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@Poh Kam WONG University as driver for open innovation ...

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    @Poh Kam WONG University as driver for open innovation ... @Poh Kam WONG University as driver for open innovation ... Presentation Transcript

    • University as driver for open innovation & international collaboration in national innovation system: The case of National University of Singapore (NUS) Professor Wong Poh Kam NUS Business School & Director, NUS Entrepreneurship Centre
    • Imperative for Open Innovation and International R&D Collaboration
      • In a world of widely distributed knowledge, companies cannot afford to rely entirely on their own R&D, but are increasingly tapping on external sources of knowledge through R&D collaboration, buying or licensing processes or inventions from others, and licensing invention to external parties
      • Likewise, regional/national innovation systems need to be increasingly open as innovation activities become increasingly globalized & regional clusters become differentiated into tiered nodes in the global innovation network
      • This is particularly critical for newly industrialized economies (NIEs), which need to make sure that they develop one or more of their key innovation clusters into higher-tiered nodes in the global innovation networks, or risk being marginalized
    • University as Driver for Open Innovation in National/Regional Innovation System
      • The open nature of the university model for knowledge production & exchange
        • Open Culture of Scientific Commons vs. Proprietary IP system for technology commercialization in private firms
        • High flow of talents (students but increasingly professors as well) in university model vs. moderate churn in firms
        • Spatial proximity of, & porosity of boundary between, diverse disciplinary fields, facilitate cross-disciplinary research
      • Increasing adoption of “Third Mission”
        • Adapting the traditional university model to incorporate a technology commercialization role in addition to the traditional roles of teaching & research
    • University as Driver for Open Innovation in National/Regional Innovation System
      • Increasing globalization of knowledge production & exchange network
        • “ Small world” nature of most local R&D innovation clusters despite globalization, hence the need for nodes with international ties to bridge local innovation clusters
        • Open model of university, with both dense local ties and extensive inter-regional/international ties, is well suited to play this connectivity hub role
      • How well university can play this Open Innovation Driver Role in regional innovation system depends on it’s ability to:
        • Integrate its open science model with the technology commercialization role
        • Integrate itself into the global knowledge production & exchange network
    • University as Driver for Open Innovation in National/Regional Innovation System
      • Integration of open science model with technology commercialization role
        • Incorporation of technology commercialization role as an integral part of the university’s mission, but without sacrificing the push for excellence in basic science
        • Linking Basic R&D with Translational R&D, & Strategic focus on the “Pasteur Quadrant” (Use-inspired basic research)
        • Increasing importance of IP commercialization, while maintaining culture of open science
        • While R&D collaboration with, & licensing of technology to, industry represents the key mechanism for open innovation by university, in the context of NIEs where existing high tech industry is weak, commercialization through spin-offs may be even more important
    • University as Driver for Open Innovation in National/Regional Innovation System
      • Integration of university into the global knowledge production & exchange network
        • Openness to foreign talents at all levels (professors, researchers, students, industry collaborators)
        • Downstream” open innovation role: University as anchor to attract foreign MNCs to establish R&D operations in the local economy, and as facilitator of industry R&D collaboration
        • “ Upstream” open innovation role: University as facilitator for International R&D collaboration networks and consortia involving foreign universities & research institutes
        • International experience & networks for students and academics
