Psychological Health
Psychological Health <ul><li>Psychological health is the ability to deal effectively with psychological challenges of life...
Characteristics of Psychologically Healthy People <ul><li>Psychologically healthy people: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accept the...
Characteristics of Psychologically Healthy People (continued)‏ <ul><ul><li>Resolve problems without resorting to substance...
The Nervous System   <ul><li>Central nervous system (CNS)‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of the brain and spinal cord </l...
Major Functions of the  Nervous System <ul><li>The nervous system </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receives, sends, and interpret...
The Mind <ul><ul><li>Parts of the brain, collectively referred to as  the   mind , process information received from the r...
The Mind (continued)‏ <ul><ul><li>The mind:   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thinks about what takes place </li></ul></ul>...
Personality <ul><li>A set of distinct thoughts and behaviors, including emotional responses, that characterize how one res...
Personality (continued)‏ <ul><ul><ul><li>Temperament is the predictable way  a person responds to the environment </li></u...
Theories of Personality Development <ul><li>Freud’s Framework of Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Erikson’s Psychosocial Stag...
Freud’s Framework of Personality <ul><li>The unconscious mind influences behaviors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defense mechanis...
Common Defense Mechanisms <ul><ul><li>Repression —blocking unpleasant thoughts or feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proj...
Common Defense Mechanisms (continued)‏ <ul><li>Denial —refusing to acknowledge unpleasant situations or feelings </li></ul...
Erickson’s Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development <ul><li>Social influences shape personality. </li></ul><ul><li>I...
Erickson’s Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development (continued)‏ <ul><li>Trust vs. mistrust </li></ul><ul><li>Autono...
Erickson’s Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development (continued)‏ <ul><li>Intimacy vs. isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Yo...
Maslow’s Hierarchy  of Human Needs <ul><li>Individuals behave in response to  their values rather than unconscious drives....
 
Psychological Adjustment  and Growth <ul><li>Adjustment  occurs when a person learns that certain coping responses meet th...
Psychological Adjustment  and Growth (continued)‏ <ul><li>Interpersonal conflicts can hinder psychological adjustment and ...
Self-Esteem <ul><li>Self-esteem is a key component of personality. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influences one’s thoughts, action...
People with Positive Self-Esteem <ul><li>Have a high degree of autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Are self-confident and have self...
People with Low Self-Esteem <ul><li>Have difficulty making decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Resist changing behavior </li></ul>...
Improving Self-Esteem and Psychological Health <ul><li>Make positive lifestyle changes, such as exercising regularly, obta...
Psychological (Mental) Illness <ul><li>Most Americans have one or more family member who suffers from a psychological illn...
Defining Psychological (Mental) Illness <ul><li>Having disturbing thoughts, unpleasant feelings, or inappropriate behavior...
Causes of Psychological Disorders <ul><li>Alterations of the normal chemical environment of the brain (may be genetic)‏ </...
Treating Psychological Disorders <ul><li>Treatment for psychological problems generally involves a combination of: </li></...
Common Psychological Disorders <ul><li>Anxiety Disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalized Anxiety Disorder —uncontrollabl...
Common Psychological Disorders (continued)‏ <ul><ul><li>Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder —repetitive thoughts that produce an...
Common Psychological Disorders (continued)‏ <ul><li>Mood Disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major Depressive Disorder </li></...
Common Psychological Disorders (continued)‏ <ul><li>–  Bipolar Disorder —episodes of depression followed by episodes or el...
Common Psychological Disorders (continued)‏ <ul><li>Eating and Eating Disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anorexia Nervosa —di...
Common Psychological Disorders (continued)‏ <ul><ul><li>Binge Eating Disorder —pattern of excessive eating, without purgin...
Common Psychological Disorders (continued)‏ <ul><li>Psychotic Disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schizophrenia —mental disord...
Suicide <ul><li>Although suicide is not a psychological disorder, it is usually preceded by other psychological problems s...
Suicide (continued)‏ <ul><li>Consider a person at high suicide risk when he or she: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is preoccupied w...
Across the Life Span <ul><li>ADHD is a common childhood behavioral disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>Affects more boys than girl...
