Jagannathan - Do Cell Phones Cause Cancer?

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Jagannathan - Do Cell Phones Cause Cancer?

  1. 1. Do Cell Phones CauseDo Cell Phones Cause Cancer?Cancer? Lakshmi JagannathanLakshmi Jagannathan 11/30/0511/30/05
  2. 2. How Cell Phones WorkHow Cell Phones Work Making a call:Making a call: VoiceVoice Radio WavesRadio Waves Base StationBase Station Receiving a call:Receiving a call: Base StationBase Station RadioRadio WavesWaves VoiceVoice
  3. 3. RadiowavesRadiowaves Radiowaves- Radiofrequency energyRadiowaves- Radiofrequency energy Form of Non-Ionizing RadiationForm of Non-Ionizing Radiation Ionization: High levels of energy that causeIonization: High levels of energy that cause damage to biological tissues, including DNAdamage to biological tissues, including DNA  Heats TissueHeats Tissue  Damages TissueDamages Tissue  Causes Diseases like CancerCauses Diseases like Cancer  Ex: Medical X-Ray= High Doses PoseEx: Medical X-Ray= High Doses Pose RisksRisks
  4. 4. Electromagnetic SpectrumElectromagnetic Spectrum
  5. 5. When did this ‘concern’ start?When did this ‘concern’ start? 1993: David Reynard’s Lawsuit1993: David Reynard’s Lawsuit  Claimed that wife’s fatal brain tumor causedClaimed that wife’s fatal brain tumor caused by cell phonesby cell phones  Appeared on Larry King LiveAppeared on Larry King Live  Results: Case Dismissed for lack of scientificResults: Case Dismissed for lack of scientific and medical evidenceand medical evidence  SignificanceSignificance: First to enter public domain: First to enter public domain
  6. 6. Second Major TrialSecond Major Trial 2000: Chris Newman’s $800 million lawsuit2000: Chris Newman’s $800 million lawsuit  Neurologist: Malignant tumor behind right earNeurologist: Malignant tumor behind right ear  Court/Judge: 23-page ruling or “textbook” thatCourt/Judge: 23-page ruling or “textbook” that shows the court’s emphasis on scientificshows the court’s emphasis on scientific evidenceevidence  Result: No evidence that cell phone causedResult: No evidence that cell phone caused cancercancer  Significant: Another Major Setback for peopleSignificant: Another Major Setback for people who claim that cell phones cause cancerwho claim that cell phones cause cancer
  7. 7. Animal TestingAnimal Testing 1997: Test on Mice in Royal Adelaide Hospital,1997: Test on Mice in Royal Adelaide Hospital, AustraliaAustralia Procedure:Procedure: 200 mice- 100 exposed to pulsed200 mice- 100 exposed to pulsed digital phone radiation; 100 controlsdigital phone radiation; 100 controls Result:Result:  Significant increase in B-cells (implicated in 85% of allSignificant increase in B-cells (implicated in 85% of all cancers)cancers)  After 18 months, exposed group had twice as manyAfter 18 months, exposed group had twice as many tumorstumors ProblemProblem: Mice sometimes exposed to 20 hours: Mice sometimes exposed to 20 hours of radiation!! Therefore, not very comparable toof radiation!! Therefore, not very comparable to humanshumans
  8. 8. Significant Studies/TestsSignificant Studies/Tests ExperimentExperiment: Patients with brain cancer were: Patients with brain cancer were compared to patients without brain cancer, incompared to patients without brain cancer, in terms of their past cell phone usageterms of their past cell phone usage DescriptionDescription:: 1) Stockholm:1) Stockholm:  233 brain cancer patients diagnosed between 1994233 brain cancer patients diagnosed between 1994 and 1996 to 466 controlsand 1996 to 466 controls 2) New York, Providence, and Boston:2) New York, Providence, and Boston:  Conducted by American Health AssociationConducted by American Health Association  469 brain cancer patients between 1994 and 1998 to469 brain cancer patients between 1994 and 1998 to 422 controls422 controls
  9. 9. Significant Studies/TestsSignificant Studies/Tests DescriptionDescription 3) Phoenix, Boston, and Pittsburgh:3) Phoenix, Boston, and Pittsburgh:  Conducted by U.S National Cancer InstituteConducted by U.S National Cancer Institute  782 cancer patients between 1994 and 1998782 cancer patients between 1994 and 1998 with 799 controlswith 799 controls 4) Denmark: Largest Cohort Study4) Denmark: Largest Cohort Study  Attempted to Link 420,095 usersAttempted to Link 420,095 users between 1982 to 1995 to Danishbetween 1982 to 1995 to Danish Cancer registryCancer registry