        • Adoption of global benchmark and international best-practice in faculty promotion and tenure (P&T) and R&D management
    • University as Driver for Open Innovation in Singapore: The Case of National University of Singapore
      • Case Study of the experience of National University of Singapore (NUS) in seeking to become a driver for Open Innovation and International Collaboration in the national innovation system of Singapore
        • The national innovation strategy framework of Singapore in recent years
        • The changing open innovation role of National University of Singapore (NUS) in Singapore’s NIS
        • Lessons and Implications for other NIEs
    • Singapore’s National Policy Framework for Innovation and R&D in the 2000’s
    • The Context: Singapore’s Transition towards a Knowledge Economy
      • Between 1960 and 2000, Singapore achieved GDP growth rate of 8% p.a., driven by the manufacturing sector and sustained by her development as a major regional business and communications hub for global MNCs
      • Distinctly new phase of development emerging in the new millenium: Shift towards Knowledge Based Economy incorporating:
        • High tech innovation and manufacturing
        • Knowledge intensive business services
        • Creative content production and distribution
      • Mirrored by a shift in the primary focus of the national innovation system:
        • Creation of IP-based knowledge and commercialization of innovation
        • Development of entrepreneurial mindsets and capabilities
        • Becoming an integral node in the global innovation network
    • Emerging Institutional Framework for S&T Policy in Singapore as of 2008 Source: Wong & Singh (2008) EDB – Economic Development Board ASTAR – Agency for Science, Technology & Research SPRING – Standards, Productivity and Innovation Board IDA – Infocomm Development Authority DTG – Defence Technology Group DSO – Defence Science Organisation DSTA – Defence Science & Technology Administration RIEC - Research, Innovation and Enterprise Council
      • Ad Hoc Committees:
        • Ministerial Committee on R&D Policy (2004-2006)
        • Economic Review Committee (ERC)(2002-03)
        • T21 Committee (1999-2003)
        • Committee on Competitiveness (1997-98)
        • Economic Planning Committee (1985-86, 1989-91)
      Cabinet Ministry of Defence DTG DSTA Ministry of Trade & Industry (MTI) Public research institutes/ centres (PRI/Cs) (13) IDA Ministry of Communications & Information Technology Other Ministries Bio-Medical Research Council (BMRC) EDB SPRING ASTAR Science & Engineering Research Council DSO Ministry of Education Higher Education Division Universities (3) Polytechnics (5) Academic Research Fund RIEC National Research Foundation
    • Increasing Emphasis on R&D and Innovation
      • A high-level Research, Innovation and Enterprise Council (RIEC), chaired by the Prime Minister, was established in 2006 to provide strategic direction & coordination of policies to promote R&D and innovation
      • A new National Research Foundation (NRF) was established in early 2006 to provide secretariat support to RIEC, and to co-ordinate research of different agencies to implement the following five strategic thrusts :
        • Intensify national R&D spending to achieve 3% of GDP by 2010;
        • Identify and invest in strategic areas of R&D;
        • Fund a balance of basic and applied research within strategic areas;
        • Provide resources and support to encourage private sector R&D;
        • Strengthen linkages between public and private sector R&D.
      • NRF was allocated S$5 billion National Research Fund between 2006 and 2010 to fund new research & innovation initiatives to complement those already undertaken by the existing Agency for Science, Technology & Research (A*STAR), which oversees the 12 major public research institutes (PRIs) in Singapore. The primary focus of NRF funding will go towards strengthening the R&D and innovative capabilities of Singapore’s universities
    • A*STAR’s R&D Focus Source: A*STAR website, http://www.a-star.edu.sg/a_star/2-About-A-STAR
      • Biomedical PRIs
      • Institute of Molecular & Cell Biology
      • Genome Institute of Singapore
      • Bioinformatics Institute
      • Institute of Bioengineering & Nanotechnology
      • Bioprocessing Technology Institute
      • Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences
      • Institute of Medical Biology
      • Science & Engineering PRIs
      • Data Storage Institute
      • Institute for Chemical & Engineering Sciences
