Research Oct 6, 2010 1


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Research Oct 6, 2010 1

  1. 1. Research Oct 6, 2010 1 N105:12 Class 8, October 6, 2010 Nursing Research: Asking Questions - Seeking Knowledge
  2. 2. Research Oct 6, 2010 2 Class Objectives 1. Discuss the nature of inquiry-asking question 2. Discuss approaches to knowledge development through nursing research 3. Discuss the importance of using ‘evidenced informed’ practice 4. Identify examples of nursing research
  3. 3. Research Oct 6, 2010 3 Do any of you have experience related to research?
  4. 4. Research Oct 6, 2010 4 Definition of Nursing Research  “Research is the primary means by which new knowledge is discovered and brought into practice to improve the care that nurses provide to their clients. It is a systematic process in which questions that generate knowledge are asked and answered. This knowledge becomes part of the scientific basis for practice and may be used to validate interventions”. Potter, Perry, Ross-Kerr & Wood (2010, p.80).
  5. 5. Research Oct 6, 2010 5 Evidence-informed Practice  Evidence-informed practice provides a safety net for nurses and other health professionals because it enables them to make accurate, timely, and appropriate clinical decisions.  Evidence-informed practice is the integration of the most informative research evidence with evidence from experts clinical practice and other sources to produce the best possible care for clients.
  6. 6. Research Oct 6, 2010 6 Know these terms:  Nursing Paradigm: a philosophical or theoretical framework, a way of thinking about concepts: person, environment, health and nursing care.  Qualitative Nursing Research (subjectivity- personal experience –stress associated with the study of breast lumps?)  Scientific Nursing Research (can be precisely measured and quantified) examples -pain severity, wound healing, body temperature
  7. 7. Research Oct 6, 2010 7 Types of Nursing Research  1. Quantitative Research- The investigation of phenomena that lend themselves to precise measurement and quantification, often involving a rigorous and controlled design.
  8. 8. Research Oct 6, 2010 8 Types of Nursing Research 2. Qualitative Research- examines the individual’s viewpoint; does not use statistical measurement; Main ways of obtaining data: Observation, interview. Example: Phenomenology-describes the lived experience of a specific fact or event from the person’s point of view: Study the lived experiences of women who have breastfed their babies exclusively for 6 months.
  9. 9. Research Oct 6, 2010 9 Purpose of Research  Provides answers to questions that are puzzling  Builds upon knowledge that is already in existence  Issues related to client population and health concerns can be addressed  Some theories are developed and others are tested.  Improves nursing practice and education  Appropriate utilization of funds
  10. 10. Research Oct 6, 2010 10 Let’s Review your Research Article Your Assignment 1. What is your research article about? 2. What makes it a research article? 3. How does it contribute to nursing knowledge? 4. Do you understand how essential nursing research is?
  11. 11. Research Oct 6, 2010 11 How do you know if the journal article is a true research article?
  12. 12. Research Oct 6, 2010 12 What Are The Characteristics (elements) Of A Research Article (Paper)? How Do You Know It Is A Research Article? Evidence informed articles include the following elements: Must read & study text “Critique the evidence” 1. Abstract 2. Introduction 3. Literature review 4. Manuscript narrative 5. Purpose statement 6. Method or design 7. Results or conclusion 8. Clinical implications Potter, Perry, Ross-Kerr & Wood (2010, p. 78-79)
  13. 13. Research Oct 6, 2010 13  You completed readings related to nursing research and then searched and found a research article that interested you. What did you learn from the research article you selected? -e.g. insight into the methods, findings, usefulness to practice, etc…?
  14. 14. Research Oct 6, 2010 14 OBSERVE! LISTEN! ASK!  There's an art to nursing, but its most basic skills — observing, listening and asking questions — are also the foundation of scientific inquiry.  Using research to look critically at the "way things have always been done" is an expected role for nurses. Nurses must learn how to ask research questions, aimed at finding care practices, that support the best outcomes for patients (clients) of all ages.
  15. 15. Research Oct 6, 2010 15 Major Components Of Research-based Practice 1. Investigate a research question 2. Dissemination/sharing of research findings 3. Use of research in practice
  16. 16. Research Oct 6, 2010 16 Example of Research – Origin & Outcome Karen Wilkinson, ARNP, an oncology nurse practitioner, repeatedly heard parents wish they could do something for their children during painful procedures. She also saw the anxiety experienced by children anticipating lab visits and treatments. So she developed a comfort kit for parents and clinicians to use with children who were experiencing fear. To evaluate the usefulness of this new tool, Wilkinson studied patients and families before and after using the kit. Nurses at Children's Clinical Research Center, experts in obtaining consent and collecting research data, helped her. Outcome: Patients and parents overwhelmingly rated the distraction props in the comfort kit — pinwheels, bubbles, squish balls, imagery cards and various types of puzzles — as very effective.
  17. 17. Research Oct 6, 2010 17 Use research: Be accountable By using evidence from research findings and clinical expertise and experience to inform their practice, nurses are (most importantly) demonstrating accountability for quality patient care
  18. 18. Research Oct 6, 2010 18 Discuss The Nature Of Inquiry- Asking Questions  Study p. Potter & Perry p. 82-83  Know the difference between the Scientific Paradigm & Qualitative (interpretive) paradigm  What is a researchable question? Why is it important?