  10. 10. Results of Studies/TestsResults of Studies/Tests Three Main Results:Three Main Results: 1) Patients with brain cancer did not report more1) Patients with brain cancer did not report more cellular phone use overall than the controls. Allcellular phone use overall than the controls. All types of cancers and all locations weretypes of cancers and all locations were consideredconsidered 2) None of the studies showed a "dose-response2) None of the studies showed a "dose-response relationship“: Brain Cancer didn’t increase withrelationship“: Brain Cancer didn’t increase with more cell phone usagemore cell phone usage 3) No Clear Link between the side of the head that3) No Clear Link between the side of the head that the brain cancer occurred and where the cellthe brain cancer occurred and where the cell phone was usedphone was used
  11. 11. Who Regulates Cell Phones?Who Regulates Cell Phones? FDA (Food and Drug Administration):FDA (Food and Drug Administration):  Responsible for monitoring electronicResponsible for monitoring electronic products to ensure acceptable amounts orproducts to ensure acceptable amounts or raditation emissionraditation emission FCC (Federal CommunicationsFCC (Federal Communications Commission)Commission)  Places Limits on Radio emission waves fromPlaces Limits on Radio emission waves from all mobile phonesall mobile phones
  12. 12. What can we make out of all of it?What can we make out of all of it? Cell Phone: Relatively New TechnologyCell Phone: Relatively New Technology Lack of Ionizing Radiation and Low Energy LevelLack of Ionizing Radiation and Low Energy Level Emitted: Unlikely that this device causes cancerEmitted: Unlikely that this device causes cancer Several well-designed and studies found no linkSeveral well-designed and studies found no link between cancer and cell phonebetween cancer and cell phone Some recent studies found a POSSIBLE link toSome recent studies found a POSSIBLE link to acoustic neuroma, a rare tumor that developsacoustic neuroma, a rare tumor that develops behind the earsbehind the ears not a valid claim!not a valid claim! FDA says: “highly impossible”FDA says: “highly impossible”
  13. 13. SummarySummary John E. Moulder, Ph.D., aJohn E. Moulder, Ph.D., a cancercancer researcherresearcher and professor of radiation oncology at theand professor of radiation oncology at the Medical College of Wisconsin says:Medical College of Wisconsin says:  ““From the physics standpoint [only 6/10 of a wattFrom the physics standpoint [only 6/10 of a watt emitted even if cell phone is right against the skull],emitted even if cell phone is right against the skull], biological effects from mobilebiological effects from mobile phonesphones areare ‘somewhere between impossible and implausible.’”‘somewhere between impossible and implausible.’”  "Some people think the power emitted by the"Some people think the power emitted by the phonesphones is so low, it's a silly thing to research. But I think itis so low, it's a silly thing to research. But I think it remains a legitimate area of study."remains a legitimate area of study."
  14. 14. Remedy?Remedy? BioPro Technology EMF protection- for all householdBioPro Technology EMF protection- for all household productsproducts Harmonizes frequencies and makes it less dangerousHarmonizes frequencies and makes it less dangerous
  15. 15. Video- Dangers of EMFVideo- Dangers of EMF Dangers of EMF and Cell Phones:Dangers of EMF and Cell Phones:  www.www.emfemf-health.com-health.com
  16. 16. ReferenceReference History of Cell Phones:History of Cell Phones: http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~cang/history/public.htmlhttp://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~cang/history/public.html Dr. Moulder’s Research: Consumers' ResearchDr. Moulder’s Research: Consumers' Research MagazineMagazine Business WeekBusiness Week RCR Wireless NewsRCR Wireless News Radiation ResearchRadiation Research Pharmaceutical RepresentativePharmaceutical Representative New Hampshire Business ReviewNew Hampshire Business Review Total HealthTotal Health ScienceScience FDA ConsumerFDA Consumer New York TimesNew York Times

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