      • Institute of High Performance Computing
      • Institute of Microelectronics
      • Institute of Materials Research & Engineering
    • NRF Strategy for Promoting new R&D Capabilities to complement A*STAR Source: NRF (2006). “ National Research Foundation set up to provide national framework for strategic R&D efforts”, NRF Media release, 3 January 2006, http://www.nrf.gov.sg/NRF/uploadedFiles/News_and_Events/3Jan06_EDB.pdf
    • The Changing Open Innovation Role of National University of Singapore (NUS) in Singapore’s national innovation system
    • Changing Role of NUS in Singapore’s shift towards a knowledge-based economy
      • Until the late 1990s, NUS, as the oldest and leading university in Singapore, has emphasized the traditional twin academic missions of providing excellent education to the nation’s population, and contributing to the creation of new knowledge through engagement in R&D activities geared primarily towards scientific publications
      • NUS has continued to pursue excellence in these twin academic missions and has indeed made significant achievements by the mid-2000s, as evidenced by various international ranking…
      • But the university’s role in the 21 st century has taken on additional dimensions in response to the changing need of the Singaporean economy…
    • Summary Profile of National University of Singapore (NUS) (FY 2006/7) 1 Figure for FY2005 2 Thomson ISI-indexed journal articles only Source: NUS Annual Research Report 2005-2006, National University of Singapore; NUS Annual Report 2007, National University of Singapore; Database of the USPTO Established 1905; Largest and oldest of 3 public universities Broadest scope of courses and disciplines
    • Ranking of NUS in the World University Rankings by the Times Higher Education Supplement, 2004-07 Source: Knowledge Enterprise Online, various issues, downloaded from http:// newshub.nus.edu.sg / ; The Times Higher Education Supplement (various years) Ranked 33rd in the 2007 Times Higher Education Supplement of top 200 universities in the World (4 th -highest in Asia)
    • New Roles of NUS in the Context of Singapore’s Shift towards Knowledge Economy
      • Contribute to the Creation of New Knowledge-based Industries
      • To support knowledge-based economic growth through the creation of industrially-relevant knowledge/innovation and their commercialization, and to attract global MNCs in new emerging industries
      • Attraction of Foreign Talents
        • Go beyond Education for the small local population to compete for global talents by attracting top students and faculty from overseas, as done by top universities in USA
      • Fostering Entrepreneurial Mindset
        • In the past, high economic growth has provided NUS graduates with good career prospects as salaried employees, particularly in MNC subsidiaries and government
        • In the future knowledge economy, stable job opportunities no longer guaranteed, need to inculcate spirit of enterprise
      • "NUS aspires to stand among the entrepreneurial universities. This is in line with our vision to become a global knowledge enterprise. We have taken steps to inject an entrepreneurial dimension. We have established NUS Enterprise: A FREE ENTERPRISE ZONE, where innovation and entrepreneurship are freed from traditional rules…"
      Towards an Entrepreneurial University -- Prof Shih Choon Fong, State of University Address 2002, 13 August 2002
    • New Vision of NUS in the 21 st Century: Becoming a Global Knowledge Enterprise
        • To become a globally-oriented university, open to and competing for students and faculty globally, and benchmarking practice and performance against global leaders
        • To make NUS a knowledge hub for Industry and Enterprise
        • To inject an entrepreneurial dimension to NUS education and research
        • To be a key node in the global innovation network
    • Shift Towards Entrepreneurial University Model
      • Major changes initiated by the new president in early 2000 to shift NUS towards the entrepreneurial university model
      • Incorporation of Enterprise as a “Third mission” in addition to the traditional missions of teaching and research
      • Creation of a new Organizational Division – NUS Enterprise
        • Broad mission to inject more entrepreneurial dimension to NUS education and research
        • Appointed as first CEO an engineering school professor who had founded a spin-off to commercialize his inventions
        • Second CEO a veteran venture capitalist with prior academic research & start-up experience
