of premature death.
    • Health Benefits of Exercise (continued)
      • Reduces symptoms of anxiety and depression.
      • Fosters improvement in mood and sense of well-being.
      • Can improve quality of sleep.
      • Stimulates release of endorphins.
      • May relieve stress.
    • Health-Related Components of Physical Fitness
      • Cardiorespiratory fitness
      • Muscular strength
      • Muscular endurance
      • Flexibility
      • Body composition
    • Cardiorespiratory Fitness
      • Intense physical activity requires more oxygen to support the work of skeletal muscles.
      • Individuals with high degrees of cardiorespiratory fitness, or endurance, can perform intense physical activity longer without becoming fatigued.
      • Cardiorespiratory fitness can be developed through aerobic activities (e.g., running, swimming, rope skipping).
    • Muscular Strength and Endurance
      • Muscular strength —ability of muscles to apply maximum force against an object that is resisting that force
      • Muscular endurance —ability to contract muscles repeatedly without becoming fatigued easily
    • Muscular Strength
      • Training effect
        • To increase muscular strength, muscles need to be overloaded by moving heavy objects repeatedly.
        • Increase weight of objects over time.
      • Hypertrophy—muscle fibers enlarge
      • Atrophy—muscle fibers lose size
        • “Use it or lose it.”
    • Muscular Strength: Strength Training
      • Weight, repetitions, and sets are important.
      • For best results, workout three times per week.
      • Isometric exercise — applying force against a fixed object (e.g., pushing against an immovable door frame)
      • Isotonic exercise — applying force against a movable but constant source of resistance
        • Using barbells, push-ups, or weight machines.
    • Muscular Endurance: Flexibility
      • Flexibility is the ability to extend muscles and joints within normal range of motion.
      • Stretching develops flexibility, and allows people to perform certain activities with ease, such as bending, gliding, or twisting.
      • Static stretching —slowly and fully extending muscles and joints within natural range of motion (hold for 15 seconds).
      • Ballistic stretching (stretching with bouncing) is not recommended.
    • Body Composition
      • Some fat is essential to good health.
      • Spot exercising does not reduce fat in the exercised region.
      • Regular exercise builds and maintains muscle mass; muscle cells burn more calories than fat cells.
      • Exercising can increase metabolic rate.
      • Engaging in moderate to vigorous–intensity aerobic activity for about 60 minutes, nearly every day, while not exceeding daily calorie needs, “burns” body fat.
    • Athletic Performance: Sports-Related Components of Fitness
      • Speed — rate of movement
      • Power — ability to concentrate force
      • Coordination — ability to perform a series of movements in a continuous manner
      • Agility — ability to make quick precise movements
      • Balance — ability to maintain poised upright body position
      • Reaction time — time needed to adjust body position to a changing environment
    • Ergogenic Aids
      • There are a variety of products that supposedly enhance physical development or performance.
        • Dietary supplements, drugs, and mechanical devices
      • Some are beneficial and/or harmless.
      • Others are dangerous or illegal.
        • Anabolic steroids
    • Anabolic Steroids
      • Synthetic and natural substances chemically related to testosterone and have muscle-building properties.
      • Often illegally obtained and abused by athletes who want to enhance muscle development and physical performance.
      • Give individuals unfair competitive advantage over other athletes.
    • Anabolic Steroids (continued)
      • Adverse side effects in men include:
        • Premature balding
        • Severe acne
        • Sleep disturbance
        • Increased aggression
        • Testicle shrinkage
        • Increased blood pressure and increased risk of developing heart and kidney disease, certain cancers, and liver tumors
    • Anabolic Steroids (continued)
      • Adverse side effects in women include:
        • Severe acne
        • Increased body hair, including facial hair
        • Scalp hair loss
        • Menstrual irregularities
    • Factors That Influence Benefits of Exercise
      • Type of exercise
        • Aerobic activities increase cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular endurance.
