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  1. 1. The ESMOThe ESMO Palliative Care initiativePalliative Care initiative Nathan I Cherny Shaare Zedek Medical center Jerusalem, Israel
  2. 2. ESMO PC/SC Working Group • Established 1999 by ESMO national representatives • Chair: Prof Raphael Catane • Activities – Policy – Education – Research – Quality improvement
  3. 3. Palliative Care Working Group Active members Catane Raphael, Israel Cherny Nathan, Israel Grigorescu Alexandru, Romania Kloke Marianne, Germany Lange Winand K, Germany Ozyilkan Ozgur, Turkey Parikh Purvish, India Rubach Maryna, Poland Schrijvers Dirk, Belgium Szanto Janos, Hungary Wagnerova Maria, Slovak Republic
  4. 4. Integration of oncology and Palliative Care: ESMO view • Medical oncologists role is to coordinate patient care at all stages of the disease along with other relevant disciplines • Increasingly oncologists are being marginalised because the profession is seen as “chemotherapists” • To maintain a central coordinating role oncologists need to be perceived as “cancer specialists” with a breadth of expertise, perspective, and commitment.
  5. 5. The scope of specialist cancer care In advanced cancer • Palliative anti tumor treatments • Symptom control – physical – psychological • Family support • Home care • End of life care Unless oncologists take a lead role in the coordination and implementation of these aspects of care, we undermine our claim to be “cancer care” specialists.
  6. 6. Policy
  7. 7. Definition of Terms • Supportive Care – care that optimizes comfort, function and social support of patient (and family) at all stages of illness • Palliative Care – care that optimizes comfort and function and social support of patient (and family) when cure is not possible • End of Life Care – palliative care when death is imminent
  8. 8. Supportive Care Palliative Care Diagnosis Potentially Curable Non-Curable Terminal EoL Care
  9. 9. Care Integration with Disease Evolution Supportive CareCurable disease: Cured Curable disease: Relapsed Supportive Care Palliative Care EoL Supportive Care Palliative Care EoL Curable disease: Failed Palliative Care EoL Incurable disease
  10. 10. “The Role of the Oncologist in the Provision of Supportive and Palliative Care” • The Medical Oncologist must be skilled in the supportive and palliative care of patients with cancer and in end-of-life care. • It is the responsibility of the MO to assess and evaluate physical and psychological symptoms and to ensure that these problems are adequately addressed. • The delivery of high quality supportive and palliative care requires co- operation and coordination with: – physicians of other disciplines • (including radiotherapy, surgery, rehabilitation, psych-oncology, pain medicine and anesthesiology, palliative medicine etc) – paramedical clinicians • (including nursing, social work, psychology, physical and occupational therapy, chaplains and others).
  11. 11. Supportive and Palliative Care training for Medical Oncologists • Medical Oncologists must be skilled in the supportive and palliative care of patients with advanced cancer. • 9 core skills must be incorporated.
  12. 12. 1.The oncologic management of advanced cancer • Medical oncologists must be expert in the appropriate use of anti tumor therapies as palliative techniques when cure is no longer possible. • This includes specific familiarity with key concepts – patient benefit – quality of life – risk/benefit analysis
  13. 13. 2. Communication with patients and family members Medical oncologist must be skilled in effective and compassionate communication with cancer patients and their families. Specific skills include: 1. Explaining diagnosis and treatment options 2. Disclosure of diagnosis 3. Explaining issues relating to prognosis 4. Explaining the potential risk and benefits of treatment options 5. Counseling skills to facilitate effective, informed decision making. 6. Explaining the role of palliative care 7. The care of distressed family members: fear, anticipatory grief, bereavement care 8. Convening of family meetings
  14. 14. 3. The management of complications of cancer Medical oncologists must be expert in the evaluation and management of the complications of cancer including: • Bone metastases • CNS metastases • Neurological dysfunction: tumoral, paraneoplastic and iatrogenic • Liver metastases and biliary obstruction • Malignant effusions • Obstruction of hollow viscera • Metabolic consequences of cancer • Anorexia and cachexia • Hematologic consequences • Sexual dysfunction
  15. 15. 4. Evaluation and management of physical symptoms of cancer and cancer treatment Medical oncologists must be expert in the evaluation and management of the common physical symptoms of advanced cancer including: • Pain • Dyspnea and cough • Fatigue • Nausea and Vomiting • Constipation • Diarrhea • Insomnia • Itch
  16. 16. 5. Evaluation and management of psychological and existential symptoms of cancer Medical oncologists must be familiar with the evaluation and management of the common psychological and existential symptoms of cancer including: • Anxiety • Depression • Delirium • Suicidality and desire for death • Death anxiety • Anticipatory grief
  17. 17. 6. Interdisciplinary care • Medical oncologists must be familiar with the roles of other professions in the care of patients with cancer and with community resources to support the care of these patients.