      • Instituted major new focus on Internationalization and Industry Collaboration in Research, while emphasizing achieving research excellence
    • NUS Enterprise’s Vision of NUS in Singapore’s High Tech Economy Source: Wong Poh Kam (forthcoming) Venture capital /angel investors & other venture businesses attracted to work with University High tech ventures created or facilitated by the University World-class R&D investments attracted to collaborate with University Top talents (researchers, students) attracted to work & study in University Talented graduates with entrepreneurial mindsets NUS as a Global Knowledge Enterprise
    • NUS Enterprise: Major Initiatives
      • Reforming university policies on technology commercialization
        • Reorganized the Industry and Technology Relations Office (INTRO) to make it more inventor friendly. Subsequently re-named and re-organize Industry Liaison Office (ILO) to emphasize its dual role of industry collaboration as well as IP management and commercialization
      • Expanding the Entrepreneurship Centre with educational, research, outreach and venture support functions
        • Introduced significant entrepreneurship education programs --Technopreneurship Minor Programs, Overseas College Program (NOC) and i LEAD -- to inculcate entrepreneurial mindset among NUS students
        • Established Venture Support (NVS) program including incubator, seed funds, mentorship & investor-networking
    • Strategic Focus of Major Open Innovation Initiatives at NUS in recent years
      • Innovation Collaboration with Industry
        • focus on major technological clusters being strategically promoted by the Singapore government (e.g. environmental & water technologies, biomedical sciences, interactive digital media)
        • focus on key global MNCs as collaboration partners
      • Innovation Collaboration with Foreign Universities
        • focus on selected areas of research excellence
        • focus on strategic partnership with leading universities that have significant technology commercialization & industry collaboration track records
      • Shift towards Greater International & Industry Collaboration go hand-in-hand with shift towards NUS Enterprise Model, which provides the link to technology commercialization
    • Impact of Shift towards the Entrepreneurial University Model
      • Shift still in early stage; assessment of impact is preliminary
      • Changes in NUS between the mid 1990s and the mid 2000s
        • Moderate quantity expansion in traditional dimensions, with substantial quality improvement
          • Education and research output
        • Significant change in new dimensions
          • Foreign talent attraction (foreign students, researchers, faculty)
          • Entrepreneurship promotion (spin-offs and start-ups)
          • Technology Commercialisation (invention disclosures, patents, licenses, R&D collaboration with industry)
          • International Collaboration (upstream and downstream collaborations)
    • Profile of Changes in NUS, Before and After Shift to Entrepreneurial University Model 1 Percentage for FY2004 2 Percentage of total student intake for 1997/8 3 Figure for FY2005 4 CY1996 5 CY2007 6 CY1990-1997 7 CY1990-2006 Source: NUS Annual Research Report (various years), National University of Singapore; NUS Annual Report; Database of the USPTO; IPOS; ISI Web of Science; NUS Office of Research
    • Attraction of Foreign Talent: NUS Faculty Members and Research Staff by Nationality as at End June 1997 vs End June 2005 Sources: NUS Annual Report, various years Increase in proportion of foreign talent among NUS faculty and teaching staff between 1997 and 2005
    • Technology Commercialisation: Number of Patents Filed by and Granted to NUS, FY1997-2005 Source: NUS Research Report (various years) Note: Figures include patents filed in multiple countries The annual rate of patent applications and patent grants has increased since 2000… The extent of IP licensing to industry has also increased since 2000
    • Top 20 Organizations with Singapore Patents 1 , Cumulative to 2006 1 Patents where at least one inventor is a Singaporean. Includes patents which are jointly assigned. ** A company called Tri-tech Microelectronics was granted a total of 56 patents before filing for bankruptcy and entering liquidation in 1999. Source: Database of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) (various years) NUS has become 4th-largest holder of US patents granted to Singapore-based inventors, up from 7 th in 1995