Across the Life Span (continued)‏ <ul><ul><li>Excessive levels of physical activity or restlessness  </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
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Chapter 02

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Chapter 02

  1. 1. Psychological Health
  2. 2. Psychological Health <ul><li>Psychological health is the ability to deal effectively with psychological challenges of life. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Becomes more positive or negative as one responds to a constantly changing environment </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Characteristics of Psychologically Healthy People <ul><li>Psychologically healthy people: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accept themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have realistic/optimistic outlooks on life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function independently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form satisfying interpersonal relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cope effectively with change </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Characteristics of Psychologically Healthy People (continued)‏ <ul><ul><li>Resolve problems without resorting to substance abuse or violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assert themselves appropriately in social situations </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Nervous System <ul><li>Central nervous system (CNS)‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of the brain and spinal cord </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peripheral nervous system (PNS)‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of nerves that relay information to and from CNS </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Major Functions of the Nervous System <ul><li>The nervous system </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receives, sends, and interprets messages by means of electrical and chemical signals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produces thoughts, emotions, and physical responses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions are a way of communicating moods. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Mind <ul><ul><li>Parts of the brain, collectively referred to as the mind , process information received from the rest of the body and the environment. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Mind (continued)‏ <ul><ul><li>The mind: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thinks about what takes place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finds meaning in events </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Considers actions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Makes decisions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Directs responses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluates and remembers consequences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plans for the future </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Personality <ul><li>A set of distinct thoughts and behaviors, including emotional responses, that characterize how one responds to situations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many factors, such as biological, cultural, social, and psychological forces, influence personality. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Personality (continued)‏ <ul><ul><ul><li>Temperament is the predictable way a person responds to the environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interactions with family members and learning from experiences also mold a person’s psychological development </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Theories of Personality Development <ul><li>Freud’s Framework of Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages of Development </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs </li></ul>
  12. 12. Freud’s Framework of Personality <ul><li>The unconscious mind influences behaviors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defense mechanisms are ways of thinking and behaving that reduce or eliminate anxiety and guilt by altering a person’s perceptions of reality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defense mechanisms protect the mind against psychological conflicts and threats. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Common Defense Mechanisms <ul><ul><li>Repression —blocking unpleasant thoughts or feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projection —attributing unacceptable thoughts, feelings, or urges to someone else </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rationalization —making up false or self-serving excuses for unpleasant situations or behaviors </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Common Defense Mechanisms (continued)‏ <ul><li>Denial —refusing to acknowledge unpleasant situations or feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Displacement —redirecting a feeling or response to a less threatening target </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance —taking action to prevent situations that produce powerful feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Regression —reducing anxiety by acting immature to feel more secure </li></ul>
  15. 15. Erickson’s Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development <ul><li>Social influences shape personality. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals progress through eight psychosocial stages throughout their lifetimes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In order to achieve emotional well-being, one must resolve conflicts associated with each stage </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Erickson’s Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development (continued)‏ <ul><li>Trust vs. mistrust </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy vs. doubt/shame </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative vs. guilt </li></ul><ul><li>Industry vs. inferiority </li></ul><ul><li>Identity vs. identity confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Birth to 1 year </li></ul><ul><li>1 to 3 years </li></ul><ul><li>3 to 6 years </li></ul><ul><li>6 to12 years </li></ul><ul><li>12 to 18 years </li></ul>
  17. 17. Erickson’s Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development (continued)‏ <ul><li>Intimacy vs. isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Young adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Generativity vs.stagnation </li></ul><ul><li>Middle age </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity vs. despair </li></ul><ul><li>Old age </li></ul>
  18. 18. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs <ul><li>Individuals behave in response to their values rather than unconscious drives. </li></ul><ul><li>Human needs include basic biological needs and more complex psychological needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Personality development is driven by the need to achieve psychological fulfillment or self-actualization . </li></ul>
  19. 20. Psychological Adjustment and Growth <ul><li>Adjustment occurs when a person learns that certain coping responses meet the demands of life more effectively than others. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth occurs when a person learns that certain adjustment strategies enhance his or her sense of freedom and control over self and the environment. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Psychological Adjustment and Growth (continued)‏ <ul><li>Interpersonal conflicts can hinder psychological adjustment and growth. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggressive reactions often injure others physically or emotionally. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assertive reactions maintain one’s rights without interfering with the rights of others or harming them. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychological growth fosters the development of autonomy (self-control), which is associated with self-esteem. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Self-Esteem <ul><li>Self-esteem is a key component of personality. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influences one’s thoughts, actions, and feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begins to develop early in childhood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remains fairly constant over time </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. People with Positive Self-Esteem <ul><li>Have a high degree of autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Are self-confident and have self-respect </li></ul><ul><li>Are satisfied with themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Accept challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Work well with others </li></ul><ul><li>Seek supportive and loving relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust easily to change </li></ul><ul><li>Accept responsibility for their actions </li></ul>