  18. 18. 7. Palliative care research Medical oncologist must be familiar with research methodologies that are applicable to patients with cancer including: • Quality of life research • Pain measurement and research • Measurement of other physical and psychological symptoms • Needs evaluation • Decision making research • Palliative Care audit
  19. 19. 8. Ethical issues in the management of patients with cancer MOs must be familiar with common ethical problems and ethical principles that assist in their resolution: • Related to disclosure of diagnosis and prognosis • In decision making: paternalism, autonomy, informed consent • The right to adequate relief of physical and psychological symptoms and its implications • Consent: informed, uninformed • Ethical issues at the end of life – Foregoing treatment – Euthanasia, assisted suicide
  20. 20. 9.Preventing Burnout • Medical oncologist must be familiar with the symptoms of burnout, the factors that contribute to burnout and strategies to prevent its development.
  21. 21. Minimal requirements palliative care in cancer centers 1 • Patients should be routinely assessed regarding the presence and severity of physical and psychological symptoms and the adequacy of social supports • When inadequately controlled symptoms are identified they must be evaluated and treated with the appropriate urgency • Cancer center must provide skilled emergency care of inadequately relieved physical and psychological symptoms.
  22. 22. Minimal requirements palliative care in cancer centers 2 • Cancer centers must ensure an ongoing program of palliative and supportive care for patients with advanced cancer who are no longer benefited by anti-tumor interventions. • Cancer centers should incorporate social work and psychological care as part of routine care. • When patients require inpatient end of life care, the cancer center staff either provide the needed inpatient care or arrange adequate care in an appropriate hospice or palliative care service.
  23. 23. ResearchResearch ESMO Palliative and Supportive CareESMO Palliative and Supportive Care SurveySurvey::
  24. 24. AIMS • to evaluate –the degree to which ESMO oncologists are involved in the management of advanced cancer –the degree with which they collaborate with PC clinicians –their personal involvement in PC –their attitudes to PC
  25. 25. Survey tool • Demographics – age – sex – experience – place of work – involvement in advanced cancer
  26. 26. Survey tool 2 • Collaboration with SC/PC – 7 items • Practice of SC/PC – 16 items • Attitudes – 24 items
  27. 27. Demographics 1 • N=895/3300 • European 82.4% • Sex: F 194 (21.7%) M 701 (78.3%) • Median age: 45-49 • Median experience: 15-19 years
  28. 28. Practice Type Private oncology practice 167 18.7% Community hospital based 176 19.7% Teaching hospital based 334 37.3% Comprehensive cancer center 185 20.7% Other………………………… 33 3.7%
  29. 29. Proportion of my practice involved with advanced (incurable) cancer None 4 0.4% A small proportion 78 8.7% A substantial proportion 615 68.8% Most of my practice 197 22.0%
  30. 30. Key findings • Most medical oncologists are clinically involved with patients with advanced cancer • The attitudes of responding members correspond closely with the proposed ESMO policy statements relating to Supportive Care/Palliative.. – oncologist role – education – integration of SC/PC in cancer centers
  31. 31. Attitudes • Most MOs believe that – oncologists should coordinate care the care of patients with advanced cancer including EoL care – SC/PC should be initiated in all patients when need is identified – oncologists should be expert in physical and psych SC/PC – all cancer centers should provide SC/PC
  32. 32. Discrepancy Between Attitude and Practice • Although, 88.4% agreed medical oncologists should coordinate the care of cancer patients at all stages of disease including end of life care... • Actual practice seems much less... – 43% commonly coordinate the care of cancer patients at all stages of disease including end of life care. – 39% commonly coordinate meetings with the family of dying patients – 11.8% manage delirium