    • Comparisons of NUS vs. Selected Leading Universities – Patents granted by USPTO n.a. 7 98 97 Imperial College 2005 Cumulative 1976 to 2005 40 26 67 182 National Univ. of Singapore 41 4 127 35 Cambridge University 34 9 97 98 Oxford University 43 43 22 510 Georgia Tech 35 35 31 413 University of Southern California 37 37 14 718 University of Pennsylvania 109 100 4 1541 Stanford University 63 65 10 545 University of Illinois 93 133 2 2825 MIT 265 310 1 5615 University of California # of licensing # of patents Rank among world’s universities # of patents Name of Institution
    • NUS’ Open Innovation Activities have increased over time Source: Computed from USPTO database 1 All Singapore-invented patents with more than one assignee 2 All Singapore-invented patents with more than one assignee, at least one of which is foreign 3.9 8.0 12.0 3.7 Singapore 1 NUS Singapore Singapore 2 NUS NUS 44.8 41.3 40.2 41.5 2.2 3.4 1.6 2.9 4.9 2.7 2.8 0 Share of NUS in total citations to Singapore patents (%) 28.7 6.1 0 NA % co-invented with non Singapore residents 2.1 3.0 0 NA
        • of which % co-owned with foreign assignees
      29.7 9.1 0 NA % co-owned with other organisations 4.1 4.3 2.8 0 Share of NUS in total Singapore patents (%) 195 33 7 0 NUS-invented USPTO patents 2000-2007 1995-1999 1990-1994 1976-1989  
    • Academic Entrepreneurship: Number of NUS Spin-offs, 1980-2006 Source: NUS ILO and NUS Venture Support NUS’ change in policy to encouraging technology commercialization through spin-off and start-up formation after 2000 has facilitated an increased rate of spin-off formation
    • NUS Publications and Citations 1996 vs 2006 Note: Includes SCI- and SSCI-indexed articles only 1 Using citation data up to 7 August 2008 Source: Thomson ISI Web of Science
        • The new emphasis on Technology Commercialization has NOT been at the expense of pursuit of Research Excellence:
        • NUS’ annual journal article output increased almost 3-fold between 1996 and 2006
        • Research quantity (publications per faculty member) and quality (citations received per faculty member and per paper) has also increased over this time
        • NUS journal articles tend to be more highly cited than the average Singapore journal article
    • Examples of Recent NUS Initiatives to promote International & Industry Collaboration in Innovation
      • Environmental & Water Technologies
      • Biomedical Initiatives
      • Interactive Digital Media Initiatives
    • NUS Open Innovation Initiatives – Environmental & Water Technologies
      • GE-NUS partnership on Water & Process Technologies
        • MOU signed in September 2006, GE Water to invest SGD 130 million over 10 years to establish a Global R&D Centre on Water & Process Technologies hosted at NUS School of Engineering
        • Focus on Water Quality and Water Scarcity, aligned with Singapore’s Global Hydrohub vision
      • Singapore-Delft Water Alliance (SDWA)
        • Research collaboration launched in February 2007 between NUS, Delft Hydraulics (Netherlands) and the Public Utilities Board (PUB)
        • Funding of SGD 64 million over 3 years, with support from the Environment and Water Industry Development Council (EWI) of the NRF
        • Hosted at NUS School of Engineering, aims to advance S&T in water sector through demand-driven research, post-graduate and professional education and specialised consultancy services.; Operations were kick-started with four research programs, involving 70 researchers from NUS, Delft University of Technology and Delft Hydraulics
    • NUS Open Innovation Initiatives – Environmental & Water Technologies (cont’d)
      • NUS Environmental Research Institute (NERI)
        • Established in early 2007, with university funding of SGD 12 million over 3 years
        • Adopts a research cluster approach, accommodating cross-disciplinary research areas and faculty-focused research units in 3 focus Areas: (i) Air, land & water systems; (ii) Human & environmental health; (iii) Energy systems
      • Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS)
        • Established in February 2008 by NUS in partnership with the Clean Energy Program Office (CEPO), with expected investment of SGD130 million over 5 yr
        • Aims to be a world-class solar R&D centre positioned optimally between university science and industry, and to groom pool of solar energy specialists
        • Focus on 3 key research areas: (i) silicon-based solar cells; (ii) novel photovoltaic (PV) devices and materials; (iii) “Solar and Energy-efficient Buildings”