  19. 19. Research Oct 6, 2010 19 Knowledge Development in Nursing Patterns of Knowledge in Nursing ( Carper, 1978 & Chin & Cramer. 2008) 1. Empirics: the Science of Nursing (systematically organized-laws, theories, models) 2. Esthetics: the Art of Nursing (knowing & understanding) 3. Personal knowledge: Nurse Patient Relationship (interpersonal, therapeutic, rapport) 4. Ethics: the Moral Component (what ought to be done – code of ethics, dilemmas, conundrums) 5. Emancipatory knowing: the social, economic & political component (injustice, inequity, need for change)
  20. 20. Research Oct 6, 2010 20 Reflection Exercise Using Model of Knowing (Carper (i-iv) & Chin & Cramer’s (v) 1. Apply: a) Think of something you have done b) Think about the knowledge you have in each area i. Empirics ( knowledge/fact to describe what you know) ii. Esthetics, (knowledge, understanding, interpreting behaviour) iii. Personal knowledge (personal to individual, interpersonal, personalizing care) iv. Ethics (right, justice, what you should do) v. Emancipatory knowing (recognize problem, injustice, inequity …) 2. Examples could be driving to school or work, babysitting some children, caring for someone in the community, meeting with friends this past weekend, talking to a friend, Anything that gets you thinking about what you know and how you know it and then perhaps what you don’t yet know.
  21. 21. Research Oct 6, 2010 21  The next class portion is a video clip of an interview with Dr. Judith Shamian, President of CNA who talks about Nursing Research. & Leadership: Listen attentatively (HINT)  The value of Nursing Research  Importance of Nursing Research to you the Nurse  How to use nursing Research
  22. 22. Research Oct 6, 2010 22
  23. 23. Research Oct 6, 2010 23 Development of Research in Nursing  Historical Milestones:  Florence Nightingale observed issues concerning nutrition and hygiene practices during the Crimean War  StFXU Nursing BScN (1928)  Weir Report (1932)  Nursing education transferred to educational settings  Nurses started using the scientific process  First fully funded PhD Program in Nursing (1992)  PhD in Nursing at Dalhousie (2004) Potter & Perry, 2010, p. 81.
  24. 24. Research Oct 6, 2010 24 Historical Development: Nursing Research in Canada is Born Cont’d  Masters and PhD programs evolved as well as funding agencies  1956- University of Western Ontario- first MN program  1991-University of Alberta first doctoral program  1964-First nursing research project was funded federally  1969-The first Canadian Journal of Nursing Research was published at McGill University “Nursing Papers”  1982-First funding agency for Nursing Research-Alberta (Milestones-Refer to Potter et al. 2010, p.81-82)
  25. 25. Research Oct 6, 2010 25 Research ProcessResearch Process (Potter & Perry (2010, text p.826-89) Hypothesis: Hypothetical situation tested to confirm or reject 1. Research Process  Researchable question  Literature search 2. Purpose 3. Design 4. Sample 5. Method 6. Analysis 7. Answer/Conclusion Research Designs 1. Quantitative • Experimental • Descriptive • Explorative • Data analysis 2. Qualitative 3. Ethnography • (observation & description of behaviour) 4. Phenomenology (lived experience) 5. Grounded Theory generates hypothesis inductively
  26. 26. Research Oct 6, 2010 26 Evidenced-based Decision Making  Decisions are made based on the best possible evidence at that time.  Quality patient care is the major focus when making evidenced- based decisions.  Morals and values of the individuals involved in the decisions play a significant role.
  27. 27. Research Oct 6, 2010 27 Evidenced-based Decision Making  The data collected through research, needs to be applied to nursing practice once it has been evaluated and processed through the appropriate channels.
  28. 28. Research Oct 6, 2010 28 Ethical Considerations re Research  Institutions need a Research Ethics Board to review research proposals. The board will decide if the proposed study follows established ethical principles.  An informed consent is required from the participants outlining what is going to be studied. The rights of research subjects must be protected.
  29. 29. Research Oct 6, 2010 29 Involvement in Research  Nurses need to welcome and be open to research.  Each nurse can be involved with research at some point in their career (understand, interpret, apply, participate, enable, and or lead).  The more advanced the education level, the more involved the person should become. Advances in research are meaningless unless research reaches nurses at the point of care. “Research utilization” is very important.
  30. 30. Research Oct 6, 2010 30 Research Utilization  The results of one study are not enough evidence to change your practice.  Must assess multiple studies, consider systematic reviews “ an examination of all the research on a given topic that critically examines the methods used and provides a summary.”
  31. 31. Research Oct 6, 2010 31 How You Can Participate In Research  Using research findings to change clinical practice***  Use findings to improving client outcomes  Identify researchable questions  Collecting data  Being on a research team  Design studies  Maintaining health care costs
  32. 32. Research Oct 6, 2010 32 Summary 1. The nature of inquiry-asking question 2. Approaches to knowledge development through nursing research 3. Importance of using ‘evidenced informed’ practice 4. Your involvement in nursing research