  33. 33. PC Collaboration often A social worker 47.9 A home hospice (palliative care) team 37.8 A palliative care medical specialist 35.1 A psychologist 33.3 A palliative care nurse specialist 31.7 An inpatient hospice 26.4 A psychiatrist 14.9
  34. 34. Attitudes: No Consensus I received good training in PC during my oncology fellowship (residency) I feel emotionally burned out by having to deal with too many deaths. Most MOs I know are expert in the management of the physical and psychological symptoms of advanced cancer. A palliative care specialist is the best person to coordinate the palliative care of patients with advanced cancer. Palliative care (or Hospice) physicians don’t have enough understanding of oncology to counsel patients with advanced cancer regarding their treatment options. 52.8 33.8 37.5 36.3 35.2 Agree + Disagree + 42.0 55.6 41.8 39.4 39.2
  35. 35. Program Development Incentives
  36. 36. Committee for education • The incorporation of palliative medicine in the curricular requirements for ESMO certification and accreditation. • Inclusion in the ESMO examinations questions on all aspects of cancer palliation • Special Advanced training Fellowship Programs designed to focus on research and clinical application of palliative Care.
  37. 37. Designated centers of excellence • Incentive program • Encouragement through the identification and support of model programs • Clinical programs accredited as “center of excellence” will be supported as foci of education and research and will be endorsed as centers of excellence in integrated care.
  38. 38. “Designated Centers” Program BENEFITS: 1. Title=Recognition 2. PC Fellowships 3. Special Grants
  39. 39. Criteria for “Designated Centers” 1. The Center provides closely integrated oncology and palliative care clinical services 2. The Center is committed to a philosophy of continuity of care and non abandonment‑ 3. The Center provides high level home care with expert backup and coordination of home care with primary cancer clinicians 4. The Center incorporates programmatic support of family members.
  40. 40. Criteria for “Designated Centers” 5. The Center provides routine patient assessment of physical and psychological symptoms and social supports and has an infrastructure that responds with appropriate interventions in a timely manner 6. The Center incorporates expert medical and nursing care in the evaluation and relief of pain and other physical symptoms 7. The Center incorporates expert care in the evaluation and relief of psychological and existential distress
  41. 41. Criteria for “Designated Centers” 8. The Center provides emergency care of inadequately relieved physical and psychological symptoms 9. The Center provides facilities and expert care for inpatient symptom stabilization 10.The Center provides respite care for ambulatory patients for patients unable to cope at home or in cases of family fatigue
  42. 42. Criteria for “Designated Centers” 11.The Center provides facilities and expert care for inpatient end of life care and is committed‑ ‑ to providing adequate relief of suffering for dying patients 12.The Center participates in basic or clinical research related to quality of life of cancer patients 13.The Center is involved in clinician education to improve the integration of oncology and palliative care
  43. 43. Selected “Designated Centers” 1. Velindre NHS Trust, Cardiff UK; Ilora Finlay 2. AZ Middelheim, Antwerp Belgium; Dirk Schrijvers 3. Istituto Oncologico della Svizzera Italiana, Ospedale San Giovanni, Bellinzona Switzerland; Piero Sanna 4. Kliniken Essen-Mitte, Essen Germany; Marianne Kloke 5. Vicenza General Hospital, Vicenza Italy; Leonardo Trentin 6. Cork University Hospital, Wilton, Cork Ireland; Oscar Breathnach 7. Klinik Dr. Hancken GmbH, Stade Germany; A. Scherpe 8. O.D.O. AVAPO, div. Oncologia medica, osp. SS. Giovanni e Paolo, Venezia Italy; Ardi Pambuku
  44. 44. Future Plans
  45. 45. Plans • Education – India – Pakistan Mexoco – Eastern Europe – Routine ESMO courses • Collaborative program development – EAPC – MASCC – ASCO – India – Eastern Europe • Research – Communication practices – Defining standards for “BSC”