        • Emphasis on active collaborate on research and education programs with outstanding scientists and research centres to build homegrown capabilities, starting with 25 researchers and expected to growth to 90 researchers in 5 years. Additionally, expect to produce up to 50 PhD and 20 Masters students in 5 years
    • NUS Open Innovation Initiatives – Biomedical Sciences
      • NUS-Duke Graduate Medical School Singapore (GMS)
        • Established in 2005 as Singapore’s second medical school
        • Research-intensive curriculum based on Duke University model of medical education: developing clinician-scientists who will engage in translational research
        • Located next to national health specialty centres and Singapore General Hospital
      • NUS-A*STAR-USCD tripartite partnership on Biomedical Science
        • Announced in March 2006, NUS, A*STAR and University of California, San Diego will collaborate on 6 research projects in the areas of host-pathogen interactions, cancer, stem cell biology and developmental biology
        • A*STAR and NUS provide total SGD 2 million over 2-3 years, to support preliminary work ahead of joint grant applications to funding agencies in US and Singapore
      • Singapore Gastric Cancer Consortium (SGCC) – Improving Outcomes for Our Patients project
        • Collaboration of researchers from NUS, NUH and the National Cancer Centre Singapore (NCSS)
        • Project was awarded SGD 25 million from the National Medical Research council under its Translational Clinical Research Flagship Program
        • NUS module focuses on improving early detection to enable diagnosis
    • NUS Open Innovation Initiatives – Biomedical Sciences (cont’d)
      • NUS-RAND collaboration: NUS Centre for Health Services Research
        • Centre formed in August 2006 as collaboration between NUS Yong Soo Lin School of Medicine and the RAND Corporation, in partnership with Ministry of Health, Singapore Health Services and the National Healthcare Group
        • Aims to promote academic expertise in health services research and to be a national resource for research and education programs through which quality, credible data are generated to assist decision making by healthcare providers and policy makers
      • NUS Cancer Research Centre of Excellence
        • Announced in March 2008 by NRF and the Ministry of Education (MOE)
        • Offers opportunity for team of eminent international faculty to work with NUS faculty on cancer research
        • NRF and MOE will support the Cancer RCE with SGD 172 million over 7 years
        • Expects to train 100 graduate students and 70 postdoctoral fellows
        • Specialty programs will include Cancer Stem Cell Programme, Cancer Biology Programme, Genomic Oncology Programme and Experimental Therapeutics Programme
    • NUS Open Innovation Initiatives – Biomedical Sciences (cont’d)
      • Centre for Translational Medicine (CeTM)
        • Expected to be completed in 2010, CeTM is a state of the art building to be home to more than 500 researchers and educators from the National University Health System (NUHS), will have 41,000 square metres of teaching, learning, training and research space with ten floors dedicated to research
        • Will house translational research programs in cancer, cardiovascular diseases, infections diseases, imaging research and other diseases, as well as NUS’s Cancer Research Centre of Excellence and the Clinical Imaging Research Centre
        • Will provide facilities to integrate research, education and clinical care, allowing clinicians and doctors to work closely with researchers, students and scientists
        • CeTM will promote active collaborations with researchers from other centres, hospitals and research institutes, to build world-class capabilities for translational research in Singapore
      • NUS Clinical Research Collaboration with RIKEN, Japan
        • Collaboration between doctors and researchers from NUS, NUH and RIKEN (Japan’s oldest and most established research institution), comenced in 2007, to develop and validate a molecular diagnostic test for personalised therapy for lung cancer patients,
    • NUS Open Innovation Initiatives – Interactive Digital Media
      • NUS Hollywood Lab
        • Opened in July 2006 in Los Angeles to foster international R&D collaboration and technology commercialisation for IDM.
        • Lab works closely with major Hollywood studios, universities and entertainment companies in North America.