  23. 24. People with Low Self-Esteem <ul><li>Have difficulty making decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Resist changing behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Resent any form of criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Put down others to make themselves look or feel better </li></ul>
  24. 25. Improving Self-Esteem and Psychological Health <ul><li>Make positive lifestyle changes, such as exercising regularly, obtaining adequate sleep, and eating a nutritious diet. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve intellectual health and attend to spiritual needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Foster social contacts. </li></ul><ul><li>Protect the quality of your environment. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Psychological (Mental) Illness <ul><li>Most Americans have one or more family member who suffers from a psychological illness. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological illnesses are prevalent throughout the world, although these problems are often not treated adequately. </li></ul><ul><li>Mental illnesses takes a toll on those affected and their families and society. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Defining Psychological (Mental) Illness <ul><li>Having disturbing thoughts, unpleasant feelings, or inappropriate behaviors that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persist and are extreme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interfere with daily life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinder psychological adjustment and growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two key features distinguish normal from abnormal emotional responses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Causes of Psychological Disorders <ul><li>Alterations of the normal chemical environment of the brain (may be genetic)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Brain damage from injuries, tumors, or infections </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs such as cocaine </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely stressful experiences, particularly in childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Pollutants such as pesticides and toxic minerals (e.g., lead, mercury, and arsenic)‏ </li></ul>
  28. 29. Treating Psychological Disorders <ul><li>Treatment for psychological problems generally involves a combination of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counseling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive behavioral therapy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group therapy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support groups </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medications </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Common Psychological Disorders <ul><li>Anxiety Disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalized Anxiety Disorder —uncontrollable chronic worrying and nervousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phobias —intense and irrational fear of objects or situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Panic Disorder —panic attacks, unpredictable episodes of extreme fear and loss of emotional control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder —persistent anxiety and reexperiencing of traumatic events </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Common Psychological Disorders (continued)‏ <ul><ul><li>Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder —repetitive thoughts that produce anxiety and obsessive behaviors that follow in order to reduce anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impulse Control Disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder —short attention span and/or hyperactivity that results in serious social impairment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem Gambling —compulsive and excessive gambling that disrupts personal, family, or vocational pursuits </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Common Psychological Disorders (continued)‏ <ul><li>Mood Disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major Depressive Disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persistent and profound feelings of sadness, hopelessness, helplessness, and worthlessness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of interest in usual activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to concentrate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appetite disturbances </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Common Psychological Disorders (continued)‏ <ul><li>– Bipolar Disorder —episodes of depression followed by episodes or elevated mood (mania)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>– Seasonal Affective Disorder — depression that is a result of lack of exposure to bright light (e.g., sunlight)‏ </li></ul>
  33. 34. Common Psychological Disorders (continued)‏ <ul><li>Eating and Eating Disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anorexia Nervosa —disorder in which individuals refuse to eat enough food to maintain a healthy weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulimia Nervosa —disorder characterized by a craving for food that is difficult to satisfy; often involves eating excessive amounts of food followed by purging (vomiting)‏ </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Common Psychological Disorders (continued)‏ <ul><ul><li>Binge Eating Disorder —pattern of excessive eating, without purging or exercise, in response to emotional distress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Female Athlete Triad —disordered eating affecting female athletes characterized by absence of menstruation and osteoporosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle Dysmorphia —condition that affects weightlifters/bodybuilders; characterized by dissatisfaction with body, disordered eating, excessive exercise, and abuse of steroids </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Common Psychological Disorders (continued)‏ <ul><li>Psychotic Disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schizophrenia —mental disorder characterized by disorganized thoughts, hallucinations and delusions, strange behaviors, inappropriate emotions and disjointed speech </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Suicide <ul><li>Although suicide is not a psychological disorder, it is usually preceded by other psychological problems such as depression. </li></ul><ul><li>Often, those who commit suicide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feel overwhelmed by the demands of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are unable to solve their problems or adapt to their situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abuse alcohol </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Suicide (continued)‏ <ul><li>Consider a person at high suicide risk when he or she: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is preoccupied with thoughts of death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicates the intent to commit suicide to others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a history of suicide attempts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a family history of suicide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grieves excessively over the death of a loved one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has marital or financial problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has schizophrenia, an eating disorder, or a terminal illness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Take ALL signs of impending suicide seriously and immediately seek help for the suicidal person. </li></ul>
  38. 39. Across the Life Span <ul><li>ADHD is a common childhood behavioral disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>Affects more boys than girls </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to focus or maintain attention to tasks such as homework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short attention spans, difficulty following simple instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impulsive behaviors such as interrupting conversations, talking when it’s inappropriate, and acting without thinking about consequences </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. Across the Life Span (continued)‏ <ul><ul><li>Excessive levels of physical activity or restlessness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some children with ADHD are aggressive, argumentative, and defiant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affected children frequently suffer from low self-esteem and have conflicts with family members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment involves certain stimulant medications, behavioral and family counseling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADHD can persist into adulthood </li></ul></ul>

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