      • Frequency
        • Exercising at least three times a week produces more rapid overall fitness.
      • Duration
        • Cardiorespiratory benefits of exercise increase as the length of physical activity/exercise increases.
      • Intensity
        • The amount of physical exertion used during exercise increases its benefit.
    • An Aerobic Workout Session
      • Warm up — low intensity activity for 5 minutes
      • Stretch — 5 minutes
      • Engage in aerobic activity for 30 minutes
      • Cool down with less intense activity for 5 minutes
      • Stretch — 5 minutes
    • Exercise Danger Signs
      • Stop and consult a physician if you experience:
        • Irregular heartbeat, sensation that heart is pounding in throat, or fluttering sensation in chest
        • Pain or pressure in the chest, throat, or arms
        • Shortness of breath
        • Dizziness
        • Sudden loss of coordination
        • Cold sweating
        • Fainting
    • Preventing and Managing Common Exercise Injuries
      • Strains and Sprains
        • No clear clinical definitions exists.
          • Strain generally refers to damage that a muscle or tendon sustains when overextended rapidly.
          • Sprain usually refers to a damaged ligament.
        • – Sprains tend to be more severe than strains.
    • Managing Exercise Injuries
      • RICE — effective for treating strains and sprains
        • R est
        • I ce
        • C ompression
        • E levation
      • Consult a physician if injured area does not improve in 2 days or pain worsens.
    • Temperature-Related Injuries
      • Heat-Related Injuries
        • Dehydration (lack of body water)
        • Hyperthermia (higher than normal body temperature) can lead to:
          • Heat cramps
          • Heat exhaustion
          • Heatstroke
    • Preventing Temperature-Related Injuries
      • To prevent dehydration and hyperthermia:
        • Avoid physical exertion outdoors during hottest time of the day.
        • Drink enough fluids to replace that which is lost through sweat.
        • Wear light-colored, loose-fitting clothing when exercising in warm conditions.
    • Preventing Temperature-Related Injuries (continued)
        • Consider reducing the intensity and duration of activity when weather is hot and humid.
        • Avoid alcoholic beverages.
          • Caffeine does not produce major urinary losses of water.
    • Temperature-Related Injuries (continued)
      • Frostbite
        • Ice crystals form in the deeper tissues of skin when exposed to extreme cold
        • Causes damage to tissues
      • Hypothermia
        • Body’s core temperature drops below 95 °F
          • Shivering
          • Tiredness
          • Poor judgment
          • Disorientation
          • Loss of consciousness
    • Preventing Temperature-Related Injuries (continued)
      • Preventing Hypothermia
        • When in cold temperatures, wear:
          • Layers of warm dry clothing
          • A hat that can be pulled down over ears
          • Scarf
          • Gloves or mittens
          • Thick socks
    • Developing a Personal Fitness Program
      • Determine your needs, interests, and limitations.
      • Set general fitness goals.
      • Choose activities that you enjoy.
      • Incorporates fitness session into your routine.
    • Across the Life Span
      • Physical activities adopted in childhood are likely to be practiced for a lifetime.
      • Healthy, physically fit women can generally continue engaging in mild- to moderate- intensity exercise during pregnancy.
        • Pregnant women who perform strenuous regular exercise can increase their risk of having low-birth-weight babies.
        • Pregnant women should discuss exercise plans with their physicians.
    • Across the Life Span (continued)
      • Most Americans become less active as they age.
      • However, it is important for people to continue exercising.
      • Light regular physical activity can help:
          • Reduce risk of heart disease, colon cancer, diabetes, obesity, and hypertension.
          • Maintain or improve joint flexibility and muscle strength and endurance.
          • Improve mood.
          • Increase ability to live independently.
    • Across the Life Span (continued)
      • Physical activities can also be social functions.
        • Dancing, mall walking, and fitness classes
      • Exercise classes can improve balance and muscular strength, reducing the likelihood of falls.