        • Focus on R&D collaboration, student exchange and visiting professor programmes, and joint business ventures between Singapore and USA.
      • Interactive and Digital Media Institute (IDMI)
        • Launched in April 2007 with seed funding of SGD 11 million over 3 years, as Singapore’s first inter-disciplinary research institute in IDM.
        • Undertakes application-inspired basic research in IDM, trains graduate students from Singapore and Asia, and transfer intellectual and human capital
        • Comprises eight laboratories in mixed reality, sociable robotics, games, ambient intelligence, multimedia sensing, cognitive and social studies, arts & creativity, and multimodal analysis.
        • Serves as focal point for IDM research in Singapore, aiming to make Singapore a major global nucleus of new media
        • NUS Hollywood Lab serves as an outpost of the IDMI to network with top IDM institutions in the US and facilitate placement of NUS students in internship programs.
    • NUS Open Innovation Initiatives – Interactive Digital Media (cont’d)
      • Keio-NUS CUTE Centre ( C onnective U biquitous T echnology for E mbodiments)
        • Jointly set up by Keio University and NUS, with joint funding by both universities and the Interactive Digital Media Research and Development Programme Office (IDMPO) hosted by MDA.
        • Announced in July 2008, and expected to commence operations before end 2008
        • Will involve more than 50 researchers from Japan and Singapore including some of Japan’s top researchers in IDM, who are acknowledged world-leading experts in specialised fields.
        • Premised on the emergence of a “creative” and “connected” society, the centre will focus on pervasive content for wearable and body media, reshaping lifestyles around the theme of ‘5 seconds of fun’.
        • NUS faculty, researchers and students will have opportunities to spend time in Keio University, one of Japan’s top universities, to build networks and research capability.
    • Examples of NUS Internationalization Initiatives to Create Open Innovation Capabilities
      • The Singapore-MIT Alliance Program
      • The CREATE program
      • The RCE Program
      • The NUS Overseas College (NOC) Program
    • Raising Innovative Capacity through International Cooperation: The Singapore-MIT Alliance Program
      • Established in 1998, the Singapore-MIT Alliance (SMA) is an innovative engineering and life science educational and research collaboration involving the National University of Singapore (NUS), the Nanyang Technological University (NTU), and MIT, with students recruited globally
      • The program is intended to combine a focus on creativity and entrepreneurship with an intense, hands-on approach to research, leveraging on MIT’s experience in developing industrial collaboration and fostering innovation and entrepreneurship among its students. All students will reside a minimum of one semester at MIT. In Singapore, they will attend “live” MIT classes and take part in research meetings with MIT faculty, staff and students through video-conferencing
      • The success of the first phase of the program, where the degree is granted by NUS solely, to the establishment of a second phase, where the degree is granted jointly by NUS and MIT
    • Building Global R&D Links: The International Campus for Research Excellence and Technological Enterpise (CREATE) Initiative
      • Recognizing the importance of building strong linkages with global institutions to enhance Singapore’s connectivity to other centres of research in US and Europe, and accelerate Singapore’s thrusts towards an innovative and entrepreneurial economy, the Research, Innovation and Enterprise Council (RIEC) (chaired by the Prime Minister) initiated in 2006 the International Campus for Research Excellence and Technological Enterprise (CREATE) Program
      • The Singapore MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART) Centre was established in NUS as the first CREATE program. SMART houses joint, inter-disciplinary research between NUS and MIT professors. The first project focuses on infectious diseases & environmental sensing.
      • A second CREATE with European partners is being finalized with ETH (Switzerland)
    • Building Nodes of Global Excellence: The Research Centre of Excellence (RCE) Initiative
      • Recognizing the need for Singapore to build “peaks of global excellence” in selected fields of knowledge in order for Singapore to become a truly integral node in the global innovation network, the National Research Foundation (NRF) has committed to fund a number of new Research Centre of Excellence (RCE) in Singapore.
      • NUS has made a successful bid to establish the first RCE in Singapore, the Quantum Information Science and Technology (QIST) Centre, with S$150 million funding from NRF to attract up to 200 scientists from around the world
    • Infusing Entrepreneurial & Global Mindset: The NUS Overseas College initiative
      • Initiated in 2001, program aims to send 200 NUS undergraduate students per year to five high tech entrepreneurial hubs in the world; 180 in 2008
      • Experiential Education: “Learning by immersion” Model
        • Work as interns in high-tech start-ups in host region for one year
        • Take entrepreneurship courses in partner universities in host region
        • Return to NUS to complete their final semester/year
        • Infuse entrepreneurial, global mindset
        • Influence future career choices towards entrepreneurial and innovative pursuits
        • Establish social networks with overseas entrepreneurial communities to facilitate future collaboration
        • Serve as catalyst for mindset change among their peers in NUS when they return
    • NUS College in Silicon Valley, USA (2002) Study at Stanford & work in the innovation “habitat” ≈ NUS College in Bio Valley, USA (2003) Study at UPenn & work in the US’ pharma hotbed ≈ NUS College in Shanghai, China (2004) Study at Fudan & work in China’s commercial hub ≈ NUS College in Stockholm, Europe (2005) Study at KTH/SSE & work in Europe’s No.1 IT hub ≈ NUS College in Bangalore, India (2006) Study at IISc & work in India’s high-tech hub NUS Overseas Colleges
    • Conclusion: NUS’ role in making Singapore an integral node in the Global Innovation Ecosystem
      • Singapore has been a major hub in the global business, trading and communications/transportation system in the 20 th Century
      • Singapore is aiming to become a major hub in the global innovation ecosystem in the 21 st century
        • Attracting global innovators to Singapore
        • Nurturing globally competitive indigenous innovators
        • Building connectivity to other global innovation hubs
      • Since the late 1990s, NUS has sought to contribute significantly to this vision of Singapore by pursuing a new Global Enterprise Strategy that embraces an “Open Innovation, Entrepreneurial University” model
    • Lessons for Other NIEs
      • Universities in NIEs can play a potentially important role in the national innovation system of these economies, by serving as an Open Innovation hub that plugs integrally into the global innovation network
      • To play this open innovation hub role effectively, universities in NIEs need to incorporate technology commercialization as a third mission, while maintaining its open scientific commons culture and focusing on achieving research excellence
      • A focus on injecting an entrepreneurial dimension to university education and research needs to go hand-in-hand with the shift towards Open Innovation
    • Selected References
      • Wong, P.K.(2007), “Commercializing Biomedical Science in a Rapidly Changing “Triple-Helix” Nexus: The experience of the National University of Singapore”, J. of Technology Transfer 32: 367-395 (2007)
      • Wong, P.K., Y.P. Ho and A. Singh (2007), “Towards an Entrepreneurial University Model to Support Knowledge-Based Economic Development: The Case of the National University of Singapore”, World Development Vol. 35 No. 6 (June 2007): 941-958
      • Wong, P.K. and Y.P. Ho (2007), “ Knowledge Sources of Innovation in a Small Open Economy: The case of Singapore”, Scientometrics Vol. 70, No. 2, Feb. 2007, p. 223-249
      • Wong, P.K. and A. Singh (2008), “From Technology Adopter to Innovator: The Dynamics of Change in the National System of Innovation in Singapore”, chap. 3 in C. Edquist and L. Hommen (eds.), Small Economy Innovation Systems: Comparing Globalization, Change and Policy in Asia and Europe, Elgar, 2008, p. 71-112
      • Wong, P.K. (forthcoming), “Towards a “Global Knowledge Enterprise: The Entrepreneurial University Model of National University of Singapore”, in O’Shea, R. and T.J. Allen (eds), Building Technology Transfer within Research Universities: An Entrepreneurial Approach , Cambridge University Press